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Coastal and Wetland Biodiversity Management Project BGD/99/G31 St Martins Island ECA Draft Conservation Management Plan

St Martins Island ECA Conservation Management Plan

- DRAFT -

Coastal and Wetland Biodiversity Management Project, Coxs Bazar Lee-Anne Molony, UNV Conservation Management Planner & National Project Professional Personnel, Coxs Bazar August 2006

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Coastal and Wetland Biodiversity Management Project BGD/99/G31 St Martins Island ECA Draft Conservation Management Plan

ACRONYMS
AWC BECA BPC BWC CARINAM CBD CBO CEGIS CITES CMP CNRS CWBMP CZPo DAE DoE DoF ECA ECAMO ECAMU ECFCP ECR EIA FAO FD GEF GIS GoB GO GPS GREP IPM IRS IUCN LGED MCAT MoEF MOU MoWR NBSAP NCC NCS NCSIP -1 NEMAP NEP NFP NGO NPPP
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Asian Waterfowl Count Bangladesh Environment Conservation Act Bangladesh Parjatan Corporation Bangladesh Waterfowl Census Centre for Advanced Research in Natural Resources and Management Convention on Biological Diversity Community Based Organisation Centre for Environmental and Geographic Information Services Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora Conservation Management Plan Centre for Natural Resource Studies Coastal and Wetland Biodiversity Management Project Coastal Zone Policy Department of Agriculture Extension Department of Environment Department of Fisheries Ecologically Critical Area ECA Management Officer ECA Management Unit Empowerment of Coastal Fishing Communities for Livelihood Security Project Environment Conservation Rules Environmental Impact Assessment Food and Agricultural Organisation of the United Nations Forest Department Global Environment Facility Geographic Information Systems Government of the Peoples Republic of Bangladesh Government Organisations Global Positioning System Global Rinderpest Eradication Program Integrated Pest Management Indian Remote Sensing The World Conservation Union Local Government Engineering Department Ministry of Civil Aviation and Tourism Ministry of Environment and Forest Memorandum of Understanding Ministry of Water Resources National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan Nature Conservation Committee National Conservation Strategy National Conservation Strategy Implementation Project-1 National Environment Management Action Plan National Environment Policy National Forestry Policy Non Government Organisation National Project Professional Personnel
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Coastal and Wetland Biodiversity Management Project BGD/99/G31 St Martins Island ECA Draft Conservation Management Plan

NWP PA PMU POPs SEMP TED UNDP UNFCCC VCG VDC VO WRDB WTO

National Water Policy Protected Area Project Management U nit Persistent Organic Pollutants Sustainable Environment Management Programme Turtle Excluder Device United Nations Development Programme UN Framework Convention on Climate Change Village Conservation Group Village Development Committees Village Organisation Water Resources Development Board World Trade Organisation

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Coastal and Wetland Biodiversity Management Project BGD/99/G31 St Martins Island ECA Draft Conservation Management Plan

TABLE OF C ONTENTS
Acronyms .............................................................................................................................................. 2 Table of Contents ................................................................................................................................... 4 Preparation and Structure of the Conservation Management Plan..............................................................10 1. Vision Statement/Executive Summary.................................................................................................12 1.1 Vision Statement ..........................................................................................................................12 1.2 Executive Summary .....................................................................................................................12 2. Policy Statements...............................................................................................................................15 2.1 Policy..........................................................................................................................................15 2.2 Legislation...................................................................................................................................21 3. General Description ...........................................................................................................................23 3.1 General Description .....................................................................................................................23 3.1.1 Location and Site Boundaries .................................................................................................... 23 3.1.2 Tenure..................................................................................................................................... 24 3.1.3 Management/organisational infrastructure.................................................................................. 24 3.1.4 Site Infrastructure..................................................................................................................... 25 3.1.5 Map coverage .......................................................................................................................... 26 3.1.6 Photographic coverage.............................................................................................................. 27 3.2 Zones ..........................................................................................................................................27 3.3.1 Physical................................................................................................................................... 33 3.3.2 Biological ................................................................................................................................ 34 3.4 Cultural.......................................................................................................................................39 3.4.1 Archaeology ............................................................................................................................ 39 3.4.2 Past land use ............................................................................................................................ 39 3.4.3 Present land use ........................................................................................................................ 39 3.4.4 Past management for biodiversity conservation .......................................................................... 41 3.4.5 Past status of St Martins Island................................................................................................. 43 3.4.6 Present legal status of St Martins Island .................................................................................... 43 3.5 People stakeholders, local communities etc .................................................................................44 3.5.1 Local community and stakeholders ............................................................................................ 44 3.5.2 Tourism ................................................................................................................................... 47 3.5.3 Interpretation provisions ........................................................................................................... 49 3.5.4 Educational use ........................................................................................................................ 49 3.5.5 Research use and facilities ........................................................................................................ 49 3.6 Landscape ...................................................................................................................................50 3.7 Bibliography ................................................................................................................................51 4. Biodiversity Conservation Features .....................................................................................................53 4.1 Identification and Confirmation of Conservation Features...............................................................53 4.2 Objectives ...................................................................................................................................54 4.2.1.1 Screw pine (Pandanus odoratissimus) ..................................................................................... 54 4.2.1.2 Management Objective .......................................................................................................... 54
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Coastal and Wetland Biodiversity Management Project BGD/99/G31 St Martins Island ECA Draft Conservation Management Plan

4.2.1.3 Performance Indicators .......................................................................................................... 54 4.2.2.1 Mangrove.............................................................................................................................. 55 4.2.2.2 Management Objective .......................................................................................................... 55 4.2.2.3 Performance Indicators .......................................................................................................... 55 4.2.3.1 Indigenous onion ................................................................................................................... 56 4.2.3.2 Management Objective .......................................................................................................... 56 4.2.3.3 Performance Indicators .......................................................................................................... 56 4.2.4.1 Marine algae ......................................................................................................................... 57 4.2.4.2 Management Objective .......................................................................................................... 57 4.2.4.3 Performance Indicators .......................................................................................................... 57 4.2.5.1 Cetaceans .............................................................................................................................. 58 4.2.5.2 Management Objective .......................................................................................................... 58 4.2.5.3 Performance Indicators .......................................................................................................... 58 4.2.6.1 Marine turtles ........................................................................................................................ 59 4.2.6.2 Management Objective .......................................................................................................... 59 4.2.6.3 Performance Indicators .......................................................................................................... 60 4.2.7.1 Birds ..................................................................................................................................... 61 4.2.7.2 Management Objective .......................................................................................................... 61 4.2.7.3 Performance Indicators .......................................................................................................... 62 4.2.8.1 Coral-associated fishes ........................................................................................................... 63 4.2.8.2 Management Objective .......................................................................................................... 63 4.2.8.3 Performance Indicators .......................................................................................................... 63 4.2.9.1 Coral .................................................................................................................................... 63 4.2.9.2 Management Objective .......................................................................................................... 64 4.2.9.3 Performance Indicators .......................................................................................................... 64 4.2.10.1 Crustaceans ......................................................................................................................... 65 4.2.10.2 Management Objective ........................................................................................................ 65 4.2.10.3 Performance Indicators ........................................................................................................ 65 4.2.11.1 Molluscs ............................................................................................................................. 66 4.2.11.2 Management Objective ........................................................................................................ 66 4.2.11.3 Performance Indicators ........................................................................................................ 66 4.2.12.1 Echinoderms ....................................................................................................................... 67 4.2.12.2 Management Objective ........................................................................................................ 67 4.2.12.3 Performance Indicators ........................................................................................................ 67 4.2.13.1 Rocky intertidal habitat ........................................................................................................ 67 4.2.13.2 Management Objective ........................................................................................................ 68 4.2.13.3 Performance Indicators ........................................................................................................ 68 4.2.14.1 Sand dunes and beaches ....................................................................................................... 68 4.2.14.2 Management Objective ........................................................................................................ 69
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Coastal and Wetland Biodiversity Management Project BGD/99/G31 St Martins Island ECA Draft Conservation Management Plan

4.2.14.3 Performance Indicators ........................................................................................................ 69 4.2.15.1 Rocky land habitat ............................................................................................................... 70 4.2.15.2 Management Objective ........................................................................................................ 70 4.2.15.3 Performance Indicators ........................................................................................................ 70 4.2.16.1 Marine habitat ..................................................................................................................... 71 4.2.16.2 Management Objective ........................................................................................................ 71 4.2.16.3 Performance Indicators ........................................................................................................ 71 4.2.17.1 Mudflat habitat .................................................................................................................... 72 4.2.17.2 Management Objective ........................................................................................................ 72 4.2.17.3 Performance Indicators ........................................................................................................ 72 4.2.18.1 Lagoons .............................................................................................................................. 73 4.2.18.2 Management Objective ........................................................................................................ 73 4.2.18.3 Performance Indicators ........................................................................................................ 73 4.2.19.1 Insects ................................................................................................................................. 73 4.2.19.2 Management Objective ........................................................................................................ 73 4.2.19.3 Performance Indicators ........................................................................................................ 73 4.3 Conservation Status and Rationale ................................................................................................75 4.3.1.1 Assessment of screw pine conservation status .......................................................................... 75 4.3.1.2 Rationale ............................................................................................................................... 75 4.3.1.3 Management actions .............................................................................................................. 75 4.3.1.4 Risks .................................................................................................................................... 76 4.3.2.1 Assessment of mangrove conservation status ........................................................................... 76 4.3.2.2 Rationale ............................................................................................................................... 76 4.3.2.3 Management actions .............................................................................................................. 76 4.3.2.4 Risks .................................................................................................................................... 77 4.3.3.1 Assessment of indigenous onion conservation status ................................................................ 77 4.3.3.2 Rationale ............................................................................................................................... 77 4.3.3.3 Management actions .............................................................................................................. 77 4.3.3.4 Risks .................................................................................................................................... 77 4.3.4.1 Assessment of marine algae conservation status ....................................................................... 77 4.3.4.2 Rationale ............................................................................................................................... 77 4.3.4.3 Management actions .............................................................................................................. 78 4.3.4.4 Risks .................................................................................................................................... 78 4.3.5.1 Assessment of cetacean conservation status ............................................................................. 78 4.3.5.2 Rationale ............................................................................................................................... 79 4.3.5.3 Management actions .............................................................................................................. 79 4.3.5.4 Risks .................................................................................................................................... 80 4.3.6.1 Assessment of marine turtle conservation status ....................................................................... 80 4.3.6.2 Rationale ............................................................................................................................... 80 4.3.6.3 Management actions .............................................................................................................. 83 4.3.6.4 Risks .................................................................................................................................... 84
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Coastal and Wetland Biodiversity Management Project BGD/99/G31 St Martins Island ECA Draft Conservation Management Plan

4.3.7.1 Assessment of bird conservation status .................................................................................... 84 4.3.7.2 Rationale ............................................................................................................................... 84 4.3.7.3 Management actions .............................................................................................................. 85 4.3.7.4 Risks .................................................................................................................................... 85 4.3.8.1 Assessment of coral-associated fish conservation status ........................................................... 85 4.3.8.2 Rationale ............................................................................................................................... 85 4.3.8.3 Management actions .............................................................................................................. 86 4.3.8.4 Risks .................................................................................................................................... 86 4.3.9.1 Assessment of coral conservation status .................................................................................. 86 4.3.9.2 Rationale ............................................................................................................................... 87 4.3.9.3 Management actions .............................................................................................................. 88 4.3.9.4 Risks .................................................................................................................................... 88 4.3.10.1 Assessment of crustacean conservation status ........................................................................ 88 4.3.10.2 Rationale ............................................................................................................................. 88 4.3.10.3 Management actions ............................................................................................................ 89 4.3.10.4 Risks ................................................................................................................................... 89 4.3.11.1 Assessment of mollusc conservation status ............................................................................ 89 4.3.11.2 Rationale ............................................................................................................................. 89 4.3.11.3 Management actions ............................................................................................................ 90 4.3.11.4 Risks ................................................................................................................................... 90 4.3.12.1 Assessment of echinoderm conservation status ...................................................................... 90 4.3.12.2 Rationale ............................................................................................................................. 90 4.3.12.3 Management actions ............................................................................................................ 91 4.3.12.4 Risks ................................................................................................................................... 91 4.3.13.1 Assessment of rocky intertidal habitat conservation status ...................................................... 91 4.3.13.2 Rationale ............................................................................................................................. 91 4.3.13.3 Management actions ............................................................................................................ 92 4.3.13.4 Risks ................................................................................................................................... 92 4.3.14.1 Assessment of sand dune and beach conservation status ......................................................... 92 4.3.14.2 Rationale ............................................................................................................................. 92 4.3.14.3 Management actions ............................................................................................................ 93 4.3.14.4 Risks ................................................................................................................................... 94 4.3.15.1 Assessment of rocky land habitat conservation status ............................................................. 94 4.3.15.2 Rationale ............................................................................................................................. 94 4.3.15.3 Management actions ............................................................................................................ 94 4.3.15.4 Risks ................................................................................................................................... 94 4.3.16.1 Assessment of marine habitat conservation status ................................................................... 94 4.3.16.2 Rationale ............................................................................................................................. 95 4.3.16.3 Management actions ............................................................................................................ 95 4.3.16.4 Risks ................................................................................................................................... 95 4.3.17.1 Assessment of mudflat habitat conservation status ................................................................. 96
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Coastal and Wetland Biodiversity Management Project BGD/99/G31 St Martins Island ECA Draft Conservation Management Plan

4.3.17.2 Rationale ............................................................................................................................. 96 4.3.17.3 Management actions ............................................................................................................ 96 4.3.17.4 Risks ................................................................................................................................... 96 4.3.18.1 Assessment of lagoon conservation status .............................................................................. 96 4.3.18.2 Rationale ............................................................................................................................. 96 4.3.18.3 Management Actions ........................................................................................................... 96 4.3.18.4 Risks ................................................................................................................................... 96 4.3.19.1 Assessment of insect conservation status ............................................................................... 96 4.3.19.2 Rationale ............................................................................................................................. 96 4.3.19.3 Management Actions ........................................................................................................... 96 4.3.19.4 Risks ................................................................................................................................... 96 5. Stakeholders ..................................................................................................................................97 5.1 Evaluation...................................................................................................................................97 5.2 Objectives ...................................................................................................................................98 5.2.1 Management objectives .................................................................................................... 98 5.2.2 Performance indicators and monitoring .............................................................................. 98 5.3 Status and Rationale .....................................................................................................................99 5.3.1 Status .............................................................................................................................. 99 5.3.2 Rationale ......................................................................................................................... 99 5.3.3 Management actions ....................................................................................................... 100 5.3.4 Risks ............................................................................................................................. 102

6. Tourism........................................................................................................................................... 103 6.1 Evaluation................................................................................................................................. 103 6.2 Objective for access and tourism ................................................................................................. 105 6.2.1 Management objective .................................................................................................... 105 6.2.2 Performance indicators and monitoring ............................................................................ 105 6.3 Status and Rationale ................................................................................................................... 106 6.3.1 Status ............................................................................................................................ 106 6.3.2 Rationale ....................................................................................................................... 106 6.3.3 Management actions ....................................................................................................... 108 6.3.4 Risks ............................................................................................................................. 109 7. Interpretation ................................................................................................................................... 110 7.1 Evaluation................................................................................................................................. 110 7.2 Site Specific Interpretation Policy ............................................................................................... 110 7.3 Performance Indicators and Monitoring ....................................................................................... 110 8. Operational Objectives................................................................................................................. 111 8.1 Operational Objectives ............................................................................................................... 111 8.2 Rationale ................................................................................................................................... 111 8.3 Management Actions .................................................................................................................. 112 8.4 Risks ........................................................................................................................................ 114

9. Management Action Plan ................................................................................................................. 115 10. Management Action Recording ....................................................................................................... 125 11. CMP Review & ECA Audit ............................................................................................................ 126 11.1 Annual Review ........................................................................................................................ 126 11.2 Long-term Review ................................................................................................................... 126 11.3 Audit ....................................................................................................................................... 126
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Coastal and Wetland Biodiversity Management Project BGD/99/G31 St Martins Island ECA Draft Conservation Management Plan

Annex 1: Marine algae recorded at St Martins Island ....................................................................... 128 Annex 2: Angiospermic plant species recorded at St Martins Island .................................................. 133 Annex 3: Cryptogamic plant species (other than marine algae) recorded at St Martins Island .............. 138 Annex 4: Mammals recorded at St Martins Island ............................................................................ 139 Annex 5: Birds recorded at St Martins Island .................................................................................. 140 Annex 6: Reptiles recorded at St Martins Island .............................................................................. 144 Annex 7: List of fish recorded at St Martins Island .......................................................................... 145 Annex 8: Reef-building corals recorded at St Martins Island and their relative abundance .................. 152 Annex 9: Molluscs recorded at St Martins Island ............................................................................. 154 Annex 10: Other invertebrates recorded at St Martins Island ............................................................ 159 Annex 11: Stakeholder Analysis ...................................................................................................... 160 Annex 12: Compilation of new rules identified for St Martins Island ECA ........................................ 162 Annex 13: Awareness Raising ......................................................................................................... 164 Annex 14: Ecotourism Development Plan (DRAFT)......................................................................... 166

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Coastal and Wetland Biodiversity Management Project BGD/99/G31 St Martins Island ECA Draft Conservation Management Plan

P REPARATION AND STRUCTURE OF THE C ONSERVATION M ANAGEMENT P LAN


This conservation management plan was prepared during the tenure of the UNV Conservation Management Planner at the CWBMP Coxs Bazar Field Office from September 2005 August 2006. Information for the plan was obtained from both primary and secondary sources. Primary sources include field surveys conducted by National Project Professional Personnel, or NPPPs, based in the Coxs Bazar Field Office and Teknaf Sub-office, and information from the local community either directly or via the sub-contracted NGO POUSH . Secondary sources include several publications relevant to the site, all of which are included in the bibliography. This draft was shared with the local community of St Martins Island via meetings arranged by the NPPPs on 1415 August. Feedback as a result of those meetings has not yet been incorporated into plan. Those who were directly involved in the preparation of the plan include the following CWBMP staff: 1. Dr S.M.A Rashid, National Project Coordinator, PMU, Dhaka 2. A.K.M. Rafiqul Islam, ECA Management Officer, Coxs Bazar 3. Late Nurul Haque, ECA Management Officer, Coxs Bazar National Project Professional Personnel (NPPPs) (in alphabetical order) Mid-Level NPPPs 1. Md. Shafiqul Islam, Marine Fisheries Biodiversity Specialist, Coxs Bazar 2. M. Zahirul Islam, Wildlife Biodiversity Management Specialist, Coxs Bazar 3. Dr M.A Mannan, Plant Biodiversity Management Specialist, Coxs Bazar Grassroots Level NPPPs 1. Abdullah Z. Ahmad, Ecotourism Development Officer, Teknaf 2. Kaniz Fatema, Horticulture Extension Officer, Coxs Bazar 3. Mohammed Abdul Hannan, Wildlife Biodiversity Conservation Officer, Coxs Bazar 4. Mohammad Eusuf Hasan, Fisheries Biodiversity Officer, Coxs Bazar 5. Mohammed Aowlad Hossain, Horticulture Extension Officer, Teknaf 6. Md. Faruk Hossain, Agriculture Extension Officer, Teknaf 7. Md. Shahid Hossain, Agriculture Extension Officer, Coxs Bazar 8. Mohammed Muzammel Hoque, Ecotourism Development Officer, Coxs Bazar

The plan, based on the structure of Alexander (2005), is divided into 11 sections. Section 1 includes the vision statement and executive summary. The vision statement provides readers with a simple overview of conditions that management is intended to achieve at the site, i.e. it is what the site will look like after we have met our objectives. Section 2 identifies all the policies relevant to the site, including any legal or other obligations. It is one of the most important sections of the plan as the plan must be written to reflect the policies of the agency responsible for the management of the site.

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Coastal and Wetland Biodiversity Management Project BGD/99/G31 St Martins Island ECA Draft Conservation Management Plan

Section 3 provides a general description of the site, collating relevant data from all available sources and identifying any shortfalls in data. It includes site location and boundaries; site tenure; management/organisational infrastructure; site infrastructure; map and photographic coverage; core protection, buffer and general use zones; physical and biological information including habitats, communities and species; cultural information including past and present land use and the legal status of the site; and stakeholders including local communities, tourism, educational and research use. Section 4 is divided into three parts. Part 1 provides a list of the important biodiversity features (habitats/communities/species) of the site and confirms their status. Part 2 provides a short description of, and a management objective for, each feature. Feature -specific management objectives allow us to recognise whether management actions are effective or not; an allencompassing objective for the entire site would make it difficult to both recognise and manage the detail. Part 2 also identifies the factors affecting each feature and provides indicators for monitoring the state of the features. Part 3 makes an assessment of the current status of each feature with respect to the features management objective and provides a rationale for the management actions which follow. Section 5 evaluates the extent to which stakeholder relationships need to be developed and maintained, based on the extent to which people interact with the site. Management objectives for stakeholder relationships and indicators for monitoring those relationships are also provided. The status of stakeholder relationships (i.e. the difference between the current state and what we need for effective ECA management) is covered, along with a rationale for stakeholder management and management actions to meet the stakeholder management objectives. Section 6 covers tourism at the site, including an evaluation of the appropriate degree of tourism at the site according to our objectives for biodiversity conservation. Objectives for tourism are provided, as well as indicators for monitoring those. The current status of tourism, our rationale for tourism management and management actions to meet tourism objectives are also provided. Related to tourism, Section 7 covers interpretation at the site, i.e. the extent to which information should be provided to enhance visitor experience and help them understand, appreciate and enjoy the site and its conservation features. Section 8 outlines operational objectives, i.e. operational actions that need to be carried out at the site in order that all other objectives are met. Section 9 summarises all management actions included in the CMP into a work plan with defined timelines. Section 10 covers activity reporting and Section 11 covers CMP review - both annual and longer term. A number of annexes are included.

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Coastal and Wetland Biodiversity Management Project BGD/99/G31 St Martins Island ECA Draft Conservation Management Plan

1.

VISION STATEMENT/E XECUTIVE SUMMARY

1.1 Vision Statement


An example to be revised with stakeholder groups: Managed with the full support and involvement of local communities and based on best-practice principles for co-managed areas, St Martins Island ECA is a dynamic and healthy ecosystem that protects globally, nationally and locally significant biodiversity. It supports important wildlife and fisheries resources and sustainable livelihoods; there are neither threats to biodiversity nor any unsustainable use of natural resources. The Island supports low -key tourism based on ecotourism best-practices and sustainable agriculture that meets the needs of the local community. Extensive sandy beaches, intertidal rocky shore and coral communities occur at the site, providing important habitat for marine life and birds. A wide variety of migratory and resident birds are seen feeding, nesting and resting on the beaches, sand bars, rocky land and mudflat. The sandy beaches are covered in a multitude of mollusc shells and during winter turtle crawl marks are visible between the shore and the dunes. The sand dunes are covered in Pandanus and other sand-binding vegetation and support a variety of nesting birds and turtles. Turtle hatchlings are observed making their way to the shore from the ir nests. The marine habitat supports flourishing communities of marine algae, fish, coral and coral-associated species. A multitude of marine invertebrates are found in the rocky intertidal pools. Dolphins are observed enjoying the near -shore marine habitat surrounding the site.

1.2 Executive Summary


In 1999 several areas of Bangladesh were declared ecologically critical areas (ECAs). In 2002, the GoB/UNDP/GEF Coastal and Wetland Biodiversity Management Project (CWBMP) started working with the Bangladesh Government Department of Environment (DoE) - the Department mandated with the management of ECAs in Bangladesh - to institutionalise a model of management to ensure the conservation and sustainable use of globally significant biodiversity within ECAs. One output of the CWBMP is the preparation of conservation management plans for each of the four ECA sites covered by the CWBMP, one of which is the St Martins Island ECA. The most important section of a conservation management plan (CMP) is the policy statement, as CMPs must be written according to the policies of the organisation responsible for the management of the site. While there is no specific policy for ECA management in Bangladesh, the policies of government agencies covering a broad range of sectors are relevant to the management of the site. One component of the CWBMP is to assess ECA-relevant policy and prepare ECA-specific policy that minimises conflicts between existing policies. Located in south eastern Bangladesh off the southern tip of the Teknaf Peninsula, the St Martins Island ECA includes the Island in its entirety. Around 590 ha in area, the land is mostly privately owned. Six zones have been identified for the site to assist the management of core habitats and species at the site. Several biodiversity conservation initiatives have been implemented at the site since 1996 - mostly turtle conservation activities and there have been some efforts to reduce the reliance of fishing communities on marine resources. The local community of almost 6000 people are reasonably dependent on the natural resources (mainly marine resources) of the site. There are
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Coastal and Wetland Biodiversity Management Project BGD/99/G31 St Martins Island ECA Draft Conservation Management Plan

very high levels of tourism at the site, and a reasonable amount of research and educational interest in the sites marine environment, turtles, coral and marine algae. Site infrastructure includes, among others, many household dwellings, a few concrete paths, hotels and restaurants, cyclone shelters, schools, government buildings and mosques. Site records include a range of maps and a decent collection of photographs. A Project Management Unit in Dhaka, a field office in Coxs Bazar and a sub-office in Teknaf all established under the CWBMP - form the current organisational arrangement for the management of the site. The site is significant for its coral communities and sandy beach habitats. The site is one of the few areas in the world where coral-algal communities dominate rocky reefs. This unique set of environmental conditions, biotic and abiotic, has no parallel in Bangladesh and perhaps not worldwide. Other important habitats and communities include the rocky intertidal shore, rocky land habitat, marine habitat, lagoons, mudflat and mangrove. The site is also significant for several globally significant species. The site lies on the East Australasian Flyway and Central Asian Flyway and provides a stepping stone for several globally threatened migratory waders. The sandy beaches and sand dunes support significant breeding grounds for at least three globally threatened marine turtle species. Other important species include several dolphin, crustacean and echinoderm species, coral fishes, Pandanus, molluscs, marine algae and an indigenous onion variety. The main threats to biodiversity at the site include the cutting of sand dune vegetation for fuelwood and hotel establishment, the degradation of sand dune habitat due to hotel establishment, the harvesting of turtle eggs, indiscriminate and uncontrolled exploitation of coral resources, the conversion of lagoons and rocky land habitat to agriculture, siltation of marine waters, deforestation, unplanned and unregulated tourism, destructive fishing methods, hunting of shorebirds, coastal erosion and coral damage due to shell collection and boulder removal, and pollution and land degradation from domestic sources, agricultural practices, fish processing practices and boat discharges. This pressure is further exacerbated by a lack of legally instituted protection measures for ECAs, field-level management that is only in the initial stages, limited meaningful participation by local communities in resource-use decision making, limited information on the status and functioning of critical ecosystems, no integrated management planning for ECAs, limited opportunities for alternative sustainable livelihoods, a lack of alternative sources of fuelwood, limited public awareness of environmental issues, a lack of technical knowledge and capacity, poor enforcement of fisheries and wildlife protection acts and a lack of integrated coastal zone management. The main management actions required to stem threats to biodiversity conservation within the site include, simultaneously, the control of adverse activities through law enforcement and awareness raising, the in -situ and ex-situ conservation of species, the rehabilitation of habitats and the provision of alternative livelihoods and incomes for the poorest and most highly dependent resources users. Specific requirements include legislating and enforcing existing and new ECA regulations, sand dune stabilisation, fishing controls, stray dog control, tourism management, infrastructure development management, mangrove regeneration, mudflat protection, the use of zoning to protect core habitat and species and the provision of alternative livelihoods/incomes via ecotourism, diversified agriculture and handicrafts. A model of co-management between the government and the local community is necessary for effective biodiversity conservation. The local community is dependent on the resources of the site and if assisted can manage day-to-day resource exploitation, but only the government can manage the major abuses of resources at the site. Current tourism at the site is high; this and tourisms related infrastructure needs are having an adverse impact on the Island. Managed tourism and ecotourism development is recommended for
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the site as an important component of the strategy for biodiversity conservation. Ecotourism activities around turtle observation, bird watching, coral appreciation, trail walking, scuba diving and snorkelling, dolphin watching, fishing and cultural programs are tentatively recommended. Interpretation to enhance visitor experience and help them understand, appreciate and enjoy the site and its conservation features will need to be developed in line with ecotourism development requirements. Operational objectives, or actions that need to be carried out at the site in order that all other objectives are met, include ensuring the sustainability of the current ECA management structure; the formulation of policy and legislation to meet ECA management requirements; the institutionalisation of ECA management with respect to intersectoral coordination and collaboration at the local and national levels; and capacity building within the DoE for ECA management.

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Coastal and Wetland Biodiversity Management Project BGD/99/G31 St Martins Island ECA Draft Conservation Management Plan

2.

P OLICY STATEMENTS

2.1 Policy
The Ministry of Environment and Forest (MoEF) is the focal point for the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) in Bangladesh and is hence responsible for the conservation and management of biodiversity in Bangladesh. The MoEF Department of Environment (DoE) is mandated to actually manage the St Martins Island ECA site. The conservation and management of Bangladeshs natural resources however is the responsibility of many different government bodies, thus site management is guided not only by the policies of the MoEF/DoE but also those of other relevant ministries. Institutional analysis during preparation of Bangladeshs National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (NBSAP) showed that the responsibilities, communication channels and coordination mechanisms among the many different ministries and departments remain poorly defined and unclear. A review of mandates and policy showed that responsibility for the management of natural resources, and therefore for the conservation and sustainable management of biodiversity, is fragmented, and there is no coordination at either national or institutional levels (MoEF, 2005b). While there is currently no specific policy regarding the establishment and management of ECAs in Bangladesh, the GoB/GEF/UNDP Coastal and Wetland Biodiversity Management Project (CWBMP) is supporting efforts by the DoE to institutionalise the concept of ECA management through the development of such policies. In particular, the CWBMP will focus on the further development of criteria and plans for selection of ECAs, including replication of the ECA concept, ways of ensuring sustainable funding for ECAs, and means of addressing actual or potential conflict with other sectoral-based legislation. It is essential that CWBMP assesses not only conflicting legislation but conflicting policy and policy coordination regarding the conservation and management of natural resources and biodiversity, as identified in the NBSAP preparation process. It is essential that conservation management plans be written according to the policy of the implementing agency; management plans cannot be implemented effectively if the policies they are guided by are in conflict with the policies of other agencies that are also stakeholders in the management of a site. Policies developed under the policy component of the CWBMP should be included in this section of the CMP. All management objectives and actions (Sections 4-8) will need to be reviewed in light of any policy developed. The following policies are relevant to the site: Ministry of Environment and Forest a) National Environment Policy (NEP) (1992) The NEP provides for the protection, conservation and development of the environment and the maintenance of environmental quality in all development activities. The objectives of the NEP are to: maintain ecological balance and overall development through protection and improvement of the environment; protect the country against natural disasters; identify and regulate activities which pollute and degrade the environment;
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ensure environmentally-sound development in all sectors; ensure sustainable, long-term and environmentally sound use of all national resources; and actively remain associated with all international environmental initiatives to the maximum possible extent.

NEP declarations related to the coastal and marine environment include: sustainable use of coastal & marine resources and preservation of coastal ecosystems; prevention of national and international activitie s causing pollution in coastal and marine environment; strengthening research in the protection and development of coastal and marine resources and environment; and exploitation of coastal and marine fisheries to a maximum sustainable limit. Specifically the NEP includes, inter alia, the following aspects: rivers, canals, ponds, lakes, haors, beels, baors, and all other water bodies and resources should be kept free from pollution; wetlands should be conserved for the protection of migratory birds; activities which diminish the wetlands/natural habitats of fish should be prevented and rehabilitative measures encouraged; existing projects on water resources development, flood control and irrigation should be examined to determine their adverse impact on fisheries, and; environmental impact assessment (EIA) should be conducted before undertaking new projects for water resources development and management. b) National Forestry Policy (NFP) (1979; revised 1994) The overall objective of the NFP is to meet t he basic needs of the present and future generations and to ensure greater contribution of the forestry sector in economic development. The overall NFP goal is that approximately 20% of the area of Bangladesh will be afforested. The NFP realises the need for large scale planning for tree plantation, maintenance and preservation in the coastal areas to reduce the velocity and intensity of cyclones, tornados and tidal bores. Ecotourism related to forest and wildlife is recognised as a forestry-related activity, which will be promoted taking into consideration the carrying capacity of nature. The policy also recognises the international commitments Bangladesh has made on global warming, desertification and the international trade in endangered species. In addition to both the NEP and NFP, the MoEF has also prepared several strategy documents and actions plans related to biodiversity conservation and natural resource management including the National Conservation Strategy (NCS), the National Environment Management Action Plan (NEMAP) and the National Biodiversity Strategy Action Plan (NBSAP). i) National Conservation Strategy (NCS) (1991 ) The NCS was prepared in recognition of Bangladeshs natural resource conservation commitments under several international treaties, conventions and its own constitution. It provides specific strategies and actions for conservation and sustainable development in 18 areas including human resources, land resources, water resources, forests, biodiversity, fisheries resources, livestock, crop agriculture, urbanisation, health and sanitation, industry, energy and minerals, rural development, transport and communications, disasters and disaster management, environmental awareness and education, gender issues, and environment and interna tional obligations. By adopting the NCS, the government hopes not only to reinforce its national and international commitments for conservation
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of resources and sustainable development but also to strengthen the economy for today and the future. While the NCS provides for coordinated conservation of natural resources, it does not explicitly address issues of biodiversity conservation. The National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (below) aims to address these gaps whilst being fully consistent with the measures identified in the NCS. ii) National Environment Management Action Plan (NEMAP) (1995) The NEMAP identifies priority environmental issues that require immediate attention, including coastal and marine resources management, and advocates an inte grated and inter-sectoral approach. A total of 26 activities from five focus areas identified under NEMAP (including Policy and Institutions; Participatory Ecosystem Management; Communitybased Environmental Sanitation; Advocacy and Awareness; and Training and Education) are being implemented under the Sustainable Environment Management Project (SEMP), which has been in operation since 1998. iii) National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (NBSAP) (1995) Prepared as a commitment under the CBD, the NBSAP proposes a National Biodiversity Policy for Bangladesh based on the principles of the CBD. It forms a national framework for both initiating and executing activities leading to the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity, and establishing mechanisms to ensure equitable sharing of the benefits derived from such activities. It outlines 16 strategies and subsequent actions to be implemented under the proposed biodiversity policy, including a prioritisation of those actions. The main objectives of the NBSAP/National Biodiversity Policy are to: conserve and restore the biodiversity of the country for the well being of the present and future generations; ensure that long-term food, water, health and nutritional securities of the people are met through the conservation of biological diversity; maintain and improve environmental stability for ecosystems; ensure preservation of the unique biological heritage of the nation for the benefit of the present and future generations; guarantee the safe passage and conservation of globally endangered migratory species, especially birds and mammals in the country; and stop the introduction of invasive alien species, genetically modified organisms and living modified organisms. The MoEF/DoE is also responsible for international liaison for all environmental matters, including serving as a focal point for relevant international conventions. Bangladesh has ratified (*or is in the process of ratifying) several international conventions on environment, the following of which have most relevance to the management of ECAs: International Plant Protection Convention (1951) an international treaty to secure action to prevent the spread and introduction of pests of plants and plant products and to promote appropriate meas ures for their control. It is governed by the Commission on Phytosanitary Measures which adopts international standards for phytosanitary measures. Plant Protection Agreement for the South East Asia and Pacific Region (1956) aims to prevent the introduc tion into, and spread within the region of, destructive plant diseases and pests.

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Convention on Biological Diversity (1992) sets out commitments for maintaining the worlds ecological underpinnings as we go about the business of economic development. Under the Convention governments undertake to conserve and sustainably use biodiversity. They are required to develop national biodiversity strategies and action plans, and to integrate these into broader national plans for environment and development. The Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety to the Convention on Biological Diversity (2000)* seeks to protect biological diversity from the potential risks posed by living modified organisms resulting from modern biotechnology. It establishes an advance informed agree ment procedure for ensuring that countries are provided with the information necessary to make informed decisions before agreeing to the import of such organisms into their territory. UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) (1992) attempts to address global warming occurring as a result of human-induced climate change. Its ultimate objective is to stabilise greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. Countries ratifying the Kyoto Protocol to the UNFCCC (1997) commit to reducing their emissions of carbon dioxide and five other greenhouse gases, or engage in emissions trading if they maintain or increase emissions of these gases. Parties under UNFCCC s hould also adopt national climate change mitigation programmes and adaptation strategies. In recognition of the vulnerability of Bangladesh to climate change, a Climate Change Cell was established within the DoE as part of the governments Comprehensive Di aster Management Program. s Its objective is to enable the management of long term climate risks and uncertainties as an integral part of national development planning. Where possible the management of ECAs should be in accordance with any policy developed as part of the work of the Climate Change Cell. The National Adaptation Program of Action addresses immediate climate change adaptation needs. Convention on International Trade of Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) (1973) provides for international cooperation for the protection of certain species of wild fauna and flora against over-exploitation through international trade. Ramsar Convention (Convention on Wetlands of International Importance especially as Waterfowl Habitat) (1971) provides for the conservation and wise use of all wetlands through local, regional and national actions and international cooperation. The Convention includes marine wetlands (wetlands up to a depth of six metres at low tide), islands, lakes and rivers. Sig natories make a commitment to reverse the loss and degradation of wetland habitat. Globally significant migratory and resident waterfowl are supported by St Martins Islands wetland areas. UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (1982) establishes a legal order for the seas and oceans to facilitate international communication, and promote the peaceful uses of the seas and oceans, the equitable and efficient utilization of their resources, the conservation of their living resources, and the study, protection and preservation of the marine environment. Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (2001)* - a global treaty to protect human health and the environment from persistent organic pollutants (POPs). In implementing the Convention, Governments will take measures to eliminate or reduce the release of POPs into the environment.

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Memorandum of Understanding on the Conservation and Management of Marine Turtles and their Habitats of the Indian Ocean and South-East Asia (2001) aims to protect, conserve, replenish and recover marine turtles and their habitats, based on the best scientific evidence, taking into account the environmental, socio-economic and cultural characteristics of the signatory States. The St Martins Island ECA site includes at least three of the six species of marine turtle identified in the MOU, and another two species are supported by its surrounding waters.

Ministry of Fisheries and Livestock The National Fisheries Policy (1998) aims to develop and increase fish production through optimum utilisation of resources; meet the demand for animal protein; promote economic growth and earn foreign currency through the export of fish and fishery products; alleviate poverty by creating opportunities for self-employment and improving the socio-economic conditions of fisher folk; and preserve environmental balance and biodiversity, and improve public health. The policy extends to all government organisations involved in fisheries and to all water bodies used for fisheries. Relevant to the St Martins Island ECA is the separate policy component for the exploitation, conservation and management of marine fisheries resources. Provisions for the conservation of marine biological resources includes strict decisions against increases in mechanised or nonmechanised boats engaged in fish harvest in the marine zones to keep the fish harvest at its maximum sustainable level; the identification of the extent of destruction to fry and juveniles of shrimp due to the use of set bag nets, and subsequent implemen tation of conservation measures; the conservation of spawning grounds ensure natural breeding in the sea; the imposition of bans on harvesting of bagda , chaka and harina shrimps from their breeding grounds and migration routes during the breeding season; the extension of practical approaches to harvesting, collecting and utilising trash fish; and appropriate preventive measures against dumping of hazardous chemicals and atomic wastes into the sea. Ministry of Agriculture The Agricultural Extension Policy (1996) promotes sustainable technologies for improved crop production systems and addresses environmental concerns through the promotion of integrated pest management (IPM) and an increased use of composted fertilisers. The National Integrated Pest Management Policy (2002) was formulated in recognition of the growing importance of IPM in increasing sustainable food production in Bangladesh. The objective of the IPM policy is to enable farmers to grow an increasing amount of healthy crops and thereby increase their income on a sustainable basis while improving the environment and community health. The policy intends to expand IPM on a sustainable basis by establishing a national IPM programme and facilitate coordination of all IPM activities in Bangladesh. Maintaining ecological balance and executing appropriate actions on pesticides are key components of the policy. Ministry of Water Resources The National Water Policy (1999) recognises that poor water quality results in watershed degradation and deforestation, reduction of biodiversity, wetland loss and coastal zone habitat loss. Relevant policy includes ensuring adequate upland flow in water channels to preserve the coastal estuary ecosystem threatened by the intrusion of salinity from the sea; and stopping unplanned construction on riverbanks and indiscriminate clearance of vegetation on newly accreted lands.

