Muscle Exam Short Answer: Answer 2/3 or all 3 for  extra credit (5 pts each

)
Answers are to be typed and handed on 1/9/06. If you do not bring in the  short answers, then you will have to write it in class (without using  the textbook). If you are absent, the answers must be handed in when you return to  class but extra credit will not be given. If you do not bring in the  short answers when you return to class, then you will have to write it  in class (without using the textbook). 1. Describe the steps in excitation­contraction coupling, the sliding  filament theory, and muscle relaxation.

A motor neuron sends an excitatory signal to calcium channels, which releases synaptic vesicles containing acetylcholine. ACh binds to receptors, which release potassium and sodium ions – the resulting depolarization travels across the sarcolemma, down the transverse tubules, and causes the terminal cisternae to secrete calcium ions. These calcium ions bind to troponin molecules, changing their chemical structure and causing the tropomyosin strands to move away from the actin active sites. Actin reacts with myosin (an ATP enzyme) and the break-up of ATP releases mechanical energy - the thick filament myosin reacts with the thin filament actin in such a way that the filaments “slide” closer to each other. Muscle contracts. Relaxation occurs once no more calcium is secreted to activate the contraction process (existing calcium is pumped back to the terminal cisternae via active transport, so ATP is required in relaxation as well as contraction). Tropomyosin blocks actin active sites once more, so no energy is released.
2. Sally Gorgeous, an avid jogger, is running down the beach when she  meets Sunny Beachbum, an avid weight­lifter. Sunny flirts with Sally,  who decides he has more muscles than brains. She runs down the beach,  but Sunny runs after her. After about a half mile, Sunny tires and gives  up. A)Compare/contrast the three different types (types I, IIA and  IIB) of muscle fibers (resistance to fatigue, energy pathways,  mitochondria, myosin isoform, color).   B) Explain why Sally was able to outrun Sunny (i.e. do more  muscular work) despite the fact that she obviously is less  muscular.

A) Type I muscle fiber is slow, with a long twitch period, and weak due to low numbers of ATP enzymes and protein markers for glycolysis (despite high numbers of glycolysis coenzymes like NADH, oddly enough). Type I fibers

have high stamina because since they do not perform glycolysis (lactic acid does not build up); instead there are large numbers of mitochondria and myoglobin as well as high capillary vasculation (requisites for aerobic respiration). Due to the myoglobin (and the iron it contains), Type I muscles appear red. These fibers are found in the soleus and postural muscles (e.g. erector spinae). Myosin heavy chain isoform for Type I muscle is the same as cardiac beta muscle. Type IIA fiber is fast oxidatively (meaning, in terms of aerobic respiration, and also high in mitochondria, myoglobin, and capillaries) and fast glycolytically (which is anaerobic, and requires high numbers of ATPases and glycolytic enzymes). They contract fast due to more terminal cisternae but also have a fair bit of resistance to fatigue, though not as much as Type I. Type IIB fibers are similar to Type IIA, but have poor aerobic respiratory qualities (low mitochondria and myoglobin, which incidentally is why they are white, since myoglobin is not present in appreciable quantities) and even higher contraction speeds and strength. They may be unused fibers that transform into Type IA once a motor neuron recruits them – so, a person undergoing aerobic training will develop more stamina. Short sprinters, shotputters, and weight lifters benefit from high Type IIB fibers since they need power more than endurance (lactic acid builds up fast with glycolysis) , while longer distance runners/cyclers, and contact sports athletes will develop Type I for a good balance of power and stamina. Type II fibers are found in the gastrocnemius, biceps, etc. MHC isoform is Type 2a for Type IIA, and Type 2b and 2x for Type IIB. B) Sally has a greater ratio of Type IIA to Type IIB fibers, and Sunny is more Type IIB. Sunny is a good sprinter, and may have even caught Sally if her leg muscles had not been strong enough to keep her away from Sunny until he became too fatigued from lactic acid buildup.
3. Draw and label the parts of a sarcomere in a resting muscle. Be sure  to include the I band, the A band, the H zone, the Z disk, the M line,  thin and thick filaments and the zone of overlap. Describe the  structural changes that occur during a contraction.