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The MoWRs Water Resources Planning Organisation (WARPO) explicitly refers to ECAs in its National Water Management Plan (2001). The ECAs and Integra ted Wetland Management program of the broader Environment and Aquatic Resources program cluster outlines a progressive refinement of ECA water requirements and measures to ensure minimum water requirements for ecological function are maintained. The Coastal Zone Policy (CZPo) (2005) is a policy of integrated management of the coastal zone via agreement of different Ministries, Departments and Agencies to harmonise and coordinate their activities in the coastal zone. A Coastal Development Strategy based on the CZPo to harmonise the sectoral policies of relevant Ministries and provide an integrated coastal zone management framework for all development work in the coastal zone, was approved in February 2006. Ministry of Civil Aviation and Tourism The main objectives of the National Tourism Policy (1992) are to create interest in tourism among the people; preserve, protect, develop and maintain tourism resources; take steps for povertyalleviation through creation of employment; build a positive image of the country abroad; open up a recognised sector for private capital investment; arrange entertainment and recreation; and strengthen national solidarity and integrity. A strategic Master Plan for Tourism Development was prepared in 1990 by UNDP/World Trade Orga nisation (WTO); it is understood this is being updated and revised by WTO. Coastal beaches and islands are identified as attractions in the policy, with several principles of the policy relating directly to these including the allocation of certain islands only for foreign tourist use; and the delineation of special areas or islands for foreign tourists and their development through private sector involvement. Despite St Martins Island not being included among the seven different areas identified for tourism development in the policy, the government decided at an inter-ministerial meeting on 16 January 2005 that the Island will be an exclusive tourist zone (New Age National, 17/01/2005). The definition of an exclusive tourist zone is unclear, and there is no policy for the management or development of exclusive tourist zones, however a decision was made at the same inter -ministerial meeting to prepare a master plan for transforming the Island into a tourist zone equipped with world-class amenities and for the Local Government Engineering Department (LGED) to implement that plan (ibid, 17/01/2005). Ministry of Land Given the decreasing per capita land availability in Bangladesh, the National Land Use Policy (2001) was prepared to support trends of accelerated urbanisation, industrialisation and diversification of development activities. The objectives of the policy are to: (i) arrest the continued decrease of agricultural land to ensure food production for the increasing population; (ii) prevent indiscriminate use and misuse of land; (iii) determine which land would be used for what purpose, and develop guidelines for the most appropriate use of land; (iv) exercise utmost economy in the acquisition of land for implementation of development projects, urbanisation and other uses of land; (v) determine which land would be needed in future for development purposes and earmark and protect those lands (especially Khas land); (vi) ensure that the use of land is environmentally friendly; and (vii) ensure the best possible use of land to support poverty alleviation and enhanced employment opportunities, thus contributing to arresting the growth of landless households. The policy states that for a balanced eco-environment and human health, 25% of the total land should be under forest coverage and that this can be largely achieved by afforestation of char lands and other suitable lands.

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2.2 Legislation
The following legal obligations are relevant to the site: a) Bangladesh Environment Conservation Act, 1995 (Amended 2000, 2002) The BECA articulates and expands upon the environmental management and sustainable development goals of the NEP, defining the environmental regulatory regime and DoEs mandate with respect thereto. It provides for conservation of the environment, improvement of environmental standards and control and mitigation of environmental pollution. BECA includes provisions for the declaration of ECAs, restrictions on vehicle emissions, restrictions on the manufacture and sale of articles injurious to the environment, remedial measures (including compensation and/or corrective measures), environmental pollution discharges, environmental clearances and formulation of environmental guidelines. The BECA has an overriding effect in that notwithstanding anything contained to the contrary in any other law for the time being in force, the provisions of the Act, and rules and directions issued under the Act shall have effect. b) Environment Conservation Rules, 1997 The BECA is implemented by the Environment Conserva tion Rules (ECR). Under the ECR, it is mandatory for industries to carry out an EIA, install waste/pollutant treatment plants, conform to the environmental quality standards, report accidents or unforeseen discharges of pollutants, and take remedial measures as warranted. The DoE issues Environmental Clearance Certificates in favour of those industrial units that conform to the above ECR standards. c) Environment Court Act, 2000 (Amended 2002) The Act provides for the establishment of one or more Environment Courts, initially in every Division of the country, with specific terms of reference to deal with environmental offences (offences under the Environment Conservation Act, or any other law specified in the Official Gazette and the rules made under those laws). d) Wildlife (Preservation) Order, 1973 & Wildlife (Preservation) (Amendment) Act, 1974 The Order provides for the protection of wildlife as well as their habitat. It defines various protected areas in the form of game reserves, national parks and wildlife sanctuaries and aims to preserve wildlife in those protected areas. The wildlife sanctuary regime also requires undisturbed breeding ground for the protection of wildlife as well as all natural resources contained in the sanctuary. The Act classifies wild animals as either game or protected animals - game animals can be killed or hunted with a permit, whereas protected animals are fully protected except for saving life, crops or livestock. The schedules of the Act are revisited and modified regularly as the status of threats to different species changes. The Act does not cover marine turtles but may once current revisions are enacted. e) Forest Act, 1927 (Amended 1990, 2000) The Act empowers the Government to declare any area of forest as Reserved and by doing that it may take measures for in -situ conservation of biological diversity. The Government may also establish some control over private forests through the Private Forest Ordinance. With the introduction and expansion of Community Forestry, the government is gradually trying to introduce community oriented co-management. Any act or omission detrimental to the natural resources of reserve and protected forests is prohibited including clearing forest lands, removing timber, setting fires, felling or otherwise damaging trees, clearing or breaking up any land for cultivation or any other purpose, hunting and the poisoning of water.

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f) Marine Fisheries Ordinance (1983) & Marine Fisheries Rules (1983) The Ordinance makes provisions for the manageme nt, conservation and development of the marine fisheries of Bangladesh. It includes provisions for the specification of types, classes and numbers of fishing vessels that can be deployed in Bangladesh fisheries waters; licensing (specifying the areas and periods for which fishing is authorised; species, size, sex, age and quantities of fish that can be taken; and the fishing methods and types, size and amount of fishing gear that may be used); prohibition of fishing methods; and declaration of marine reserves. A marine park was established under the Act in 2000. The Act does not provide for specific preventive or precautionary measures for protection and conservation of aquatic life. g) Protection and Conservation of Fish Act, 1950 (Amended 1963, 1970, 1982, 1995, 2000) & Protection and Conservation of Fish Rules, 1985 (Amended 1987) The Act provides various measures for the protection and conservation of fish including specifying waters in which the catching of certain fish species is prohibited without a v alid licence, and specifying fish species of which the catching or sale in certain periods is prohibited; prohibiting the erection of fixed engines in rivers and canals; prohibiting the destruction of fish through the use of poison or explosives; and licensing and regulations around frogs. In recognition that fish fry collection from nature may result in long term ecological destruction the government, in 2000, prohibited the collection of fry or post larvae of fish, shrimp and prawns of any kind, in any form and in any way, in estuary and coastal waters of Bangladesh. The Rules contain a provision for conservation by empowering the government to build any marine reserve in which fishing and any other detrimental activities can be prohibited. h) Agricultural Pesticide Ordinance, 1971 Under the Ordinance the Government can impose a ban on registering any pesticides detrimental to vegetation, human or animal health, but not pesticides harmful to fisheries or aquatic organisms. i) Fertilizer Regulation Order, 1995 The Order provides for environmental assessment of the impact of new fertilizers and bio -fertilizers and subsequent recommendations to the government regarding their production, importation, marketing and use. No provisions exist for the harmful chemical fertilizers that could adversely affect biodiversity resources that are already imported or produced.

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3.

GENERAL D ESCRIPTION

3.1 General Description


3.1.1 Location and Site Boundaries
Located in the far south-eastern corner of Bangladesh at 24oN and 92oE, St Martins Island lies in the Bay of Bengal some 10 kilometres south of the tip of the Teknaf Peninsula. The Island, which is 590 ha in area, has been declared an ECA in its entirety. It falls under the jurisdiction of St Martins Island Union, Teknaf Upazilla. The sites northern section is known as Uttar Para, which is connected to the southern part of the Island by a narrow neck of land called Golachipa. The area directly south of Golachipa is termed Madhya Para, followed by Dakhin Para. The southernmost tip of the Island, Cheradia, is separated from Dakhin Para during high tide. The Island is accessible only by boat, from the town of Teknaf. It is recommended the ECA area be extended to include a two km radius of marine waters surrounding the site, except for at Cheradia where a five km radius is recommended in line with a proposed core coral protection zone. Figure 1 shows a map of St Martins Island. Figure 1: St Martins Island Map

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3.1.2 Tenure
All land at the site is privately-owned, with the exception of 18.7 hectares at Cheradia which was recently purchased by MoEF. The original settlers in the 1880s purchased the Island and according to the Islanders in 1997 the government didnt own any land (Tomascik, 1997). Government land identified in 1997 included the BDR station, a police station, a power plant (not functioning), a Government guesthouse, a lighthouse, cyclone shelters cum primary schools, the Union council building and the Health office ( ibid, 1997). Tomascik noted in 1997 that land ownership was a very sensitive issue that needed immediate attention and suggested a review of land ownership to determine if changes have occurred. Since then there has been a large scale transfer of land ownership to outsiders, particularly since 2002, thus a review remains particularly important.

3.1.3 Management/organisational infrastructure


The management of ECAs falls under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Environment and Forest (MoEF). The MoEF incorporates the Forest Department (FD), the Department of Environment (DoE) and several other agencies, with the management of ECAs mandated to DoE. The DoE is currently managing St Martins Island ECA via the GoB/UNDP/GEF Coastal & Wetland Biodiversity Management Project (CWBMP). The project, which will run from 2002-2009, has as its overall objective the establishment of an innovative system for the management of ECAs in Bangladesh that will have a significant and positive impact on the long term viability of the countrys important biodiversity resources. As such there is currently only a temporary management structure in place (i.e. CWBMP) however one of the projects objectives is to support DoE efforts to institutionalise the management of ECAs. This is currently being initiated through the development of a permanent ECA Cell within the DoE. The Cell, formed 31 July 2006, consist s of several DoE staff including one Director (Technical) as convenor, the Director of DoE Chittagong Divisional Office, the Director of DoE Khulna Divisional Office, the Deputy Director of DoE Sylhet Divisional Office, the Deputy Director of Natural Resource Management, DoE, two ECA Management Officers (from the ECAMU of Coxs Bazar and Kulaura) and several DoE Assistant Director-leve l Officers. The Cell will serve as a GoB focal point for the management of ECAs both now and beyond the life of the project, and will be an important institutional arrangement under the CWBMP exit strategy. The CWBMP PMU will be Secretariat of the Cell for the duration on CWBMP. The Cell, which will operate under the direction of the Director General, DoE, will coordinate the management of all ECAs in Bangladesh, facilitate the replication of the ECA management model in all ECAs in Bangladesh, represent the Cell on the National ECA Committee, ensure the promulgation of ECA rules and regulations under BECA (1995) in line with field requirements, ensure the enforcement of relevant legislation in ECAs and monitor the progress of management actions as outlined in the site -specific conservation management plans. Current management arrangements for the St Martins Island ECA site under CWBMP include a Project Management Unit (PMU) located within the DoE Headquarters in Dhaka, and an ECA Management Unit (ECAMU) loc ated in Coxs Bazar (a satellite office of the DoE Chittagong regional office) (Box 1). A project sub-office has also been established in Teknaf, the town closest to St Martins Island on the mainland. Staff responsible for the management of the site inclu des:

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Project Management Unit (DoE HQ, Dhaka): 1. National Project Director (and currently Director General, DoE) 2. National Project Coordinator 3. Monitoring and Evaluation Specialist 4. Biodiversity Database Management Specialist 5. Support staff ECA Management Unit (Coxs Bazar Field Office): 1. ECA Management Officer (and currently Assistant Director, DoE) 2. Wildlife Biodiversity Management Specialist 3. Marine Fisheries Biodiversity Specialist 4. Plant Biodiversity Management Specialist 5. Wildlife Biodiversity Officer 6. Fisheries Biodiversity Officer 7. Ecotourism Development Officer 8. Agricultural Extension Officer 9. Horticultural Extension officer 10. Support staff Sub-office (Teknaf Field Office): 1. Ecotourism Development Officer 2. Agricultural Extension Officer 3. Horticultural Extension officer 4. Support staff In addition to the PMU and site office, National and Local ECA Committees provide an operational structure for ECA management. The National ECA Committee (formed in 2005, yet to convene) was established to create an inter -sectoral channel of communications between MoEF and other Government Ministries with potentially overlapping interests within the ECA. The Committee will provide MoEF with a vehicle for communicating ECA-relate d policies to line ministries. A Local (district-level) ECA Committee, which facilitates dialogue among the full range of District-level Government Departments concerning issues of common interest related to management of the ECA, will be established in August 2006.

3.1.4 Site Infrastructure


St Martins Island consists of around 818 household dwellings (POUSH, 2006a), plus structures associated with servicing both the permanent population and the large seasonal influx of tourists. This includes 17 hotels, 12 restaurants, a government office, two main mosques, three primary schools (including one that doubles as a cyclone shelter) and one high school, a second cyclone shelter, a large new hospital, lighthouse, naval base and two ECFCP Village Resource Centres. There are also three concrete paths wide enough to accommodate rickshaw vans - one extends approximately 1.5 km from the main town to the Abakash Hotel at Khaler Mukh, cutting through the centre of the lagoon in Uttar Para; another leads off from the Abakash Hotel path to Kona Para village (about 500m) but is due to be extended all the way to the beach; and the third extends 300m from the town centre south to Purba Para. The land use/habitat map in Figure 3 (Section 3.3.2) also shows the location of inf rastructure at the site.
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Box 1: Organisation of St Martins Island ECA Management Ministry of Environment and Forest

Department of Environment CWBMP Project Management Unit

Forestry Department

ECA Management Unit VCGs Sub-office

3.1.5 Map coverage


GIS and cartographic maps: Digitised versions of thematic maps hand drawn by Tomas Tomascik in 1992 for the National Conservation Strategy Implementation Project-1 (NCSIP-1) are available in the GIS and Cartographic Services Final Report (DoE, 1999), a copy of which is available at both the PMU (DoE HQ, Dhaka) and ECAMU (Coxs Bazar). The thematic maps (no scale provided include: ) 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) General distribution of algal and seagrass beds General distribution of coral-algal communities General distribution of soft-coral communities Main inshore fishing areas Proposed zoning plan for National Marine Park Main coral collecting areas Main shell collecting areas

In addition, a GIS cartographic map combining all three Coxs Bazar ECAs (scale 1:105,000) was procured from LGED (Image date: 2003; Image type: Landsat ETM+; Ground resolution: 30m). This is available in hard copy at both the PMU (DoE HQ, Dhaka) and ECAMU (Coxs Bazar). Other maps: A land use/resource map produced by POUSH NGO in 2006 for the site is also available in hard copy at PMU and ECAMU, Coxs Bazar, but is of poor quality and is inaccurate. Future map needs: A satellite image of the site would be useful as it would enable management to prepare an accurate land use map for the site based on the satellite image. An administrative Union/mouza map, prepared as recently as possible, would also be very useful.
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3.1.6 Photographic coverage


The site records contain around 100 digital and film photos of varying quality showing the Islands habitats and depicting threats to biodiversity. The collection of digital photographs is stored on several computers at the Coxs Bazar ECAMU and some are with PMU. It is essential, given the need to maintain a photographic record of conditions and changes at the site, and also to improve materials for awareness raising and displays etc., that the collection is improved. The following steps need to be undertaken to improve the collection: Take photographs of all important habitats throughout the site, including the remaining mangrove patch and of species where possible. Take photographs of all degradation and threats not already included in the collection, and of infrastructure. Establish a good collection of underwater photographs, particularly of coral, algae, seaweed, sea grass beds and coral fish. Ensure photographs of any changes to the site, whether the result of management actions or not, are taken. Save all existing and future digital photo files with a description of the photo, including location and name of photographer (date of photo can be seen by moving curser over photo). Make office copies of good quality and relevant printed film photographs taken by CWBMP staff to date, and record the description, location, date and name of photographer. Develop a database of all digital and print photographs for the site, and maintain the database

3.2 Zones
Tomascik (1997) prepared a management plan for the development of the site as a National Marine Park as part of the NCSIP -1, including identification of general use zones, a coral appreciation zone, buffer zones and a coral sanctuary zone. The MoEF Conservation of Biodiversity, Marine Park Establishment and Ecotourism Development Project at St Martins Island (the St Martins Island Project in short), which was initiated to implement the management plan prepared by Tomascik, describe on their website a general use zone, a buffer zone, a coral extension zone, a coral conservation zone, a turtle breeding zone and a coral sanctuary (www.stmartinsbd.org, Conservation of Biodiversity, Marine Park Establishment and Ecotourism Development Project at St Martins Island, MoEF, 5 July 2006). Whether these are modifications to those zones proposed by Tomascik, or simply the same zones worded differently, is unclear. The CWBMP has also identified zones for the management of the site, including three core protection zones; two buffer zones and one general use zone. Core zones require maximum protection and minimal human intrusion and thus have more restrictions. They are managed primarily for habitat and/or species protection and conservation and are managed with the aim of removing/minimising all threats to the species or habitat for which the zone is created Buffer zones . shield the core zones and are managed to minimise adverse impacts spilling into the core zone. They provide a buffer between those zones that are highly managed (core zones) and those that are generally unmanaged (general use zones). General use zones recognise the need for zones within protected areas that are reserved for human acitivties and are subject to fewer restrictions. The delineation, description, justification and function of the CWBMP -identified zones are outlined in Table 1, which are numbered 1 for the purposes of this management plan but may be renamed as -6 desired. The table also lists restrictions specific for each zone in addition to the general ECA
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regulations that apply to the whole site. Table 2 shows a comparison between the zones proposed by CWBMP and those proposed by Tomascik/the St Martins Island Project. A major consideration for the effective management of the site will be coordination between MoEF and DoE in determining and agreeing which zones are the most appropriate for management purposes and ensuring that, for the remaining duration of both projects, the MoEF and DoE are implementing activities according to those zones. A map of the zones is provided in Figure 2. All zones need to be clearly identifiable on the ground. If physical boundaries do not exist (river, wall, road etc.) then markers must be used. For all zones, physically mark the boundary of the zone and provide interpretive signage explaining the delineation, justification, function and restrictions of the zone.

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Table 1: Core protection, buffer and multiple use zones identified for St Martins Island ECA
Zone 1 Delineation Cheradia and surrounding waters (5 km radius from land), including the mangrove patch at the south western corner of the mainland and seaweed meadow off the south eastern coast of the mainland Section of Western beach south of Golachipa to mangrove area in south western corner of Island, just north of Cheradia Description Coral-algal communities and coral-associ ted a fishes; rocky intertidal zone; small mangrove patch; sea weed meadow (Sargassum sp.); Green Turtle breeding area Justification Fragile area with significant concentration of biodiversity that is heavily touristed. Unless strictly protected, species and habitats will disappear. Includes last remaining mangrove patch on Island. Globally significant coral-algal communities, turtle species. Function Core protection zone Coral sanctuary; mangrove protection; green turtle nesting site; algae protection Restrictions 1. No human movement except that required for management and restricted research 2. No fishing in waters within 5 km radius of shore 3. Boat anchoring for management and research only to permanent buoy 4. No infrastructure development

Relatively undisturbed long stretch of beach and sand dunes; intertidal rocky shore.

An important breeding area for several species of globally endangered marine turtles that is thus far relatively undisturbed to keep the area as pristine as possible for continued use as a breeding ground for nesting marine turtles. Also shorebird habitat.

Core protection zone Turtle breeding sanctuary (turtle conservation and turtle habitat conservation); shore bird habitat protection; ecotourism

Section of Western beach north of Golachipa to turtle nesting area near Hotel Abakash, including

Beach and sand dunes, Pandanus.

Turtle breeding habitat

Buffer zone Turtle breeding zone; turtle habitat conservation; independent (managed) tourism; ecotourism (coral appreciation)

1. No fishing within 5 km radius of shore, except with hand line 2. No infrastructure development except for small-scale low -impact ecotourism facility 3. Restricted human movement (managed access to be determined) 4. Guided, managed tourism only 5. No use of lighting during nesting season 1. No lighting during nesting season 2. Restricted human movement (managed access to be determined) 3. No further infrastructure development except small-scale low-impact ecotourism facility
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Zone

Delineation offshore rocky barrier in north western corner (coral lagoon) Northern section of Island including all areas north of zones 3 & 5 Eastern side of Island south of Golachipa to coral core protection zone (Zone 1) Inland area south of Golachipa to Cheradia, between eastern and western sand dunes

Description

Justification

Function

Restrictions

Boat harbour; concentration of hotels, restaurants and shops; sandy beaches; coral area Seaweed meadow (Sargassum sp.); rocky intertidal zone; coral; sandy beach

Most heavily developed part of Island; most day visitors stay within this area

General use zone Independent tourism

1. Responsible tourism following ecotourism guidelines 2. Building restrictions

A buffer between general use zone and core protection zone;

Buffer zone - independent (managed) tourism

1. Restricted human movement (managed access to be determined) 2. No infrastructure development 3. Boat harbouring limited to permanent buoys 1. No infrastructure development 2. Limited (managed) tourism 3. No further conversion of land to agriculture

Rocky wild land and mangrove habitat

Rocky land habitat on the Island is coming under increasing pressure for conversion to agriculture this is the last remaining area of rocky land habitat on the Island and supports a number of terrestrial species

Core protection zone Habitat protection

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Table 2: Comparison of zones proposed for St Martins Island by different initiatives CWBMP
1. Core coral protection zone 2. Core turtle breeding zone

Tomascik/St Martins Island Project


Corresponds mostly to Tomasciks proposed coral sanctuary (Tomascik zone 4) Corresponds mostly to Tomasciks proposed western buffer zone (Tomascik zone 5) and a third of Tomasciks western general use zone (Tomascik zone 6) Smaller than Tomasciks proposed western general use zone (zone 6) but incorporates some of Tomasciks coral appreciation zone (Tomascik zone 7) Corresponds exactly to Tomasciks northern general use zone (zone 1); mostly to Tomasciks eastern general use zone (Tomascik zone 2), and part of Tomasciks coral appreciation zone (Tomascik zone 7) Corresponds mostly to Tomasciks proposed eastern buffer zone (Tomascik zone 3)

Comment

CWBMP prefers to keep this a core turtle protection zone

3. Western buffer zone

As turtles also breed in this area, CWBMP would prefer this to be the buffer zone between the core turtle area and the general use area

4. General use zone

5. Eastern buffer zone

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Figure 2: A map of zones identified for St Martins Island ECA Insert map of zones here (to be prepared)

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3.3 Environmental Information


3.3.1 Physical
Climate While within the tropical belt, the weather of the site is heavily influenced by the subtropical monsoonal climate that prevails over Bangladesh. F rom October to February the weather is mild with low rainfall, however heavy rainfall occurs with the south west monsoon from June -July, and August is a transition month with rainfall declining again. The nearest weather station of Coxs Bazar provides a good proxy for climatic conditions at the site. According to MoEF (2001b), average annual rainfall for Coxs Bazar from 1987-1996 varied between 2,867 mm to 4,684 mm. The temperature remains high year-round with small seasonal differences the mean annual maximum and minimum temperatures recorded at Coxs Bazar between 1987-1996 were 30.3C 33.0C and 19.3C-22.4C respectively. However, as a result of both being further south than Coxs Bazar and the influence of the sea, St Martins Island experiences higher minimum temperatures and lower maximum temperatures than that of Coxs Bazar (Tomascik, 1997). Humidity remains relatively high throughout the year - it averaged 79.7% at Coxs Bazar from 1987-1996 (MoEF, 2001b). From November-February the prevailing winds are from the north west, from March-May from the south west and from June-September from the south east. Access to the Island is quite limited during the rainy season due to very rough seas and is an important consideration for management planning. The site is particularly susceptible to cyclones. Cyclonic storms develop in the Bay, generally in April-May and October -November, occasionally coming to shore and causing severe damage to human settlements and vegetation. As a result of climate change, sea level rises of up to 43 cm are expected by 2050 and more frequent and extensive cyclones and tidal effects are expected (Alam, 2003). Historical tidal data for the 22 years to 2005 at the Coxs Bazar coastal station has shown a sea level rise of 7.8 mm/annum, which is many times more than the mean rate of global sea level rises over the past 100 years (MoEF, 2005a). The effect of sea level rises may be reversed somewhat by uplifting; calculations from the presence of dead coral and microatolls in the intertidal zone suggest that the Island has uplifted 15 cm in the last 150 years and apparently continues to do so (Tomascik, 1997). Hydrology A shallow lagoon in the north of the Island, which has been largely converted to agriculture, is connected to the sea at high tide by a narrow tidal channel on the west coast. There are three small lagoons in Cheradia. In 1996 attention was drawn to the lack of hydrological studies of the island (Hassan and Ahmed, 1996 in Tomascik, 1997) it is unknown whether this is still the case. Geology/geomorphology Tomascik (1997) provides a description of the geology of the Island. The site is a sedimentary continental island consisting of continental base rocks which coral communities have colonised. The base rock is Giruja n Clay shale (Pliocene), and grey to bluish grey interbedded with subordinate sandstone. Above this is a layer of St Martin Limestone (Pleistocene), which is coquinoid, dirty white, coarse grained, bedded and partly consolidated along with cream coloured coral clusters. Surficial deposits (Holocene) of beach sand, which is medium to coarse grained, light grey to grey with recent shell fragments, lie above the limestone. From Dakhin Para, an intertidal rocky reef extends about 1.8 km south, supporting three vegetated sand islands know locally as Cheradia. Cheradia is connected to the southern part of the Island
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during low tide by a narrow sand belt consisting of alluvial sands and littoral carbonates that has accumulated on top of the rocky intertidal reef. Almost the entire coastline of the Island is fringed by a rocky intertidal habitat consisting of small and large boulders, and varying between 100-500 m wide. Coral boulders are also present but are relatively rare. The presence of relatively well preserved dead coral colonies in the upper and middle intertidal zones suggests that the Island has been uplifted in relatively recent times. A coastal embankment has been constructed by piling loose boulders along a considerable length of the east and west coast. Soils The Island consists mainly of alluvial sands mixed with marine calcareous deposits. Golachipa consists of dry sand and has a dune environment. Madhya Para has an alluvial top soil mixed with molluscan shells. Dakhin Para has two dead lagoons and is marshy. The soil in Cheradia is confined to a small area and consists of loose sand mixed with large quantities of molluscan shells. A 2006 study of the soil status and sedimentation of St Martins Island conducted by Dr. S.M. Kabir will be available shortly from the MoEFs Conservation of Biodiversity, Marine Park Establishment and Ecotourism Development Project at St Martins Island. Topography MoEF (2001a) describes the topography of the site. Lying in a north-south direction, the Island has a wider northern section and a narrower elongated southern section with a constriction between where the sand dunes of the western and eastern shores have almost joined. This narrow neck is gradually being eroded from both sides. Erosion from tides is also evident on the northern coast of Uttar Para where erosion of dunes up to 2 metres was reported in the late 1990s. The average altitude is 2.5 metres with a high point of six metres in Dakhin Para.

3.3.2 Biological
3.3.2.1 Habitats/communities The sites habita ts/communities include sand dunes and beaches, a small mangrove patch, marine habitat including, among others, coral communities and a rocky intertidal zone, and lagoons/wetlands, rocky land and a small mudflat area. The map in Figure 3 shows the location and extent of habitats at the site, and includes land use/site infrastructure as well. Sand dunes and beaches: The main shoreline habitats are sandy beaches and dunes, with the main sediments being alluvial sands. Beaches and dunes on the southern part of the island have a higher carbonate content compared to the northern Uttar Para beaches. Most carbonates are molluscan shell fragments. The sandy beach in the north and north east stretches over 300-400 m into the sea. The western beach is sandy but the sub-tidal area consists of a bed of boulders. The sites sandy beaches are reputedly the best nesting sites in Bangladesh for globally threatened marine turtles (Islam, 2001). Mangrove: The original mangrove formation at the site was considered quite different from any other mangrove in the country in that it was a pure Lumnitzera racemosa formation (GoB/GEF/UNDP, 1999). There is a very small remaining mangrove patch at the site nowadays consisting of Sonneratia apetala, Acanthus ilicifolius, Avicennia marina and Hibiscus tiliceous, among others. Marine habitats: MoEF (2001b) describes the diverse marine habitat. The shallow water marine habitats include rocky and sandy intertidal habitats, offshore lagoons, rocky sub-tidal habitats, coral
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aggregations, seagrass beds, soft coral habitats and offshore soft-bottom habitats. Due to the differences in exposure, benthic communities along the east and west coasts of the island support different benthic communities. However the upper and middle intertidal habitats along both coasts generally support similar communities. A generalised zonation of east coast benthic communities along an inshore-to-offshore gradient starting from the lower intertidal is as follows: intertidal gastropod-algal community, coral-algal community, mixed seagrass-algal community, soft-coral community and soft-bottom (mud) community. The zonation on the west coast is as follows: gastropod-algal community, coral-algal community, algal community and soft-bottom community. With the exception o the north eastern corner, the Islands entire intertidal zone is fringed with f numerous boulders that extend from a few metres to a few hundred metres to the sub-tidal zone. These boulders of all shapes and sizes originate from the bedrock and provide a diverse microhabitat for numerous marine species sheltering from tidal influences. The upper portion of the rocky habitat is mostly dry during low tide and contains dead coral colonies. The lower intertidal area consists of diversified marine life, including coral, molluscs, echinoderms, reef fishes, barnacles, crabs, algae etc. It also provides a huge number of rock pools of various sizes where small reef fish forage for the duration of the ebb tide. Depending on the tide, the intertidal zone rocky habitat covers 150-250 ha. The rocky subtidal habitat from the seaward margin to about 1000m offshore support a diverse coral community which can be classified as a veneering coral community. Of the 15 reef-building scleractinian coral families, 10 are present on the Island, represented by approximately 22 genera and 66 species. Of these, 39 have been identified as living corals and 14 as soft coral, growing up to a depth of 7 metres. Corals are found around most of the Island, but their abundance and cover is generally low. The density estimate of corals in the Cheradia area is 1.3 colonies/m2 , with a corresponding coral cover of around 7.5%. Small coral aggregations are also found in a number of small intertidal pools of the lower rocky intertidal zone. The coral community also supports associated fish and invertebrate fauna. Sea grass meadows and algal flora associated with extensive coral reefs were discovered in 1997 by Tomascik and Paiker (MoEF, 2001a). The extensive algal and seagrass beds in the Islands coastal waters are highly productive and diverse and may be important spawning and/or nursery grounds for a number of economically important fish and shell fish species. There are only a few examples worldwide where coral communities dominate rock reefs; S t Martins Island provides a unique set of environmental conditions (biotic and abiotic) not found elsewhere in Bangladesh and perhaps not in the world (Tomascik, 1997, in GoB/GEF/UNDP, 1999). The co-occurrence of corals, seagrasses and mangroves in the Is land represents little known succession of corals in the tropical areas (Welch, 1962, and McCoy & Heck, 1976, in GoB/GEF/UNDP, 1999). Lagoons/wetlands: Several lagoons/wetlands associated with mangrove and floodplain areas occur at the site, providing habitat for birds. There is a lagoon at Uttar Para, a freshwater wetland at Dakhin Para and sizeable floodplain areas scattered throughout the Island. A 40 ha internal lagoon lies at the south of the main island and within the three small islands comprising C heradia. Rocky land habitat: A small area of rocky land exists at Shil Bania, south of Dakhin Para Morong (lake), and west of the Coast Guard base. The majority of the area is covered with giant boulders similar to that of the intertidal zone, with some l wland pools. The rocky land area covers about o 100 ha and is the last remaining habitat for rare species such as the water monitor ( Varanus salvator), Bengal cobra (Naja kaouthia), bush birds, water birds and garden lizards, and native
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herbs, shrubs and climbers. The rocky ground and shallow water pools provide an excellent terrestrial microhabitat, especially during winter. Mudflat: There is a small mudflat area (Gaitta Banya) located at the southern end of the western beach. It provides numerous food sources for shorebirds and a habitat for amphibious sea snakes and crabs. Figure 3: A map of habitats at St Martins Island ECA (to be prepared one supplied insufficient)

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3.3.2.2 Flora The most significant floral survey for the site was undertaken by t he NCSIP-1 from 1995-1997, the report of which details the records of both the NCSIP -1 surveys and other significant surveys (MoEF, 2001a). A total of 151 species of benthic and drifted algae, 18 species of bryophytes and 157 species of angiosperms have be en recorded at the site. Reports on s tudies in 2006 of floral diversity and angiosperm flora including medicinal plants (Dr. M. Zaman) and of marine algae (Dr A.H. Chowdury) will be available shortly from the MoEFs Conservation of Biodiversity, Marine Park Establishment and Ecotourism Development Project at St Martins Island. One hundred and fifty one species of marine algae were identified from specimens collected under the NSCIP-1 in 1996, mainly from the Islands intertidal/littoral zone but some from the sublittoral zone and some as drifted forms (Annex 1). Many of the collected specimens remain unidentified. Ten species were identified by Islam, 1988 (in MoEF, 2001a) as economically important. The mangrove includes the following associated mangrove species: Acanthus ilicifolius, Hibiscus tiliceous, Excoecaria agallocha , Avicennia marina and Clerodendrum inerme. Aegialitis rotundifolia , an early coloniser, has disappeared from the Island (MoEF, 2001a). Pandanus odoratissimus and Ipomea pescaprae, in association with grasses Panicum repens, Passpalum vaginatum and sedges Cyperus spp. and Fimbristylis spp., constitute the vegetation of the sand dunes. Streblus asper and Vitex trifoliata are also found among the crevices formed by rocks, adjacent to a swamp supporting the young mangrove formation. Annex 2 lists the angiosperm species identified at the Island. A number of liverworts and mosses and one fern species ( Adiantum philippense) have also been recorded at the Island (Annex 3). Limited information on invasive alien plant species has been collected at the site. Lantana camara is the main alien plant species on the Island it is distributed throughout and is utilised by nesting birds. It does not appear to be displacing other plant species. 3.3.2. 3 Fauna The most significant faunal survey for the site was undertaken by the NCSIP-1 from 1995-1997, the report of which details the records of both the NCSIP -1 surveys and other significant surveys (MoEF, 2001b). Significant surveys in addition to those mentioned in NCSIP-1 document are mentioned under the relevant fauna group below. The Island is particularly important as a wintering area for a wide variety of migratory shorebirds, gulls and terns, and as a nesting area for marine turtles. Mammals A total of 19 species of mammals were recorded from the Island during the NCSIP-1 survey, of which none of the land-based mammals are carnivorous (MoEF, 2001b) (Annex 4). In addition to the cetaceans recorded by NCSIP -1, a pod of spinner dolphins (Stenella sp.) were observed in 1999 crossing the northern channel (Islam, 2001). Cetacean surveys conducted in Myanmar waters close to the site also recorded an additional species (Stenella attenuta ) that may occur around the site (M.Z. Islam, pers. comm., 16 July 2006). Six marine mammals from the area surrounding the Island are listed in the 2006 IUCN Red Data Book of Threatened Species. Pest species include dogs, domestic cats and field rats. Birds The site lies on the East Australasian Flyway and Central Asian Flyway and provides a stepping stone for several globally threatened migratory waders. A total of 120 species of birds have
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been recorded from the Island (77 resident species and 43 migratory species) of which 18 species may be classified as locally threatened (MoEF, 2001b) (Annex 5). However, Islam (2001) suggests that this number is doubtful. Two species, the grey-headed lapwing (Vanellus cinereus) and Blackbellied Tern (Sterna acuticauda), are listed in the 2006 IUCN Red Data Book of Threatened Species. The Nature Conservation Committee (NCC) conducts a waterfowl census annually in mid winter along the flyways in Bangladesh, including at St Martins Island. The 2005 count, which covered the whole site, found 12 species for a total count of 216 individuals (Sorder, 2005). Reptiles The Island supports a total of 27 reptile species, of which 11 are locally threatened (MoEF, 2001b) (Annex 6). All five species of marine turtle known to occur in Bangladesh have been reported in the area including Lepidochelys olivacea (Olive Ridley Turtle), Eretmochelys imbricate (Hawksbill Turtle), Chelonia mydas (Green Turtle), Dermochelys coriacea, Caretta caretta (Loggerhead Turtle) and Dermochelys coriacae (Leatherback Turtle). Three species the Olive Ridley, Hawks bill and Green turtles are known to nest at the site (Rashid, 1986, in GoB/GEF/UNDP, 1999). Of these, the Olive Ridley and Green turtles are listed in the 2006 IUCN Red Data Book of Threatened Species as Endangered, and the Hawksbill as Critically Endangered. Other reptiles include, among others, monitors, five species of terrestrial snakes and six species of sea snakes, lizards and four species of freshwater turtle. Amphibians The Island supports four amphibian species, including a toad (Bufo melanostictus) and three frog species Skipper Frog (Euphlyctis cyanophylctis/Rana cyanophylctis), the Bull Frog (Hoplobatrachus tigerinus/Rana tigerina ) and Tree Frog (Polypedates maculatus/Rhacophorus maculatus). The bull frog is listed in CITES (Appendix II) (MoEF, 2001b). Fish A total of 234 species of fish have been identified from the site, 89 of which are coralassociated fish species and only 16 of which are freshwater fish (MoEF, 2001b) (Annex 7). Though coral reefs have not developed, the coral community supports fish fauna characteristic of coral reef environments. The most abundant coral or reef-associated herbivores are the Pomacwentridae (damsel fish), Scaridae (parrot fish) and Acanthuridae (surgeon fish). Important coral or reefassociated predators are Serranidae (groupers), Lutjanidae (snappers) and Lethrinidae (emporers). Five species of the common butterfly fish (Chaetodontidae) were recorded on the Island, as was one species of angel fish (Pomocanthidae). Croakers (Sciaenidae) are also present. These records are from a cursory survey and it is expected that at least 100 additional species are present. Considering the relative isolation of the Island, endemic fish species may also be present. A full fish survey by an experienced fish taxonomist is strongly recommended. Invertebrates - Apart from the NSCIP-1, significant surveys of coral and molluscs were also undertaken by Tomascik in 1997 (MoEF, 2001b). Of the 68 species of living corals identified from the Island (ibid , 2001b), the Porites, Favites, Goniopora, Cyphastrea and Goniastrea genera are the most abundant. The soft corals include Sinularia sp., Lobophyton sp., Anthelia Dendronephthya, Palythoa, Nemanthus, Telemectius and Discsorna sp. (Annex 8). The taxonomy of a good portion of corals occurring around the island remains unknown. Reports on studies in 2006 of molluscs (Dr. M. Nazrul Islam), crabs (M. Nurul Islam) and marine invertebrates (M.S.M.Chowdury) will be available shortly from the MoEFs Conservation of Biodiversity, Marine Park Establishment and Ecotourism Development Project at St Martins Island. A significant survey of molluscs at the site was also undertaken by Ahmed (1990, in ibid , 2001b) and by the University of Dhaka (1990). A total of 187 species of molluscs have been recorded at the Island (MoEF, 2001b) (Annex 9). Of these, 44 species are gastropods and the rest are bivalves. Some important gastropods are abundant, e.g. Conus striatus, Conus textile and Conus geogrphes, and two economically important gastropods that are heavily depleted worldwide - Trochus niloticus and Turbo marmoratus - are also present at the Island (MoEF, 2001b). Four species of sea urchin, one species of sea star, a number
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of brittle stars and one species of sea cucumber have been recorded. A num ber of colourful nudibranchs have been recorded in the shallow subtidal rocky reefs. Seven species of crab have been recorded from the Island and six species of butterfly. Other (non-mollusc) invertebrates are listed in Annex 10.

3.4 Cultural
3.4.1 Archaeology
There are no known sites of archaeological or historical importance at the site. If any archaeological or historical remains are recorded at the site, the description and location of the remains and any implications for management should be noted here in order that management actions do not threaten their existence.

3.4.2 Past land use


Tomascik (1997) describes the past land use of the site. When the Island was first settled in the 1880s it was covered with what has been described as rainforest with an abundance of teak. The community was dependent on the extraction of teak timber, with the first wave of deforestation of the original forest occurring in the 1920s for sale to Burma for house construction and boat building. Later, fishing and agriculture became common professions. A further wave of deforestation began in the 1940s for conversion of land to paddy, including the gradual conversion of the Islands Uttar Para lagoon to paddy fields. Another wave of deforestation of the original forest occurred in the 1980s. The large scale deforestation over the past 150 years eliminated most of the original wildlife and probably significantly affected the shallow -water benthic communities, including the coral (ibid, 1997).

3.4.3 Present land use


Deforestation The use of wood for cooking and timber for constructing houses contributes most to the ongoing deforestation of the Island. The daily requirement of fuelwood for a large population (around 5700, POUSH, 2006a) is large while many purchase wood imported from Teknaf, poorer families cannot afford to do so. In most cases small bushy plants are used (MoEF, 2001b). Another major cause of recent deforestation is the clearing of vegetation including mangrove to make claims on land. Deforestation has led to increased water turbidity and sedimentation, both of which affect coral development. Agriculture Agriculture accounts for 116 ha of land use on the Island and homestead gardens for a further 7.4 ha, representing 37% of land use in total (POUSH, 2006a). Farming mainly occurs in the north of the Island (Uttar Para) with the main crops being chilli and watermelon. An indigenous smallbulbed onion variety is also cultivated and a small amount of maize is intercropped with chilli. A small amount of transplanted Aman rice is cultivated in the rainy season. Planted trees, particularly coconut, have replaced the original vegetation. Homestead coconut gardening is an important source of income. Some timber yielding species are also found. Livestock are also raised 360 cows and 329 goats were recorded in 1996 (Tomascik, 1997), while only 182 cows and buffalos and 219 goats were recorded in 2000 (Islam, 2001). In 2005, 33% of households were reported to own livestock (POUSH, 2006b). Agriculture is causing the ongoing destruction of habitat, especially the
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clearing of rocky land for cultivation and the filling in of lagoons. Additional problems are the cultivation of exotic and hybrid species and the use of chemical pesticides and fertilisers. The impact of agricultural runoff on the coral resources during the rainy season as a result of increased water turbidity and sedimentation may be considerable (Tomascik, 1997). Tourism Thousands of visitors come to the Island, mainly during the good weather season between December and March, and number more than the carrying capacity of the site given the current level of management (see Section 3.5.2). Infrastructure facilities are being developed for tourism but in an unplanned way and without any EIA. A major problem resulting from tourism is uncontrolled and inadequate waste management. Untreated sewage is piped directly into the sea, or stored in open ponds, adversely affecting marine and ground water quality. Tourists purchase or collect large quantities of coral and shells, which has resulted in the severe depletion of these species. Tourism impacts are covered in more detail in Sections 3.5.2 and 6. Water extraction Deforestation and large scale expansion of agriculture has impacted on the ground water lens of the Island (Tomascik, 1997). During Tomasciks 1996 survey, one well went dry and some became saline. Freshwater on the Island is available at shallow depths (10 feet) (Islam, 2001) but the needs of the local population and the large annual influx of tourists corresponding with the dry season has created a great demand for freshwater, leading to a drop in the water table. This demand is only going to increase in the near future. Motorised pumps are now used during the peak tourist season to cope with the demand, further reducing the water table level to the extent that the local community have trouble accessing water via tube wells (M.Z. Islam, pers. comm., 16 July 2006). Marine invertebrate collection The large scale removal of keystone species from intertidal and subtidal habitats, including mollusc and sea cucumbers is a problem. Shells are extracted from the beach and lower intertidal zone for sale as curios. Of 332 family heads engaged in natural resource exploitation in 2000, almost onefifth were shell collectors (Islam, 2001). Earlier only larger shells were collected but now small shell species are also collected. As the shell resource has become overexploited, live molluscs are now being collected. Sea cucumber is also heavily exploited. Seaweed harvesting One species of seaweed is reported to be harvested in large quantities by the local community and traded to Myanmar. Seaweed is normally collected from the beach between February and April and is traded in its dry form, measured by weight. Of 332 family he ads engaged in natural resource exploitation in 2000, 32 (10%) were engaged in seaweed collection, and in 2001 20 boatloads of 2 -3 metric tons each were traded (Islam, 2001). Seaweed is important for initiating the formation of sand dunes. Coral extraction Commercial coral collection began in the 1960s and is now the professional activity of a few families. Of 332 family heads engaged in natural resource exploitation in 2000, almost one -fifth were coral collectors (Islam, 2001). Coral is collected between October and April when the sea is calm, water is clear and the tides are favourable. The NCSIP-1 survey between 1995-1997 found that at least 11 small non-mechanised boats were being used up to depths of 5 metres, while others that did not have boats walke d out up to depths of about 2 metres. A hammer and chisel is used to break the coral. Acropora, Favia and Goniastra spp. were the main types collected with Acropora spp. the most highly sought after. The estimated weight of coral harvested ranged from 40100kg/day/boat or about 20-40 kg/day/person. Tomascik (1997, in MoEF, 2001b) estimated that
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24% of the existing coral population is removed annually. Most is smuggled to Coxs Bazar to supply the curio businesses there. Fishing/fish drying Fishing has a long history at the Island and is the main activity of the inhabitants, with about 600 professional fishermen and 170 fishing boats recorded on the Island in 2000-01 (Islam, 2001). The main fishing season is September to April, during which each boat average s a total catch of about 11 metric tons (MoEF, 2001b). The main fishing gears are drifting, fixed and plain gill nets and the seine net. The fish are caught offshore as well as from coral beds. Fishing in inshore waters over boulder reefs is done with rock-weighted gill nets which has an adverse impact on coral. Most of the fish are sun-dried locally at both the five large fish drying farms existing on the Island and at individual households, and then supplied to merchants in Coxs Bazar and Chittagong. The type and amount of chemicals used during fish processing and the impact of their use on the beach habitat is yet to be determined. Shrimp fry collection is also undertaken at the Island and the fry supplied to the Coxs Bazar shrimp farms shrimp fry suppliers. Of 332 family heads engaged in natural resource exploitation in 2000, almost 50% were shrimp fry collectors (Islam, 2001). Shrimp fry collection causes the large-scale loss of many other aquatic organisms.

3.4.4 Past management for biodiversity conservation


Several NGOs and organisations have implemented activities related to biodiversity conservation on the Island, contributing greatly to increasing awareness among the local community about the need to conserve resources on the Island, particularly turtle conservation. The following are listed roughly in order of their appearance on the Island. Centre for Advanced Research in Natural Resources and Management (CARINAM) In October 1996 CARINAM established a turtle hatchery on the Island as part of their marine turtle conservation and study program. Over an 18 month period 17,852 eggs were collected from 132 Olive Ridley turtle nests and four Green turtle nests and 15,120 hatchlings released into the sea with a hatchling success rate of 84.7 per cent (Rashid & Islam, 1999, Islam et.al., 1999, in Rashid & Islam, 2005). Centre for Natural Resource Studies (CNRS) Since 1999 CNRS has been conserving turtles via the annual establishment of hatcheries. Further information on CNRS activities has not become available during the preparation of this plan. National Conservation Strategy Implementation Project-1 and St Martins Pilot Project (MoEF) The NCSIP-1 (1995-1999) conducted a survey of flora and fauna at the Island between 1995-1997, assessing the status of resources, identifying the threats to those resources, and recommending measures for the conservation of key resources including, importantly, assessing the feasibility of declaring the island a Marine Protected Area and establishing sustainable touris m and local community development. A management plan was prepared under the NCSIP-1 by Tomascik (1997) and sea turtle conservation activities implemented. The St Martins Pilot Project started under the NCSIP-1 as a test program before initiation of the Conservation of Biodiversity, Marine Park Establishment and Ecotourism Development Project at St Martins Island (see below). The 18-month Pilot Project (2000-2001) determined the Marine Park zoning under the management plan, conducted biodiversity and socioeconomic surveys, identified the sources of impact on habitats and species, identified community members directly involved in the exploitation of resources, formed community groups to participate in project
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activities, implemented sea turtle conservation activities and protected natural resources through awareness raising of different stakeholder groups and local administration involvement. The Pilot Project also planted over 12,000 saplings of 14 different native plant species in an area covering 4.6 acres in Dakhin Para. Turtle conservation activities implemented under the Pilot Project included monitoring of nesting and dead turtles along the Islands coastline, protection of nesting females from predation by dogs, ex-situ conservation of eggs via a hatc hery, protection if nesting beaches, awareness raising among the local community regarding turtle conservation, inspection of local passenger boats for egg smuggling and liaison with other turtle conservation initiatives on the Island. More than 3850 Olive Ridley eggs were collected and installed in the hatchery for safekeeping during the project period and more than 2600 hatchlings released into the sea, giving a hatchling success rate of 70% (Islam, 2001). Conservation of Biodiversity, Marine Park Establishment and Ecotourism Development Project at St Martins Island (MoEF) Established in 2001 to implement the management plan developed by Tomascik under the NCSIP1, this project has been involved in ex-situ and in-situ turtle conservation via local partic ipation, and research. Through four hatcheries established by the project, 33,274 turtle hatchlings have been released since project inception (A.M. Kamruz Zaman, pers.comm. 29 August 2006), including 12,794 Olive Ridley turtle hatchlings and 1270 Green Turtle hatchlings between 2001-2004. Further, 43 Olive Ridley turtle nests were successfully conserved in-situ from 2002-2004, of which one did not produce any hatchlings. Of those 42 nests that hatched, 4,452 hatchlings were produced (M.Z. Islam, pers. comm., 1 August 2006). The proposed management plan including zoning has thus far not been implemented. MarineLife Alliance (MLA) This NGO has been working at the site since 2000 on marine-related issues, especially turtle conservation. MLA implements an annual beach clean up program and marine turtle conservation activities including tagging, and has conducted an awareness program for MLA conservation initiatives among the local inhabitants, including school children. Empowerment of Coastal Fishing Communities for Livelihood Security Project (ECFCP) The six-year UNDP/FAO Empowerment of Coastal Fishing Communities for Livelihood Security Project (ECFCP) has been working since 2001 at St Martins Island, among other areas, to help fishing communities exploit and manage coastal fisheries resources in a profitable and sustainable manner. One objective was to facilitate sustainable conservation and management of coastal marine fishing resources and habitats through participatory stakeholder and community-based approaches, and the promotion of alternative income generating activities. Major interventions included: a) facilitating participatory management and planning of marine ecosystem and fisheries, and building awareness of needs, benefits and methods of fisheries management; b) advocacy, dialogue and networking for pollution control, mitigation of damage, rehabilitation of habitats and conservation of the coastal ecosystem; c) reduction or banning of over/destructive fishing and extending alternative fishing and d) formation of Fisheries Management Advisory Committees for better management of fisheries, development and implementation of participatory compliance and enforcement measures, consultation and use of media, establishment of village-level resource and habitat information base for management decisions; and e) establishment of an experimental Rural Enterprise Development Service at the village level to reduce pressure on fisheries and increase income through additional income generating opportunities.
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In general, the ECFCP has had a lot of success with community mobilisation and considerable success with empowerment, but little impact on biodiversity conservation. The notable outcomes with respect to community-based and stakeholder-managed fisheries resources and habitats through reduction of fishing efforts in over-fished fisheries, reduction of destructive fishing practices and conservation of fisheries habitats towards sustainable fisheries, include: Increasing realisation among fishing communities that most of the current provisions of fish acts and regulations are, despite appearing anti-fishermen at first glance, actually fishermenfriendly in the long run in terms of ensuring the sustainability of fishing resources; A reduction in the application of destructive fishing gears and practices among ECFCP villages; and Strong willingness among fishing communities to actively participate in rallies/processions to raise awareness within the community about issues related to unsustainable resource use (shrimp fry collection etc.)

POUSH/Prattaya The CWBMP-contracted NGOs POUSH and Prattaya have been working with the ECFCP VOs at St Martins Island since April 2005 for community mobilisation for biodiversity conservation. The NGOs have assisted the VO members to prepare for their role in CWBMP biodiversity conservation activities.

3.4.5 Past status of St Martins Island


The origin of the Island (coral or otherwise) has generated plenty of interest in the past. Fattah (1979, in MoEF, 2001b) assumed the presence of a submerged reef on the south and southeast of the Island, and the Island was classified as a coral island of biogenic nature by Chowdury et.al, 1992 and Ahmed, 1995 (in ibid, 2001b). Khan (1964, 1991, in ibid, 2001b) described the presence of shell and corall ine limestone deposits as well as coral clusters, but not the existence of coral reefs. According to Akhtar (1992, in ibid, 2001b), the base rock of the Island is sedimentary in origin. Alam & Hassan (1997, in ibid , 2001b) concluded there was no evidence, past or present, of coral reef development around the Island; likewise Tomascik (1997, in ibid , 2001b) did not find any evidence of the existence of coral reefs during an extensive survey of the Islands sub-tidal area. The boulders found on the intertidal and subtidal zones were found by Tomascik (1997, in ibid , 2001b) to be mostly sedimentary in origin and probably the continuation of the base rock. An assessment of the status of St Martins Island according to criteria used by the IUCN to determine the suitability of a site for protected area status was undertaken by Tomascik in 1997. According to the assessment, St Martins Island was deemed to satisfy the requirements for IUCN Protected Area Category II (Marine Park). A zoning plan was subsequently dev eloped as part of a management plan to manage the Island as a marine protected area. The management plan was never implemented and the IUCN protected area category never applied.

3.4.6 Present legal status of St Martins Island


St Martins Island was dec lared an Ecologically Critical Area (ECA) under the Bangladesh Environment Conservation Act (BECA) (1995) vide GoB Gazette Notification No. MOEF/4/7/87/99/285 dated 19 April 1999. The Act is implemented by the Environment Conservation Rules (ECR) (1997), which lists, inter alia, the factors that shall be taken into consideration when declaring areas as ECAs. The ECR also states The Government shall, in accordance with the standards referred to in rules 12 and 13, specify the activities or processes
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which can not be continued or initiated in an Ecologically Critical Area. Rules 12 and 13 refer to standards for air, water, sound, odour and other components of the environment (Rule 12), and standard limits of the discharge of liquid waste and gaseous emission, and standards of the discharge or emission of wastes of various industrial units (Rule 13). In line with the requirement under BECA that operations and processes not to be carried out or initiated in ECAs be specified in the same notification that declared the ECA(s), or in a separate notification, the following were specified (in the same April 1999 gazette notification): Natural forest and tree felling and harvesting Wildlife or game killing Catching or collection of corals, bivalves, turtles and othe r wild life Destruction or alteration of habitats for flora and fauna Any activities that relate to the destruction of the natural characteristics of land and water Establishment of industries that might pollute the land, water, air and make sound pollution Any activity that might harm fish and other aquatic lives

ECAs are a new category of Protected Area (PA) in Bangladesh and are not formally included in any of the existing PA categories (e.g. the IUCN classification for PAs). This causes uncertainly about which legislation actually applies to ECAs. Thus the legal status of the ECA and the position of ECA legislation within Bangladesh law are a constraint to ECA management. Until ECA regulations are formally acknowledged in Bangladesh law all ECA management enforcement could become ineffective in reality, with no real benefit for biodiversity conservation. The St Martins Island marine park proposed in the NCSIP -1, and referred to in the MoEFs Conservation of Biodiversity, Marine Park Establishment and Ecotourism Development Project at St Martins Island, has not actually been officially declared as such under any legislation, including the Protection and Conservation of Fish Rules, 1985 (Amendment 1987) which has the power to declare marine reserves and prohibit fishing and any other detrimental activities.

3.5 People stakeholders, local communities etc


3.5.1 Local community and stakeholders
The results of a stakeholder analysis conducted by POUSH in 2005 are included in Annex 11. Primary stake holders the local community Human settlement started on the Island around 150 years ago when six families migrated from Myanmar to live on the Island permanently. In 1996 there was a population of around 3700 from 535 families (Paiker, 1996 in MoEF, 2001b); in 2000 a population of 4766 from 791 households (Islam, 2001) and in 2005 a population of 5726 from 818 households (POUSH, 2006a). The population has been growing at an average of 10.5% per annum since 1974 (Islam, 2001). Most are Bengali Muslims.

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The main livelihoods among the local community include: Fishing Coral collection Shell collection Seaweed collection Fishing boat ownership Fish drying Shop keeping Business Coconut selling Farming

Of these, fishing (including shrimp fry collection), fish drying labour, the sale of coconuts and agriculture are the most common livelihoods. A small number are engaged in rickshaw van pulling (mainly for tourists). A survey of occupations of 629 households at St Martins Island in 2000 found about 59% were engaged in fishing, 25% in business, 9% in labour and 5% in service (Islam, 2001). In 2005 a POUSH survey of 728 households showed 28% were engaged in fishing, 22% in business, 11% in farming, 10% in service and 9% in labour (POUSH, 2006b). While direct comparisons cannot be made due to differences in survey methodology, there appears to have been a remarkable drop in the number engaged in fishing and a doubling of those involved in service. Socio-economic indicators for St Martins Island in 2000 (Islam, 2001) showed 33% of households owned a tube well and 92% had no sanitary toilets and used open latrines. Socio -economic indicators for St Martins Island based on a 2005 survey of 70 households (approximately 9% of total households on the Island) are listed in Table 3. While direct comparisons with 2000 figures cannot be accurately made due to differences in survey methodology, tube well ownership appears to have doubled and sanitary toilet ownership tripled. Table 3: Socio-economic indicators of St Martins Island ECA, 2005 Indicator Household size Sanitary latrine ownership Livestock ownership Poultry ownership Homestead plot ownership Cultivable land ownership Garden ownership Tube well ownership Value of assets owned Literacy Dwelling roofing materials Household floor space Income Expenditure Value Average of 6.61 people a 24.3% 32.9% 92.9% 97.1% 54.3% 9.2% 57.1% Average of Taka 25,100 per capita; Taka 125,015 per household Male: 45.6%; Female: 26.9%; Population: 36.9% Corrugated iron 71%; straw 5.7%; otherb 19% Average of 60.1 square feet/capita Average annual income of Taka 122,321/household Annual average of Taka 18,207 per capita

Notes: Percentages = percent of 70 households surveyed. a A 2000 survey of 100% of households o n the Island by Islam (2001) calculated an average family size of 6.03 which is probably closer to the actual figure than the 2005 survey based on a sample of only 70 households. b Leaves, jute sticks, paddy stem, polythene. Source: POUSH (2006c), Socio Economic Baseline Survey Report Community Mobilisation for Biodiversity , Conservation at Coxs Bazar, Coastal and Wetland Biodiversity Management Project.

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Secondary stakeholders Secondary stakeholders, and their role in the ECA and its management, are summarised in Table 4 (not in order of priority). Interactions between stakeholders and the site The site is a highly lived-in environment and local inhabitants are relatively dependent on the natural resources of the site for their livelihoods. In addition to local pressure on the resource base, wealthy outsiders are purchasing land from locals mostly to cash-in on tourism opportunities. These stakeholders are responsible for unplanned development in inappropriate areas and with inadequate waste management facilities, exerting a pressure on the natural environment far greater than the local community is capable of alone. The main stakeholder activities, legal and illegal, that impact on the site include: Excessive cutting/removal of sand dune vegetation Harvesting of threatened turtles and turtle eggs Coral and marine invertebrate (shell) collection for sale as curios Destructive fishing methods Hunting of birds Conversion of habitat to agriculture Conversion of habitat to infrastructure Unplanned development, mostly for tourism Fish harvesting and fish processing Boat anchoring in coral beds Table 4: Stakeholder involvement in St Martins Island ECA management
Activities affect ECA Affected by ECA management
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Stakeholder Schools/mosques/madrasas Fishing boat/trawler owners Boat builders Local government Government agencies Ansar/VDP Tourism service providers Religious leaders Non-local landholders Other project personnel Conservation NGOs/projects Other NGOs/projects CBOs Coast guard/navy/police Researchers/scientists
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Major role in co-management (decision-making)

Secondary role in co-management

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Advantages of the ECA for stakeholders The local community will gain from the presence of the ECA in several ways: a commitment by DoE to ensure the sustainability of natural resources at the site, including controls on the adverse activities of outsiders; opportunities to co-manage the site and influence decision-making on resource management; access to alternative livelihood and income-generating opportunities; and opportunities for capacity building in sustainable resource use, biodiversity conservation and ECA management. Advantages of stakeholders for the ECA The site will gain from the local community a source of labour, intelligence on illegal activities, specialist local skills (e.g. turtle monitoring) and volunteers for the implementation of conservation activities and monitoring of their results and ecological parameters. Past and current measures to develop stakeholder relationships Many measures have been taken in the past to develop relationships with stakeholders, both primary and secondary, under various initiatives on the Island. Current measures continue under projects b), c) and d). a) St Martins Pilot Project (NCSIP-1) Under this project which ran for 18 months in 2000/01 (see Section 3.4.4) community groups were formed for the first time for direct participation in natural resource conservation activities. A total of 16 groups of an average of 15 members each were formed from seven villages (Islam, 2001). Participation was strong as the community anticipated longer-term benefits (such as employment opportunities) under the subs equent phase of the project. Relations between project staff and the local community were very good, to the extent that private land was donated for project activity purposes. b) Conservation of Biodiversity, Marine Park Establishment and Ecotourism Development Project at St Martins Island (MoEF) The village groups established under the Pilot Project phase (in (a) above) were to be utilised for community-led conservation and individuals employed where possible in this, the projects subsequent phase (St Martins Island Project in short). However, implementation of this subsequent phase has been a lot less participatory than anticipated. In addition, almost 70 positions were available on the project around 30 of which were reserved for locals, however only 10% of those local positions were filled in 2001 and most of the remaining not until 2006, causing deterioration in relationships with the community. Local community perceptions are that the project is not working for them (M.Z. Islam, pers. comm., 30 July, 2006). c) ECFCP Since 2001 the ECFCP has been working with the local fishing community to mobilise and empower the community for sustainable livelihoods. The ECFCP has developed stakeholder relationships at all levels, but particularly at the village-level at the site through: assisting four villages (Daskhin Kona Para, Majher Para, Paschim Para and Purba Para villages) to organise themselves into eight village organisations (VOs) and Village Development Committees (VDCs) to collectively address their problems and needs; empowering the VOs and VDCs to think through their problems and concerns and plan to address them in a self-reliant manner through demanding their political entitlement; providing a voice to the community through a radio program, which community members participate in via interviews, singing, experience sharing, drama etc.;
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strengthening the capacity of VOs and VDCs to operate community-managed savings/credit schemes; increasing the communities access to social, extension and other support services provided by both government and NGOs; increasing the communities access to community education and health care; improving community infrastructure facilities such as roads, ponds, school buildings, health centres, solar energy facilities, etc.; improving the communities capacity to cope with natural disaster and the aftermath; and establishing alternative income generating activities

These activities have a direct bearing on stakeholder relationships for ECA management, as the same VOs are b eing targeted for community-based biodiversity management activities within the ECA. d) CWBMP In order to mobilise the local community for biodiversity conservation the following activities have been undertaken with the same communities as the ECFCP, plus at an additional two VCGs at Dakhin Para village: baseline information gathered regarding the current status of the ecology and socioeconomic status of the communities via identification of main stakeholder groups engaged in resource use activities; household surveys; socioeconomic surveys; and boundary mapping; consensus -building via problem censuses; resource mapping; problem identification and prioritisation; solution analysis; and conflict resolution; planning via the preparation of village conservation action plans; and organisation building via Village Conservation Group (VCG) organisation in existing ECFCP VOs; development of rules, regulations and constitution of VCGs; and VCG capacity building.

In general, the local community and other stakeholders are aware of the ECA declaration, the intention of DoE to manage the ECA for the long-term conservation of biodiversity and of CWBMP efforts to undertake this task on behalf of DoE initially.

3.5.2 Tourism
Past and current use: The Island has been a tourist destination for many years, but with recent developments in tourism infrastructure it has become one of Bangladeshs most popular tourist destinations. Tourism has increased steadily since tourism first began on the Island. Official statistics on t e number of h tourists visiting the site are not available as the site has not been systematically monitored for visitor numbers. During a 45-day period in December 1996 - January 1997 between 150 to 200 visitors visited the Island daily (Tomascik, 1997). According to the St Martins Island Project, the number of visitors for the whole tourist season for 2002/03, 2003/04 and 2005/06 (2004/05 figures not available) was 62,520, 103,488 and 156,736 visitors respectively (Abdullah Z. Ahmad, pers. comm., 9 August 2006). Tourism is concentrated in the winter (December -January) when the Island is most accessible while the remainder of the year sees hardly any tourists. Monthly visitor statistics collected by the St Martins Island Project have not become available during the preparation of this plan, however discussions with tourist vessel/boat operators during the 2005-06 peak season provided an estimate of 30,000-50,000 visitors for the two month period from December 2005 to January 2006 alone (Abdullah Z. Ahmad, p comm., 6 July 2006). ers.
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The Island is accessible by boat from Teknaf, the closest town on mainland Bangladesh, which is connected to other parts of the country by road. Until 2002 the Island was only accessible by motorised wooden boat, but now several tourist vessels ply the route between Teknaf and the Island, with an average (official) capacity of 300-400 persons each. These depart from the Domdomia and Keruntoli Ghats (Teknaf) during the peak season (generally October March). Motorised wooden boats departing from the Keruntoli and Kayak Khali Ghats (Teknaf) are available year-round, with an average capacity of 50 persons each. Around 30% of tourists are accompanied by non-local tour guides while on the Island, 10% by local tour guides and the remaining tour independently. Young children often tag along offering their services as tourist guides. Visitors to the Island are mostly Bangladeshi nationals; foreigners form only a very small proportion of tourists. Of the 150 to 200 daily visitors during the 45-day period in 1996/1997, only 15 were foreigner (Tomascik, 1997). Domestic tourists originate from all parts of Bangladesh and generally visit in groups with their spouses, family members, friends, class mates or colleagues, with groups ranging in size from a couple to over 100 people. The largest groups are usually from institutions, particularly educational institutions. Most are day trippers (i.e. return from the Island on the same day) who have included St Martins Island in their visit to Coxs Bazar, another very popular tourist destination on the mainland. In the 1996/1997 study period, an average stay of 3 -4 hours was noted and this does not appear to have changed in 2006. In 1996/1997, tourists generally followed a pattern of arriving, visiting the Bazar to look around and get refreshments, walking across Uttar Para to the west coast and walking along the beach and intertidal area, then returning to the Bazar to depart ( ibid, 1997). This appears to be the same pattern for visitors in 2006, though a proportion now makes the trip to Cheradia by boat. Those who do stay longer than a day visit usually stay between one and three nights (Abdullah Z. Ahmad, pers. comm., 6 July 2006). Visitors to the Island tend not to be repeat visitors, probably due t o the distance of the Island from most parts of Bangladesh. Domestic tourists visit the site mainly to have the experience of visiting an Island and to enjoy its scenic and natural beauty. The majority also expect to be able to enjoy a high level of luxur y facilities. Foreign tourists tend to be interested in enjoying the natural environment and to observe and learn about local biodiversity, culture and lifestyle. They are more concerned with the quality of service than luxuries (Abdullah Z. Ahmad, pers. c omm., 6 July 2006). The main tourist activities are listed below, and are grouped into those activities that should be encouraged at the site and those that are unacceptable in terms of managing tourism for biodiversity conservation: Should be encouraged: Turtle and bird watching; visiting the Marine Museum; diving and snorkelling; swimming; beach walking; interacting with local people to learn about their culture and lifestyle; purchasing local products, enjoying local music and cultural shows. Unaccept able: The purchase or collection of shells, screw pine fruit, coral or ornamental fish; walking through sand dunes and over the rocky intertidal areas and reefs; horseback riding; playing loud music; and behaviour that does not respect local cultural and r eligious values e.g. drinking alcohol and prostitution. The community is strongly religious; Tomascik (1997) reported a zero tolerance to western type beach behaviour, i.e. the use of bathing suits.

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Current visitor infrastructure: The Island has many hotels/motels and restaurants catering to tourism. There were 17 hotels, motels and tourist lodges and about 12 restaurants as of March 2006, with several more under development, but the capacity of these is yet to de determined. There is a scuba diving service that offers scuba diving and snorkelling trips to coral areas, and a Marine Museum near the jetty. The manned Museum showcases a range of preserved marine species, sells souvenirs and provides information on the Island and sustainable tourism practices. A new hospital has recently been completed (to open in late 2006). Current and past concessions: There are currently no tourism concessions for the site, though this may change in the future. Although not included among the seven different areas identified for tourism development in the National Tourism Policy (1992), the government has declared the Island an exclusive tourist zone (New Age National, 17/01/2005). This includes the preparation of a master plan for transforming the Island into a tourist zone equipped with world-class amenities to be implemented by the Local Government Engineering Department (LGED) (ibid , 17/01/2005).

3.5.3 Interpretation provisions


There are currently a few interpretation provisions at the site. Some government agencies and NGOs, e.g. MoEF and CNRS, have established signs to raise the awareness of tourists and the local community about ECA rules, nature conservation and the details of project initiatives. Two billboards explaining general conservation tips and legal and illegal natural resource exploitation are placed at the main bazaar and at the port. The Marine Museum displays exhibits of preserved marine specimens and offers information about the Island both verbally and in the form of a brochure and map. The Museum staff also use a microphone to raise the awareness of tourists arriving at the Island about sustainable tourism practices and conservation. The Captain of the Keari Sindbad tourist vessel provides information on the history, description and attractions of the Island and environmentally-friendly tourism practices via microphone during the vessels passage to the Island.

3.5.4 Educational use


Current educational use of the site is generally limited to groups of university science students, for which visiting the Island to undertake marine-related studies is part of the curricula. At least 20 groups of 30-40 students, i.e. 600-800 students, visit the Island annually. There are no educational facilities or resources at the site.

3.5.5 Research use and facilities


Research conducted: According to MoEF (2001a), the Island has been known as a paradise for algologists. Prof. Nurul Islam of the Department of Botany, University of Dhaka, has been researching the benthic marine algae since the mid-1960s. However the continuing decline in algal flora means the site is becoming less suitable for research in this area. Angiosperm flora has been under study since 1963 (MoEF, 2001a). The DoF Marine Fisheries Survey Management Unit in Coxs Bazar researched the catch-ability of bottom-set gill nets (Duba jal) in the marine waters off the Island over a 12 month period in 199394. The research recorded, inter alia, catch rates, catch composition and water physiochemical
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parameters (Islam, 1997). Research on the molluscan fauna of the Bay of Bengal between 1988 and 1990 also included St Martins Island as one of the ten sample sites (University of Dhaka, 1990). The site has been surveyed for waterfowl over the past 20 years, with formal and regular waterfowl counts beginning in 1987 as a component of the Asian Waterfowl Count (AWC). The Bangladesh Nature Conservation Committee (NCC), which was involved with the AWC program, started its own national program in 2002 called the Bangladesh Waterfowl Census (BWC). The NCC conducts a waterfowl census annually in mid -winter along the flyways of Bangladesh, which includes St Martins Island. MarineLife Alliance (MLA), an NGO, has been researching marine-related issues at the site since 2000 including investigation into the trade of both coral and sea turtles and their products originating from the site, and the major threats to sea turtles and their nesting grounds. MLA has studied shore birds, waterbirds and their habitats at the site, participated in an underwater survey and conducted by-catch surveys of cetaceans and a study of whale sharks in the Bay of Bengal adjacent to the site. A series of research projects have recently (2006) been conducted under the auspices of the St Martins Island Project covering molluscs, gastropods, crabs, marine invertebrates, soil status and sedimentation, marine algae, aquatic pollution, floral diversity, angiosperms, medicinal plants and the establishment of a living marine aquarium. Research reports will be available from the St Martins Island Project once cleared by the Ministry. Suitability for research: The site is suitable for research for a number of reasons. Controversy over the geology and the origin of unique geomorphic features on the Island clearly demonstrates the high scientific value of St Martins Island. Co-occurrence of corals, seagrasses and mangroves in the Island represents little known succession sequences of corals in the tropical areas and is of considerable scientific interest. The Island also contains some of the most unique, but thus far unstudied, benthic communities in Bangladesh - one not found elsewhere in the South Asia region. Studies on the competitive interaction between corals and algae offer exciting research opportunities. A marine research laboratory was recently established at the site by the St Martins Island Project.

3.6 Landscape
St Martins Island is a small offshore island in the Bay of Bengal, some 10 km south of the tip of the Teknaf Peninsula. It is long and narrow; some seven km long and only 500 m wide at its widest point. The Island may be divided into three distinct physiographic areas, Uttar Para, Dakhin Para and Cheradia. Uttar Para in the north is approximately two km long and one km wide, and consists of alluvial sands mixed with molluscan d eposits. A large shallow lagoon in its centre, which is connected to the sea at high tide by a narrow tidal channel on the west coast, has been largely converted to agricultural fields. Uttar Para is the main centre of the island and is somewhat urbanised with a cluster of hotels, motels, restaurants, shops and other buildings (homes, schools, etc). A narrow sandy stretch known locally as Golachipa separates Uttar Para in the north from the quieter, more natural area of Dakhin Para in the south. Dakhin Para consists of several small lagoons. A narrow sandy rocky reef extends from south Dakhin Para for approximately 1.8 km to form Cheradia, which is separated from the main Island during high tide. Cheradia consists of three

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vegetated islands that have developed from the accumulation of alluvial sands and calcerous littoral deposits. The coastline of the Island is mainly sandy beach and apart from the north and north west of the Island has a rocky intertidal zone. The shore line is covered with dense Pandanus, and the sand dunes and flat sandy ground consist of Ipomea . A small patch of mangrove exists in the north western corner of the main Island.

3.7 Bibliography
Alam, M. (2003), Bangladesh Country Case Study for National Adaptation Programme of Action Workshop, 9-11 September 2003, Bhutan. Alexander, M. (2005), The CMS Guide to Management Planning, Conservation Management System Consortium, Talgarth, Wales, UK. (www.esdm.co.uk/cms) Anon. (1990), Studies on the Identity and Abundance of Molluscan Fauna of the Bay of Bengal Final Report, Department of Zoology, University of Dhaka, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Council, Bangladesh. CITES (2006), CITES Appendices I, II and III. <www.cites.org>. Downloaded on 30 June 2006. DoE (1996), Plant Biodiversity , Pre-Investment Facility Study: Coastal and Wetland Biodiversity Management Project (Project BGD/94/G41), Dhaka, Bangladesh. DoE (1999), GIS and Cartographic Services Final Report, Pre-Investment Facility Study: Coasta l and Wetland Biodiversity Management Project (Project BGD/94/G41), Dhaka, Bangladesh. FAO/OIE (2006), Recommendations from the FAO & OIE International Scientific Conference on Avian Influenza and Wild Birds (Rome, Italy, 30-31 May, 2006). GoB/GEF/UNDP (1999), Project Document, Coastal and Wetland Biodiversity Management at Coxs Bazar and Hakaluki Haor Project (BGD/99/G31), Dhaka, Bangladesh. Islam, M. S. (1997), Study on the catch -ability of bottom set gillnet (Dubajal) in marine waters off St Martins Island , Marine Fisheries Survey Management Unit, Department of Fisheries, Coxs Bazar, Bangladesh. IUCN (2006), 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded on 30 June 2006. MoEF (2001a), Survey of Flora, National Conservation Strategy Implementation Project- 1, Dhaka. MoEF (2001b), Survey of Fauna, National Conservation Strategy Implementation Project-1, Dhaka. MoEF (2005a), National Adaptation Program of Action (NAPA). MoEF (2005b), National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan for Bangladesh . New Age International (2005), Govt plans to turn St Martins into exclusive tourist zone, 17 January 2005. POUSH (2006a), Land Use Survey Report, Coastal and Wetland Biodiversity Management Project. POUSH (2006b), Reconnaissance Social Survey, Community Mobilisation for Biodiversity Conservation at Coxs Bazar, Coastal and Wetland Biodiversity Management Project.

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POUSH (2006c), Socio Economic Baseline Survey Report, Community Mobilisation for Biodiversity Conservation at Coxs Bazar, Coastal and Wetland Biodiversity Management Project. POUSh (2006d), Participatory Action Plan Development: St Martins Island ECA, Community Mobilisation for Biodiversity Conservation at Coxs Bazar, Coastal and Wetla nd Biodiversity Management Project. Rashid, S.M.A. and Islam, M.Z. (2005), Review: Conservation and research on marine turtles in Bangladesh. In Shanker, K. and Chowdury, B.C. (eds) Sea Turtles of the Indian Subcontinent, Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun, India, pp 200-216. Sivasubramaniam, K (2003), Protection and Conservation of Coastal Biodiversity and Natural Resources for Sustainable Livelihood and Environmental Security in the Coastal Waters of Bangladesh. GoB/UNDP/FAO Empowerment of Coastal Fishing Communities for Livelihood Security Project, Coxs Bazar, Bangladesh. Sorder, S. (2005), Bangladesh Mid-Winter Waterfowl Census, Nature Conservation Committee, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Tomascik, T. (1997), Management Plan for Coral Resources of Narikel Jinjira (St Martins Island): Final Report, National Conservation Strategy Implementation Project-1, Ministry of Environment and Forest, Government of Bangladesh.

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4.

B IODIVERSITY C ONSERVATION F EATURES

4.1 Identification and Confirmation of Conservation Features


The following is a list of those species and habitats/communities considered important for biodiversity conservation at the site. Feature Screw pine Mangrove Indigenous Onion Marine algae Finless porpoisea Irrawaddy dolphina Bottlenose dolphina Indo-Pacific Humpbacked dolphina Pan tropical spotted dolphin Spinner dolphin Olive Ridley Turtle b Loggerhead Turtleb Green Turtle b Hawksbill Turtle b Leatherback Turtle b Black-bellied Ternc Grey-headed Lapwingc Coral-associated fishes Coral Lobster d Crabs d Molluscs Sea cucumbere Sea urchins e Rocky intertidal habitat Sand dunes and beaches Rocky land habitat Marine habitat Mudflat Insects
Notes:
a b

International status ?

IUCN (Data Deficient); CITES I IUCN (Data Deficient); CITES I IUCN (Data Deficient); CITES II IUCN (Data Deficient); CITES I IUCN (Lower Risk); CITES II IUCN (Lower Risk); CITES II IUCN (Endangered); CITES I IUCN (Endangered); CITES I IUCN (Endangered); CITES I IUCN (Critical); CITES I IUCN (Critical); CITES I IUCN (Near Threatened) IUCN (Least Concern) ? ?

National status ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

Local status ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

? ? ? ? ?

Combined under one heading Cetaceans for the purposes of management. Combined under one heading Marine turtles for the purposes of management. C Combined under one heading Birds for the purposes of management d Combined under one heading Crustaceans for the purposes of management. e Combined under the one heading Echinoderms for the purposes of management

Sources: 1. IUCN (2006), 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 30 June 2006. 2. CITES (2006), CITES Appendices I, II and III. <www.cites.org>. Downloaded on 30 June 2006. 05/10/2006 53

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4.2 Objectives
This section provides a management objective for each feature (species, habitat or community) based on the condition we want of each feature as a result of our management actions (outlined in Section 4.3). This section also includes performance indicators for each feature based on limits deemed acceptable for those factors affecting the feature, acceptable limits of the physical attributes of each feature that will indicate the condition of the feature, and the monitoring requirements for those indicators considered most important for monitoring both factors and physical attributes. Note: Indicators, including the scale and frequency of monitoring, will need to be reviewed as more information becomes available about each species/habitat/community and factors affecting those. Only those most indicative of factors and the physical state of the feature should be selected.

4.2.1.1 Screw pine (Pandanus odoratissimus)


Pandanus is distributed in small to large patches over the Island, growing naturally along the sandy beaches and planted extensively as hedges around the homesteads.

4.2.1.2 Management Objective


Pandanus will be distributed all along the coastline protecting the stretches of beach and sand dunes and will cover an area similar to that which existed in 2001, i.e. 20% greater than the current (2006) coverage.

4.2.1.3 Performance Indicators


4.2.1.3.1 Factors and operational limits
Factor 1. Clearing for infrastructure development and private dwellings 2. Cutting for fuelwood and household use 3. Collection of mature fruit for: sale as curios, drying for fuelwood and drying of seeds for consumption Limits No clearing No removal of whole plants; limited cutting of branches Collection limited to 75% of fruits borne by each tree

4.2.1.3.2 Attributes and specified limits


Physical Attributes 1. Area 2. Distribution 3. Fruits Limits At least 20% of the coastline All along the coastline and scattered in inlands areas Mature trees have at least five fruits each winter

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4.2.1.3.3 Monitoring
Indicator 1. Coverage and distribution of Pandanus Method Calculate percentage coverage, and record location of distribution, by traversing the coastline Random sample of 3 spots of 30 plants Location Entire coastline Frequency Annually Data format Percentage of Pandanus coverage for whole site; map distribution

2. Number of fruits and fruit bearing trees

Island periphery

Every fruiting season

Aver age number of fruits per tree; average number of fruit bearing trees/plot sampled

4.2.2.1 Mangrove
There is a small patch of mangrove remaining in Dakhin Para on privately-owned land. According to MoEF (2001a), the Dakhin Para mangrove includes, among o ther species, Sonneratia apetala, Acanthus ilicifolius, Hibiscus tiliceous, Excoecaria agallocha and Calycopteris floribunda.

4.2.2.2 Management Objective


Planted mangrove will cover around one hectare at Dakhin Para, 1.5 hectares at Deearmatha and 1.5 hectares at Cheradia, with an additional one hectare of natural mangrove at Dakhin Para which will be naturally regenerating. The mangrove will comprise not less than 17 mangrove and mangroveassociated species, with the main species being Lumnitzera racemosa, Sonneratia apetala, Acanthus ilicifolius and Hibiscus tiliceous.

4.2.2.3 Performance Indicators


4.2.2.3.1 Factors and operational limits
Factor 1. Clearing for asserting land rights Limits No clearing of mangrove

4.2.2.3.2 Attributes and specifie d limits


Physical Attributes 1. Area (ha) 2. Species diversity 3. Species abundance Not less than 5 ha. Not less than 12 mangrove and mangrove-associated species As close as possible to that of Annexure 65-67 in MoEF 2001b, pp 338-343 Limits

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4.2.2. 3.3 Monitoring


Indicator 1. Area (ha) Method Record total area of mangrove for site Location Dakhin Para/ Deearmatha/Cheradia Frequency 6 monthly Data format Total area in hectares per mangrove patch; total area for whole site As per data format in Annexure 65-67 in MoEF 2001b, pp 338-343 As per data format in Annexure 65-67 in MoEF 2001b, pp 338-343

2. Species composition

As per transect method in MoEF 2001b, p 159 (Ecological baseline data) As per MoEF 2001b, p 159 (Ecological baseline data)

Dakhin Para/ Deearmatha/Cheradia

Annually

3. Species abundance

Dakhin Para/ Deearmatha/Cheradia

Annually

4.2.3.1 Indigenous onion


A small-bulbed onion species native to St Martins Island; a major crop cultivated during winter.

4.2.3.2 Management Objective


The indigenous onion is sustainably cultivated at the site and continues to represent one aspect of the cultural heritage of the Island.

4.2.3.3 Performance Indicators


4.2.3.3.1 Factors and operational limits
Factor 1. Introduction of other species 2. Skill levels of onion farmers Limits Indigenous onion represents 80-90% of onion harvest 100% of the onion farmers are aware of best practice production technology

4.2.3.3.2 Attributes and specified limits


Physical Attributes 1. Area (ha) 2. Seed quality Limits Equival nt to at least existing area (to be determined, e but approx 10 ha) At least 60% germination and 90% purity

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4.2.3.3.3 Monitoring
Indicator 1. Area (ha) Method Calculate area under indigenous onion cultivation for five randomly selected farms; compare area to previous years area for each farm and determine average percentage increase or decrease for 5 farms; use percentage change to extrapolate total change in hectares for all farms under onion cultivation Location Random assessment of 5 onion farmers Frequency Annually Data format Estimated area (hectares) under onion cultivation for whole site, including average annual percentage change

4.2.4.1 Marine algae


One hundred and fifty species of marine algae have thus far been identified at the site, including 10 economically important species. Marine algae are distributed throughout the rocky intertidal and sub-tidal zones.

4.2.4.2 Management Objective


Marine algae will flourish luxuriously in the rocky intertidal and subtidal zones, and will be found washed ashore between February and March most years. The seaweed will form a basis for sand accumulation, ultimately assisting the formation of sand dunes. A diversity of at least 150 marine algae species will be maintained.

4.2.4.3 Performance Indicators


4.2.4.3.1 Factors and operational limits
Factor 1. Harvesting of seaweed (Hypnea spp.) Limits No collection for at least two years, then possibly managed rotationally Restricted collection for research purposes No removal of boulders See Section 4.2.16 No use of seine nets in algal areas

2. Rocky reef habitat degradation 3. Water quality 4. Use of seine nets

4.2.4.3.2 Attributes and specified limits


Physical Attributes 1. Species diversity 2. Coverage Limits Not less than 150 species Existing (2006) coverage

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4.2.4.3.3 Monitoring
Indicator 1. Species diversity Method Collect samples from 2-3 shoreline areas Record area during survey of species diversity Record all cases reported Location Shoreline areas and underwater survey As above Frequency Monthly between December and April Annually Data format Species list and abundance Area (ha) per location Number of cases and quantities; particulars of collector

2. Coverage

3. Examples of harvesting

Where reported (drying areas)

Ongoing

4. Water quality

See Section 4.2.16

4.2.5.1 Cetaceans
According to the NCSIP -1 Survey of Fauna (MoEF, 2001b) ten cetacean species were recorded in the waters around or adjacent to the site Balaenopterus musculus (Blue whale), Megaptera nova eangliae (Hump-backed Whale), Sousa chinensis (Indo-Pacific Humpbacked dolphin), Neophocaena phoecaenoides (Finless porpoise), Orcaella brevirostris (Irrawaddy dolphin), Tursiops truncatus (Bottlenose dolphin), Delphinus delphis (Common dolphin), Peponochephala electra (Melon-headed whale), Stenella attenuata (Pan tropical spotted dolphin) and a spinner dolphin (Stenella sp.). However the presence of the hump-backed whale, common dolphin and melon-headed whale is doubtful (M.Z. Islam, pers. comm., 1 August 2006).

4.2.5.2 Management Objective


At least seven cetacean species will utilise the pristine marine waters surrounding the site as a foraging and breeding ground and safe migration passage.

4.2.5.3 Performance Indicators


4.2.5.3.1 Factors and operational limits
Factor 1. By-catch in offshore fishing activities 2. Pollution of marine habitat 3. Sound pollution and turbidity from oil and gas exploration/extraction 4. Sound pollution from engine boats Limits No by-catch No pollution of marine environment No oil and gas exploration/extraction within 20 km of Island Engine boats limited to X (to be determined)

4.2.5.3.2 Attributes and specified limits


Physical Attributes 1. Species diversity 2. Species abundance
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Limits At least seven species To be determined


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4.2.5.3.3 Monitoring
Indicator 1. Species diversity 2. Species abundance 3. Distribution Method Record all sightings Transect survey Location Around whole Island and territorial waters, including west to Marphoti Bandh (15 km west of site) Around whole Island and territorial waters, including west to Marphoti Bandh (15 km west of site) Around whole Island and territorial water s, including west to Marphoti Bandh (15 km west of site) Around whole Island and territorial waters, including west to Marphoti Bandh (15 km west of site), plus offshore fishing vessels Frequency Annually Data format Number and type of species Number of individuals per species Area of sighting; and species sighted Species and abundance, location, type of gear used

Annually

Transect survey

Annually

4. By-catch

Personal communication with fishermen

Annually during survey for 1, 2,and 3 above

4.2.6.1 Marine turtles


Five species of marine turtle have been reported in the area: including Lepidochelys olivacea (Olive Ridley Turtle), Eretmochelys imbricate (Hawksbill Turtle), Chelonia mydas (Green Turtle), Caretta caretta (Loggerhead Turtle) and Dermochelys coriacae (Leatherback Turtle). Three species the Olive Ridley, Hawksbill and Green turtles are known to nest at the site. The main nesting beach for the Olive Ridley turtle is Shil Banyar Gula at the western beach 80-90% of the Olive Ridley nests recorded in 2000-01 occurred on this 1000m beach stretch (Islam, 2001); while the main nesting beach for the Green Turtle is Badam Gonya, a small (100m) stretch of sand at the southern end of the western beach.

4.2.6.2 Management Objective


Many Olive Ridley and Green turtle individuals will come to the shore each season and make their way uninterrupted to and from their nests at their preferred nesting beaches. Hawksbill and Leatherback turtles will initially be rarely observed but will become increasingly common. The hatchlings of eggs hatched in-situ will make their way safely to the sea naturally, while the hatchlings of eggs hatched ex-situ will be released safely into the sea with the assistance of the community.

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4.2.6.3 Performance Indicators


4.2.6.3.1 Factors and operational limits
Factor 1. Collection of turtle eggs for food 2. Alteration of nesting ground via infrastructure development 3. Plantation of inappropriate species in dune areas 4. Predation of turtles and turtle eggs by stray dogs 5. Damage to nests by stray dogs 6. By-catch in offshore fishing activities 7. Trapping in fishing nets 8. Excessive lighting disorienting hatchlings 9. Human disturbance of nesting areas and turtles 10. Construction of rock walls along east and west coasts 11. Sound pollution and turbidity from oil and gas exploration/extraction 12. Sound pollution from engine boats Limits No collection of eggs No alteration of sand dune habitat No non-native or spreading root varieties Dog populations at nesting beaches maintained at zero Dog populations at nesting beaches maintained at zero Zero by-catch Zero deaths from trapping Limited use of lighting during nesting season Limited human movement on nesting beaches during nesting season No further establishment of rock walls; removal of current embankments No oil and gas exploration/extraction within 20 km of Island Engine boats limited to X (to be determined)

4.2.6.3.2 Attributes and specified limits


Physical Attributes 1. Species diversity 2. Species abundance 3. Distribution of nesting sites Limits At least three species At least 250 (Olive Ridley) and 50 (Green) and presence of other species. At least 12 spots for Olive Ridley and at least 4 spots for Green Turtle, as recorded in 2000-01 season (Islam, 2001) At least 150 Olive Ridley nests/season and 50 Green Turtle nests/season Not less than 70% per nest

4. Number of nests 5. Hatchlings

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4.2.6.3.3 Monitoring Indicator


1. Species diversity and abundance 2. Number of nests 3. Clutch size

Method
Record all sightings including location of individuals Record number and location of all nests Record number of eggs for all nests Record number and location of disturbed nests Number and location of dead turtles

Location
Entire site

Frequency
Ongoing during season Daily during season Ongoing during season Ongoing during season Ongoing during season - fortnightly Ongoing during season

Data format
Total number of individuals recorded at site for each species and location Total number of nests and location, per species Total number of eggs per nest; average number of eggs per nest (per species) Total number of disturbed nests; percentage of nests disturbed; location of nests Total number of dead turtles; ratio of dead individuals to total individuals recorded at site Total number of eggs relocated, total number of eggs hatched, percentage of eggs hatched, total number of hatchlings survived, percentage of survived hatchlings (per species) Number of turtles reported as trapped; location; species.

Entire site Entire site

4. Number of disturbed nests 5. Turtle mortality

Entire site

Entire site

6. Ex-situ hatchlings

Record the number of eggs relocated to the hatchery, the number of eggs hatched, and hatchling survival

Hatchery(s)

7. Trapped turtles

Record all reports of trapped turtles, including species and location

Any

Ongoing during season

4.2.7.1 Birds
A total of 120 speci s of birds have been recorded from the Island (77 resident species and 43 e migratory species) of which 18 species may be classified as locally threatened. Two species, the grey-headed lapwing (Vanellus cinereus) and Black-bellied Tern (Sterna acuticauda), are listed in the 2006 IUCN Red Data Book of Threatened Species.

4.2.7.2 Management Objective


St Martins Island will continue to be an important stepping stone along the migratory bird flyways. Gulls, sandpipers, plovers, turnstones, snipes etc. will forage on the beach, and other migratory birds will be found on the beach and in the wetland in the forest of Dakhin Para. At least 100 species will be found at the site in their various preferred habitats.

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4.2.7.3 Performance Indicators


4.2.7.3.1 Factors and operational limits
Factor 1. Vegetation habitat destruction 2. Sand dune habitat destruction 3. Water body habitat destruction 4. Hunting and trapping 5. Predation of eggs and hatchlings by house crow 6. Human movement in roosting, feeding and nesting areas Limits No further clearing of vegetation on the Island No further loss of sand dune habitat No further conversion of water bodies for agriculture No hunting of any species of bird No house crows at the site Limited human movement in these areas

4.2.7.3.2 Attributes and specified limits


Physical Attributes 1. Species diversity 2. Species abundance 3. Presence and abundance of threatened species 4. Distribution of species Limits Not less than 110 species To be determined Not less than 4 species Entire Island

4.2.7.3.3 Monitoring
Indicator 1. Species diversity Method Record all species present on a monthly basis during winter Location Whole site include different habitats (beach, sand dunes, water bodies, mangrov e) Whole site include different habitats (beach, sand dunes, water bodies, mangrove) Whole site Frequency Data format Annually Number and location of species, location, number and location of threatened/ endangered species Annually Number and location of individuals for each species, location, number and location of threatened/ endangered species Number of species and number of individuals hunted, location of hunting

2. Species abundance

Record number of individuals present on a monthly basis during winter

3. Records of hunting

Record all reports/observations of hunting, including location, species, number of individuals To be determined

Ongoing

4. Interactions between wild birds and domestic birds 5. Sampling of live and dead birds for HPAI H5N1
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To be determined

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4.2.8.1 Coral-associated fishes


The coral community supports approximately 86 species of associated fish fauna characteristic of coral reef environments.

4.2.8.2 Management Objective


At least 86 species of coral fishes are found in the coral communities of St Martins Island and are represented in all age classes. Viable populations exist for all species.

4.2.8.3 Performance Indicators


4.2.8.3.1 Factors and operational limits
Factor 1. Use of destructive fishing gear 2. Loss of coral habitat 3. Sound pollution and turbidity from oil and gas exploration/extraction 4. Sound pollution from engine boats Limits No use of small-sized gill nets and small hooks No coral collection No oil and gas exploration/extraction within 20 km of Island Engine boats lim ited to X (to be determined)

4.2.8.3.2 Attributes and specified limits


Physical Attributes 1. Species diversity 2. Species abundance Limits At least 86 species At least existing (2006) levels (to be determined)

4.2.8.3.3 Monitoring
Indicator 1. Species diversity Method Survey fish landing area and fish market; and underwater survey Location Fish landing areas at east coast, north east (jetty) and others; market in Purba Para; and underwater in coral protection zone Frequency Bi-monthly Data format Species list and abundance; landing data (size ranges, abundance)

2. Coral community health

As per section 4.2.9

4.2.9.1 Coral
The NSCIP-1 identified 66 species of soft and scleractinian hard coral belonging to 22 genera. The major hard coral genera are Porites, Favites, Goniopora, Cyphastrea and Goniastrea, with Porites being the most abundant in terms of coverage. In general, almost all rocky substrate of the sub-tidal zone of the Island supports diverse coral communities for up to 200m seaward. Li e coral colonies v extend from the lower intertidal zone to the sub-tidal zone for some 400-1000m. Small coral colonies and recruitment growth are present in the rock pools of the lower intertidal zone. The coral coverage in 1997 varied from 2 -10% depending on the location and abundance was considered low (MoEF, 2001b).
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4.2.9.2 Management Objective


Restore coral abundance, diversity and coverage to the maximum extent possible within the limits imposed by the natural environment.

4.2.9.3 Performance Indicato rs


4.2.9.3.1 Factors and operational limits
Factor 1. Coral collection for curio business 2. Walking over intertidal and subtidal living coral colonies 3. Boat anchoring 4. Boulder removal/disturbance 5. Uncontrolled scuba diving and snorkelling 6. Sewage disposal into marine environment 7. Fishing on coral bed bottoms 8. Marine water quality Limits No collection No walking (except where provided for under ecotourism program) No anchoring except at mooring buoys No boulder removal/disturbance No recreational diving/snorkelling in core coral protection zone No disposal of untreated sewerage into marine waters Limited use of seine nets in coral areas outside core coral protection zone See Section 4.2.16

4.2.9.3.2 Attributes and specified limits


Physical Attributes 1 Coral species diversity 2. Coral coverage 3. Coral-associated fish species diversity 4. Coral-associated invertebrate species diversity Limits Between 60-100 species Up to 20% within 5 years. At least 84 species (to be redefined after coral fish survey) At least 150 marine algae species, 250 mollusc species, four sea urchin species, sea cucumber

4.2.9.3.3 Monitoring
Indicator Method 1. Coral 10-15 sample recruitment plots 2. Coral growth 3. Coral carried by tourists; shops 10-15 sample plots Point inspection Location All coral areas All coral areas At jetty, other boats (St Martins Island); and Labonee Point & Jhinuk Market (Coxs Bazar) Frequency Annually Annually Daily during tourist season (St Martins Island); weekly (Coxs Bazar) Data format Average recruitment record per quadrant Growth area and length for branching coral Tourists - number of tourists in possession, species & abundance; Shops number, location of shops; species and abundance; numbers sold; particular s of shop owner/keeper

4. Water quality
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See Section 4.2.16


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4.2.10.1 Crustaceans
Seven species of crab have been recorded from the Island, including the Soldier crab (Dotilla myctiroides), Fiddler crab (Uca sp.), Ghost crab (Ocypoda ceratopthalma), Red coral crab (Carpilius convexus), Three -spotted crab (Portunus sanguinolentus), Blue swimmer crab (P. pelagicus) and the Rock crab (Gapsus sp.). Numerous unidentified hermit crabs also roam the rocky intertidal areas and Pandanus areas. Four species of Palinuridae lobster (Panulirus polyphagus, P. versicolor, P. ornatus, and P. homarus) and one species of Schyllaridae lobster (Thenus orientalis) are so far recorded (M.S. Islam, pers. comm., 16 July 2006).

4.2.10.2 Management Objective


Maintain species composition and population at viable stock levels.

4.2.10.3 Performance Indicators


4.2.10.3.1 Factors and operational limits
Factor 1. Collection of juveniles via beach seine and smallmeshed gill net (bottom-set and drift) 2. Sound pollution and turbidity from oil and gas exploration/extraction 3. Coral habitat destruction 4. Rocky intertidal habitat degradation 5. Sound pollution from engine boats Limits No fishing with destructive gear; adult sizes in market/at fish landing areas No oil and gas exploration/extraction within 20 km of Island No coral collection See section 4.2.13.1 Engine boats limited to X (to be determined)

4.2.10.3.2 Attributes and specified limits


Physical Attributes 1. Species diversity and abundance 2. Species size Limits At least 7 species of crab and 5 species of lobster abundance to be determined. A range of size groups including adults

4.2.10.3.3 Monitoring
Indicator 1. Species diversity, abundance and size range 2. Fishing gear used Method Direct observat ion: beach for crabs; markets for lobster and crabs Direct observation of gear types Location Landing points; fish markets; beach Frequency Bi-monthly Data format Species list, abundance, size ranges, price/kg Type of gear, numbers of gear, location

Landing points, fishing grounds, fishermens homes

Bi-monthly

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4.2.11.1 Molluscs
A total of 187 species of molluscs have been recorded at the Island, of which 44 species are gastropods and the rest are bivalves. Some important gastropods are abundant, e.g. Conus striatus, Conus textile and Conus geogrphes, and two economically important gastropods that are heavily depleted worldwide - Trochus niloticus and Turbo marmoratus - are also present at the Island.

4.2.11.2 Management Objective


Plenty of mollusc shells and live molluscs will be found in the intertidal habitat of the Island.

4.2.11.3 Performance Indicators


4.2.11.3.1 Factors and operational limits
Factor 1. Shell collection 2. Habitat degradation 3. Pollution of marine habitat 4. Marine water quality 5. Sound pollution and turbidity from oil and gas exploration/extraction 6. Sound pollution from engine boats Limits No shell collection for curio sales Limited collection for research purposes No removal of boulders No oil spillage outside general use zone See Section 4.2.16 No oil and gas exploration/extraction within 20 km of Island Engine boats limited to X (to be determined)

4.2.11.3.2 Attributes and specified limits


Physical Attributes 1. Species diversity 2. Spec ies abundance & distribution Limits Not less than 187 species Not less than current (2006) abundance to be determined.

4.2.11.3.3 Monitoring
Indicator 1. Species diversity 2. Mollusc trade 3. Marine water quality Method Quadrants (1 square metre); approx. 4-5 quadrats per spot Record all cases reported See Section 4.2.16 Location 4-5 spots in intertidal areas All Island Frequency Bi-monthly Data format Species diversity, number per square metres (density) Number of cases; particulars

Ongoing

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4.2.12.1 Echinoderms
Four species of sea urchin, one species of star fish, a number of brittle stars and one species of sea cucumber have been recorded.

4.2.12.2 Management Objective


Echinoderms will be plentiful in rocky intertidal rock pools.

4.2.12.3 Performance Indicators


4.2.12.3.1 Factors and operational limits
Factor 1. Collection of sea urchins for curio trade & research 2. Killing of sea cucumbers 3. Rocky habitat degradation 4. Water quality 6. Sound pollution and turbidity from oil and gas exploration/extraction 7. Sound pollution from engine boats Limits No collection for curio business Restricted collection for research purposes No killing of sea cucumbers No collection/removal of boulders Water quality No oil and gas exploration/extraction within 20 km of Island Engine boats limited to X (to be determined)

4.2.12.3.2 Attributes and specified limits


Physical Attributes 1. Species diversity & abundance Limits Current (2006) levels

4.2.12.3.3 Monitoring
Indicator 1. Species diversity 2. Species abundance Method Direct observation; 4-5 spots Direct observation; 4-5 spots Location Intertidal rocky beach area Intertidal rocky beach area Frequency Bi-monthly Bi-monthly Data format Species list Number of individuals

4.2.13.1 Rocky intertidal habitat


With the exce ption of the north eastern corner, the Islands entire intertidal zone is fringed with numerous boulders that extend from a few metres to a few hundred metres to the subtidal zone. These boulders of all shapes and sizes originate from the bedrock and provide a diverse microhabitat for numerous marine species sheltering from tidal influences. The upper portion of the rocky habitat is mostly dry during low tide and contains dead coral colonies. The lower intertidal area consists of diversified marine life, including coral, molluscs, echinoderms, reef fishes, barnacles, crabs, algae etc. It also provides a huge number of rock pools of various sizes where small reef fish forage for the duration of the ebb tide. Depending on the tide, the intertidal zone rocky habitat covers 150-250 ha.

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4.2.13.2 Management Objective


The rocky intertidal zone will be in a natural state, consisting of many rocks and boulders of all shapes and sizes, and providing a suitable habitat for the diversified marine species that depend on its existence.

4.2.13.3 Performance Indicators


4.2.13.3.1 Factors and operational limits
Factor 1. Human boulder removal for various purposes 2. Human movement over rocky intertidal rocky area 3. Mollusc collection 4. Waste disposal Limits No boulder removal for any purpose: construction, creating of embankments, collection of molluscs, fishing, or creation of boat harbours. No human movement over intertidal rocky area except where permitted under ecotourism plan No mollusc collection No dumping of solid waste or sewerage

4.2.13.3.2 Attributes and specified limits


Physical Attributes 1. Physical structure 2. Species diversity Limits No alteration of physical structure Not less than the species diversity of algae, molluscs and echinoderms recorded in this plan

4.2.13.3.3 Monitoring
Indicator 1. Species diversity Method 10-15 sample plots Location Along coastline Plots identified in 1 above Along coastline Frequency Annually Monthly Data format Number of species Frequency of waste per plot; average frequency of waste. Presence of people and rubbish, location Location and extent of removal/ disturbance/mollusc collection

2. Amount of waste As above

3. Human movement

Direct observation of people, evidence of humans from litter Direct observation of examples of boulder removal, disturbance and mollusc collection

Monthly in tourist season

4. Physical structure

Depends on examples record examples

Ongoing

4.2.14.1 Sand dunes and beaches


The sand dunes of St Martins Island generally occur in a single line along the beach, and are fragmented. They are between 1-4 m in height, and extend for a total of around 1.5 km. The beach creeper Ipomea pes-caprae and thick layer of marine algae that occurs in late winter helps dune formation. Long sandy beaches occur along much of the coastline.
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4.2.14.2 Management Objective


Healthy naturally regenerating beach and dunes will extend along the length of the coastline. The dunes and beaches will provide undisturbed habitat for nesting turtles and feeding, roos ting and nesting resident and migratory birds. The dunes will be adequately covered with sand-binding and stabilising vegetation including Ipomea, Vitex and Pandanus, which will be naturally regenerating.

4.2.14.3 Performance Indicators


4.2.14.3.1 Factor s and operational limits
Factor 1. Infrastructure development in dune system 2. Clearing of dune vegetation for infrastructure development and fuelwood 3. Human movement in dune system 4. Fishing boat docking 5. Collection of shells from beach Limits No structures to be developed within dune system No clearing of dune vegetation for any purpose Restricted to pathways established under the CWBMP No docking in dunes; no docking on beach outside designated areas (to be determined) No shell collection

4.2.14.3.2 Attributes and specified limits


Physical Attributes 1. Dune vegetative coverage 2. Dune structure 3. Beach invertebrate species diversity Limits 50% coverage of Vitex, Ipomea and Pandanus Erosion limited to 5% of dunes Not less than current (2006) diversity

4.2.14.3.3 Monitoring
Indicator 1. Vegetative coverage 2. Invertebrate diversity 3. Presence of pedestrian routes additional to those established permanently under CWBMP 4. Presence of infrastructure 5. Erosion Method 20 random samples recording percentage of coverage and species Quadrat method, 5 random samples Record number and location of non-established routes Location Coastline Frequency 6 monthly Data format Percentage coverage of each sample; average coverage; specie s Diversity, density (average and per plot) Number and location of non-established routes mapped

Coastline Coastline

6 monthly 6 monthly

Record and map all examples Record and map all examples of dune erosion, and extent of erosion

Entire coastline Entire coastline

Six monthly Six monthly

Number and location of developments mapped Location and extent of dune erosion mapped

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4.2.15.1 Rocky land habitat


A small area of rocky land exists at Shil Bania, south of Dakhin Para Morong (lake) and west of the Coast Guard base. The majority of the area is covered with giant boulders similar to that of the intertidal zone, with some lowland pools. The rocky land area covers about 100 ha, and is the last remaining habitat for rare species such as the water monitor (Varanus salvato r), Bengal cobra (Naja kaouthia ), bush birds, water birds, garden lizards, native herbs, shrubs and climbers. The rocky ground and shallow water pools provide an excellent terrestrial microhabitat, especially during winter.

4.2.15.2 Management Objective


To maintain the rocky land habitat in its current form as a geological feature that is unique both locally and nationally.

4.2.15.3 Performance Indicators


4.2.15.3.1 Factors and operational limits
Factor 1. Clearance of rocks and boulders for agriculture 2. Agricultural expansion 3. Infrastructure development Limits No clearance No further expansion of agriculture in rocky land area No further infrastructure development in rocky land area

4.2.15.3.2 Attributes and specified limits


Physical Attributes 1. Species diversity 2. Area 3. Presence of rocks and boulders Limits Not less than X species (to be determined) Not less than 100 ha At least current (2006) coverage of rocks/boulders to be determined

4.2.15.3.3 Monitoring
Indicator 1. Area 2. Species diversity and abundance 3. Rock cover Method Map area Survey Random sample of 10 50m x 50 m plots Location Whole rocky land area of Dakhin Para Whole rocky land area of Dakhin Para Throughout rocky habitat in south Dakhin Para Frequency Annually Annually Annually Data format Area (ha) Species diversity and abundance Percentage of rock cover

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4.2.16.1 Marine habitat


The marine habitat at the site includes the territorial waters of the site. The marine habitat supports a wide variety of marine biodiversity, a lot of which does not occur elsewhere in Bangladesh. Islam (1997) reports a salinity range between 21.0 ppt (September) to 33.5 ppt (February) for the Island for 1994. Tomascik (1997) also described marine environmental parameters as determined during the study period December 1996 - January 1997. Surface and bottom sea water temperatures ranged between 22C and 29C. In-shore salinity fluctuated from 25.0 ppt to 32.0 ppt, but the study was conducted in the dry season so those values are expected to vary considerably (as shown by Islam, 1997). The turbidity (Secchi disc) of in-shore waters ranged from 1.5m to 8.0 m, depending on sea conditions and the tidal cycle.

4.2.16.2 Management Objective


Maintain marine water environmental parameters as close to natural as possible to ensure the best enabling conditions possible for marine biodiversity.

4.2.16.3 Performance Indicators


4.2.16.3.1 Factors and operational limits
Factor 1. Pollution from disposal of untreated sewerage directly into sea 2. Pollution from solid waste disposal 3. Increased water turbidity and sedimentation as a result of deforestation 5. Pollution from fish offal from fish dressing/washing 6. Pollution and increased water turbidity and sedimentation from agricultural runoff 3. Pollution of marine habitat via oil leakage from fishing boats Limits No disposal of untreated sewerage into marine environment No solid waste disposal into marine environment No further deforestation No fish dressing/washing outside designated areas Limit agricultural run-off No oil spillage outside general use zone

4.2.16.3.2 Attributes and specified limits


Physical Attributes 1. Turbidity/sedimentation 2. Nutrient status 3. Toxicity Limits Secchi disc readings as high as possible, but no less than an annual average of X (to be determined) Low concentrations of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) levels to be determined. Not exceeding limits of ECR, 1997

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4.2.16.3.3 Monitoring
Indicator 1. Water quality Method Turbidity, salinity, temperature, nutrient status (nitrogen and phosphorus) Location 5 locations around Island and at least 2 in coral core protection zone Frequency Monthly for first year; bi-monthly thereafter Data format Secchi disc depth in metres (turbidity), salinity in ppt, temperature in degrees Celsius per plot, concentrations of phosphorus and nitrogen Location, abundance and type of solid waste Toxicity (to be determined)

2. Presence/ abundance of solid waste 3. Toxicity

Record presence, type and location of solid waste as and when observed To be determined

Where observed

Ongoing

5 spots in near shore areas adjacent to town centre, hotels, agriculture etc.

Monthly for first year; bi-monthly thereafter

4.2.17.1 Mudflat habitat


The small area of mudflat at the southern end of the western beach supports a wide variety of fauna including birds, marine invertebrates, an amphibious sea snake, Fiddler crabs and mud crabs.

4.2.17.2 Management Objective


The mudflat will cover two hectares and support a wide variety of birds, marine invertebrates, crabs and the amphibious sea snake.

4.2.17.3 Performance Indicators


4.2.17.3.1 Factors and operational limits
Factor 1. Private ownership may affect ability to maintain mudflat in its natural state Limits No change in natural condition

4.2.17.3.2 Attributes and specified limits


Physical Attributes 1. Area 2. Species diversity 3. Physical structure Limits No less than two hectares No less than present diversity of birds, marine invertebrates, crabs and sea snake No alteration to physical structure

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4.2.17.3.3 Monitoring
Indicator 1. Area 2. Species diversity Method Direct measurement Bird counts, invertebrate diversity count through tube or quadrat method (several random samples), survey of crabs and sea snake (night time) Direct observation of physical changes Location Only mudflat area at site Only mudflat area at site Frequency 6 monthly 6 monthly Data format Area in hectares Species list

3. Physical structure

Only mudflat area at site

Bi-monthly

Any physical changes noted, location, probably cause

4.2.18.1 Lagoons 4.2.18.2 Management Objective 4.2.18.3 Performance Indicators


4.2.18.3.1 Factors and operational limits
Factor Limits

4.2.18.3.2 Attributes and specified limits


Physical Attributes Limits

4.2.18.3.3 Monitoring Indicator Method Location Frequency Data format

4.2.19.1 Insects
Wildlife NPPPs to insert information obtained from Mr Badrul Amin Bhuiyan (Entomologist)

4.2.19.2 Management Objective 4.2.19.3 Performance Indicato rs


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4.2.19.3.1 Factors and operational limits


Factor Limits

4.2.19.3.2 Attributes and specified limits


Physical Attributes Limits

4.2.19.3.3 Monitoring Indicator Method Location Frequency Data format

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4.3 Conservation Status and Rationale


This section outlines the current conservation status of each feature compared to our objective for the feature (where the current status is known), the rationale for proposed management actions and the management actions required for the feature to reach the conservation status defined by the objective. The timing of management actions is provided in the work plan at Section 9.

4.3.1.1 Assessment of screw pine conservation status


Pandanus is distributed all over the Island in large and small stands, particularly along the sandy beaches and around homesteads. However the use of Pandanus for firewood has degraded the vegetation to the extent that beach and dune erosion in taking place.

4.3.1.2 Rationale
Pandanus operates virtually as a fence around the Island, protecting the inland areas from the elements of wind, water and sand. Pandanus is important for sand dune formation, maintaining dune structure and protecting the shoreline from wind and water erosion. There some management of factors affecting Pandanus at the Island. It has been planted extensively along the coastline, particularly near homesteads as fences and windbreaks, but is also collected or cut for fuelwood, cleared for infrastructure development and dwellings, and its mature fruits collected for sale to tourists as curios. Mature fruits are also dried for fuelwood, and the dried seeds eaten by children. The St Martin Island Project have planted the equivalent of 11 km of Pandanus along the coastline (A.M. Kamruz Zaman, pers.comm. 29 August 2006). The clearing and cutting of Pandanus are the most serious factors affecting its decline, particularly the removal of the whole plant as it is the root system that stabilises beach and dune sediments. As the plant propagates both vegetatively and via seed, the collection of fruits may not seriously affect the natural regeneration of the plant. The ECA regulation banning the clearing of vegetation needs to be legislated and enforced, and ECA rules extended to limit the collection of Pandanus fruits to a level that sustains the natural regeneration of the plant. Natural regeneration is possible if fruit collection is limited (perhaps to 75% - to be determined) and there is no clearing of Pandanus plants for any purpose - fuelwood or development. Limited fuelwood use is possible if only branches are cut, rather than whole plants removed. Plantation of Pandanus to assist natural regeneration is recommended initially, especially in the most eroded dune areas, and alternative sources of fuelwood are required for those too poor to purchase fuelwood from Teknaf.

4.3.1.3 Management actions


Awareness -raising as per Section 5.3/Annex 13. Prepare new ECA rules based on existing ECA regulations that apply specifically to Pandanus. Include restrictions on the collection, sale and purchase of natural Pandanus fruits to 75% of fruits per tree, and limit the use of natural Pandanus for fuelwood or household purposes to branches rather than whole plants. Identify the fuelwood needs of the local community, assess the feasibility of establishing an alternative source of fuelwood and, if feasible, establish an alternative fuelwood plantation based on short-rotation species such as Kadam, Shimul and Madar in homestead areas or fallow land. Implement a program of assisted regeneration of Pandanus with the assistance of the community, including identification of the most suitable areas for plantation. Select both the most eroded areas and those areas in most danger of erosion, including at least the eastern and western sand dunes of Golachipa.

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4.3.1.4 Risks
To be inserted by relevant discipline

4.3.2.1 Assessment of mangrove conservation status


In 1996, the Dakhin Para and Deearmatha mangrove forests covered 1.6 and two acres respectively (MoEF, 2001a). The top canopy was dominated by Sonneratia apetala and a total of 29 species was recorded of which nine were common. On Cheradia, two small patches of mangrove existed on the small lagoons covering 1.5 and 1 acre respectively, also dominated by S. apetala. Most of the mangrove vegetation, though coppiced, was relatively undisturbed in 1996. Currently only about one hectare of mangrove is remaining - in Dakhin Para.

4.3.2.2 Rationale
There is currently no management of factors affecting mangrove at the site. The juvenile mangrove forest existing in 1996 was deemed to have the potential to develop into a fully-fledged forest if properly protected. Its relatively undisturbed nature was attributed to the restrictions imposed on natural wood cutting by the local council head, preferences for wood imported from Teknaf and the conservatism of women in leaving the house for firewood collection or other purposes (MoEF, 2001a). Since then, mangrove has been cleared almost solely to assert land rights and to facilitate the recognition of land ownership. The potential for the mangrove remaining in 2006 to develop if protected is unclear but unlikely as it recently came under private ownership. Measures to protect the remaining mangrove need to be assessed, including the possibility of bringing the area under a voluntary conservation agreement between the land owner and DoE. Assisted regeneration of mangrove is urgently needed at the site. Awareness raising of the local community of the importance, role and function of mangrove, and thus the intention to regenerate mangrove at the site, is necessary.

4.3.2.3 Management actions


Assess the intentions of the landowner that owns the land with the remaining mangrove patch. If clearing is the intention, raise awareness of the landowner of the unique nature of the mangrove formation at St Martins Island, the importance of mangrove for biodiversity; ECA regulations banning the clearing of vegetation and alteration of habitat, and DoEs intention to enforce those regulations at the site. Discuss with the landowner DoEs wish to extend the natural mangrove area at Dakhin Para by one hectare and assess the possibility of initiating a voluntary conservation agreement between the landowner and DoE to protect the remaining mangrove patch indefinitely, including compensation to the landowner if necessary. If feasible, fence the remaining natural mangrove patch and install signage that explains both the significance of the mangrove, efforts to rehabilitate the mangrove and guidelines for its ongoing protection. Prepare new ECA rules based on existing ECA regulations that apply specifically to the remaining mangrove patch at the site and the clearing/alteration of any mangrove that is planted. Law enforcement as per Sections 5 and 8. Plant, as soon as possible, mangrove saplings in areas identified for mangrove plantation at Dakhin Para (1 ha), Deearmatha (1.5 ha) and Cheradia (1.5 ha) that resemble as closely as possible the species recorded in MoEF (2001a), pp 338-343. Establish and manage the core protection zone outlined in Section 3.2 (Table 2) that includes the remaining mangrove patch.

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4.3.2.4 Risks
To be inserted by relevant discipline

4.3.3.1 Assessment of indigenous onion conservation status


While still cultivated, the indigenous onion is at risk of being replaced by other onion varieties that are cheaper and give a higher yield.

4.3.3.2 Rationale
This small-bulbed variety of onion is indigenous to the Island and is cultivated nowhere else in Bangladesh. Its yield performance, rela tive cost and the non-availability of quality seed makes it susceptible to replacement by non-indigenous varieties. There is currently no management of factors affecting the decline of this species. Efforts need to be made to ensure the continued survival of this indigenous species and protect it from replacement with other species, including awareness raising, training in cultivation and promoting the species to tourists. While the onion is already a reasonably popular purchase item among tourists, its promotion as indigenous would probably improve sales. The onion represents one aspect of the cultural heritage of the Island and this value should be protected.

4.3.3.3 Management actions


Awareness raising as per Section 5.3/Annex 13. Identify those farmers who are willing to continue the cultivation of the species if provided training and assistance in improving the yield of the variety. Prepare and conduct a training program on production technology to increase the yield and reduce the relative cost of the species. Assist farmers cultivating the species to develop and implement a marketing campaign to promote the species to the local market and other parts of Bangladesh, including to tourists visiting the Island.

4.3.3.4 Risks
To be inserted by relevant discipline

4.3.4.1 Assessment of marine algae conservation status


The present day populations of marine algal flora are very different from what they were in the 1960s and even 1980s and may be ascribed to the disturbance of the habitat (MoEF, 2001a). The current conservation status of seaweed at the site is unknown, but probably remains the same.

4.3.4.2 Rationale
While marine algae grow luxuriously on the undisturbed boulders they are threatened by harvesting, the indiscriminate removal of boulders, the use of seine nets and possibly shore pollution. There is currently no management of factors affecting marine algae at the site. Seaweed harvesting in large quantities by the local community for trading to Myanmar has been reported. It is normally collected from the beach between February and April and is traded in its dry form, measured by weight. In 2001, 20 boatloads of 2 metric tons each were traded (Islam, 2001). -3 The local community are aware of the role of seaweed and the impacts of seaweed harvestin g on the beach habitat. During the St Martins Pilot Project in 2000-01, traders informed the project that the 2001 season was their last and expressed a desire to be involved with ongoing efforts to manage the site as a Marine Protected Area (Islam, 2001). Whether seaweed is presently harvested is unconfirmed. Efforts to conserve seaweed at the site need to build on the existing awareness, and
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regulations regarding the harvesting of seaweed need to be explicit. The continuous disturbance of the intertida l rocks, particularly for construction and household use, is also an impediment to the proper growth of marine algae. Both seaweed collection and the disturbance to beach rocks is depriving the Island of the vital role seaweed plays in protecting soil from erosion and in enhancing sedimentation by holding the organic and inorganic components of brackish water during the monsoon. Seaweed is thus very important for improving and protecting beach structure. The ecological role of seaweed is much higher than its very small contribution to livelihoods on the Island. The dragging of seine nets across algal areas also adversely affects algae. The use of seine nets in marine algal community areas needs to be managed. In the north of the Island fish catches are landed and dressed/washed, and the waste subsequently enters the marine waters. The pollution caused as a result of this may also affect marine algae growth. The effects of such pollution of marine algae need to be clarified. The NCSIP-1 Survey of Flora (MoEF , 2001a) recommended assessing the scope for managed extraction of marine algae via bioprospecting. If determined feasible and in line with management preferences for the site, this should be implemented in a way that provides a source of sustainable funding for ECA management.

4.3.4.3 Management actions


Awareness -raising as per Section 5.3/Annex 13. Determine whether seaweed trading remains a problem at the site and if so, identify those involved and raise their awareness of the importance of marine algae for both coastal and livelihood protection. Determine the impact of pollution as a result of fish dressing/washing on marine algae and managed accordingly. Prepare new ECA rules based on existing ECA regulations that apply specifically to marine algae the site. Include at least a ban on the collection of marine algae for commercial trade and restrictions on the collection of marine algae for research; restrictions on the use of seine nets in marine algae areas; and, if necessary, restrictions on pollution related to fish dressing/washing adjacent to marine algae areas. Law enforcement as per Sections 5 and 8. Contain boat docking, harbouring and boat making away from the main marine algae areas. Establish and manage the protection zones for beach habitat as identified in Section 3.2 (Table 2). Implement management actions for protecting the rocky intertidal habitat that seaweed depends on, as outlined in section 4.3.13.3.

4.3.4.4 Risks
To be inserted by relevant discipline

4.3.5.1 Assessment of cetacean conservation status


The following assessment of cetacean status at the site is based entirely on discussions with M.Z. Islam, 5 July 2006. The diversity and abundance of cetacean species in and around the site is unclear. Of the 10 species recorded in the NSCIP -1 survey, three are doubtful and of the remaining seven species only three have been observed recently (Irrawaddy, Finless and Spinner dolphins). Many Finless porpoises have been recorded. Cetacean species in addition to the Finless Porpoise were recorded in an upper Bay of Bengal survey conducted in 2004 (five species) and in surveys conducted in Myanmar waters close to the Island (four species), all of which may also occur in the
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sites territorial waters. Apparently the population of marine cetaceans in Bangladesh is quite good compared to other regions of the world.

4.3.5.2 Rationale
There is currently no management of factors affecting cetacean species at the site. The major factors affecting cetaceans include habitat health and the intensity and type of fishing activity in cetacean habitat. The status of cetacean habitat needs to be improved. Pollution of the marine environment via a number of factors affects the suitability of the marine environment for cetaceans, among others, and its management is covered in Section 4.3.16. Fishing by-catch is the major problem for small cetacean species, particularly from the use of gillnets, set bag nets, seine nets, trawling nets and long lines. The widely-used low-cost drifting gill net used for commercial fishing is responsible for a high proportion of cetacean by-catch and may be the single greatest threat to cetaceans worldwide (M.Z. Islam, pers. comm., 5 July 2006). The small cetaceans generally arent strong enough to break free from the nets and come to the surface for air, and thus drown. Despite having a special sympathy for cetaceans, fishermen at the site admit that it is impossible to avoid cetacean by-catch when using strong filament nets to catch target species. Cetacean mortality as a result of by-catch and entanglement apparently occurs in Bangladesh on a scale unheard of in the scientific community (M.Z. Islam, pers. comm., 3rd July 2006). Awareness raising and information dissemination to the general community and authorities is necessary. The use of acoustic devices to divert dolphins from nets should also be considered. All cetacean species should be included in the Bangladesh Wildlife (Preservation) (Amendment) Act, 1974, as currently only some are included. The sound pollution caused by seismic surveys conducted off-shore for oil and gas exploration, and turbidity as a result of (planned) extraction, probably has an adverse effect on cetaceans at/around the site and should be restricted. Likewise the use of engine boats should be regulated. Year-round monitoring is required to determine the actual diversity and abundance of cetaceans in and around the site. Ongoing surveys of species movement and by-catch composition at the site are also necessary for effective management.

4.3.5.3 Management actions


Awareness -raising as per Section 5.3/Annex 13. Conduct an extensive study on cetacean foraging, habitat use, movement pattern and migratory corridor at the site, and identify critical near-shore cetacean habitat. Arrange for the temporary closure or management of areas identified important for seasonal migration in or out of fishing areas, to be reopened once migration is complete. Monitor by-catch to identify gear -specific threats in and around the site. Seek collaboration from fishermen, the Navy and Coastguard in reporting offshore cetacean observations and mortality, and use this information in awareness raising/training activities. Assess the feasibility of simple, inexpensive alterations to fishing methods and gear including attaching acoustic alarms to nets to alert cetaceans to the presence of gear/annoy them into swimming away, attaching weights to the top of nets to allow small cetaceans to swim over the nets and setting nets in deeper water, and incorporate into awareness raising activities. Implement an education and training program to reduce by-catch. Prepare new ECA rules based on existing ECA regulations that apply specifically to cetaceans in the ECA. Include at least: a seasonal or complete ban on the use of specific fishing gear in
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critical cetacean habitat; rules on fishing with gill nets (including limiting mesh size and soak time), long lines and trawl nets; the prohibition of oil and gas exploration and extraction within 20 km of the site; and regulations on the number of engine boats operating at the site. Law enforcement as per Sections 5 and 8. Ensure all cetacean species are included in the Bangladesh Wildlife (Preservation) (Amendment) Act, 1974. Implement the ecotourism program for dolphin observation as defined in Section 6.

4.3.5.4 Risks
To be inserted by relevant discipline

4.3.6.1 Assessment of marine turtle conservation status


Nesting populations were high several decades ago but have declined significantly, and observations of natural hatchling emergence, which were once common, are now reduced to zero. Green turtles were once among the most common species to nest but this no longer seems the case; the local community and fishermen report a decline in the number of nesting females of 70-80% over the last 30 years (Rashid & Islam, 2005). Locals have also reported regular nesting of the Hawksbill turtle during the 1950s, but this has declined dramatically ( , 2005). There are no ibid records of turtle nesting prior to 1996; the most recent data on the status of marine turtles at the site are from the St Martins Pilot Project (2000-01) and the projects subsequent phase (2001-04). Under the Pilot Project, Islam (2001) recorded the emergence of 144 Olive Ridley turtles and 21 Green turtles between January 2000 and June 2001, of which those successful in nesting numbered 141 and three respectively. The first Leatherback turtle ever recorded to emerge at the site occurred during the same period, but it did not nest. No Hawksbill Turtles were recorded during this period the last recorded observation of a Hawksbill turtle was in 1998 (M.Z. Islam, pers. comm., 11 July 2006). In the same period, a total of 74 dead turtles were washed ashore, including 69 Olive Ridleys, three Green turtles, one Hawksbill turtle and one Leatherback. The subsequent phase of the project recorded an increasing number of Olive Ridley nests over the period 2001-2004, with 73, 99 and 102 nests in 2001-02, 2002-03 and 2003-04 respectively, for a total of 274 nests. A decreasing number of Green turtle nests were recorded over the same period, with 22, 19 and 9 nests respectively for a total of 50 nests (M.Z. Islam, pers. comm., 1 August 2006). The many initiatives implementing turtle conservation activities at the site, both past and present, have been responsible for the release into the sea of many turtle hatchlings hatches via the ex-situ conservation of eggs in hatcheries (see Section 3.4.4). A further 42 nests were successfully conserved in -situ in the 2002/2003 nesting season (M.Z. Islam, pers. com m., 30 July 2006).

4.3.6.2 Rationale
The marine turtle species occurring in and around the site are globally endangered thus the continued protection of turtle habitat at the site, and other protective measures, are important for the conservation of the species both locally and globally. There are many factors affecting turtle populations at the site and although some measures are in place to manage those factors, these are generally not sustainable. The community are aware of the factors affecting turtles at the site and the measures required for their conservation through the various initiatives that have been taking place since 1996; this awareness needs to be built on and maintained. The main management actions required include the continuation of the in -situ and ex-situ conservation of turtle eggs, control of the stray dog population, protection of the beach and sand dune habitat including the declaration and management of core protection zones for turtle conservation, protection of nests, an extensio n of ECA regulations to specifically cover turtles at the
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site and the enforcement of those rules, the implementation of turtle -friendly fishing practices and management of tourism-related threats. Despite several initiatives for in-situ conservation at the site, the successful hatching of turtles remains almost completely reliant on the relocation of eggs to hatcheries for safe hatching due to predation by dogs and collection by humans. According to Rashid & Islam (2005) only 2 -5% of nests survive under natural conditions, and while observations of natural hatchling emergence were once common such observations are now reduced to zero (Islam, 2001). Unless the eggs are relocated to a hatchery for safe hatching they have no chance of hatching as virtually no nest remains undisturbed nowadays. Measures need to be taken to ensure that eggs can safely hatch naturally. In-situ conservation is preferred to ex-situ conservation, as the hatchling rate is greater than 90% for in-situ nests and 60-70% for ex-situ nets (M.Z. Islam, pers. comm., 1 August 2006). In the meantime, the continuation of ex-situ conservation measures via hatcheries for the safe hatching of eggs will remain an important component of the turtle conservation strategy at the site. Predation of turtles and turtle eggs by the stray dog population is common, with dogs continuously roaming the beaches at night for turtles and eggs. In 2000-01 an estimated 200-300 dogs were on the Island, and five turtles were killed by dogs when emerging for nesting during that period. While all nesting sites are affected, the most severely affected is the northern part of the Island where 90% of the dog population is found. The dogs serve no real purpose on the Island, therefore a control program to maintain the dog population at zero should be implemented. A control program was implemented in 2004 but the population has rapidly increased to pre-control levels (M.Z. Islam, pers. comm., 12 July 2006). The St Martins Island Project culled 205 dogs in 2005 (A.M. Kamruz Zaman, pers.comm. 29 August 2006). The collection of eggs from nests for sale to neighbouring Myanmar and Bangladeshi hill tribe peoples is ongoing despite many awareness raising efforts. While the poaching of eggs is estimated to have declined by around 60% as a result of support from the local community, the Bangladesh Rifles and the Bangladesh Police (Rashid & Islam, 2005), the theft of eggs is still considered the single greatest threat to the success of in -situ hatching (Islam, 2001). An estimated 90-95% of nests are exploited by humans, with an estimated 12,000 18,000 eggs collected annually (Rashid & Islam, 2005). Several very experienced egg collectors exist on the Island who are very good at identifying nests and following weather, lunar and tidal conditions to maximise the outcomes of their efforts. Some collectors have changed their attitude and become important participants in conservation efforts, while others remain very active even to the extent of stealing eggs while being employed in conservation efforts (Islam, 2001). The protection of in-situ nests from theft is extremely important if hatchlings are ever going to hatch naturally at the site. The beach and sand dune nesting habitat of marine turtles at the site is increasingly degraded. The main problem is the construction of a coastal embankment via the piling of loose boulders along a considerable length of the east and west coasts. Degradation of sand dunes and development and increased human activity along the shoreline is also affecting the nesting habitat. The construction of boulder embankments has severely reduced access to nesting sites above the high tide mark and has led to turtles either being unable to nest, or nesting within the tidal area where the eggs are washed out by the tide. Prior to construction of the embankment, nesting was widespread throughout the west of the Island (Islam, 2001); now the turtles either turn back or start digging their nests then find boulders hidden beneath the sandy surface and reattempt to nest elsewhere. During the 2000-01 season a turtle was observed to make six attempts at nesting in a boulder-strewn area, spending between 10-30 minutes per attempt. Totals of up to 195 minutes were observed for nesting when it should normally take 45-65 minut es (ibid , 2001). This is not only tiring and reduced the chances of successful nesting, but also exposes the turtles to the risk of predation for longer than
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necessary. The time taken also means that turtles are sometimes unable to return to the sea before the low tide and remain stranded by exposed rocks until the next high tide, again making them more susceptible to predation. The maintenance of rock free areas is required for the continued nesting of marine turtles at the site. Sand dune degradation due to both natural and man made causes needs to be arrested in order to maintain this important nesting habitat. The control of human movement in nesting areas is also required. A core protection zone based on the preferred nesting beaches has been identifie d in Section 3.2 and should be established as soon as possible. While the main Olive Ridley nesting beach has already been proposed a protected beach under the Pilot Project no measures have been taken to manage this properly. The CWBMP -identified core t urtle zone has been earmarked for turtle ecotourism, for which a program should be developed and implemented. Current ECA regulations banning the collection or killing of turtles is insufficient to protect turtle populations at the site. The regulations need to be extended to include the protection of turtle eggs from collection. The inclusion of marine turtles in the Wildlife (Preservation) (Amendment) Act (1974) would also facilitate the protection of marine turtles at the site. A revised notification u nder the Act, which is currently in the final stages, will include marine turtles in the list of protected animals, i.e. Schedule III. Legislation relating to marine turtles, both ECA and non-ECA legislation, needs to be enforced at the site. The threats to turtles at the site as a result of fishing activities include entanglement in nets followed by death either from drowning or from being killed by fishermen who do not understand how, or are unwilling, to release turtles safely from nets; and deliberate or accidental collision with fishing vessels. The implementation of turtle -friendly fishing methods is necessary. The sound pollution caused by seismic surveys conducted off-shore for oil and gas exploration, and turbidity as a result of (planned) extraction, probably has an adverse effect on marine turtles at/around the site and should be restricted. Likewise the use of engine boats should be regulated. Managing tourism-related threats, including disturbance to nesting areas through excess noise, movement and light, can be achieved through the establishment and management of the core protection zones identified in Section 3.2, awareness raising and the restriction of tourism in turtle nesting areas to managed ecotourism, as mentioned above. Further research into the population of the Hawksbill turtle around the Island, and the continuation of tagging and subsequent data collection initiated in 2000, is necessary. An important consideration in the management of marine turtles at the site is for DoE to coordinate all ongoing initiatives under other projects/organisations as per DoEs mandate of ultimate responsibility for ECA management. Currently, the Marine Fisheries Research Institute (of DoF, Ministry of Fisheries and Livestock) also claims responsibility for the protection and management of marine turtles, which are presently controlled by the Forest Department. Given that considerable revenue is at stake, this may be a contentious issue between the two agencies (Rashid & Islam, 2005). Clear lines of responsibility need to be defined. A volunteer program could be established for turtle conservation in line with similar opportunities offered overseas, where interested people (students, ecotourists etc.) pay to volunteer their time during the nesting season to assist in the management of turtle conservation programs. Participants would have the opportunity to spend time at the site, working with local people to conserve turtles. They can assist with collecting data, monitoring, transferring eggs to hatcheries, observing guided tours, and tagging and measuring turtles (if this type of survey is re-established at the site). Funds
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raised this way contribute to the ongoing management of the activity and also provide labour for monitoring and other activities.

4.3.6.3 Management actions


Awareness -raising as per Section 5.3/Annex 13. Prepare new ECA rules based on existing ECA regulations that apply specifically to turtle conservation at the site. Include at least: a ban on the collection, sale and purchase of turtle eggs; rules regarding the control of stray dogs; restrictions on fishing gear operated adjacent to turtle nesting areas during the nesting season, especially within core protection zones; a ban on the use of shrimp/fish trawl nets not equipped with a turtle excluder devices (TED) in the Bay of Bengal; rules defining a no fishing zone along the nesting beaches during the nesting season; the prohibition of oil and gas exploration and extraction within 20 km of the site; and regulations on the number of engine boats operating at the site. Law enforcement as per Section 5 and 8. Conduct a study of the population on Hawksbill turtles around the Island. Re-establish the tagging and subsequent data collection initiative that was started in 2000. Ensure cur rent revisions to include marine turtles in the Wildlife (Preservation) (Amendment) Act, 1974 are enacted as part of the Governments commitment to several international conventions. Facilitate discussions at Ministry level between the MoEF and Ministry of Fisheries and Livestock to ensure clear lines of responsibility and intersectoral cooperation and collaboration with respect to the conservation of marine turtles. Stabilise sand dunes as outlined in Section 4.3.14.3, including the plantation of Ipomea, Vitex and Pandanus; ensure all species planted for sand dune stabilisation are native, original species. Establish and manage the core protection zones for turtles as outlined in Section 3.2 (Table 2) as soon as possible. Implement tourism management actions addressing the threats of tourism on marine turtles as outlined in Section 6. Clear pathways several metres wide through existing artificial boulder embankments at main emerging points to enable turtles to access nesting areas, following observation of turtle emergence attempts at least at Jadirbill, Kona Para and Borobil. Develop and implement a set of guidelines on the use of lighting during turtle nesting seasons for all existing shore-based developments, including modifications to existing lights where necessary. Implement and maintain a stray dog control program, maintaining the dog population in core protection areas to zero. Continue the ex-situ and in-situ protection of turtle eggs as currently implemented each season under various initiatives, i cluding the coordination by DoE of all initiatives operating at the n site as per the DoE mandate of ECA management responsibility. Implement turtle-friendly fishing practices at the site including the safe release of turtles from nets and seasonal and geographic restrictions on the use of certain types of gear. Implement a system for the accurate identification of trapped turtles by fishermen as part of the monitoring program, including laminated good-quality colour photographs of the five species known to use the waters, and a description of defining features. Implement the ecotourism program for turtle observation as outlined in Section 6. Assess the feasibility of establishing a volunteer program for turtle conservation in line with similar opportunities offered overseas contact www.seaturtlescapeyork.com and others for information in setting up the program. Initiate the use of TEDs in shrimp/fish trawling nets among shrimp trawl owners and operators.
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4.3.6.4 Risks
To be inserted by relevant discipline

4.3.7.1 Assessment of bird conservation status


Shore bird surveys conducted over the eight years 1997-2004 for two to three days each in the winter have shown a decline in both bird species diversity and abundance (M.Z. Islam, pers. comm., 5 August 2006). A count of 3062 individuals in 1997 declined dramatically to only 356 individuals in 2004, a decrease of 88%. The mean number of species recorded for the period was 19.6, with a minimum of 17 and a maximum of 23, of which only one species showed an increase in abundance over the period (of one) and the remaining showed a decrease in abundance. The decline in gulls, terns, plovers, herons, egrets, snipes, curlews etc., can be attributed to the loss of wilderness and expansion of agriculture and human habitation. On the other hand, the population of terrestrial birds associated with human habitation, including the common mynah, pied mynah, blue rock pigeon, black drongo, sunbird, sparrow and house crow, has increased. In terms of diversity, 107 species of the total 120 species recorded from the Island up to 1997 (MoEF, 2001b), were recorded during ongoing surveys over the 18-month period 2000-01, including both threatened species: the Grey-headed lapwing and Black-bellied tern (Islam, 2001).

4.3.7.2 Rationale
There is currently little management of factors affecting bird species at the site. The protection of beach, sand dune, lagoon and mangrove habitat and the control of native bird hunting and trapping are the main management actions required. The main migratory season coincides with the peak tourist season at the Island, during which time large areas of preferred habitat are inundated with tourists. A decrease in vegetation for nesting in the 1990s has been reversed somewhat by the protection of forest in Dakhin Para by the local community, resulting in an increase in vegetation and the bird population there (MoEF, 2001b), however this is insufficient. Several of the core protection zones identified will protect bird habitat, some of which will function as bird watching sites for which a bird watching ecotourism program should be developed and implemented. Children use sling shots to kill birds for fun and at least one individual on the Island enjoys killing birds with an air gun. The hunting of larger birds for food such as the ruddy shell duck is not uncommon. ECA regulations banning the catching, collecting and killing of wildlife need to be legislated and enforced. The non-judicious use of pesticides also affects bid habitat and needs to be managed via awareness raising, including of integrated pest management (IPM). The highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus is not currently a threat to birds at the site but the site lies on important m igratory flyways and wild birds are known to have contributed to the introduction of the HPAI H5N1 virus to new geographical locations world wide (FAO/OIE, 2006). Thus it is important that management remains vigilant of this threat to bird biodiversity at the site, and collaborates with the Ministry of Fisheries and Livestock (MoFL) - the government body charged with monitoring HPAI H5N1 in Bangladesh. The potential for benefiting from the experiences and accomplishments of the Global Rinderpest Eradication Programme (GREP) in working with transboundary animal diseases should also be assessed, especially in regard to country cluster cooperative direction, the use of existing specialised organisations and the establishment of regional networks.

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4.3.7.3 Management actions


Awareness -raising as per Section 5.3/Annex 13. Prepare new ECA rules based on existing ECA regulations that apply specifically to native birds at the site. Include at least a ban on the hunting and trapping of native birds; the right of DoE to confiscate air guns and sling shots; and rules regarding the control of house crows and other alien predatory bird species. Law enforcement as per Sections 5 and 8. Identify requirements for, and establish, habitat restoration not already covered in other sections of this plan. Establish and manage the core protection zones outlined in Section 3.2 (Table 2) that relate to bird habitat. Implement the ecotourism program for bird watching as outlined in Section 6. Introduce IPM methods for farming, including the judicious use of pesticides. Assess the feasibility of establishing voluntary conservation agreements between DoE and landowners owning land with significant bird habitat, and if feasible establish agreements where applicable to improve and/or preserve bird habitat. Establish a control program with the local community to eliminate house crows and other alien predatory bird species from the Island, including a waste management system for garbage and restaurant waste that discourages habitation by the house crow. Monitor interactions between wild birds and domestic bird species at the site; incorporate sampling of live and dead birds for HPAI H5N1 in the monitoring program outlined in Section 4.2.7.3; collaborate with the MoFL to share any data relevant to HPAI H5N1 disease outbreaks, spread and transmission; assess the potential for collaboration with the GREP; and ensure any government decisions to eliminate wild birds or their habitat within the site as a result of Avian influenza fears are opposed.

4.3.7.4 Risks
To be inserted by relevant discipline

4.3.8.1 Assessment of coral-associated fish conservation status


There is insufficient data to make an accurate assessment of the conservation status of coralassociated fishes at the site, as information for both species composition and abundance is lacking. Fishermen reported in 2001 that the catch per unit of effort for fishing at the site had declined compared to a decade ago (Islam, 2001), which is perhaps a result of the increase in the number of fishing boats by 50-60% during the same period. However, in 2001 coral associated fishes were not well represented in the daily catches and it was thought that these fish species were not overexploited (ibid, 2001).

4.3.8.2 Rationale
The site includes Bangladeshs only coral community and is thus unique in Bangladesh for coralassociated fishes. There is currently no management of factors affecting coral-associated fishes. The main threat is the loss of coral habitat, for which management actions are outline d in the following section (Section 4.3.9.3). While other threats to coral-associated fishes are currently relatively minimal it is important to implement management actions to contain those threats at their presently low levels. An important element of the management of coral-associated fishes at the site is the conduct of a full fish survey by an experienced fish taxonomist, as recommended by NSCIP-1 (MoEF, 2001b).

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The main fishing practices at the site include large-meshed bottom-set gill nets (Sheel jal) and hook and line (Borshi) - which are operated nightly in winter to catch snapper, grouper and cat fish but which also involve coral-associated fish by-catch - and monofilament gill nets (Rok jal) and beach seine (Tana jal), which are used mainly to catch small-sized juveniles and sub-adults of mixed species. The large-meshed bottom-set gill net is in general an environmentally-friendly fishing method but has become less popular because fishermen want quicker returns. The sound pollution caused by seismic surveys conducted off-shore for oil and gas exploration, and turbidity as a result of (planned) extraction, probably has an adverse effect on fishes at the site and should be restricted. Likewise the use of engine boats should be regulated. Awareness raising of the importance of the Islands coral-associated fishes both globally and nationally is very important, as is the implementation of fishing practices that minimise the risk to coral-associated fishes and the extension of ECA regulations to specifically protect coral-associated fishes. The management of coral-associated fishes is poorly represented in existing fisheries policy and legislation and should also be reviewed and updated. If established and managed properly, the core coral protection zone identified in Section 3.2 (Table 2) will go a long way to protecting coral-associated fishes.

4.3.8.3 Management actions


Awareness -raising as per Section 5.3/Annex 13. Conduct an extensive survey of fish fauna at the site using an experienced fish taxonomist, including present status, stock size, seasonal abundance and dependent populations/ communities. Prepare new ECA rules based on existing ECA regulations that apply specifically to coralassociated fishes in the ECA. Include at least: a ban on the harvesting of juvenile and sub-adult coral fish; a breeding season ban on the use of specific fishing gear (mainly fine-meshed seine nets that collect juveniles) in coral community areas; restrictions on fishing during intensive fish breeding seasons; rules on fishing with gill nets (including limiting mesh size); a ban on the collection, sale and purchase of ornamental fishes; the prohibition of oil and gas exploration and extraction within 20 km of the site; and regulations on the number of engine boats operating at the site. Law enforcement as per Sections 5 and 8. Encourage a return to the large-meshed bottom-set gill net for long-term sustainability of fish resources. Review existing fisheries policy and legislation and make recommendations to governmen for t the specific inclusion of coral-associated fishes in policy and legislation that recognises their importance and supports their conservation. Protect coral habitat as outlined in Section 4.3.9.3 below.

4.3.8.4 Risks
To be inserted by relevant discipline

4.3.9.1 Assessment of coral conservation status


The most recent data on coral at the site is from a 1997 survey, which estimated that 30,000 coral colonies are removed annually, representing 24% of the existing population then. Coral removal has continued unabated since thus we can reasonably assume that the current status of coral at the site is very poor.

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4.3.9.2 Rationale
The coral communities at the Island are highly significant as there are only a few examples worldwide where coral communities dominate rock reefs as they do at the Island. The coral colonies are affected by many factors, both natural and anthropogenic. According to Tomascik (1997), the natural environmental conditions around the site are marginal for the development and survival of coral communities, which places even more importance on the management of factors affecting coral that are within our control. Natural factors include low salinity, high turbidity (affecting light availability), substrate disturbance as a result of heavy seas, high nutrient concentrations, the effects of circulation and tides, cyclonic storms, possible effect of earthquakes on the unstable (boulder) substrate of the site and relative sea levels (as a result of ongoing uplift). Anthropogenic factors affect coral at the site both directly (e.g. collection, anchoring) and indirectly by exacerbating natural factors. The conservation of coral at the site requires minimisation of the effect of anthropogenic factors on the already limiting natural factors, and management of direct anthropogenic factors. As the anthropogenic factors affecting natural factors are mainly related to marine water parameters, these are covered in section 4.3.16 (Marine habitat). Direct anthropogenic factors have a huge impact on coral at the site. There is currently very little/no management of these factors and unless these are controlled the present low coral coverage at the site will be further significantly reduced, also reducing coral-associated species. The main management actions required to protect coral at the site include the enforcement of ECA regulations regarding the removal of coral, the establishment and management of a core coral protection zone, managing marine water parameters, introducing and enforcing coral-friendly fishing practices, the control of indiscriminate boat anchoring, control of boulder removal/displacement and management of tourism, including indiscriminate (albeit small scale) scuba diving/snorkelling in coral areas. ECA regulations banning the removal of coral are neither legislated nor enforced. While no curio shops selling coral continued to operate at the site once the Pilot Project started in 2000, tourists were observed in the 2005/2006 winter peak tourist season purchasing coral from various stal s l selling drinks and snacks, and directly from the beach, both near the Abakash Hotel and at Cheradia. The smuggling of coral from the site to tourist markets in the popular tourist centre of Coxs Bazar and the large centres of Chittagong and Dhaka operates on a large scale with the assistance of law enforcers. In the four month period January to April 2001 alone, almost 10,000 pieces of coral were discovered during the interception of smuggling activities (Islam, 2001). The actual figure would be much higher as not all activities were intercepted. In most or all incidences, the local police and UP personnel were either directly or indirectly involved in the smuggling (Islam, 2001). Merchants from Teknaf, Coxs Bazar and even Myanmar are involved in the racket, and pay large sums to the collectors in advance. The racket was and remains well-organised; minders were paid to both protect the merchants from, and threaten, Pilot Project personnel during 2000-01 (Islam, 2001). Unless a concerted effort is made to properly enforce law regarding the removal of coral, there is little chance for the sustainability of coral at the Island. A demand-side awareness-raising program implemented simultaneously with supply-side controls is absolutely necessary as without d emand there is no reason for supply. This requires raising the awareness of tourists both at the Island and Coxs Bazar of the susceptible nature of coral in Bangladesh and an extension of ECA rules to include a ban on the purchase of coral anywhere in Bangladesh. Boulder removal and displacement adversely affects coral as the boulders are the substrate upon which corals have colonised at the site. The use of artificial reefs to facilitate coral colonisation may be considered as an alternative substrate, but in general the Island does not suffer from a lack of
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suitable susbstrate. The use of rock-weighted gill nets over inshore boulder reefs adversely affects coral beds. Coral-friendly fishing techniques need to be introduced at the site. The indiscriminate anchoring of boats in coral areas has a similar effect in damaging the coral. A system of management of boat anchoring, both through no anchoring zones and the provision of permanent anchoring buoys, is required. Coral related tourism management is also necessary. Large numbers of tourists walk over intertidal rocky areas to view marine fishes, coral, molluscs, echinoderms and other marine invertebrates, adversely affecting both the habitat and species. Unregulated scuba diving and snorkelling to view cor al also occurs at the Island, but on a very small scale. The establishment and management of the core coral protection zone as outlined in Section 3.2 needs to occur as soon as possible. If properly enforced, the restrictions identified for the zone will reverse the effects within that zone of most factors affecting coral at the site. A coral appreciation program should be developed and implemented as part of ecotourism initiatives.

4.3.9.3 Management actions


Awareness -raising as per Section 5.3/Annex 13. Extend current ECA regulations to include a ban on the sale and purchase of coral; the right of DoE to close businesses selling coral and arrest any persons directly or indirectly involved in the sale/purchase and smuggling of coral; a ban on anchoring in any coral area; a ban on the removal or displacement of boulders for any purpose; and a ban on the use of rock-weighted gill nets over coral areas. Law enforcement as per Section 5 and 8. Prepare a code of conduct for snorkelling and scuba diving in coral areas (Section 6). Determine the requirements for mooring buoys at popular harbouring areas, taking into consideration restrictions that will be applicable under zones established by CWBMP/DoE, and install the buoys. Include at least the east coast (Purba Para, near the jetty), the west coast (Kona Para) and Holabonia. Only a very limited number of buoys should be established in the Cheradia core coral protection zone, in line with activities in that zone being restricted to management and limited research only. Assess the necessity for, and feasibility of, establishing artificial reefs to facilitate coral growth. Establish and manage the core coral protection zone as outlined in Section 3.2. Management of tourism-related effects as outlined in Section 6. Initiate the coral appreciation ecotourism program in buffer zone 3, as outlined in Section 6. Manage marine water quality as outlined in Section 4.3.16. Organise an annual reef clean program with local divers, open to a restricted number of interested tourists; source funding from international organisation(s) that support annual reef cleans worldwide.

4.3.9.4 Risks
To be inserted by relevant discipline

4.3.10.1 Assessment of crustacean conservation status


While there is no data on which to base an assessment of the conservation status of crabs and lobsters at the site, but it is known that species of both are harvested at the site and caught as bycatch.

4.3.10.2 Rationale
There is currently no management of factors affecting lobsters and crabs at the site. While Muslims in general do not eat crab, crabs and lobsters are harvested for their high market value both
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nationally and internationally. Both are harvested via gill nets and seine nets and are sent to Coxs Bazar and other towns on ice for sale where they are ultimately consumed locally or exported. The site provides the only habitat in the country for spiny lobsters. The main threats to lobsters are the accidental collection of juveniles in small-meshed monofilament gill nets and bottom-set gill nets, and coral habitat destruction. The collection of juveniles is particularly dangerous given the long life cycle of lobsters. Lobsters and crabs are also caught and dried for sale as souvenirs in local curio markets. A factor affecting red crabs is predation by stray dogs. In addition, the sound pollution caused by seismic surveys conducted off -shore for oil and gas exploration, and turbidity as a result of (planned) extraction, probably also has an adverse effect on crustaceans at the site and should be restricted. Likewise the use of engine boats should be regulated. Management actions required include awareness raising regarding the sustainable harvesting of crabs and lobsters; an extension to ECA rules banning the collection of wildlife to include the use of crab and lobster shells in curio items; and alterations to gear to minimise the collection of juveniles; the management of spiny lobster (coral) habitat and control of stray dogs.

4.3.10.3 Management actions


Awareness -raising as per Section 5.3/Annex 13. Protect lobster habitat (coral communities and marine habitat) as outlined in Sections 4.3.9 and 4.3.16. Prepare new ECA rules based on existing ECA regulations that apply specifically to crab and lobster species at the site. Include at least: a ban on the collection, sale or purchase of crustacean species for curio businesses; rules regulating the harvesting of crabs and lobsters including a ban on the collection of brood and juvenile crabs and lobsters, the use of appropriate harvesting gear and a ban on harvesting of crabs in the intensive breeding season (June -July); rules regarding the control of stray dogs; the prohibition of oil and gas exploration and extraction within 20 km of the site; and regulations on the number of engine boats operating at the site. Law enforcement as per Sections 5 and 8. Introduce proper (improved) fishing gear - lobster pots/traps with specific escape routes for undersized lobsters and for use outside the core coral protection zone only. Encourage responsible harvesting practices including the release of juvenile/brood stock crabs and lobsters trapped in gill nets. Assess the feasibility of establishing a sustainable harvesting system for commercially important crustacean species. Control stray dog populations at the site, as outlined in Section 4.3.6.

4.3.10.4 Risks
To be inserted by relevant discipline

4.3.11.1 Assessment of mollusc conservation status


There is no information on which to base an assessment of the status of molluscs at the site, but it is known that mollusc shells are widely collected in large quantities from the beaches.

4.3.11.2 Rationale
There is currently no management of factors affecting mollusc species at the site. Molluscs are important, among other reasons, as water purifiers, sand builders and a food source. Shells are collected in large quantities by the local community for lime production and sale as curios. Tourists purchase shells and also collect shells themselves. Boulder removal and disturbance adversely
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affects mollusc habitat, as does indiscriminate fishing boat harbouring/docking. The main management actions required to conserve mollusc biodiversity are awareness-raising, the extension of ECA regulations to specifically include mollusc shells and enforcement of legislation. The sound pollution caused by seismic surveys conducted off-shore for oil and gas exploration, and turbidity as a result of (planned) extraction, probably has an adverse effect on molluscs at the site and should be restricted. Likewise the use of engine boats should be regulated.

4.3.11.3 Management actions


Awareness -raising as per Section 5.3/Annex 13. Prepare new ECA rules based on existing ECA regulations that apply specifically to mollusc species and habitat at the site. Include at least a total ban on the collection, sale or purchase of any mollusc species for curio business; a ban on the removal/displacement of boulders; the prohibition of oil and gas exploration and extraction within 20 km of the site; and regulations on the number of engine boats operating at the site. Law enforcement as per Sections 5 and 8. Close down shell markets in St Martins Island, Coxs Bazar, Chittagong and Dhaka. Establish the core protection zones as outlined in Section 3.2 (Table 1) that include restrictions on boat harbouring, boulder removal/disturbance and protection of shorelines.

4.3.11.4 Risks
To be inserted by relevant discipline

4.3.12.1 Assessment of echinoderm conservation status


The sea cucumber (Holothuria atra) occurs in very low numbers due to over-exploitation (Islam, 2001). There is no data on which to base an assessment of sea stars and sea urchins but it is known that sea stars are rarely seen at the Island anymore and urchins are heavily harvested.

4.3.12.2 Rationale
There is currently no manageme nt of factors affecting sea cucumbers, sea stars and sea urchins. The habitat for these echinoderms is adversely affected by the removal of boulders for household work and construction, the disturbance of boulders during shell collection and fishing, fishing boat harbouring and tourist movement in the rocky intertidal areas. Marine water quality also affects echinoderm habitat. Managing the echinoderm habitats (rocky intertidal areas and marine habitat) will go some way to conserving these species, however the species face other threats as well that need to be managed. Sea urchins are collected for sale to curio traders/tourists and are also collected by tourists themselves. They are also collected for research purposes. There is a lack of awareness among some about sea cucumbers some think it is a type of giant leech and kill them (Islam, 2001). The sound pollution caused by seismic surveys conducted off-shore for oil and gas exploration, and turbidity as a result of (planned) extraction, probably has an adverse effect on echinoderms at the site and should be restricted. Likewise the use of engine boats should be regulated. Apart from habitat protection via zoning and other measures, the main management actions required are awareness raising, extension of ECA regulations to include rules specific for sea urchin collection and the killing of sea cucumbers.

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4.3.12.3 Management actions


Awareness -raising as per Section 5.3/Annex 13. Prepare new ECA rules based on existing ECA regulations that apply specifically these echinoderm species at the site. Include at least: a ban on killing sea cucumbers; a ban on the collection of sea urchins for any purpose; restrictions on the collection of species for research purposes; the prohibition of oil and gas exploration and extraction within 20 km of the site; and regulations on the number of engine boats operating at the site. Law enforcement as per Sections 5 and 8. Protection of rocky intertidal habitat as outlined in Section 4.3.13. Establishment of zones that include restrictions on fish boat docking as per Section 3.2. Protection of marine habitat as outlined in Section 4.3.16. Encourage the return of all species caught in nets back to the water rather than discarding them on the beach.

4.3.12.4 Risks
To be inserted by relevant discipline

4.3.13.1 Assessment of rocky intertidal habitat conservation status


While the extent of damage to the rocky intertidal habitat has not been determined, it is deteriorating due to human intervention.

4.3.13.2 Rationale
There is currently no management of factors affecting the rocky intertidal habitat. The rocky intertidal habitat, which extends around most of the Island, is important for the continued existence of a large variety of marine biodiversity including molluscs, echinoderms and fish. The habitat is becoming degraded through pollution, tourist and other movement, boulder removal and displacement and mollusc and echinoderm collection. Pollution occurs as a result of solid waste disposal by tourists and households, agricultural run-off and the disposal of sewerage directly into the marine environment. Due to its location in the intertidal area, this habitat is the first to receive any runoff from the land. Implementation of management actions outlined for the marine habitat ( Section 4.3.16) will minimise the effect of pollution on the rocky intertidal habitat. Tourists clamber all over the rocky intertidal areas, treading on and collecting the species residing there. Fishermen do the same, as do shell and sea urchin collectors. Boulders are removed from the area in large quantities for creating rock-free boat harbours, construction and other purposes and are displaced by fishermen and shell collectors during their activities, both of which affect the microhabitats provided by the boulders. Mollusc and echinoderm collection adversely affects the diversity and abundance of species utilising the habitat. The main management actions required include awareness raising of the importance and fragility of the zone, the extension of ECA rules to specifically ban the removal or displacement of boulders and the collection of echinoderms, and the management of human movement in rocky intertidal areas, including tourism management, via zoning.

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4.3.13.3 Management actions


Awareness -raising as per Section 5.3/Annex 13. Prepare new ECA rules based on existing ECA regulations that apply specifically to rock intertidal habitat in the ECA. Include at least: a ban on the removal and displacement of boulders from the rocky intertidal zone for any purpose; a ban on the removal of mollusc and echinoderm species; a ban on human movement in the rocky intertidal zone outside general use zones, except on established walkways (to be developed under the ecotourism plan, Section 6). Law enforcement as per Sections 5 and 8. Ensure human movement over rocky intertidal areas within core protection areas is only via established (raised) walkways; for rocky intertidal areas within buffer and general use zones encourage the local community and tourists to limit their movement to upper shore areas keeping the lower intertidal area as free of human movement as possible. Implement the zoning system identified in Section 3.2, including limiting the areas where fishing can be conducted in rocky intertidal areas, and where local fishing boats can harbour (at present boulder free zones). Manage marine water quality as outlined in Section 4.3.16.

4.3.13.4 Risks
To be inserted by relevant discipline

4.3.14.1 Assessment of sand dune and beach conservation status


The sand dunes at the site were much better developed and higher during the 1980s (M.Z. Islam, pers. comm., 16 July 2006). The dunes are in an increasingly degraded state, with those of the north western part of the Island at Kona Para, Golachera, severely eroded. Along with the degradation of sand dunes is the depletion of associated dune flora. A small area of sand dune was observed to form naturally at the northern end of the western beach in 1997-98. The beach areas at the south of the Island are relatively undisturbed and in good condition, except where the establishment of boulder embankments have changed the natural characteristics of the beach. At the north of the Island the beach is degraded seasonally through heavy use but recovers annually after the rainy season. A section of beach at the north-east was heavily eroded, perhaps irreversibly, in 1997 as a result of tidal surges during a cyclone.

4.3.14.2 Rationale
The continued health of the sand dunes and beach is very important for the protection of inhabitants from predicted sea level rises (which the site is particularly susceptible to) and habitat for globally significant species of turtle and birds. The dunes act as a filter for rainwater and groundwater, and are important for the continued natural cha racter of the site, particularly of the beach. They also prevent sand being blown inland by winds. The necessity for stabilising sand dunes in the coastal ECA sites was outlined in the CWBMP ProDoc (GoB/GEF/UNDP, 1999), with a goal of protecting a total of 5000 ha of sand dune habitat across all three coastal ECAs, including St Martins Island ECA. There is currently little management of factors affecting the sand dune habitat. Winter winds and tidal forces accelerate the erosion of dunes that have had vegetation removed. Natural regeneration is possible if current factors affecting the health of the dunes, including infrastructure development, the clearing of dunes and dune vegetation adjacent to hotel areas, the collection of dune vegetation for fuelwood and pedestrian traffic are controlled.

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The cutting and collection of vegetation and the alteration of habitat for flora and fauna within ECAs is banned under ECA regulations and this ban needs to be legislated and enforced at the site, particularly for those establishing hotels. The development of infrastructure within the dune system, and even clearing of dunes adjacent to hotel areas, needs to be controlled. The plantation of dune vegetation species (Pandanus) in the areas most affected is necessary to complement natural regeneration efforts. The St Martins Island Project planted the equivalent of 11 km of Pandanus along the coastline (A.M.Kamruz Zaman, pers.comm. 29 August 2006). The implementation of management actions for the conservation of Pandanu s as outlined in Section 4.3.1 will facilitate sand dune stabilisation as it is the major dune plant. Pedestrian traffic over the dunes needs to be managed via the establishment of permanent pathways. Several core protection zones that meet the needs of the dune habitat and its dependent species have been identified and should be established as soon as possible. Awareness raising of the importance of viable sand dune habitat for livelihood protection and the protection of turtle and bird species needs to be an important part of the strategy for the maintenance of dunes.

4.3.14.3 Management actions


Awareness -raising as per Section 5.3/Annex 13. Prepare new ECA rules based on existing ECA regulations that apply specifically to dune habitat. Include at least: a ban on infrastructure development within 15-20 metres of the dune system (to be clarified); a ban on the clearing of dune vegetation for any purpose; a ban on the clearing of dunes for any purpose. Law enforcement as per Sections 5 and 8. Determine and map the location and extent of infrastructure development, pedestrian traffic and vegetation clearing in dune areas, and rank dune areas in most urgent need of stabilisation. Identify dune areas appropriate for in -situ conservation of dune vegetation and manage those areas as demonstration plots, with fencing if necessary, and interpretive signage explaining the role of dune vegetation, the importance of healthy dune systems and the objective for the plot. Identify dune areas requiring assisted vegetation regeneration; plant appropriate dune vegetation species and manage those areas as demonstration plots as described above. Include at least the eastern and western sand dunes of Golpachipa. Assess the areas most suitable for Pandanus for enhanced protection from cyclones and tidal surges as per Section 4.3.1, ensuring that turtle nesting areas are excluded, and establish plantations where practical/suitable. Implement the management actions outlined in Section 4.3.1 for Pandanus conservation. Identify the most appropriate access routes for pedestrian traffic through the dunes; establish permanent pathways to the beaches along those routes; fence dune areas along the access routes to provide protection from pedestrians; provide signage that directs people to beach access routes (both from the beach and from the roads/villages); and provide interpretive signage along those routes explaining the role of the pathways and the importance of a healthy dune system for livelihoods and habitat protection. The pathways should be constructed of wooden slats chained loosely together as is commonly used in dune systems worldwide to minimise the damage to dunes. Organise an annual beach clean program with the local community; source funding from international organisation( s) that support annual beach cleans worldwide. Establish the identified beach core protection zones as outlined in Section 3.2 (Table 2). Establish zones for fishing boating mooring as outlined in Section 3.2 (Table 2).

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4.3.14.4 Risks
To be inserted by relevant discipline

4.3.15.1 Assessment of rocky land habitat conservation status


The whole Island was once a rocky land habitat but has gradually been altered through the removal of rocks and boulders for agriculture. Now only about 100 ha of rocky habitat is remaining.

4.3.15.2 Rationale
There is currently no management of factors affecting the rocky land habitat at the site. The habitat is significant in that it is not present elsewhere in Bangladesh (M.Z. Islam, pers. comm., 5 July 2006). This 100 ha area is the last remaining rocky area at the site and has not yet been cleared, probably as the boulders are too large for removal. However, the removal of rocks to improve the land for cultivation is ongoing. The area needs to be protected from further conve rsion to cultivation, but this may prove difficult as the entire rocky land habitat is privately owned. The feasibility of establishing voluntary conservation agreements should be assessed, particularly among adjacent landowners, which would increase the total continuous area under protection. Another factor is the trend in selling land to outsiders, who usually have less respect for the land than locals do. Incentives to both conserve the land and not sell the land need to be assessed. If protected, the area can regenerate naturally. A small amount of revegetation of degraded areas would complement the natural regeneration process.

4.3.15.3 Management actions


Awareness -raising as per Section 5.3/Annex 13. Arrange for the designation of the area as a unique geological area of Bangladesh. Prepare new ECA rules based on existing ECA regulations that apply specifically to the alteration of the rocky land habitat. Include at least: a ban on the removal of any more rocks/boulders from the rocky land south of Dakhin Para; a ban on the conversion of rocky land to cultivation; a ban on the development of infrastructure on the rocky land habitat, except for an elevated walkway over the area for ecotourism purposes; and a ban on any further human settlement in the area. Law enforcement as per Sections 5 and 8. Assess the feasibility of voluntary conservation agreements between the DoE and landowners owning land within the rocky land area, including compensatory measures. Revegetate degraded area of the rocky habitat with Pandanus, Streblus asper and other naturally occurring species. Establish the identified rocky land core protection zone as outlined in Section 3.2 (Table 2). Initiate the ecotourism activity identified for the zone in collaboration with the landowne rs, as outlined in Section 6

4.3.15.4 Risks
To be inserted by relevant discipline

4.3.16.1 Assessment of marine habitat conservation status


A 2006 study of aquatic pollution at St Martins Island conducted by Dr. M.M. Maruf Hossain will be available shor tly from the MoEFs Conservation of Biodiversity, Marine Park Establishment and Ecotourism Development Project at St Martins Island. Apart from that report, n actual data exists o on which to base an assessment of marine habitat at the site, however the marine waters are presumed to be affected by several factors. Tomascik (1997) recommended a year-long assessment
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of marine water parameters to understand the status of marine water at the site over all seasons (rainy and dry).

4.3.16.2 Rationale
The quality of the marine habitat at the site affects a large proportion of all species, communities and habitats described above including fishes, coral communities and coral-associated species, marine invertebrates, marine algae, marine turtles and cetaceans. The marine environment is affected by both natural and anthropogenic factors, some of which also exacerbate natural factors. The management of anthropogenic effects on natural factors affecting the marine environment includes minimising impacts on turbidity and nutrient concentrations. This includes minimising suspended particulate matter concentrations and dissolved organic compounds (turbidity) nutrient concentrations) as a result of sewerage pollution, domestic and agricultural runoff, deforestation and urbanisation. A one year monitoring program to collect baseline data on environmental conditions during a full year cycle should be conducted to determine these parameters. The unsustainable development of tourism at the site, which is currently beyond the carrying capacity of the Island given the lack of basic services including any effective sewerage system, is generating a huge amount of waste. One hotel is already draining its sewerage directly into sea. Solid waste is discarded into marine waters at the site by tourists and the local community alike and into waters surrounding the Island by tourists travelling to and from the site by boat. Boat operators are continually scooping and throwing overboard oily water that accumulates in the holds of poorly maintained boats. Marine water quality is very important for the ongoing health of marine biodiversity, particularly the coral communities, thus measures to prevent oil spillage, solid waste and sewerage disposal into the marine environment are necessary. Awareness raising, enforcement of restrictions regarding littering, regulations regarding sewerage disposal and waste management, and zoning for oily water disposal are required.

4.3.16.3 Management actions


Awareness raising as per Section 5.3/Annex 13. Restrict the draining of oily water from boats to the general use zone only, as identified in Section 3.2. Establish a system on tourist vessels for preventing the throwing of rubbish overboard, including awareness raising of the impact on the marine environment and an announcement at the start of each journey that the practice is prohibited and punishable. Assess the feasibility of different systems of sustainable sewerage management at the Island that are not based on marine sewerage discharge and do not affect groundwater; determine regulations around sewerage management based on the feasibility assessment and implement the regulations. Establish a waste management system for domestic and public waste. Extend ECA regulations to ensure all future development activities submit a detailed EIA that includes the consideration of nutrient loading as a parameter.

4.3.16.4 Risks
To be inserted by relevant discipline

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4.3.17.1 Assessment of mudflat habitat conservation status


The small area of mudflat is generally in its natural condition.

4.3.17.2 Rationale
While there are no currently no factors affecting the mudflat area at the site, the mudflat is under private ownership and faces the threat of alteration in the future, e.g. for hotel construction/shrimp farming, as has been the custom in other areas of Bangladesh. The mudflat is the only example of its kind on the whole Island and is important for a variety of species. It is an important bird feeding ground as its dependent invertebrate species supply a food source for birds. In the face of contraction of bird habitat at the site due to high levels of human activity in the preferred roosting areas in the north of the Island, the mudflat area is becoming increasingly important for birds. The mudflat is also the o habitat on the Island for the amphibious sea snake ( nly Laticauda colubrina ) and also supports mud crabs and a large population of Fiddler crabs.

4.3.17.3 Management actions


Discuss with landowners owning land that includes the mudflat area the importance of the mudflat habitat and explore options for arranging voluntary conservation agreements with them to avoid any alteration of the mudflat area. Extend ECA regulations regarding the alteration of habitat for flora and fauna to specifically include restrictions on the alteration of mudflat habitat for any purpose. Awareness -raising as per Section 5.3/Annex 13

4.3.17.4 Risks
To be inserted by relevant discipline

4.3.18.1 Assessment of lagoon conservation status 4.3.18.2 Rationale 4.3.18.3 Management Actions 4.3.18.4 Risks 4.3.19.1 Assessment of insect conservation status
To be completed by Wildlfie NPPPs

4.3.19.2 Rationale 4.3.19.3 Management Actions 4.3.19.4 Risks

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5.

STAKEHOLDERS

5.1 Evaluation
The interaction of local people with the site, both legally and illegally, is relatively high. There are a number of reasons for this: a) the site is not devoid of human habitation as is more generally the case with PAs but rather is a highly lived-in area, b) levels of poverty and a dependence on natural resources to maintain livelihoods are relatively high; c) there are limited opportunities for incomes/livelihoods that dont rely on unsustainable resource use; d) there is a lack of awareness of the legality of certain activities; and e) there is a lack of awareness of the environmental impact of activities. Given that the local community is relatively dependent on the sites resources for their livelihoods, management for biodiversity conservation and sustainable resource that doesnt involve the direct participation and support of the community will fail. The establishment and maintenance of good relationships with the local community, and the joint planning, implementation and monitoring of biodiversity conservation activities with those stakeholders, is the only way to obtain benefits for the ECA and has to be one of the main principles of site management. The local community should not be seen as just stakeholders but as co-managers of the site. Properly supported, the community has the scope to manage the day-to-day use of resources at the site. Thus, effective management of the site will require that a lot of time and resources are devoted to establishing and maintaining these primary stakeholder relationships. Other benefits of good relationships with the community include access to indigenous knowledge, a pool of volunteers to facilitate effective management and a cost-effective model of management. The declaration of the site as an ECA has several benefits for the local community. Firstly, if effectively managed, threats to biodiversity conservation and sustainable resource use by resource users external to the site will be removed, ensuring the long-term viability of resources for the local community. Secondly, the community will benefit from learning how to manage their own activities to ensure long-term sustainable resource use via the training, awareness raising and capacity building being provided by CWBMP. Thirdly, a model of joint management of biodiversity conservation and sustainable resource us e means local communities will be able to participate in decision-making regarding resource use, and therefore have better control of their future. Lastly, the community will have access to alternative livelihood opportunities that will be developed as a crucial element of reducing threats to biodiversity, including employment opportunities provided by different management strategies, e.g. the development of ecotourism. Apart from primary stakeholders, it will be equally important to develop and maintain good relationships with secondary stakeholders. There is a trend in transfer of land ownership from local inhabitants to wealthy outsiders who are mainly interested in perceived opportunities for cashing-in on tourism development, which is increasing the scale of interaction between people and the site. These stakeholders have expectations regarding the future returns on the land they have purchased and will be major determinants of the success or failure of management for biodiversity conservation. Site management will also only be effective if CWBMP/DoE has good collaborative relationships with local government and other government agencies. Already there are conflicts at the site between the two projects of the MoEF the CWBMP and the St Martins Island Project. It is important that via the CWBMP, DoEs responsibility to play an active role in environmental management is asserted and that this role is accepted by other government departments. Good relationships with these stakeholders at both the local and national levels are vital.
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5.2 Objectives
5.2.1 Management objectives
Institutional arrangements will be initiated and sustained within the local community as an integral part of the local level governance and management of biodiversity. The target comm unity will own and operate the newly emerged and evolving institutional arrangement towards achieving biodiversity management. The community, as owners of the biodiversity resources, will be aware of and initiate targeted steps for the conservation and man agement of biodiversity in collaboration with CWBMP/DoE. The modality of implementation of conservation management by both CWBMP and DoE post-CWBMP is via the VCGs. Government agencies that have a stake in the management of the ECA will work collaboratively with DoE, facilitating its mandate to assert its environmental management responsibilities within the ECA.

5.2.2 Performance indicators and monitoring


Indicator
1. Functionality and capacity of VCGs

Method
Through discus sions with VCG and reviewing project records. Record number of VCG members per VCG; frequency of meetings; participation in CWBMP/DoE-initiated activities; number of proposals received from VCG; number of biodiversity conservation activities implemented by VCG Through discussions with VCG and reviewing project records. Record number of AIGAs developed; proportion utilised; proportion of VCG members engaged in AIGA

Location
All VCGs within site

Frequency
Annually

Data format
For each VCG number of meetings per annum, frequency of meetings; number of CWBMP activities participated in; number of proposals received; number of activities implemented by VCG Number of AIGA opportunities provided per annum; proportion of VCGs utilising alternatives; proportion of VCG members in each VCG engaged in those AIGAs Percentage of compliance with legislation; number of cases reported.

2. Alternative livelihoods developed

All VCGs within site

Annually

3. Communitybased enforcement

Office record review. Record level of compliance with legislation, number of cases reported by community to DoE

Whole site

Ongoing

Others to be determined

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5.3 Status and Rationale


5.3.1 Status
Relationships with the local community are reasonably well-developed through earlier mobilisation during the Pilot Project, ECFCP activities and more recently mobilisation for CWBMP activities in the form of Village Conservation Groups (VCGs). VCGs include village members from a range of livelihood backgrounds and for present purposes are sufficient in number and coverage. How ever, as discussed in Section 3.5.1, a legacy of community expectations not being met exists causing the local community to mistrust project intentions. A gap also exists between the actual and planned relationship between government stakeholders at the national level. The MoEF (mandate to manage the ECA via the DoE) and the Ministry of Civil Aviation and Tourism (MCAT) are at odds over how to manage the site. The MoEF intends to manage the site for biodiversity conservation and protect the ecologically critical status of the site, while the MCAT wants to proceed with the development of the site as an exclusive tourist zone which, according to the New Age National (17/01/2005) means transforming the Island into a tourist zone with world-class amenities via a master plan implemented by the LGED. Another gap in stakeholder relations is also evident at the field level between the St Martins Island Project and the CWBMP, both of which are being implemented by the MoEF (the former directly, the latter via the DoE). While both have a goal of biodiversity conservation, among others, there appears to be neither agreement on the best way to achieve biodiversity conservation and ecotourism development at the site, nor coordination of activities at field level.

5.3.2 Rationale
The main requirements for maintaining good stakeholder relations include improving stakeholder understanding of the necessity for managing the site for biodiversity conservation, regaining the trust of the local community and strengthening the capacity of the VCGs to be active co-managers of the ECA, providing alternative livelihoods for those most highly -dependent resource users within the ECA and establishing community-based enforcement of ECA rules and regulations and other relevant legisla tion. Improving stakeholder awareness of the necessity for managing the site for biodiversity conservation will facilitate cooperation and the implementation of other management activities. Particularly important is the development of a common understanding between government departments of the modalities of future management of the site with respect to biodiversity conservation. The site can serve the dual purposes of biodiversity conservation and tourism, as long as tourism is managed appropriately and all tourism development/management is along the lines of true ecotourism. Awareness raising both at the village level and within the greater community is an important component of the overall strategy for site management as it can foster understanding and support for site management. Given community respect for the Bangladesh Navy and Coastguard, and therefore their scope in positively influencing the community, they should be utilised where possible in awareness raising activities. There is scope within the CWBMP to utilise professional assistance for awareness raising activities, which should be drawn upon for these activities. The inclusion of Fisheries Management Organisations (FMOs) in ECA management should also be considered as these represent resource users for whom behaviour changes will have a positive impact on biodiversity conservation at the site.
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Regaining the trust of the local community is particularly important for the success of future management. Unless CWBMP makes strong efforts to gainfully and meaningfully include the local community in conservation efforts, co-management attempts will be thwarted through a lack of trust by the local community. VCGs have been organised to facilitate sustainable conservation and management of biodiversity, but need to be strengthened to actively participate in the comanagement of the site. Their capacity to identify, develop and implement their own sustainable biodiversity management activities linked with local government initiatives needs to be built, as does their capacity to play a central role in monitoring the enforcement of ECA regulations. Institutionalisation of the VCGs, both through their inclusion in Local ECA Committees and their registration as legal entities, will further strengthen their capacity to co-manage the site. Tourism, the diversification of agriculture and handicrafts are the main alternative livelihood opportunities offered by the site. There is considerable scope for alternative income generating opportunities via ecotourism development, as outlined in Section 6. The St Martins Island Project has trained 203 Islanders between 2002 and 2006 in different alternatives livelihoods including the making of plaster of paris items, wooden handicrafts, coconut handicrafts, carpentry, housemaking, bamboo crafts, tour guiding and special cookery (for tourists) (A.M.Kamruz Zaman, pers.comm. 29 August 2006). Any income opportunities that arise from site management, particularly from ecotourism development, must be reserved for the local community only. The population is highly dependent on fishing. Fruit and vegetable diversification is necessary to provide an alternative livelihood and reduce the pressure on fish biodiversity. Under no circumstances should any invasive alien species be introduced for alternative incomes/livelihoods awareness needs to be raised among the community regarding the effect of invasive species on biodiversity. DoE does not currently have the manpower or other resources to ensure the effective enforcement of envir onmental law within the ECA. An integral component of the co -management of the site will be community-based enforcement that is developed and managed by DoE. The local community have expressed a willingness to participate in community-based enforcement.

5.3.3 Management actions


5.3.3.1 Improve stakeholder understanding and cooperation Establish a common understanding of the future management of the site between MoEF and MCAT (see Section 6.3.3), and between the St Martins Island Project and CWBMP. Imple ment the awareness raising program specific for site users as outlined in Annex 13. Prepare and conduct a program of awareness raising for local government decision makers regarding the importance of the site for species and habitats (based on the contents of Annex 13); explain proposed management actions and seek their collaboration in managing the site. Prepare and conduct awareness raising activities, to reach all sectors of the wider community (based on the contents of Annex 13) that promotes the site as an ECA and increases understanding of the sites management requirements. Utilise, among others, the Bangladesh Navy and Coastguard where possible in awareness raising activities. Identify opportunities to work in partnership with similar programmes and projects to promote synergies in the implementation of activities and to avoid overlap and duplication of effort. Extend co-management to include Fisheries Management Organisations (FMOs) etsablished under ECFCP.

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5.3.3.2 Rebuild trust/strengthen VCGs Ensure the community understands that DoE will be managing the ECA beyond the life of both the St Martins Island Project and CWBMP, and that long-term management will be based on a model of co-management with the community. Identify in collaboration with the community their role and responsibility as a partner and comanager of the site. Identify current strengths and weaknesses in relation to their roles and responsibilities and provide capacity building in those areas they see fit, focusing on those already experienced in community participation activities under the ECFCP and along lines of discipline-specific responsibility. In addition to those needs identified above, ensure capacity building training in identifying, developing and submitting biodivers ity conservation initiatives to DoE, assessing biological indicators, monitoring activity outcomes and participating in local government and ECA management institutional setting. Link VCGs with civil society volunteer mentors, including college and high sc hool teachers and reputable clubs dedicated to social service/environmental protection. Identify suitable individuals within VCGs that are prepared to act as Community Focal Points; and provide training as required. Institutionalise the VCGs through their inclusion in the Local ECA Committee, representation in DC Committee, UP/Upazilla meetings and registration with the social welfare department/ Joint Stock Company as per VOs under ECFCP; draft MOUs/guidelines to ensure VCG inclusion in the Local ECA Committee and representation in DC Committee/Upazilla meetings is meaningful. VCG members (at least one representative from each) should be included in Upazilla/District administrative committee/related committees (e.g. environment, forestry, agricultural, fisheries, land use committees etc.) and recognised as important stakeholders. Draft policy with the community which gives them the legal authority to co -manage the site beyond the life of the project; use policy and legal expertise provided for under the CWBMP to revise and discuss the policy; and submit to DoE as a policy suggestion. Share any new information about the site, CMP implementation and ECA management in general promptly with the community via VCG meetings. Include the VCGs/local community in the annual review of CMP implementation and major (three -yearly) reviews of the CMP as outlined in Section 11. Develop a reliable communications system for the VCGs to enable their timely participation in co-management. Establish a system for CWBMP/government recognition of VCG achievements with respect to biodiversity conservation or active ECA co-management and award annually. Link VCGs into local government service providers and NGOs to ensure ongoing access to support mechanisms. Create a common account fund for all VCGs and a saving scheme similar to that established under ECFCP for emergencies and start-up loans.

5.3.3.3 Alternative livelihoods Assess the progress of ECFCP in the development of alternative livelihood/income-generating opportunities at the site and all lessons learnt. Prepare guidelines for the development of alternative livelihood/income-generating opportunities based on ECFCP lessons learnt and biodiversity conservation guidelines.
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Draft a list of alternative livelihood/income-generating opportunities with the community that are feasible for the site and its inhabitants (including those mentioned by Tomascik (1997) and as per ECFCP experience) and rank in order of community interest. Consider at least agriculture, including fruit diversification via homestead orchards and the use of the coconut plant for bedding, buttons, brushes and rope, handicrafts and tourism alternatives. Prepare guidelines for all agricultural- based alternatives identified that encourage the cultivation of local spe cies yielding at least the same as HYVs, organic agricultural practices and the use of IPM. Demonstrate these agriculture best -practice methods via awareness raising and demonstration plots. Establish maize as a food, fodder and fuel alternative. Provide credit support for establishing alternatives assessed as feasible. Provide training in, and the opportunity for developing, alternative income-generating possibilities provided by the development of ecotourism as outlined in Section 6, e.g. souvenir and handicrafts production; tour guiding; running the Information/Visitors Centre, providing accommodation; tourism infrastructure works etc. Assist in the marketing requirements of all relevant alternatives.

5.3.3.4 Establish community-based enforcement Raise awareness among the community for the need for community-based enforcement and identify those willing to participate in a program of community-based enforcement. Raise awareness among the community of the main enforcement problems. Draft guidelines for the operation of a program of community-based enforcement. Train participants in implementing the program and monitoring the program. Implement DoE/community-based enforcement for the protection of species and habitats as per existing and new ECA regulations outlined in Section 4.3/Annex 12 of this plan.

5.3.4 Risks
To be inserted

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6.

TOURISM

6.1 Evaluation
Ecotourism is not only widely recognised as a tool for biodiversity conservation and may also be the only long-term sustainable development path open to isolated communities (Denmam, 1992 in Tomascik, 1997), and thus will play an important role in the management of St Martins Island for biodiversity conservation. The site is already heavily used for tourism, but the form of tourism taking place at the Island is both unplanned and unregulated. Despite the current adverse impact of tourism on biodiversity features at the site, tourism can and should continue at the Island, albeit in a different form. Large scale tourism development is not an option given the environmental limitations of the site thus while St Martins Island should continue to accommodate visitors, these should be restricted in number and only to those areas within the site designated for tourism under zoning described in Section 3.2. All forms of tourism on the Island need to be managed and developed in an environmentally-friendly way. The site has many points of interest for tourism. Firstly, it is the countrys only truly offshore island. While there are several islands in Bangladesh, most are very close to, and in many cases are generally extensions of, the mainland - except during high tide. In contrast, the 34 km journey to the Island down the Naff River estuary and across the Bay of Bengal far from the mainland imparts a true sense of sea adventure. The Island is a source of pride for Bangladeshi nationals and most who can afford it consider it a destination they must visit during their lifetime. Secondly the Island supports a relatively pristine natural environment, including clear blue waters (outside the rainy season), extensive beach areas, rocky reefs, coral colonies and coral-associated fishes and invertebrates, birds and marine turtles. The Island also supports a wild rocky land habitat that is unique in Bangladesh. While migratory birds and marine turtles occur seasonally the season corresponds with the tourist season. Thirdly, the site offers a respite from the hustle and bustle of overcrowded and noisy cities and towns, and thus opportunities for quiet enjoyment. Local soc ial and cultural norms and Islander lifestyle are additional points of interest for tourism. The actual carrying capacity of the site is unknown. Tomascik (1997) estimated the real carrying capacity, i.e. physical carrying capacity corrected for the cons traints of weather, sea conditions and the Ramadan period to be 861 visits per day. The effective carrying capacity, i.e. the maximum number of visits that can be managed by the level of site management (linked to the provision of physical facilities such as lodgings, potable water, sanitary toilets, garbage facilities etc., and the number of park managers, etc.) could not be estimated, but given the lack of these facilities the effective carrying capacity would be lower than 861 visits per day. According to Tomascik (1997) the local community tolerated the 150-200 visits per day and with close consultation could probably tolerate 500-800 visits per day. It is impossible to estimate the daily tourist visits from the information provided by the St Martins Island Project as these are whole -season figures and visits are not distributed evenly throughout the season. However, based on the estimates given for tourist visits to the Island in December 2005 and January 2006 (Section 3.5.2), there were around 500-833 visits to the Island daily. The current level of visitation is having an adverse impact on biodiversity features though this is generally not a result of the actual numbers visiting the site, but the lack of management of the activities of those that visit the site. The Island can support the current level of visitation if activities are managed. Actual demand is high and potential demand is good, given that there are few opportunities in Bangladesh for nature-based tourism, a growing awareness in Bangladesh of the enjoyment of
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nature-based tourism, the huge seasonal tourist market of neighbouring Coxs Bazar and a growing middle -class with increasing disposable incomes. The site does not need to be further promoted domestically, given the existing high le vel of awareness of, and interest in, the Island as a popular tourist destination within Bangladesh. There is little scope for increased demand from international tourists; as Tomascik (1997) noted, while marine ecotourism has become increasingly popular worldwide St Martins Island has, compared to other areas, relatively little to offer in terms of unique marine attractions. Compared to other areas, the Island has relatively low aesthetic value and the shallow depths, very poor visibility, low diversity o marine biota and lack of coral reefs means f the possibility of attracting international divers is low (ibid, 1997). Nevertheless there is sufficient domestic demand to ensure the viability of ecotourism development. Access to the site via boat is reasonably simple in the peak tourist season, with several vessels departing to and returning from the Island each day. Each vessel has an official capacity of between 300 and 400 persons, with many more accommodated when necessary. Access is limited outside the peak tourist season as regular services do not depart due to the weather and thus unfavourable conditions in the bay. Local boat owners regularly make the crossing outside the peak season in good weather conditions, and may be hired by tourists for this purpose. This is an unpopular option though, given the perceived safety of the smaller local vessels and unorganised nature of departures. Access within the site is limited, but is sufficient to meet the needs of most tourism currently. There is currently a sufficient amount of accommodation and restaurant facilities etc. to meet the needs of overnight stays. However, tourism infrastructure is unsuitable with respect to managing the waste of tourists. Many organisations and individuals provide tourist facilities at the site. The management of tourism at the site by DoE as part of its ECA management mandate should not involve the duplication of facilities provided by existing providers but rather ensure that existing provisions are managed to avoid or minimise any adverse impact on the environment. Ecotourism development at the site by CWBMP/DoE should also include collaboration with other initiatives intending to develop ecotourism, e.g. the St Martins Island Project. Tourism-related stakeholders include current and future owners and operators of tourism services, the local community, government agencies and the St Martins Island Project. Tourism service providers in general expect to be able to continue providing services with little or no restrictions, which is not possible if tourism at the site is managed to minimise harm to the environment. The local community are generally interested in seeing tourism continue to develop at the site, but wish to benefit more than they are currently doing so. Reasonably resource dependent, the local community cannot realistically reduce their dependence on the natural resources of the site without alternatives. There is sufficient scope for their participation in ecotourism developed at the site as a main alternative inc ome generating opportunity. The MCAT is a major stakeholder and is currently in conflict with the MoEF regarding the designation of the Island as an exclusive tourist zone and its development as such. The expectations of the MCAT, Bangladesh Parjatan Cor poration (BPC) and the private sector for how tourism should be developed at the site definitely differ from the expectations of DoE and the community. Regardless, the MCAT, BPC and the private sector will all be important stakeholders in the development of ecotourism at the site, as community-based tourism needs to be done in partnership with such stakeholders. Ecotourism development is also a component of the St Martins Island Project but initial efforts thus far suggest the encouragement of conventional tourism only. The emphasis on ecotourism rather than conventional tourism, and ecotourisms main role as a strategy for biodiversity conservation needs to be affirmed at the site for all stakeholders.
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Resources are available within the CWBMP for ecotourism development at the site, after which alternative resources will need to be found and sustainable funding mechanisms developed. A carefully considered plan for ecotourism development can serve as a bidding document to secure further funds. In defining zones for management of the site, core protection zones for coral, turtles and migratory birds were identified, several of which should function for ecotourism as well.

6.2 Objective for access and tourism


6.2.1 Management objective
All tourism at the site will be based on policy developed specifically for tourism in ECAs, including environmentally-friendly tourism based on ecotourism best-practice principles and functioning as an integral component of conservation strategies for biodiversity at the site. All tourism will be within the carrying capacity of both the site in general and of specific areas within the site. Ecotourism development at the site will help raise awareness throughout Bangladesh and regionally and internationally about the ecological importance of the site, particularly for marine turtles, birds and coral. National and international visitors, particularly the wildlife watching community, will be attracted to the site, as will educational groups. Ecotourism will be community-based, providing an important source of alternative income for community groups and reducing the pressure of unsustainable resource use on the site. Tourism will respect local values social, cultural and religious. Ecotourism will also be an important source of funds to support the cost of ongoing management of the site. While tourism management and development will be overseen by those responsible for ECA management, all stakeholders will be involved in managing and developing tourism at the site, including the local community, government agencies, the private sector and other projects/NGOs.

6.2.2 Performance indicators and monitoring


The indicators should measure the quality and quantity of tourism provided at the site. The main tourism objectives for the site are the management of current conventional tourism in an environmentally-friendly way and the development of community-based ecotourism as an alternative source of income, thus indicators need to reflect these priorities. This includes indicators for the gree ning of current conventional tourism and for community involvement and reduced dependence on natural resource use. The indicators should be reviewed when ecotourism programs are developed and implemented. Indicator
1. Number of visitors

Method
Count total number of visitors coming to the site, including whether domestic or international. Count total number of visitors at each location within the site. Collect information on number of overnight stays from hotels

Location
At jetty in St Martins Island and at ghats at Teknaf All points of interest

Frequency
Ongoing during peak season

Data format
Total number of visitors at each point of interest; total number of visitors.

2. Distribution of visitors

Ongoing during peak season Monthly in tourist season

Total number of visitors at each location

3. Overnight stays

At hotels

Total number of overnight stays per month

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Indicator
4. Level of tourist satisfaction

Method
Measure formally by structured questionnaires for 10% of visitors

Location
At hotels, on tourist vessels/boats

Frequency
Structured questionnaire each season

Data format
Depends on structure of questionnaire and comments received in visitor books but should include compilation of positive comments, improvements suggested, and complaints Financial year figure

5. Amount of funds raised from ecotourism for site management

Calculate total amount of funds raised from ecotourism for site management

NA

Annually (every tourist season)

6. Number of local Count number of community individuals members directly involved involved in tourism provision

At all points of the program

Annually (every tourist season)

Total number, and number by occupation e.g. interpretive guides, accommodation providers, souvenirs sellers, information centre/visitor centre employees Total number, and number by resource-use category

7. Number of community members diverted from natural resource use

Survey local community

Whole site

Annually

6.3 Status and Rationale


6.3.1 Status
Tourism at the site is currently unsustainable; almost all tourism activities are non environmenta llyfriendly and not based on ecotourism best-practices. Tourism is currently adversely affecting both biodiversity and the natural landscape of the Island, and is above the Islands carrying capacity both generally (given the level of management) and at specific points of the site. Plans for future private tourism development continue unabated and are not based on ecotourism principles. Current tourism has raised awareness of specific natural features of the site but not the significance of the site for the ongoing conservation of those features, or the importance of those features both nationally and globally. Tourism at the site is currently conducted with extremely limited participation of the local community, with direct benefits accruing mainly to the non-Islander tourism service providers. Benefits to the local community are secondary, based only on the increased demand for food, souvenirs and other miscellaneous items. As a result, tourism has increased rather than reduced the pressure on natural res ource use, as the limited benefits to the majority of the community mean they are still dependent on resources use for livelihoods. Current tourism also neither respects local social and cultural norms, nor provides any income for the ongoing management of the site.

6.3.2 Rationale
To maximise the benefits of tourism for biodiversity conservation there needs to be a greening of current conventional tourism at the site, including the management of tourism within the carrying capacity of the site, and the de velopment of ecotourism activities related directly to biodiversity
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conservation strategies. Thus the main management actions required for tourism include the development of policy for tourism at the site, the control of current tourism to minimise tourisms adverse effects and the development of ecotourism opportunities including associated facilities/infrastructure. Developing ecotourism at the site requires a collaborative effort between the community, relevant government agencies and the private tourism sector. While community-based, the local community will need to be linked with the tourism sector which will provide advice on developing and managing tourism. The capacity of the local community to participate in tourism development and management needs to be built, partnerships between the local community and other stakeholders need to be developed for the co-management of ecotourism at the site and logistical and infrastructure requirements addressed. A draft plan for ecotourism development as outlined in Annex 14 will be shared with the local community and other stakeholders and revised according their input. All opinions will be considered but the main focus of ecotourism development at the site will be that it is community-based and must employ local community members. Awareness raising among tourism providers regarding the impact tourism is currently having on the site and its biodiversity values is the first step in greening the current conventional tourism taking place. It is the responsibility of tourism service providers to provide an environmentally-friendly service for tourists to enjoy. While awareness raising for tourists directly is also important, it is tourist service providers that can lead by example and provide the scope for tourists to have a limited impact on the site. Ecotourism best-practices standards for tourist service providers need to be developed and implemented. Service providers should be certified against these standards, with those not meeting the standards being removed from the Island. Many new ECA rules regarding the conservation of biodiversity at the site have been identified in Section 4.3/Annex 12 and these should be incorporated into tourism best practices. This management plan has identified core protection, buffer and general use zones, with functions and restrictions, including those relating to tourism. The zoning need to be implemented as soon as possible and managed accordingly. The development of ecotourism programs as identified for those zones should proceed based on the draft programs provided in Annex 14. Preliminary scoping indicates ecotourism opportunities exist for bird watching, marine turtle observation, scuba diving and snorkelling, dolphin watching, trail walking and coral appreciation. In additio n to a range of ecotourism programs, the site will have an Information Centre that will serve as the focal point for ecotourism at the site. Another option is the inclusion of St Martins Island ECA in a wider ECA Tour program which visits all ECAs in Bangladesh. The ecotourism program at the site will increase public understanding and awareness of marine turtles, migratory birds and coral at the site and raise the profile of the ECA and the global significance of its habitats for these species/communitie s both nationally and internationally, provide an alternative livelihood source for the local community and generate funds for the ongoing management of the site. The capacity of the local community to participate in ecotourism activities needs to be assessed based on the anticipated requirement of the proposed programs, and training conducted. Training will be required for guiding and manning an information centre. One or two ecotourism programs will be developed initially as pilot programs and to enable the local community to learn on the job. For all of the programs a core of local community members will be trained in ecotourism guiding. All programs will have both a self-guided or guided -tour option, with the exception of the turtle observation progra m which will be guided-tour only. Registered guides will be present at all ecotourism locations at the site for answering questions, assisting tourists and monitoring tourist behaviour.
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6.3.3 Management actions


A. Policy and planning 1. Develop a tourism policy for the site in collaboration with MCAT based on the CBD Guidelines on Biodiversity and Tourism Development and management actions proposed in this conservation management plan. Include at least: sustainable funding mechanisms, infrastructure development, operation of tourism services, zoning, local community involvement, other private sector involvement, benefit sharing, pricing, ecotourism standards and eco -certification of tourism service providers, marketing and promotion of ecotourism products, t e roles and responsibilities of DoE/MoEF and MCAT in ECA h tourism development and management. 2. Extend ECA regulations where necessary to include rules related to tourism development management based on policy developed in (1) above. 3. Prepare a draft Ecotourism Master Plan in collaboration with MCAT based on the policy and ecotourism development programs identified in Annex 14, and share with all stakeholders including the local community. 4. Finalise the plan and have it approved and endorsed by DoE, MoEF and MCAT. 5. Implement the Master Plan in collaboration with MCAT/BPC, the local community and tourism service providers. B. Management of current tourism 1. Raise awareness among all stakeholders, e.g. tourists, tourism service providers, local community, local government, MCAT and other relevant initiatives/organisations about the status of St. Martins Island as an ECA and its significance for biodiversity, the impact of current tourism on biodiversity and natural resources, ECA regulations, the necessity for mana ging tourism with respect to biodiversity conservation and the intention to develop community-based ecotourism to protect biodiversity, maintain the suitability of the Island for tourism and provide alternative sustainable livelihoods for the local community. 2. Raise awareness among the same group of ecotourism best practices. 3. Calculate the current Tourism Carrying Capacity (TCC) of the Island and sites within the Island; based on the TCC, set quotas for the number of tourists entering the site and staying overnight, and the numbers joining tourism programs to specific areas within the site. 4. Place a moratorium on any further infrastructure development until the ECA specific Tourism Policy is developed. 5. Develop and implement ecotourism standards and best practice guidelines for tourists and tourism service provider (hotels, motels, restaurants, tour operators etc.). 6. Engage current tourism providers in conservation activities. 7. Establish check points at various entry/departure points, e.g. at the St Martins Island jetty, Golachipa, to monitor tourist numbers and activities. 8. Implement zoning as identified in section 3.2 which includes zoning for tourism. Restrict and manage movement in and around turtle nesting sites, migratory bird habitat, sand dune areas and cor al areas. 9. Develop and introduce an eco-friendly sewerage disposal and waste management system based on site requirements. 10. Develop and enforce strict regulations on the use of ground water by hotel operators, and implement a sustainable water use system based on rain water storage, the use of salt water for flushing toilets and the use of recycled water.

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11. Assess the feasibility of establishing energy alternatives for generators and fuelwood including solar energy. 12. Enforce existing and new ECA regulations as compiled in Annex 12 regarding tourism impacts on biodiversity. 13. Ban and control culturally insensitive behaviour, e.g. the sale and consumption of alcohol, improper dress and prostitution. 14. Develop a joint community-based/DoE monitoring and surveillance program for tourism management and development. C. Development of ecotourism programs Finalise the draft ecotourism programs provided in Annex 14 and implement including: 1. Assess the feasibility of each program outlined in Annex 14, and share with the local community. 2. Preparing a detailed costed proposal for each initiative deemed feasible. 3. Preparing guidelines for the operation of each initiative. 4. Selecting one or two initiatives to be implemented initially as pilot demonstration activities, identify community training needs based on community capacity and the requirements of demonstration programs. 5. Identify suitable organisations to assist the establishment of the demonstration activities, including meeting the community training needs identified above. 6. Implement demonstration activities. 7. Incorporate the results of the demonstration activities into the final ecotourism master plan for the site. D. Development of tourism facilities and infrastructure 1. Assess the facilities/infrastructure requirements for the ecotourism programs proposed in Annex 14 and determine how these needs can best be met. Consider at least: a. A visitors information centre b. Tourists check posts c. Tourist sanitation facilities d. Elevated wooden walk ways in the rocky inter-tidal area/rocky land habitat. e. Elevated observation platforms/bird hides f. Community-based meals/accommodation facilities for tourists. 2. Collaborate with the St Martins Island Project in assssing the feasibility of developing a Living Aquarium. E. Coordination 1. Prepare a Memorandum of Understanding between DoE/MoEF and MCAT clarifying the roles, responsibilities and coordination mechanisms between both parties with respect to tourism in the ECA. 2. Coordinate with the St Martins Island Project/MoEF on all tourism management and development initiatives at the site.

6.3.4 Risks
To be inserted by relevant discipline

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7.

INTERPRETATION

7.1 Evaluation
There is a large audience of visitors to the Island to justify the provision of interpretation features. The protection of the site and its biodiversity features requires site -specific messages, especially around the role and importance of ECA declaration for the conservation of biodiversity and the sustainability of natural resources. Interpretation provisions should also be used to raise awareness of the significance of the site, and also of ECA rules and regulations. The declaration of ECAs and their management are new concepts in Bangladesh thus interpretation provisions can help visitors attain a greater awareness and understanding of the site, its features and its management. For all the ecotourism programs proposed, interpretation in its various forms will be important and will be developed as an integral component of the programs.

7.2 Site Specific Interpretation Policy


The planning and provision of interpretation at the site will be an important part of managements efforts to conserve biodiversity at the site through improved awareness and appreciation of the species and habitats, thus adequate resources (time and financia l) need to be devoted to this task. The proposed ecotourism programs and Information Centre all have interpretation requirements, including the planning and drafting of interpretation specific to each and the physical production and installation of interpretation features. Once both the draft ecotourism programs and Information Centre requirements (outlined in Annex 14) have been finalised, personnel should be employed to advise the Ecotourism Development Officers on the best form interpretation can take for each program and for the site as a whole. The cost of this assistance can be drawn from the budget for unallocated inputs or awareness raising under the CWBMP.

7.3 Performance Indicators and Monitoring


Monitoring indicators for interpretation can be done in much the same way as for tourism in general (Section 6.3). Indicators should provide management with information on the success or otherwise of interpretation in educating, informing and positively changing the perceptions of tourists with respect to the importance of biodiversity conservation, the role of ECAs in Bangladesh, the role of DoE in managing ECAs and the role of the greater community (including themselves). Indicator Method Location Frequency Data format

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8.

OPERATIONAL OBJECTIVES

8.1 Operational Objectives


The main operational objective for the management of St Martins Island ECA is the sustainability of the current ECA management structure, both institutionally and financially. Other important objectives include the preparation of appropriate policy for ECA management; a commitment to enforcing existing legislation relevant to the site; the promulgation and enforcement of new ECA rules as identified in this management plan; the institutionalisation of ECA management that maintains effective arrangements for intersectoral coordination and collaboration at the local and national levels; and capacity building within the DoE for biodiversity management in general and ECA management in particular.

8.2 Rationale
The main operational objective for the management of St Martins Island ECA is the sustainability of the current ECA management structure. Unless the establishment of a permanent structure for site management is assured at the field level, site man agement will cease, or at best be minimal, once the CWBMP ends in 2009. Funding for ECA management is limited by DoE budgetary allocations and alternative sources of sustainable of funding need to be sought. Ecotourism can provide one source of funds but will not be sufficient to meet all needs. Other alternatives need to be sought. As discussed in Section 2.1 of this plan, there is no specific policy for ECA management in Bangladesh. The CWBMP provides for the development of policies towards ECAs, in particular the further development of criteria and plans for selection of ECAs, including replication of the concept and ways of ensuring their sustainable funding and, most importantly, means of addressing conflict with other sectoral-based legislation. The d evelopment of a policy framework that is consistent with, and effectively supports, ECA management objectives is integral for the institutionalisation of ECA management. Until this is done, field-level operations will be compromised. Another important operational consideration is the DoEs legal obligations with respect to environmental management. It is necessary that DoE commits to enforcing legislation relevant to the site and collaborates with other relevant agencies to do the same. Closely related is the requirement for ECA regulations currently specified under the BECA (1995) to be legislated and enforced and the promulgation and enforcement of new ECA rules as identified in this management plan. This will probably involve an amendment to the Act itself as currently the only rules that can be promulgated are those relating to standards 12 and 13 of the ECR (1997), which provide insufficient scope for managing the threats to biodiversity at the site. As for policy, the legal framework also needs to be consistent with, and effectively support, ECA management objectives. Effective arrangements for intersectoral coordination are extremely important for institutionalising the concept of ECA management, addressing and minimising intersectoral conflict and affirming DoEs role in coordinating and implementing environmental management. This is important at all levels, from the field through to the MoEF. Arrangements are currently underway for establishing a Local ECA Committee that will facilitate intersectoral coordination at field level, and that will report to the National ECA Committee, which will facilitate intersectoral coordination at a national level. But the Local ECA Committee is insufficient to support the day to day field -level coordination required between the ECA site management office and village conservation groups for
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effective ECA management, especially given the distance between the site and the ECAMU. A model similar to that adopted by other departments at district level, i.e. Upazilla based sub-offices, is required. Given the remote nature of the site and its relative inaccessibility for a good portion of the year, the stationing of an entry-level DoE officer at the St Martins Island Parishad is strongly recommended. Apart from non-DoE technical staff that are contracted until the CWBMP finished in 2009, the site office is currently staffed by one DoE officer (ECA Management Officer or ECAMO), with the expectation that DoE will maintain both the office and ECAMO position as part of their p lanned expansion to district level. While conversant with DoE policy, law enforcement and environmental management in general, the two DoE persons that have assumed the ECAMO position at the field office during the life of the CWBMP thus far have had neither backgrounds nor training in biodiversity conservation or protected area management. This is indicative of DoE personnel in general. Capacity building within the DoE for biodiversity management in general and ECA management in particular is thus an impor tant operational consideration. The recent and large increase in transfer of land ownership from the local community to outsiders continues, threatening to compromise the present state of the site. The transfer of land ownership needs to be arrested if ma nagement for biodiversity conservation is to continue at the site. The leasing of government khas land needs to be arrested for the same reason. A marine research laboratory should be established to gain a better understanding of the St Martins Island ecosystem, as recommended by the NCSIP -1 and provided for under the CWBMP.

8.3 Management Actions


Seek commitment from DoE, HQ to establish the current Coxs Bazar CWBMP office (ECAMU) as the central government coordinating agency responsible for ECA management in the district, under DoEs planned expansion of DoE offices at the district level, including one ECAMO. In staffing the planned DoE office at district level, ensure the ECAMO position is at a level equivalent to that of other departments represented at district level, i.e. Deputy Director, to facilitate intersectoral coordination. Establish, as part of the planned expansion of DoE to district level, representation of the DoE (entry-level officer) in the Teknaf Upazilla Headquarters, as per the current arrangements of Departments of Fisheries, Agriculture, Education etc. to coordinate ECA management activities between the village level and the site management office in Coxs Bazar and the Local ECA Committee. Station an entry-level officer at St Martin s Island Union Parishad to act as an ECA ranger. Assess the anticipated staffing needs for site management at field level beyond the life of CWBMP, and ensure that staff employed is qualified in biological sciences; incorporate existing National Project Professional Personnel (NPPPs) into that structure where possible. Assess the funding required to manage the ECA post-CWBMP, the shortfall between that required and funding available from government sources, and the feasibility of alternatives. In scoping funding alternatives consider, among others, submission of proposals to international organisations funding conservation work, particularly for birds, coral and turtles. Review existing policy relevant to the site (outlined in Section 2.1) and identify where conflicts arise; provide recommendations to DoE HQ for changes to conflicting policies, and ensure draft ECA policy addresses those conflicts. Ensure that any ECA policy developed legitimises the comanagement role of VCGs/the local community.
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Prepare a draft ecotourism policy (see Section 6.3) as part of general ECA policy consistent with the principles of ECA management, i.e. the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity resources, and have the policy included in national development plans. Ensure ECA policy considers conservation incentives (financial and non-financial) and includes scope for voluntary conservation agreements between landholders and DoE at the site. Determine the requirements for establishing certification of ECAs under internationally recognised categories of protected area (e.g. IUCN categories) and undertake to attain certification; and include this alignment in ECA policy. Enforce current relevant legislation under BECA (1995) at the site, and collaborate with other releva nt agencies to do the same. Seek assistance from DoE Chittagong Divisional Office in the enforcement of law and regulations relating to ECAs. Assess the requirements for amending the BECA, 1995, to accommodate legislation for the effective management of ECAs; finalise the compilation of new ECA rules specific to the site (a draft list of rules is provided in Annex 12) and submit to DoE HQ for review and promulgation. Ensure that any ECA legislation developed legitimises the co-management role of VCGs/the local community. Enforce, and monitor the implementation of, the new detailed ECA rules. Establish and implement community-based enforcement as outlined in Section 5.3.3. Submit a proposal for the inclusion of marine areas in the ECA as outlined in Section 3 .1.1. Establish and maintain the Local ECA Committee, with a broad representation of stakeholders. Work closely with the Ministry of Relief and Disaster Management to ensure collaborative efforts with respect to disaster management within the ECA. Collabor ate with the Coastguard to facilitate their participation in ECA management. Collaborate with the Ministry of Health to control natural population growth at the site. Collaborate with MCAT and BPC to develop ecotourism at the site (see Section 6). Collect information on any future development plans for the site and address the impact of these plans to decision makers. Provide training for the ECAMO in biodiversity conservation and PA management, including conservation management planning. This could include a series of workshops on PA management and study tours to successful examples of multiple-use protected areas within the South Asia region, but should include at a minimum a formal study program at Masters Level. Training via workshops at least should be arranged as soon as possible. Seek a commitment from DoE, HQ to retain a core of DoE staff trained in those areas listed above for maintaining the conservation management capacity of the site office beyond the life of CWBMP. Seek a commitment from DoE HQ to minimise where possible turnover in the ECAMO position until at least a core of trained personnel is available for the role. Seek a commitment from DoE, HQ for trained personnel who are transferred out of ECA management roles to retain both a role as mentor to ECA management personnel, and a position in biodiversity/PA management. Ban any further transfer of land ownership on the Island via a letter from the DG, DoE. Ban any further leasing of government khas land. Set up a well-equipped marine research laboratory staffed by qualified biologists to monitor the development of coral, associated algae and fish fauna. Implement the work plan as outlined in Section 9 of this plan. Maintain the ecological monitoring program as outlined in Section 10 of this plan, via the implementation of participatory monitoring and evaluation with the local community.

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Maintain all review and subsequent reporting requirements as outlined in Section 11 of this plan.

8.4 Risks
To be inserted by ECAMO/PMU

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9.

M ANAGEMENT ACTION P LAN

Management actions outlined in the CMP are compiled here as activities with timeframes for initiation (i.e. when each activity should start) and responsibilities. The activities listed are summarised versions of the management actions in implementing each activity the full description and rationale of each, as outlined in the CMP, should be referred to.

SL No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

CMP Ref 3.1.1 3.1.1 3.1.5 3.1.6 3.2

Activity Decision regarding marine areas for inclusion in ECA Review of land ownership Decision regarding map procurement based on future needs identified in CMP Organise photo library and database Finalise zonation including dec ision by MoEF with respect to different zonations proposed by the two projects Establish and manage zones Survey of invasive alien plant species and impact on biodiversity at the site Finalise surveys of fish fauna Procure recent research reports from St Martin's island Project once cleared by Ministry Identify fuelwood needs Assess feasibility of establishing alternative source of fuelwood; establish plantation(s) Implement program of assisted regeneration of Pandanus Assess intention of landowner owning land with remaining mangrove patch Awareness raising of landowner as per CMP Assess possibility of initiating voluntary conservation agreement with landowner and planting additional 1 ha at area

Q4 2006 Q3 2007

Q4 2007 Q3 2010

PostQ4 2010

Responsibility ECA Cell DoE/PMU PMU ECAMO NPPPs/PMU CWBMP/DoE Plant NPPPs Fish NPPPs PMU Plant NPPPs/VCGs Plant NPPPs/VCGs Plant NPPPs/VCGs Plant NPPPs Plant NPPPs Plant NPPPs
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3.3.2.2

4.3.1.3

4.3.2.3

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SL No. 16 17 18

CMP Ref

Activity If feasible fence remaining mangrove area and install signage Plant m angrove - 1 ha at Dahkin Para; 1.5 ha at Deearmatha and 1.5 ha at Cheradia. Identify farmers willing to continue cultivation of indigenous onion variety Prepare and conduct training program to increase yield and reduce relative cost Assist farmers to develop and implement marketing campaign Determine whether sea weed trading still a problem awareness raising of those involved Determine impact of water pollution on algal growth and manage accordingly Contain boat docking and harbouring away from algal areas (see No.4) Cetacean foraging, habitat use, movement pattern and migratory corridor survey Arrange for temporary closure/management of fishing areas identified important for seasonal migration Monitor by-catch for gear -specific threats Seek collaboration from Navy, Coastguard and fishermen in reporting off-shore cetacean observation and mortality Assess feasibility of simple alterations to gear and incorporate into awareness raising activities Implement education and training program to reduce by-catch Ensure all cetacean species included in Bangladesh Wildlife (Preservation) (Amendment) Act 1974 Conduct study of population of Hawksbill turtles around Island Re-establish tagging initiative that began in 2000 Initiate use of TEDs in shrimp/fish trawl nets in Bay of Bengal

Q4 2006 Q3 2007

Q4 2007 Q3 2010

PostQ4 2010

Responsibility Plant NPPPs/VCGs Plant NPPPs/VCGs AEO/HEO NPPPs AEO/HEO NPPPs AEO/HEO NPPPs Plant NPPPs Plant NPPPs PMU/DoE Wildlife NPPPs Wildlife NPPPs Wildlife NPPPs/VCGs ECAMO Wildlife NPPPs Wildlife NPPPs PMU Wildlife NPPPs Wildlife/Fish NPPPs/VCGs Wildlife/Fish NPPPs/VCGs
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4.3.3.3 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33
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4.3.4.3

4.3.5.3

4.3.6.3

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SL No. 34 35

CMP Ref

Activity Implement stray dog control program Monitor progress of revisions to Wildlife (Preservation) (Amendment) Act 1974 for inclusion of marine turtles Facilitate discussions between MoEF and MoFL to clarify lines of responsibility with respect to marine turtle conservation within ECAs Continue ex-situ and in-situ turtle egg conservation programs already in operation, including coordination of all initiatives by DoE Clear pathways through existing artificial boulder embankments following observation of emergence attempts Develop and implement set of guidelines of use of lighting during nesting season Implement system for fishermen for accurate identification of trapped turtles Implement turtle-friendly fishing practices Assess feasibility of establishing volunteer program for turtle conservation Bird habitat survey - establish plantations for habitat recovery not already covered under this plan Introduce IPM methods for farming including judicious use of pesticides Assess feasibility of establishing voluntary conservation agreements with landholders with significant bird habitat Establish control program to eliminate house crow and other alien predatory bird species including was te management system Initiate HPAI H5N1 monitoring program Encourage return to large-meshed bottom-set gill net Review existing fisheries policy and legislation with respect to inclusion of coral-associated fishes

Q4 2006 Q3 2007

Q4 2007 Q3 2010

PostQ4 2010

Responsibility Wildlife NPPPs/VCGs Wildlife NPPPs

36

PMU

37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 4.3.7.3

Wildlife NPPPs/VCGs Wildlife NPPPs/VCGs Wildlife NPPPs Wildlife NPPPs Fish NPPPs/VCGs Wildlife NPPPs Wildlife NPPPs AEO/HEO NPPPs/VCGs Wildlife NPPPs

46 47 48 4.3.8.3 49

Wildlife NPPPs/VCGs Wildlife NPPPs Fish NPPPs/VCGs Fish NPPPs

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SL No. 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63

CMP Ref 4.3.9.3

Activity Code of conduct for snorkeling/SCUBA diving Determine requirements for mooring buoys Annual reef clean program Introduce lobster pots with 'escape routes' for undersized lobsters Encourage responsible harvesting practices including release of juveniles/brood stock crabs and lobsters trapped in gill nets Assess feasibility of establishing sustainable harvesting system for commercially important crustacean species Close down shell markets in St Martin's Island, Cox's Bazar, Chittagong and Dhaka Encourage return of marine invertebrates caught in nets to sea rather than beach Map location and extent of dune impacts Establish pedestrian access routes to beach Pandanus plantation In-situ dune vegetation conservation demonstration plots Assisted regeneration of dunes via demonstration plots Annual "beach clean" program

Q4 2006 Q3 2007

Q4 2007 Q3 2010

PostQ4 2010

Responsibility EDOs NPPPs Wildlife NPPPs Fish NPPPs Fish NPPPs/VCGs Fish NPPPs DoE Fish NPPPs/VCGs NPPPs NPPPs/VCGs Plant NPPPs/VCGs Plant NPPPs/VCGs NPPPs/VCGs NPPPs/VCGs

4.3.10.3

4.3.11.3 4.3.12.3

4.3.14.3

64 65 66 67 68 69

Assess feasibility of estab lishing voluntary conservation 4.3.15.3 agreements with landholders with significant rocky land habitat Revegetate degraded areas with Pandanus, Streblus asper etc. Establish system for prevention of waste thrown overboard 4.3.16.3 Develop and implement system for boat oily waste water disposal Assess feasibility of establishing voluntary conservation 4.3.17.3 agreements with landholders owning mudflat areas 5.3. 3.1 Establish a common understanding between MoEF and MCAT

Wildlife NPPPs Plant NPPPs/VCGs DoE NPPPs/VCGs NPPPs PMU/DoE


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SL No.

CMP Ref

Activity of future management of Island

Q4 2006 Q3 2007

Q4 2007 Q3 2010

PostQ4 2010

Responsibility

70 71 72 73 74 75 5.3.3.2 76 77

78 79

80 81 82 83 84

Establish a common understanding between CWBMP and St Martin's Island Project of future management of Island Employ short term consultant to assist with design of awareness raising initiatives Awareness raising for site users as outlined in Annex 9 Awareness raising for local government decision makers based on Annex 9 Awareness raising for wider community based on Annex 9 Identify opportunities to work with similar programs/projects Raise awareness among community that DoE will be managing SMI as an ECA beyond life of both projects, based on a model of co-management Identify with community their role and responsibility as comanager of ECA Identify community strengths and weaknesses with respect to those roles/responsibilities and provide capacity building training Assess feasibility of increasing VCG membership Capacity building training in developing and submitting conservation initiatives, assessing biological indicators, monitoring activity outcomes and participating in ECA management institutional setting Link VCGs with civil society volunteer mentors Identify and train individuals within VCGs willing to act as community focal points Prepare MOU for meaningful inclusion of VCGs in Local ECA Committee, DC Committee/Upazilla meetings Register VCGs with social welfare department/Joint Stock Company

PMU/DoE PMU NPPPs/Sub contract NPPPs/Sub contract NPPPs/Sub contract ECAMO/PMU

PMU/DoE CD NPPPs

CD NPPPs CD NPPPs

CD NPPPs CD NPPPs CD NPPPs NPPPs/PMU/ECAMO CD NPPPs

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SL No. 85 86 87

CMP Ref

Activity Arrange inclusion of VCG representative in Upazilla/District administrative committee/related committees Draft policy to give community legal authority to co-manage ECAs Develop a reliable communications system for VCGs to enable timely participation in ECA management Establish a system for annual CWBMP/government recognition of VCG achievements with respect to biodiversity conservation/active ECA co-management Link VCGs to local government service providers and NGOs to ensure access to support mechanisms Create common account fund for VCGs and savings system for emergencies and start-up loans as established under ECFCP Assess progress of ECFCP in development of AIGAs/livelihoods and lessons learnt Prepare guidelines for development of AIGAs/livelihoods based on ECFCP lessons learnt and biodiversity conservation guidelines Draft list of feasible AIGAs/livelihoods with community and rank in order of community interest Prepare guidelines for agricultural-based alternatives Demonstrate agriculture best-practice methods via awareness raising and demonstration plots Establish maize as a food, fodder and fuel alternative Provide credit support for establishing feasible alternatives Provide training in and opportunity for developing AIGAs related to ecotourism Assist marketing requirements for all relevant alternatives developed Raise awareness among local community of need for community-based enforcement

Q4 2006 Q3 2007

Q4 2007 Q3 2010

PostQ4 2010

Responsibility ECAMO Subcontract/DoE/VCGs PMU

88 89

PMU/DoE CD NPPPs

90 91

PMU CD NPPPs

92 93 94 95 98 99 100 101 102 5.3.3.4

CD NPPPs CD NPPPs/VCGs AEO/HEO NPPPs AEO/HEO NPPPs AEO/HEO NPPPs PMU EDO NPPPs NPPPs/Sub-contract DoE/Sub-contract
120

5.3.3.3

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SL No. 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119

CMP Ref

Activity Identify community members willing to participate in community enforcement Raise awareness among community of main enforcement problems Draft guidelines for operation of program of community-based enforcement Train participants in implementing and monitoring enforcement program Implement DoE/community enforcement program for species and habitat protection Develop tourism policy for site in collabor ation with MCAT Extend ECA regulations to include rules for tourism development based on policy developed in No. 108 above Prepare draft Ecotourism Master Plan in collaboration with MCAT based on policy developed in No.108 above Finalise master plan and have it approved and endorsed Implement plan in collaboration with MCAT/BPC, local community and tourism service providers Raise awareness of all stakeholders as outlined in Section 6.3.3 (B) Raise awareness among the same group of ecotourism best practices Calculate current carrying capacity and set quotas for visitation based on calculation Place moratorium on any further infrastructure development until ECA tourism policy finalised Develop and implement ecotourism standards and best-practice guidelines Engage current tourism providers in conservation activities Establish checkpoints at entry/departure points to monitor numbers

Q4 2006 Q3 2007

Q4 2007 Q3 2010

PostQ4 2010

Responsibility NPPPs DoE/Sub-contract DoE/Subcontrac t/VCGs DoE/Sub-contract DoE/VCGs EDOs/VCGs PMU/DoE/BELA EDO NPPPs/VCGs EDO NPPPs PMU/DoE EDOs EDOs EDOs DoE EDOs PMU/EDOs DoE

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SL No. 120 121 122 123 124 125 126

CMP Ref

Activity Develop and introduce sewerage disposal and waste management system Develop and enforce strict regulations on use of ground water Assess feasibility of establishing energy alternatives for generators and fuelwood Ban and control culturally insensitive behaviour Develop joint community-based/DoE monitoring and surveillance program for tourism management and development Finalise draft ecotourism programs for site (Annex 13) and implement (see Section 6.3.3 (C)) Assess facilities/infrastructure requirements for ecotourism programs finalised in 126 above Prepare an MOU between DoE/MoEF and MCAT clarifying roles, responsibilities and coordination with respect to tourism in the ECA Coordinate with the St Martin's Island Project/MoEF on all tourism management and development initiative at the site Employ short term consultant to assist with planning and provision of interpretation at the site Plan for provision of interpretation at the site based on needs identified under ecotourism development plan Seek commitment form DoE to establish Cox's Bazar ECAMU as permanent DoE office for ECA management Ensure ECAMO position at Deputy Director level Establish representation of DoE at Teknaf Upazilla HQ Station entry-level officer at SMI Union Parishad to act as ECA ranger Assess post-CWBMP staffing needs of ECAMU at Cox's Bazar and staff accordingly with those qualified in biological sciences

Q4 2006 Q3 2007

Q4 2007 Q3 2010

PostQ4 2010

Responsibility DoE/PMU DoE/PMU NPPPs EDOs EDOs/DOE EDOs/PMU EDOs/PMU/DOE

127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 8.3 7.2

EDO NPPPs EDO NPPPs PMU Sub-contract/EDO NPPPs DoE DoE DoE DoE

135

DoE

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SL No. 136 137 138 142 143

CMP Ref

Activity Assess long term ECA management funding requirements and feasibility of alternatives Assess scope for securing funding from international organisations funding biodiversity conservation work Policy analysis relevant to ECAs and identifying conflicts; draft ECA policy to address conflicts Include legitimisation of VCGs in ECA policy developed Draft ECA-specific ecotourism policy as part of general ECA policy Incorporate conservation incentives (financial and nonfinancial) and scope for voluntary conservation agreements between landholders and DoE in ECA policy Determine requirements for establishing certification of ECAs under internationally recognised categories of protected areas; include alignment in ECA policy Incorporate ECA policy developed in CMP and revise management objectives and actions in light of policy developed Enforce ECA regulations and collaborate with other government agencies to do the same with other relevant legislation Seek assistance from DoE Chittagong in enforcement of law and ECA regulations Assess requirements for amendments to BECA 1995 to accommodate legislation for effective management of ECAs Finalise compilation of new ECA rules based on draft list in Annex 8; forward to DoE for review and promulgation Ensure legislation legitimises role of VCGs as co-managers Enforce and monitor implementation of new rules Establish and implement community-based enforcement (5.3.3.4)

Q4 2006 Q3 2007

Q4 2007 Q3 2010

PostQ4 2010

Responsibility PMU/DoE PMU/DoE PMU/DoE PMU/DoE EDO NPPPs/DoE/PMU

144

PMU/DoE

145

PMU/DoE

145

PMU/ECAMO/NPPPs

146 147 148 149 150 151 152


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SL No. 153 154 155

CMP Ref

Activity Establish and maintain Local ECA Committee Collaborate with MRDM with respect to disaster management in ECA Collaborate with Coastguard in ECA management Collaborate with local government to im prove system of government leasing in ECA/collaborate with MoL to stop leasing land in ECAs Collaborate with relevant government departments to discourage further settlement at site and MoH to control natural population growth at site Collect information on any future development plans for site by other government departments and address impacts of these to decision makers Provide training for ECAMO position in biodiversity conservation and protected are management including a conservation management planning Seek commitment from DOE to retain a core of staff trained in those areas listed in No. 148 to maintain conservation management capacity of office post-CWBMP Seek commitment from DoE to minimise staff turnover in ECAMO position until core of trained personnel available for role Seek commitment from DoE that personnel transferred out of ECAMO position retain role as mentor to ECA management personnel and retain position in PA management Establish database for management action recording as described in Section 10 Conduct annual review of site management in accordance with CMP as outlined in Section 11.1 Conduct long-term review of CMP as described in Section 11.2 Conduct audit of site as described in Section 11.3

Q4 2006 Q3 2007

Q4 2007 Q3 2010

PostQ4 2010

Responsibility PMU/DoE ECAMO DoE

156

ECAMO

157

ECAMO

158

ECAMO

159

PMU/DoE

160

DoE

161

DoE

162 163 164 11 165 166


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DoE PMU PMU/VCGs DoE/VCGs External auditors


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10. M ANAGEMENT ACTION R ECORDING


It is essential that records for all monitoring, management activities, significant events and surveys be maintained. It is important that recording is carried out as an integral part of management, not least because the annual and long-term reviews of the implementation of the management plan (Section 11) will depend entirely on that information. It is also important for the dissemination of information relating to conservation management globally. Information needs to be accessible, thus data need to be collected and stored using accessible and standard systems. A database to manage site data is essential and needs to be developed so that data for all ECA sites can be shared. The replicability of the model of ECA management being developed under CWBMP will be facilitated if information can be shared over all sites. The database should be able to at least: Maintain site records Present reports in an efficient and effective manner Be used to update and amend the conservation management plan Fulfil the information requirements of organisations and individuals Ensure current data are readily available Provide data for national or regional surveys Provide a record of management and site conditions that can be used to demonstrate effective and appropriate site management Highlight failings and inappropriate management

The indicators for an ecological monitoring program are provided in Section 4.2, under each species and habitat. The indicators will change as further information becomes available, as they have been drafted based on limited information of the status of species and habitats within the site. Nevertheless, these indicators should be compiled into a database as soon as possible. The compilation of indicator data should be based on participatory monitoring and evaluation with the local community. An example of software for conservation management planning and recording that covers all database requirements listed above is provided by CMS (www.esdm.co.uk/cms ), which is now (defacto) the British national operations standard for conservation management. The website provides a demonstration model, which is worth looking at.

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11. CMP R EVIEW & ECA AUDIT


11.1 Annual Review
The objective of the annual review is to ensure that the site is being managed in accordance with the approved conservation management plan and that any serious, unexpected events or trends that could affect management are taken into account. It is also an opportunity for the field-based site management team (ECAMU office, Coxs Bazar, and Teknaf sub-office, Teknaf) during the life of CWBMP) to present the preceding years work. The management team responsible for the site (PMU, DoE, HQ during the life of CWBMP; ECA Cell, DoE, HQ post-CWBMP) will conduct an objective appraisal of the preceding years work in collaboration with the site management team, reach an agreement on the next annual work plan taking into consideration the following: all high priority activities should have been completed and all lesser activities reported on; satisfactory explanations should be sought for any high priority activities not completed; shortfalls in achievement and performance for any activities should be noted and recorded against the individual activity, and any necessary adjustments made to the activity record and/or next annual plan; if the amount of resources available for site management changes, i.e. increases or decreases, priorities should be reassessed.

The local community, particularly VCGs, should be included in the annual review.

11.2 Long-term Review


The conservation management plan requires a major review at predetermined intervals in order to determine the status of the species and habitats of the site. Given the highly threatened nature of the site, a long-term review is recommended at least every three years. The function of the review is to ensure that: the objectives and actions stated in the plan are still relevant; and management has been and will continue to be effective in achieving the desired objectives. An assessment of the status of species and habitats identified in the management plan should be made, based on whether they are favourable, unfavourable, declining, improving or maintained. Those responsible for the review are as for 11.1 above, and again should include the local community, pa rticularly the VCGs.

11.3 Audit
An audit, which should be considered an essential component of the planning process, should be conducted every five years. The audit will function to: Assess whether or not the site is being managed at least to the standard required by the Department of Environment. Confirm as far as possible that management is effective and efficient. Ensure that the status of the sites species and habitats is accurately reported. Provide an opportunity for the site management team to disc uss any issues relating the site with the audit team.

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If an audit identifies any issues or problems that need to be addressed between audits, additional intermediary audits may be arranged at the discretion of the audit team or at the request of senior management. 11.3.1 Personnel The audit team should comprise: Auditors external consultants or independent staff from an auditing group/department Site manager, Coxs Bazar office Personnel responsible for managing site staff Other relevant staff may be invited to attend 11.3.2 Procedure An audit will comprise two stages: An examination of the management plan and the adopted activity planning and recording system A site visit/inspection The site (field) manager will be required to provide a copy of the current management plan, annual work plan and long-term work plan prior to the audit date. In addition to these the audit team will inspect the current version of the activity planning and recording system. 11.3.3 Reporting A draft audit report will be sent to the site management team, Coxs Bazar, for their comment on its accuracy. This will be returned to the audit team which will then send an amended audit report, including observations and recommendations, to both the site manager (Coxs Bazar) and management (Dhaka). Responses of management (Dhaka) must be returned to the audit team, which will then submit a final version to management (Dhaka). The final version will identify agreed management responses and actions, together with the personnel responsible for ensuring these are undertaken and deadlines for action. The contents of the audit report should include: 1. Appraisal of management plan 2. Appraisal of the recording systems and work plans 3. Site inspection (OUTPUTS) a. Check for compliance with the plan b. Check for any unplanned/unauthorised activities c. Check condition of the site infrastructure and facilities 4. Resources (INPUTS) a. Finance b. Staff c. Other resources (machinery, tools, vehicles etc.) d. Infrastructure 5. Feature (species/habitats) assessment (OUTCOMES) 6. Summary of recommendations and management responses

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Annex 1: Marine algae recorded at St Martins Island


Habitat National Sl No Species Name Family Name Habit Macro
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

Micro E E E E E

Status VU VU VU VU VU VU VU VU VU VU VU VU VU VU

Acrochaetium bengalicum Acrochaetium crassipes Goniotrichum alsidii Erythrocladia subintegra Erythrotrichia carnea Liagora ceranoides Actinotrichia fragilis Scinaia complanate Galaxaura fastigiata Gelidiella tenuissima Gelidium pusillum Jania adhaerens Jania ungulata Amphiroa fragilissima Melobesia confervicola Hypnea musciformis Hypnea pannosa Sarconema jurcellatum Catenella impudica Champia parvula chrysymenia okamuri Halymania duchassaignii Asparagopsis taxiformis Antithamnion sp. Callithamnion sp. Centroceras clavulatum Ceramium fastigiatum C. gracillimum C. tenerrimum + other spp. Dasya pedicillata

Rhodophyceae Rhodophyceae Rhodophyceae Rhodophyceae Rhodophyceae Rhodophyceae Rhodophyceae Rhodophyceae Rhodophyceae Rhodophyceae Rhodophyceae Rhodophyceae Rhodophyceae Rhodophyceae Rhodophyceae Rhodophyceae Rhodophyceae Rhodophyceae Rhodophyceae Rhodophyceae Rhodophyceae Rhodophyceae Rhodophyceae Rhodophyceae Rhodophyceae Rhodophyceae Rhodophyceae Rhodophyceae Rhodop hyceae Rhodophyceae

F F F TH TH TH TH TH TH TH TH TH TH TH TH TH TH TH TH R R R R R R R R R R R R R

E E E E E

VU VU VU VU VU VU VU VU

TH TH TH TH TH TH TH TH

R E R R E E E

VU VU VU VU VU VU VU

VU

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Habitat National Sl No Species Name Family Name Habit Macro


31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42

Micro

Status

Calliblepharis sp. Heterosiphonia sp. Caloglossa leprieuri Vanvoorstia coccinea Cottoniella filamentosa Polysiphonia denudata Polysiphonia mollis + other spp. Tolypiocladia glomerulata Acanthophora specifera Bos trychia radicans Bostrychia tenella Herposiphonia dendroidea var. minor Herposiphonia tenella fa.

Rhodophyceae Rhodophyceae Rhodophyceae Rhodophyceae Rhodophyceae Rhodophyceae Rhodophyceae Rhodophyceae Rhodophyceae Rhodophyceae Rhodophyceae Rhodophyceae

TH TH TH TH TH TH TH TH TH TH TH TH

R R R R R E E

VU VU VU VU VU VU VU

R R R R R

VU VU VU VU VU

Rhodophyceae TH R R R R R E E E E E E E E E E E E E E VU VU VU VU VU VU VU VU VU VU VU VU VU VU VU VU VU VU VU 129

43

secumda
44 45 46 47 48 49

Laurencia obtusa + other spp. Lithothamnion sp. Crouania attenuata Lophocladia trichociados Ectocarpus breviarticulatus E. rhodochortonoides + other sp.

Rhodophyceae Rhodophyceae Rhodophyceae Rhodophyceae Phaeophyceae Phaeophyceae

TH TH TH TH TH TH

50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61

Giffordia conifera Giffordia irregularis Giffordia mitchellae Giffordia rallsae Giffordia thyrsoideus Feldmannia columellaris Feldmannia elachistaeformis Feldmannia indica Feldmannia vaughani Sphacelaria tribuloides Sphacelaria tribuloides S. novae-hollandiae fa.

Phaeophyceae Phaeophyceae Phaeophyceae Phaeophyceae Phaeophyceae Phaeophyceae Phaeophyceae Phaeophyceae Phaeophyceae Phaeophyceae Phaeophyceae Phaeophyceae

TH TH TH TH TH TH TH TH TH TH TH TH

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Habitat National Sl No Species Name Family Name Habit Macro


62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95

Micro

Status

Dectyota bratayresii Dectyota dechotoma Dectyota divaricata Dectyota friabilis Dectyota patens Dictyopteris australis Dictyopteris sp. Lobophora variegata Padina australis Padina tenuis Padina gymnospora Padina pavonica Padina sanctae-crucis Padina tetrastromatica Padina vickersiae Myriactula aravica chnoospora implexa Colpomenia sinuosa Hydroclathrus clathratus Rosenvingea intricata Rosenvingea orientalis Rosenvingea sanctae-crucis Sargassum caryophyllum Sargassum flavicans Sargassum ilicifolium Sargassum piluliferum Sargassum vulgare Sargassum wightii S. spp. (unidentified) Enteromorpha clathrata Enteromorpha compressa Enteromorpha intestinalis Enteromorpha prolifera Ulva lactuca

Phaeophyceae Phaeophyceae Phaeophyceae Phaeophyceae Phaeophyceae Phaeophyceae Phaeophyceae Phaeophyceae Phaeophyceae Phaeophyceae Phaeophyceae Phaeophyceae Phaeophyceae Phaeophyceae Phaeophyceae Phaeophyceae Phaeophyceae Phaeophyceae Phaeophyceae Phaeophyceae Phaeophyceae Phaeophyceae Phaeophyceae Phaeophyceae Phaeophyceae Phaeophyceae Phaeophyceae Phaeophyceae Phaeophyceae Chlorophyceae Chlorophyceae Chlorophyceae Chlorophyceae Chlorophyceae

TH TH TH TH TH TH TH TH TH TH TH TH TH TH TH TH TH TH TH TH TH TH TH TH TH TH TH TH TH TH TH TH TH TH

R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R

VU VU VU VU VU VU VU VU VU VU VU VU VU VU VU VU

R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R

VU VU VU VU VU VU VU VU VU VU VU VU VU VU VU VU VU VU 130

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Habitat National Sl No Species Name Family Name Habit Macro


96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128

Micro E E E E E

Status

Chaetomorpha aerea Chaetomorpha brachygona Cha etomorpha gracilis Chaetomorpha linum Lola capillaris Lola implexa Lola tortuosa Rhizoclonium grandae Rhizoclonium hookeri Rhizoclonium kerneri Rhizoclonium riparium Cladophora echinus Cladophora patentiramea Dictyosphaeria cavernosa Boodlea composita Bryopsis indica Caulerpa cactoides Caulerpa peltata Caulerpa racemosa var. clavifera Caulerpa racemosa var. occidentalis Caulerpa racemosa var. turbinata Caulerpa racemosa var. uvifera Caulerpa sealpelliformi s Caulerpa sertularioides Caulerpa brevipes sertularioides fa.

Chlorophyceae Chlorophyceae Chlorophyceae Chlorophyceae Chlorophyceae Chlorophyceae Chlorophyceae Chlorophyceae Chlorophyceae Chlorophyceae Chlorophyceae Chlorophyceae Chlorophyceae Chlorophyceae Chlorophyceae Chlorophyceae Chlorophyceae Chlorophyceae Chlorophyceae Chlorophyceae Chlorophyceae Chlorophyceae Chlorophyceae Chlorophyceae Chlorophyceae Chlorophyceae Chlorophyceae Chlorophyceae Chlorophyceae Chlorophyceae Cyanophyceae Cyanophyceae Cyanophyceae

TH TH TH TH TH TH TH TH TH TH TH TH TH TH TH TH TH TH TH TH TH TH TH TH TH TH TH TH TH TH TH TH TH R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R

VU VU VU VU VU VU VU VU VU VU VU VU VU VU VU VU VU VU VU VU VU VU VU VU VU VU VU VU VU VU

Caulerpa taxifolia Halimeda discoidea Halimeda opuntia Acetabularia calyculus Codium geppei Xenococcus chaetomorphae Xenococcus cladophorae Aphanothece castagnei & A.

E E E

VU VU VU 131

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Habitat National Sl No Species Name Family Name Habit Macro pallida. Merismopedia glauca Ocillatoria amoena Ocillatoria margaretifera Ocillatoria martini Ocillatoria subbrevis Ocillatoria tenuis Lyngbya allorgei L. confervoides & L. contorta L. hieronymusii L. lutea L. magnifica Hydrocoleum cantharidosum Microcoleus chthonoplastes Plectonema wollei Anabaena variabilis Nostoc commune (?) Scytonema siculum Scytonema saleyeriense Calothrix confervicola Calothrix parasitica Calothrix crustacea Calothrix scopulorum Calothrix rarietina Halophila decipiens Halodule pinifolia Halodule uninervis Micro Status

129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154

Cyanophyceae Cyanophyceae Cyanophyceae Cyanophyceae Cyanophyceae Cyanophyceae Cyanophyceae Cyanophyceae Cyanophyceae Cyanophyceae Cyanophyceae Cyanophyceae Cyanophyceae Cyanophyceae Cyanophyceae Cyanophyceae Cyanophyceae Cyanophyceae Cyanophyceae Cyanophyceae Cyanophyceae Cyanophyceae Cyanophyceae Hydrocharitaceae Cymodoceaceae Cymodoceaceae

FC F F F F F F F F F F F F F F TH TH TH TH TH TH TH TH

Floating E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E

VU VU VU VU VU VU VU VU VU VU VU VU VU VU VU VU VU VU VU VU VU VU VU

Notes: Habit: TH = Thalloid/micro- or macro thailus; F = Filamentous, microscopic Habit at: E = Epiphyte on other marine macro algae; R = On rocks/entangled with other seaweeds under sea water in the intertidal zone. National Status: VU = Vulnerable

Source: 1) MoEF (2001b), Survey of Flora, National Conservation Strategy (NCS) Implementation Project-1. 2) Kamal, Dr Abu Hena M. Sonadia and St Martins Islands Conservation Management Plans . Email to Lee-Anne Molony, 28 August 2006.

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Annex 2: Angiospermic plant species recorded at St Martins Island


IUCN Sl No S pecies Name Local Name(s) Family Name Habit Cat
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 National status

Abelmoschus moschatus Abrus precatorius Acacia tarnesiana Achyranthes aspera Adenosma indianum Aegiceras corniculatum Ageratum conyzoides Altemanthera paronychiodes Altemanthera sessilis Alysicarpus vaginalis Amaranthus gangeticus Amaranthus spinosus Amaranthus viridis Amiscophcellus axillaris Ammania baccifera Anisomeles indica Atylosia scarabaeoides Bacopa monniera Bergia ammannioides Bergia capensis Blumea aurita Blumea laciniata Boetraavia repens Brachiaria distachya Caesalpinia crista Calotropis gigantea Calycopteris floribunda Canna indica Canscora diffusa Carissa carandas Cassia occidentalis Cassia tora Cassytha filiformis

Kalokasturi Kunch Bilati babul Apang Borokesuti Halse Fulkcuri

Malvaceae Leguminosae Leguminosae Amaranthaceae Scrophulariaceae Myrsinaceae Compositae Amaranthaceae

H/S C T H H H H H H H H H H H H H H/C H H H H H H H C S S H H S H H p

DD LR(cd) NE NE NE NE DD NE DD NE NE NE NE NE NE DD DD DD DD DD NE NE NE NE DD NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE

NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE

Chanchi Pannata

Amaranthaceae Papilionaceae Amaranthaceae

Kantanotey Noteyshk

Amaranthaceae Amaranthaceae Commelinaceae

Dadmari Gobura Banukalai Brahmi shak

Lythraceae Ladiatae Leguminosae Scrophulariaceae Elatinaceae

lalkesuria

Elatinaceae Compositae Compositae

Punarnava

Nyctagi nacae Gramineae

Letkanta

Caesalpinoideas Asclepiadaceac

Akanda Goache lata kalabati kanrancha Borokalkesunda Toraj Akashbel

Asclepiadaceac Combretaceae Cannaceae Gentianaceae Laguminosae Laguminosae Cassythaceae

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IUCN Sl No S pecies Name Local Name(s) Family Name Habit Cat


34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69

National status

Centella asiatica Ceriops decandra Chenopodium album Cleorodendrun inerme Clerodendrun viscosum Coldenia procumbens Commelina benghalensis Commelina diffusa Cotula hemispherica Crinum sp. Crotalaria pallida Crotalaria sp. Croton bonplandianus Cynometra ramiflora Cyperus compressus Cyperus iria Cyperus kyllinga Cyperus sp. Cyperus substramineus Cyperus tenuispica cyrtococcum accrescens Dactyloctenium aegyptiacum Datura metel Dentella repens Derris sp. Desmodium triflorum Desmodium umbellatum Digitaria longiflora Dimeria ornithopoda Echinochloa colounm Echinochloa colonum Eleocharis congesta Eleusine indica Eragrostis coarctata Eragrostis pooides Eragrostis tenella

Thankuni Goran Batuashak Bonjai Bhant

Umberlliferae Rhizophoraceae Chenopodiaceae verbenaceae verbenaceae Boraginaceae

H T H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H O H H C H T H H H H H H H H H

NE NE NE NE NE DD NE DD NE DD NE NE NE DD NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE DD NE NE NE DD NE DD NE NE NE NE NE NE NE

NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE

Tripankhi

Commelinacae Commelinacae

Babuni

Compositae Amaryllidaceae

Jhunjhuni

Leguminosae Leguminosae Euphorbiaceae

Singor chancha Bara chancha Nirbishi

Leguminosae Cyperaceae Cyperaceae Cyperaceae Cyperaceae Cyperaceae Cyperaceac Gramineac

Makra Duttara Bhuopat

Gramineac Solanaceae Rubiaceae Legumosae

Kulaliya

Legu mosae Legumosae Gramineac Gramineae

Shymaghas Kalokeshi Baro keruti Malangakuri

Gramineac Compositae Cyperaceae Gramineac Gramineac Gramineac

koni

Gramineac

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IUCN Sl No S pecies Name Local Name(s) Family Name Habit Cat


70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105

National status

Eriocaulon luzulaefolium Eriocaulon sp. Eriochloa procera Euphorbia hirta Euphorbia thymifolia Ficus sp. Fimbristylis acuminata Fimbristylis miliacea Flagellaria indica Glycine max Grangea herbaceum Grangea madaraspatana Grewia sp. Hedyotis corymbosa Hiliotropium indicum Hibiscus tiliaceus Hydrocotyle sibthorpioides Hygrophila phlomoides Hygrophila polysperma Hygrophila quadrivalvis Hyptis suaveolens Ichnocarpus frutescens Ipomaea mexicana Ipomaea pes -caprae Ischacmun indicum Jatropha curcas Justicia genderussa Lantana camara Launaea pinnaifida Leucas zeylanica Limnophila repens Lindernia antipoda Lindernia rotundifolia Lindernia sp. Linum usitatissimum Ludwigia hyssopifolia Dondokalas Dudlata Khet papra Hatishur Bola Bara jabani Banschand Soabean Karpas Nagphul Nalghas Ghaspata Dudhia

Eriocaulaceae Eriocaulaceae Gramineac Euphorbiaceae Euphorbiaceae Moraceae Cyperaceae Cyperaceac Flagellariaceae Leguminosae Malvaceae Compositae Tiliaceae Rubiaceae Boraginaceae Malvaceae Umbrelliferae Acanthaceae Acanthaceae Acanthaceae Labiatae Apocynaceae Convolvulaceae Convolvulaceae Gramineae Euphorbiaceae Acanthaceae Verbebnaceae Compositae Labiatae Scrophulariaceae Scrophulariaceae Scrophulariaceae Scrophulariaceae Linaceae Onagraceae

H H H H H H H H C H H H S H H T H H H H H C C C H S S S H H H H H H T H

NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE DD NE NE NE NE

NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE

DD NE NE NE NE

NE NE NE NE NE NE

DD NE NE NE NE NE DD DD DD NE NE NE NE NE

NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE

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IUCN Sl No S pecies Name Local Name(s) Family Name Habit Cat


106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141

National status

Luffa cylindrica Lumnitzera racemosa Merremia umbellata Murdannia nudiflora Najas graminea Operculina turpethum Oroxylum indicum Pandanus foetidus Pandanus odoratissimus Paspalum vaginatum Phaulopsis dorsiflorus Phragmites karka Phyla nodiflora Phyllanthus distichus Phyllanthus reticulatus Physalis minima Pongamia pinnata Portulaca oleracea Pouzolzia indica Psophocarpus tetragonolobus Ricinus communis Rotala beccifera Rotala indica Rungia pectinata Saccharum arundinaceum Scirpus erectus Scirpus supinus Scirpus triqueter Scoparia dulcis Sesuvium protulacastrum Side acuta Sida cordifolia Sida cordata Solanum torvum Sporobolus tremulus Stictocardia tiliaefolia

Dhundul

Cucurbitaceae Combretaceae Convolvulaceae Commelinaceae Najadaceae Convolvulaceae Bignoniaceae Pandanaceae Pandanaceae Gramineae Acanthaceae Gramineae Verbebnaceae Euphorbiaceae Euphorbiaceae Solanaceae Leguminosae Portulacaceae Urticaceae Leguminosae Euphorbiaceae Lythraceae Lythraceae Acanthaceae Gramineae Cyperaceae Cyperaceae Cyperaceae Scrophulariaceae Aizoaceae Malvaceae Malvaceae Malvaceae Solanaceae Gramineae Convolvulaceae

H S C H H C T H T H H S H S S H T H H C S H H H H H H H H H H H H H H C

NE NE NE NE DD DD NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE DD NE NE NE NE DD NE NE NE NE NE DD

NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE

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IUCN Sl No S pecies Name Local Name(s) Family Name Habit Cat


142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157

National status

Streblus asper Tephrosia purpurea Tetrastigma bracteolatum Thespesia populnea Tinospora cordifolia Triumfetta bracteata Urena lobata Vemonia patula Vitex negundo Vitex trifolia Vitex negundo Wahlenbergia gracilis Wahlenbergia marginata Woodfordia fruticosa Xanthium indicum Zizphus mauitiana Dhai phul Kulaiya Nishinda Kuksin Bon nil

Urticaceae Leguminosae Vitaceae Malvaceae Menispermaceae Tiliaceae Malvaceae Compositae Verbenaceae Verbenaceae Vitaceae Companulaceae Companulaceae Lythraceae Compositae Rhamnaceae

T H C S C H H H T S C H H S H T

NE NE DD DD DD NE NE NE NE NE NE DD DD DD NE NE

NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE

Notes Habit: H = Herb; S = Shrub; T = Tree; C = Climber IUCN Categories /National Status: CR = Critically Endangered ; EN = Endangered; VU = Vulnerable; LR = Lower Risk ; DD = Data Deficient; NE = Not Evaluated

Source: MoEF (2001b), Survey of Flora, National Conservation Strategy (NCS) Implementation Project-

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Annex 3: Cryptogamic plant species (other than marine algae) recorded at St Martins Island
Sl No
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

Species Name Barvula leucodontoides Bryum coronatum Bryum coronatum Bryum coronatum Bryum nitens Calyperes andamense Calyperes andamense Calyperes andamense Calyperes burmense Calyperes burmense Calyperes kurzianum Garckea phascoides Gymnostomiella orcuttii Hyophila involuta Philonotis mollis Pleurocarpus moss Pleurocarpus moss Pleurocarpus moss

Family Name Pottiaceae Bryaceae Bryaceae Bryaceae Bryaceae Calymperaceae Calymperaceae Calymperaceae Calymperaceae Calymperaceae Calymperaceae Ditrichaceae Splachnaceae Pottiaceae Batramiaceae

Habit M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M

IUCN Category
NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE

National status NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE

Notew s: Habit: M = Moss IUCN Categories /N ational Status: CR= Critically Endangered; EN = Endangered; VU = Vulnerable; LR = Lower Risk ; DD = Data Deficient; NE = Not Evaluated

Source: MoEF (2001b), Survey of Flora, National Conservation Strategy (NCS) Implementation Project-

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Annex 4: Mammals recorded at St Martins Island


Sl. Scientific name No. ORDER: INSECTIVORA FAMILY: Soricidae 1 Suncus murinus ORDER: CHIROPTERA FAMILY: Pteropodidae 2 Pteropus giganteus 3 Rousettus leschenaulti FAMILY: Vespertilionidae 4 Pipistrellus coromandra 5 Pipistrellus mimus ORDER: CETACEA FAMILY: Balaenopteridae 6 Balaenopterus musculus 7 Megaptera novaeangliae 8 Sausa chinensis FAMILY: Phocaenidae 9 Neophocaena phocaenoides FAMILY: Delphinidae 10 Delphinus delphis 11 Orcaella brevirostris 12 Peponocephala electra 13 Tursiops truncatus 14 Stenella longirostris ORDER : RODENTIA FAMILY: Muridae 15 Bandicota bengalensis 16 Bandicota indica 17 Mus musculus 18 Rattus norvegicus 19 Rattus rattus 20 Vandeleuira oleracea Common name Local name

Grey musk shrew, White tailed shrew

Chikchiki, Chucho

Fruit bat, Flying fox Fulvous Fruit bat Indian pipistrelle Indian Pigmy pipistrelle

Badur Kola badur Chamchika Cham

Blue whale Indian humpback whale Finless porpoise Common dolphin Irrawaddy dolphin, River dolphin Broadbeaked dolphin Bottlenose dolphin Spinner dolphin

Nil timi Hump back timi Shushuk

Shishu, Shushuk Shishu, Shushuk

Lesser bandicoot rat, Mole rat Large bandicoot rat House mouse Brown rat Black rat Long tailed tree mouse

Dhari idur Bara dhari idur Nangti idur Idur Kala idur Gecho idur

Source: 1. MoEF (2001b), Survey of Fauna, National Conservation Strategy (NCS) Implementation Project-1. 2. Islam, M.Z. (2001), Draft Final Report, St Martin Pilot Project, National Conservation Strategy Implementation Project-1.

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Annex 5: Birds recorded at St Martins Island


Sl. Common name Scientific name No. PODICIPEDIFORMES: Podicipedidae 1 Little Grebe Tachybaptus ruficollis PELECANIFORMES: Phalacrocoracidae 2 Great Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo 3 Little Cormorant Phalacrocorax niger CICONIIFORMES: Ardeidae 4 Black Bittern Ixobrychus flavicollis 5 Black-crowned Night -Heron Nycticorax nycticorax 6 Cattle Egret Bubulcus ibis 7 Cinnamon Bittern Ixobrychus cinnamomeus 8 Gray Heron Ardea cinerea 9 Great Egret Ardea alba 10 Indian Pond-Heron Ardeola grayii 11 Intermediate Egret Egretta intermedia 12 Litte Bittern Ixobrychus minutus 13 Little Egret Egretta garzetta 14 Purple Heron Ardea purpurea 15 Yellow Bittern Ixobrychus sinensis CICONIIFORMES: Ciconiidae 16 Asian Openbill Anastomus oscitans CICONIIFORMES: Threskiornithidae 17 Black-headed Ibis Threskiornis melanocephalus ANSERIFORMES: Anatidae 18 Cotton Pygmy-goose Nettapus coromandelianus 19 Fulvous Whistling-Duck Dendrocygna bicolor 20 Lesser Whistling-Duck Dendrocygna javanica 21 Ruddy Shelduck Tadorna ferruginea FALCONIFORMES: Pandionidae 22 Osprey Pandion haliaetus FALCONIFORMES: Accipitridae 23 Black Kite Milvus migrans 24 Brahminy Kite Haliastur indus 25 Pied Harrier Circus melanoleucos FALCONIFORMES: Falconidae 26 Eurasian Kestrel Falco tinnunculus GRUIFORMES: Rallidae 27 Spotted Crake Porzana porzana 28 Watercock Gallicrex cinerea 29 White-breasted Waterhen Amaurornis phoenicurus CHARADRIIFORMES: Jacanidae 30 Bronze-winged Jacana Metopidius indicus CHARADRIIFORMES: Rostratulidae 31 Greater Painted -snipe Rostratula benghalensis CHARADRIIFORMES: Recurvirostridae 32 Pied Avocet Recurvirostra avosetta CHARADRIIFORMES: Burhinidae 33 Eurasian Thick-knee Burhinus oedicnemus 05/10/2006 Local name

Bara panikowri Chotao pankowri

Ratchora, Wak Gobog Dushar ghag Bara bog Kani bog, Korchey bok Majhari bog Choto bog Khairi ghag, Buguni bog

Shamukhol Kachichora, Kastechora Bali hash Sharali Bara sharali Chakha chokhi

Bhuban cheel Shankho cheel Rakhalbhulani Turki baz Spotted crake Jalmurag Dahuk

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Sl. Common name No. CHARADRIIFORMES: Charadriidae 34 Gray-headed Lapwing 35 Greater Sandplover 36 Lesser Sandplover 37 Little Ringed Plover 38 Pacific Golden-Plover 39 Red -wattled Lapwing 40 Snowy Plover CHARADRIIFORMES: Scolopacidae 41 Broad-billed Sandpiper 42 Common Greenshank 43 Common Redshank 44 Common Sandpiper 45 Common Snipe 46 Eurasian Curlew 47 Great Knot 48 Green Sandpiper 49 Little Stint 50 Marsh Sandpiper 51 Pintail Snipe 52 Ruddy Turnstone 53 Ruff 54 Spotted Redshank 55 Temminck's Stint 56 Terek Sandpiper 57 Whimbrel 58 Wood Sandpiper CHARADRIIFORMES: Laridae 59 Black-headed Gull 60 Great Black-headed Gull CHARADRIIFORMES: Sternidae 61 Black-bellied Tern 62 Common Tern 63 Gull-billed Tern 64 Little Tern 65 River Tern 66 Whiskered Tern 67 White Tern 68 White-winged Tern COLUMBIFORMES: Columbidae 69 Eurasian Collared-Dove 70 Rock Pigeon 71 Spotted Dove PSITTACIFORMES: Psittacidae 72 Red -breasted Parakeet 73 Rose-ringed Parakeet CUCULIFORMES: Cuculidae 74 Asian Koel 75 Common Hawk-Cuckoo 05/10/2006

Scientific name

Local name

Vanellus cinereus Charadrius leschenaultii Charadrius mongolus Charadrius dubius Pluvialis fulva Vanellus indicus Charadrius alexandrinus Limicola falcinellus Tringa nebularia Tringa totanus Actitis hypoleucos Gallinago gallinago Numenius arquata Calidris tenuirostris Tringa ochropus Calidris minuta Tringa stagnatilis Gallinago stenura Arenaria interpres Philomachus pugnax Tringa erythropus Calidris temminckii Xenus cinereus Numenius phaeopus Tringa glareola Larus ridibundus Larus ichthyaetus Sterna acuticauda Sterna hirundo Sterna nilotica Sterna albifrons Sterna aurantia Chlidonias hybridus Gygis alba Chlidonias leucopterus Streptopelia decaocto Columba livia Streptopelia chinensis Psittacula alexandri Psittacula krameri Eudynamys scolopacea Cuculus varius

Dhushar titi Bara bali chah Mala batan, Chota batan Pubali batan Hot -ti-t i Batan Mota chanchu Shabuz pa Lal pa chah Shadharon chah Satra lez batan, kada khocha Baka chanchu, Khorma, Bara gulinda Shabuz chah Chota chah Sharulez batan Ghuron chah Futni chah Terek chah Lamba chanchu

Gang kabutor Gang kabutor Gang cheel Shadaron Gang cheel Khudey gang cheel Gang cheel, Mach khaikka Gang cheel Gang cheel Petkala gang cheel Shada ghugu, Raj ghaghu Jalali kabutor Tila ghogu Tota Shabuj tia Kokil Bou -katha-kao 141

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Sl. Common name No. 76 Greater Coucal STRIGIFORMES: Strigidae 77 Asian Barred Owlet 78 Brown Hawk-Owl 79 Spotted Owlet APODIFORMES: Apodidae 80 Asian Palm-Swift CORACIIFORMES: Alcedinidae 81 Black-capped Kingfisher 82 Common Kingfisher 83 White-throated Kingfisher CORACIIFORMES: Meropidae 84 Chestnut -headed Bee-eater 85 Green Bee-eater CORACIIFORMES: Coraciidae 86 Indian Roller CORACIIFORMES: Upupidae 87 Hoopoe PICIFORMES: Capitonidae 88 Coppersmith Barbet PICIFORMES: Picidae 89 Black-rumped Flameback PASSERIFORMES: Alaudidae 90 Bengal Bushlark 91 Oriental Skylark PASSERIFORMES: Hirundinidae 92 Barn Swallow 93 Common House-Martin PASSERIFORMES: Motacillidae 94 Forest Wagtail 95 Gray Wagtail 96 Oriental Pipit 97 White Wagtail 98 White-browed Wagtail PASSERIFORMES: Campephagidae 99 Black-winged Cuckoo-shrike PASSERIFORME Pycnonotidae S: 100 Red -vented Bulbul PASSERIFORMES: Aegithinidae 101 Common Iora PASSERIFORMES: Turdidae 102 Blue Rock-Thrush PASSERIFORMES: Sylviidae 103 Brown Bush-Warbler 104 Common Tailorbird PASSERIFORMES: Muscicapidae 105 Oriental Magpie-Robin 106 Pied Bushchat 107 Red -breasted Flycatcher 05/10/2006

Scientific name Centropus sinensis Glaucidium cuculoides Ninox scutulata Athene brama Cypsiurus balasiensis Halcyon pileata Alcedo atthis Halcyon smyrnensis Merops leschenaulti Merops orientalis Coracias benghalensis Upupa epops Megalaima haemacephala Dinopium benghalense Mirafra assamica Alauda gulgula Hirundo rustica Delichon urbica Dendronanthus indicus Motacilla cinerea Anthus rufulus Motacilla alba Motacilla madaraspatensis Coracina melaschistos Pycnonotus cafer Aegithina tiphia Monticola solitarius Bradypterus luteoventris Orthotomus sutorius Copsychus saularis Saxicola caprata Ficedula parva Kanakukah Potti pecha Baz pecha Futni pecha Nakkati

Local name

Machranga Khudi machranga Chitra machranga Suichora Suichora Nilkantho Hudhud Choto basanta baori Sonali katthokra Jhop chatak Chatok, Bharot Pakhi Ababil Ababil Bon khanjan Khanjan Chatak Khanjan Pakra Khanjan Sada koshai Kala bulbul, Bulbuli Phuljhuri, Fatikjal

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Sl. Common name No. 108 White-tailed Stonechat PASSERIFORMES: Timaliidae 109 Jungle Babbler PASSERIFORMES: Nectariniidae 110 Purple Sunbird 111 Purple-rumped Sunbird PASSERIFORMES: Dicaeidae 112 Yellow -vented Flowerpecker PASSERIFORMES: Oriolidae 113 Black-hooded Oriole PASSERIFORMES: Laniidae 114 Bay -backed Shrike 115 Brown Shrike PASSERIFORMES: Dicruridae 116 Ashy Drongo 117 Black Drongo 118 Bronzed Drongo PASSERIFORMES: Artamidae 119 Ashy Woodswallow PASSERIFORMES: Corvidae 120 House Crow 121 Large-billed Crow 122 Rufous Treepie PASSERIFORMES: Sturnidae 123 Asian Pied Starling 124 Chestnut -tailed Starling 125 Common Myna 126 Jungle Myna 127 Spot-winged Starling PASSERIFORMES: Ploceidae 128 Baya Weaver PASSERIFORMES: Estrildidae 129 Nutmeg Mannikin PASSERIFORMES: Passeridae 130 House Sparrow

Scientific name Saxicola leucura Turdoides striatus Cinnyris asiaticus Leptocoma zeylonica Dicaeum chrysorrheum Oriolus xanthornus Lanius vittatus Lanius cristatus Dicrurus leucophaeus Dicrurus macrocercus Dicrurus aeneus Artamus fuscus Corvus splendens Corvus macrorhynchos Dendrocitta vagabunda Gracupica contra Sturnia malabarica Acridotheres tristis Acridotheres fuscus Saroglossa spiloptera Ploceus philippinus Lonchura punctulata Passer domesticus Sat bhai

Local name

Nil tuni, Madhuchuski Moutushi Fuljhuri Halud pakhi Koshai pakhi Brown shrike Fingey Fingey Choto fingey Latora Pati kak, Kaua Dar kak Kut umpakhi, Harichacha Pakra shalik, Gubre shalik, Gu shalik Kat shalik Lal shalik, Bath shalik Jhuti shalik

Babui Photni chumbul Charai

Source: MoEF (2001b), Survey of Fauna, National Conservation Strategy (NCS) Implementation Project-1.

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Annex 6: Reptiles recorded at St Martins Island


Sl. Scientific name No. ORDER: TESTUDINES FAMILY: Cheloniidae 1 Caretta caretta 2 Chelonia mydas 3 Eretmochelys imbricata 4 Lepidochelys olivacea FAMILY: Dermochelyidae 5 Dermochelys coriacea FAMILY: Bataguridae 6 Kachuga tecta FAMILY: Trionychidae 7 Lissemys punctata ORD ER: LACERTILLA FAMILY: Gekkonidae 8 Hemidactylus brookii FAMILY: Agamidae 9 Calotes versicolor FAMILY: Scincidae 10 Mabuya carinata 11 Mabuya dissimilis FAMILY: Varanidae 12 Varanus bengalensis 13 Varanus salvator ORDER: SERPENTES FAMILY: Colubridae 14 Amphiesma stolata 15 Cerberus rynchops 16 Coluber mucosus 17 Dendrelaphis pictus 18 Elaphe radiata 19 Enhydris enhydris 20 Xenocrophis piscator FAMILY: Elapidae 21 Bungarus fasciatus 22 Naja naja 23 Naja kaouthia FAMILY: Hydrophidae 24 Enhydrina schistosa 25 Hydrophis cyanocinctus 26 Hydrophis fasciatus 27 Hydrophis nigrocinctus 28 Microcephalophis gracilis Common name Local name

Loggerhead turtle Green turtle Hawksbill turtle Olive Ridley turtle Leatherback turtle Common roofed tortoise Indian roofed flapshell turtle

Sagar kachim Sagar kachim Sagar kachim Sagar kachim Sagar kachim Kaitta Sundi kachim

Common wall lizard Common garden lizard Common skink Striped skink Grey land monitor Ring lizard

Tiktiki Rokto chosha Anjon Anjon Kalo godi Guishap

Striped keelback water snake Dog-faced water snake Rat snake Painted bronzed back Copperheaded trinket Common smooth water snake Checkered keelback water snake Banded krait Common cobra Bengal cobra Hook-nosed sea snake Annulated sea snake Banded sea snake Black-headed sea snake Common narrow-headed sea snake

Dhora shap, Jal bora Kukur mukhi Darash Sutanoli Arbeki Pani shap Dhora Shankhini Padma gokhra Kahya gokhra Samudra sap Samudra sap Samudra sap Samudra sap Rangila samudra sap

Source: MoEF (2001b), Survey of Fauna, National Conservation Strategy (NCS) Implementation Project-1.

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Annex 7: List of fish recorded at St Martins Island


Family Genus & Species (Subfamily) (Synonym) Orectolobiformes (Lamniformes) 1. Orectolobidae 1. Stegostoma fasciatum 2. Rhincodontidae 2. Rhincodon typus Carcharhiniformes 3. Carcharhinidae 3. Hemipristis elongata (Carcharhinus ellioti) 4. Rhizoprionodon acutus (Scoliodon walbeehmii) 5. Scoliodon laticaudus (Scoliodon sorrakowah) 4. Sphyrnidae 6. Eusphyra blochii (Sphyrna blochii) Rhinobatiformes 5. Rhinobatidae 7. Rhinobatos granulatus Torpediniformes 6. Torpedinidae 8. Narcine brunnea Rajiformes 7. Dasyatidae 9. 10. 11. 12. Myliobatiformes 8. Myliobatidae 9. Rhinopteridae 10. Mobulidae Anguilliformes 11. Muraenidae 12. Congridae Clupeiformes 13. Engraulidae 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 14. Pristigasteridae 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. Dasyatis (Himantura) uarnak Dasyatis (Himantura) walga Taeniura lymma Gymnura micrura Aetobatus narinari Rhinoptera neglecta* Manta birostris Gymnothorax puntatus Gymnothorax sp. Congresox telabonoides Stolephorus commersoni Stolephorus indicus Thryssa dussumieri Thryssa hamiltoni Thryssa setirostris Coilia dussumieri Coilia neglecta Coilia ramcarati Ilisha elongata Ilisha megaloptera Ilisha melastoma Pellona ditchela Raconda russeliana Chirocentrus dorab Chirocentrus nudus Common Name (FAO Name) Tiger Shark Whale Shark Snaggletooth shark (Grey Shark) Milk shark Spadenose shark Hammerheaded shark Shovelnose ray Brown electric fish Coach whip ray Blue spotted ray Short-tail butterfly Spotted eagle ray Australian cownose ray Manta ray White spotted moray Black spotted moray Indian pike -conger Commerson's anchovy Indian anchovy Dussumier's thryssa Hamiltons thryssa Longjaw thryssa Gold-spotted anchovy Neglected grenadier anchovy Ramcarat grenadier anchovy Elongate ilisha Bigeye ilisha Indian ilisha Indian pellona Raconda Dorab wolf herring Whitefin wolf-herring Local Name Bagha hangor Timi hangor Hangor Nak-chokha hangor Thutee hangor Haturimatha hangor Pitambori Badami biddut machh Dora-leja housh Housh pata Sapla pata Padmamani Chil mach Chil mach Deo mach Bamosh Bamosh Kamilla mach Hitchiri Hitchiri Pati phaissa Ram phaissa Datne phasya Alua Alua Alua Choikka Choikka Choikka Choikka Fatra phaissa Korati chella Korati chella
145

15.

Chirocentridae

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Family (Subfamily) 16. Cluipeidae Siluriformes 17. Bagridae 18. Ariidae

34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69.

Genus & Species (Synonym) Dussumieria acuta Sardinella fimbriata Tenualosa ilisha Mystus gulio Arius arius Arius dussumeiri Arius gagora Arius nenga Arius thalassinus Arius thunbergi (Arius maculatus) Arius parvipinnis Plotosus canius Saurida tumbil Trachinocephalus myops Harpadon nehereus Liza parsia Mugil cephalus Rhinomugil corsula Sicamugil cascasia Rhynchorhamphus georgii (Hemiramphus georgii) Exocoetus volitans Ablennes hians Tylosurus crocodilus Strongylura strongylura (Tylosurus strongylurus) Aplocheilus panchax Atherinomorus lacunosus (Allanetta forskali) Myripristis vittata Sargocentron sp. Hippocampus kuda Pterois russelii Tetraroge niger (Apistus niger) Minous monodactylus Grammoplites scaber Lates calcarifer Cephalopholis boenak Epinephelus hexagonatus

Common Name (FAO Name) Rainbow sardine Fringescale sardinella Hilsa shad Catfish Threadfin sea catfish Blacktip sea catfish Gagora catfish Catfish Giant sea catfish Spotted catfish Catfish Grey eel-catfish Greater lizardfish Snakefish Bombay duck Gold-spot mullet Flathead mullet Corsula mullet Yellowtail mullet Halfbeak Tropical two-wing flyingfish Flat needlefish Hound needlefish Spottail needlefish Blue panchax Hardyhead silverside Whitetip soldierfish Squirrel fish Spotted seahorse Plaintail turkeyfish Grey stingfish Rough flathead Barramundi Chocolate hind Starspotted grouper

Local Name Naillah Chanda Ilish Guilla Kata mach Mos mach Guizza Kata gagot Guizza Mos mach Kata pini Kaun mach Achila mach Bele Loitta Bata Kharul bata Khorsula Bata Ek thuitta Ural mach Thuitta mach Thuitta mach Thuitta mach Techoukka

19. Plotosidae Aulopiformes 20. Synodontidae Mugiliformes 21. Mugilidae

Beloniformes 22. Hemiramphidae 23. 24. Exocoetidae Belonidae

Cyprinodontiformes 25. Aplocheilidae Atheriniformes 26. Atherinidae Beryciform es 27. Holocentridae Syngnathiformes 28. Syngnathidae Scorpaeniformes 29. Scorpaenidae 30. Tetrarogidae 31. Synanceiidae 32. Platycephalidae Perciformes (Percoidei) 33. Latidae 34. Serranidae 35. (Epinephelinae)
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Ghora mach Rongila Butar mach Mur baila Koral mach Chitra bole

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Family (Subfamily) 70. 71. 72. 73. 74. 75. 76. 77. 78. 79. 80. 81. 82. 83. 84. 85. 86. 87. 88. 89. 90. 91. 92. 93. 94. 95. 44. 45. 46. Menidae Leiognathidae Lutjanidae 96. 97. 98. 99. 100. 101. 102. 103. 104. 105. 106. 107. 108. 109. 110. 111. 112. 113. 114.
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36. 37.

Priancanthidae Apogonidae (Apogoninae)

Genus & Species (Synonym) Epinephelus lanceolatus Epinephelus quoyanus* (Epinephelus megachir) Epinephelus polyphekadion Plectropomus leopardus* Priacanthus tayenus Apogon novemfasciatus Apogon septemstriatus Apogon sp 1 Apogon sp 2 Sillaginopsis panijus (Sillago domina) Sillago sihama Malacanthus sp. Lactarius lactarius Echeneis naucrates Rachycentron canadum Alepes melanoptera Alectis indicus Carangoides malabaricus Caranx ignobilis Caranx melampygus Megalaspis cordyla Parastromateus niger Scomberoides commersonnianus Selar boops Selar crumenophthalmus (Caranx crumenophthalmus) Seriolina nigrofasciata (Zonichthys nigrofasciata) Mene maculata Gazza minuta Leiognathus bindus Leiognathus fasciatus Lutjanus fulviflammus Lutjanus johnii Lutjanus malabaricus Lutjanus sanguineus Lutjanus vitta Lutjanus sp 1 Lutjanus sp 2 Caesio xanthonota Lobotes surinamensis Gerres argyreus Gerres filamentosus Plectorhinchu sp 1 Plectorhinchu sp 2 Pomadasys argenteus (Pomadasys hasta) Pomadasys maculatus

Common Name (FAO Name) Giant grouper Longfin grouper Camouflage grouper Leopard coralgrouper Purple-spotted bigeye Sevenstriped cardinalfish Cardinalfish Cardinalfish Cardinalfish Flathead sillago Silver sillago Quakerfish False trevally Live sharksucker Cobia Blackfin scad Indian threadfish Malabar trevally Giant travelly Bluefin travelly Torpedo scad Black pomfret Talang queenfish Oxeye scad Bigeye scad Blackbanded trevally Moonfish Toothed ponyfish Orangefin ponyfish Striped ponyfish Dory snapper Johns snapper Malabar blood snapper Humphead snapper Brownstripe red snapper (One spot snapper) (Yellow belly snapper) Yellowback fusilier Tripletail Common mojarra Whipfin silverbiddy Sweetlips Sweetlips Silver grunt Saddle grunt

Local Name Koral bole

Gogla Tulardandi Hundra Sada mach Hangor chat Samudra gojar Doramouri Fakir mach Malabar mouri Boro mouri Boga mouri Kawa mouri Kala chanda Futi chapa Sonali mouri Choukka mouri Bedo mach Chan chanda Deto chanda Kamala chanda Tek chanda Ranga koi Ranga koi Ranga koi

38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43.

Sillaginidae Malacanthidae Lactaridae Echeneididae Rachycentridae Carangidae

47. 48. 49. 50.

Caesionidae Lobotidae Gerreidae Haemulidae

Sagor koi Dome mach Dome mach Nak koral Guti datina
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Family (Subfamily) 51. Sparidae 52. Lethrinidae

115. 116. 117. 118. 119. 120.

Genus & Species (Synonym) Argyrops spinifer Lethrinus erythracanthus Lethrinus olivaceus Lethrinus ornatus Nemipterus japonicus Scolopsis vosmeri Scolopsis sp. Eleutheronema tetradactylum Leptomelanosoma indicum Polydactylus plebeius Johnius argentatus** Johnius belangerii Johnius amblycephalus (Johnius dussumieri) Otolithoides pama (Pama pama) Panna microdon Protonibea diacanthus Pterotolithus maculatus Upeneus sulphureus Parupeneus sp 1 Parupeneus sp 2 Monodactylus argenteus Drepane punctata Chaetodon collare (Chaetodon collaris) Chaetodon decussatus Chaetodon octofasciatus Chaetodon vagabundus Heniochus acuminatus Heniochus singularis Pomacanthus annularis Kyphosus cinerascens Kyphosus vaigiensis Terapon jarbua Terapon theraps Terapon sp. Cirrhitichthys sp. Oreochromis mossambicus Oreochromis niloticus Abudefduf bengalensis Abudefduf sexfasciatus Abudefduf sordidus Chrysiptera brownriggii (Chrysiptera leucompa) Chrysiptera unimaculata

53.

Nemipteridae

54. 55.

Polynemidae Sciaenidae

121. 122. 123. 124. 125. 126. 127. 128. 129. 130. 131.

Common Name (FAO Name) King soldierbream Orange-spotted emperor Longface emperor Ornate emperor Japanese threadfin bream Whitecheek monocle bream Monocle bream Fourfinger threadfin Indian threadfin Striped threadfin Silver croaker Belangers croaker Bearded croaker Pama croaker Panna croaker Blackspotted croaker Blotched tiger-toothed croaker Sulphur goatfish Goatfish Goatfish Silver moony Spotted sicklefish Redtail butterflyfish Indian vagabond butterflyfish Eightbanded butterflyfish Vagabond butterflyfish Longfin bannerfish Singular bannerfish Blueringed angelfish Blue seachub Brassy chub Jarbus terapon Largescaled terapon Hawkfish Mozambique tilapia Nile tilapia Bengal sergeant Scissortail sergeant Blackspot sergeant Surge damselfish Onespot demoiselle

Local Name Lal datina

Lal mach Rupban Tolin mach Tolin mach Tailla Lakhua Choto lakhua Lal poa Rupali poa Poa Poa Lambu poa Tila poa Bilai poa Sonali bata Polish chanda Pan mach

56. 57. 58. 59.

Mullidae Monodactylidae Drepanidae Chaetodontidae

132. 133. 134. 135. 136. 137. 138. 139. 140. 141. 142. 143. 144. 145. 146. 147. 148. 149.

60. 61. 62.

Pomacanthidae Kyphosidae Terapontidae

Gogo Xirpai

63. Cirrhitidae Perciformes (Labroidei) 64. Cichlidae 150. 151. 65. Pomacentridae 152. 153. 154. 155. 156.
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Tilapia Tilapia

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Family (Subfamily) 157. 158. 159. 160. 161. 162. 163. 164. 165. 166. 167. 168. 169. 170. 171. 172. 173. 174. 175.

66.

Labridae

Genus & Species (Synonym) Dascyllus sp. Neopomacentrus azysron Pomacentrus caeruleus Pomacentrus coelestis Neopomacentrus cyanomos (Pomacentrus cyanomos) Pomacentrus vaiuli Stegastes fasciolatus Bodianus sp 1 Bodianus sp 2 Cheilinus sp Coris gaimard Coris sp. Halichoeres sp. 1 Halichoeres sp. 2 Labroidis dimidiatus Thalassoma lunare Thalassoma sp 1 Thalassoma sp 2 Bolbometopon muricatum Callydon sperullum Scarus sp 1 Scarus sp 2 Scarus sp 3 Helcogramma sp. Cirripectes castaneus (Cirripectes astaneus) Ecsenius bicolor Salaries fasciatus Eleotris fusca Trypauchen vagina Odontam blyopus rubicundus Acentrogobius viridipunctatus Amblyeleotris sp. Amblyeleotris steinitzi Cryptocentrus cinctus Glossogobius giuris Apocryptes bato Pseudapocryptes elongates (Pseudapocryptes lanceolatus) Awaous grammepomus Awaous guamensis (Awaous stamineus) Kurtus indicus Ephippus orbis Platax teira

Common Name (FAO Name) Dascyllus Yellow-tail demoiselle Caerulean damsel Neon damselfish Regal demoiselle Ocellate damselfish Pacific gregory Hogfish Hogfish Wrasse Yellowtail coris Coris Wrasse Wrasse Bluestreak cleaner wrasse Moon wrasse Wrasse Wrasse Green hum phead parrotfish

Local Name

67.

Scaridae

176. 177. 178. 179. Perciformes (Blennioidei) 68. Tripterygiidae 180. 69. Blennidae 181. 182. 183. Perciformes (Gobioidei) 70. Eleotridae 184. 71. Gobidae: 185. (Amblyopinae) 186. 72. Gobidae: 187. (Gobiinae) 188. 189. 190. 191. 73. Gobidae: 192. (Oxudercinae) 193. 74. Gobidae: (Gobionellinae) 194. 195.

Sundari mach Parrotfish Parrotfish Parrotfish Triplefin Chestnut eyelashblenny Bicolor blenny Jewelled blenny Dusky sleeper Burrowing goby Eel goby Green-spotted goby Steinitz' prawn-goby Yellow-prawn goby Tank goby Lal chewa Lal chewa Fool baila

Baila Chiring Sada chewa

Scribbled goby

Perciformes (K urtoidei) 75. Kurtidae 196. Perciformes (Acanthuroidei) 76. Ephippidae 197. 198.
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Indian hump head Spadefish Spotbelly batfish Hatirkan

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Family (Subfamily) 77. Scatophagidae 78. Siganidae 79. Acanthuridae

199. 200.

Genus & Species (Synonym) Scatophagus argus Siganus stellatus Acanthurus lineatus Acanthurus xanthopterus Sphyraena forsteri Sphyraena qenie (Sphyraena genie) Sphyraena obtusata Lepturacanthus savala Trichurus lepturus Rastrelliger kanagurta Scomberomorus guttatus (Scomberomorus kuhlii) Pampus argenteus Pampus chinensis Psettodes erumei Pseudorhombus malayanus Cynoglossus bilineatus Cynoglossus cynoglossus Cynoglossus lingua Cynoglossus kopsii (Cynoglossus versicolor) Aesopia cornuta Brachirus orientalis Zebrias altipinnis Arothron stellatus Chelonodon patoca (Tetraodon patoca) Lagocephalus lunaris (Gastrophysus lunaris) Takifugu oblongus (Torquigener oblongus) Diodon histrix

201. 202. Perciformes (Scombroidei) 80. Sphyraenidae 203. 204. 81. 82. Trichiuridae Scombridae 205. 206. 207. 208. 209.

Common Name (FAO Name) Spotted scat Brownspotted spinefoot Lined surgeonfish Yellowfin surgeonfish Bigeye barracuda Blackfin barracuda Obtuse barracuda Savalani hairtail Largehead hairtail Indian mackerel Indo-Pacific king mackerel Silver pomfret Chinese silver pomfret Indian spiny turbot Malayan flounder Fourlined tonguesole Bengal tonguesole Long tongue sole Shortheaded tonguesole Unicorn sole Oriental sole

Local Name Bishtara Bishkatali

Darkoral

Churi mach Churi mach Champa Maitta Folichanda Rupchanda Pata mach Gola lool Bilini shol Kukurjib Lamba pata Badami soli Pata mach Pata mach Dora soli Potka Rupali potka Dora potka Sajaru mach

Perciformes: (Stromateoidei) 83. Stromateidae 210. 211. 84. Psettodidae 212. Pleuronectiformes 85. Bothidae 213. 86. Cynoglossidae 214. 215. 216. 217. 87. Soleidae 218. 219. 220. 221. 222. 223. 224. 89. Diodontidae 225.

Tetraodontiformes 88. Tetraodontidae

Milkspotted puffer Green rough-backed puffer Lattice blaasop Spot-fin porcupinefish

Notes * Distribution of these species in Bangladesh coastal water is questionable; probably they are misidentifications: Rhinoptera neglecta (Rhinopteridae) may be misidentification for the species Rhinoptera javanica or Rhinoptera adspersa; Epinephelus quoyanus/Epinephelus megachir (Serranidae) may be misidentification for Epinephelus hexagonatus or Epinephelus coioides. ** Name not existing in the Fishbase (www.fishbase.org). NCSIP (2001) in cludes the following freshwater fishes in St Martin Island- Mystus cavasius, Mystus tengara, Mystus vittatus, Clarius batrachusand Anabas testudineus. Source: MoEF (2001b), Survey of Fauna, National Conservation Strategy (NCS) Implementation Project -1. Carpenter, K.E.; Niem, V.H. (eds) 1998. FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the Western Central Pacific. Volume 2. Cephalopods, crustaceans, holothurians and sharks. Rome, FAO. 1998. pp. 687-1396. Carpenter, K.E.; Niem, V.H. (eds) 1999a. FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the Western Central Pacific. Volume 3. Batoid fishes, chimaeras and bony fishes part 1 (Elopidae to Linophrynidae). Rome, FAO. 1999. pp. 1397-2068.

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Carpenter, K.E.; Niem, V.H. (eds) 1999b. FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the Western Central Pacific. Volume 4. Bony fishes part 2 (Mugilidae to Carangidae). Rome, FAO. 1999. pp. 2069-2790. Carpenter, K.E.; Niem, V.H. (eds) 2001a. FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the Western Central Pacific. Volume 5. Bony fishes part 3 (Menidae to Pomacentridae). Rome, FAO. 2001. pp. 2791-3380. Carpenter, K.E.; Niem, V.H. (eds) 2001b. FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the Western Central Pacific. Volume 6. Bony fishes part 4 (Labridae to Latimeriidae), estuarine crocodiles, sea turtles, sea snakes and marine mammals. Rome, FAO. 2001. pp. 3381-4218.

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Annex 8: Reef-building corals recorded at St Martins Island and their relative abundance
Sl Family Species Name No Phylum: Cnidaria, Class: Anthozoa, Order: Scleractinia 1. Acroporidae Acropora aceleu s 2. Acropora austrea 3. Acropora glauca 4. Acropora latistella 5. Acropora multiacuta 6. Acropora rudis 7. Acropora vaughani 8. Montipora angulata 9. Montipora hispida 10. Montipora informis 11. Montipora spongodes 12. Montipora turtlensis 13. Montipora verucosa 14. Agaricidae Pavona decusata 15. Astrocoeniidae Stylocoeniella armata 16. Dendrophylliidae Dendrophyllia sp. 17. Turbinaria frondens 18. Turbinaria peltata 19. Turbinaria reniformes 20. Turbinaria stellulata 21. Faviidae Cyphastrea chalcidicum 22. Cyphastrea serailia 23. Cyphastrea sp. 24. Favia favus 25. Favia pallida 26. Favia speciosa 27. Favites abdita 28. Favites chinensis 29. Favites flexuosa 30. Favites halicora 31. Favites sp 1 32. Favites sp 2 33. Goniastrea aspera 34. Goniastrea edwardsi 35. Goniastrea palanensis 36. Goniastrea pendulus 37. Goniastrea retiformis 38. Goniastrea pruinosa 39. Leptastrea purpurea 40. Leptastrea transversa 41. Monastrea curta 42. Monastrea magnistellata 43. Oulophyllia bennettae 44. Platygyra daedalea 45. Platygyra pini 46. Platygyra sinensis 47. Merulinidae Hydrophora exesa
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Common Name

Cactus coral

Head coral

Brain coral

Merulina coral
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Sl Family Species Name No Phylum: Cnidaria, Class: Anthozoa, Order: Scleractinia 48. Hydrophora microconos 49. Hydrophora pilosa 50. Hydrophora sp 51. Mussidae Acanthostrea echinata 52. Acanthostrea hillae 53. Oculinidae Galaxea astreata 54. Galaxea fascicularis 55. Galaxea sp 56. Poritidae Goniopora columna 57. Goniopora djiboutiensis 58. Goniopora stokesi 59. Goniopora stutchburyi 60. Goniopora tenuidens 61. Porites lobata 62. Porites lutea 63. Porites murrayensis 64. Porites solida 65. Siderastreidae Coscinaraea columna 66. Psammocora haimeana 67. Psammocora profundacella 68. Pseudosiderastrea tayami

Common Name

Source: MoEF (2001b), Survey of Fauna, National Conservation Strategy (NCS) Implementation Project-1.

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Annex 9: Molluscs recorded at St Martins Island


Sl Order No (Suborder) Class: Bivalvia 1. Arcoidea 2. 3. 4. Mytiloida 5. 6. 7. 8. Pterioida 9. 10. Ostroida 11. 12. 13. Veneroida 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. Class: Gastropoda 28. Archaeogastropoda 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45.
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Family (Subfamily) Arcidae

Genus & Species (Previous Name)

Common Name (FAO Name) Hazelnut ark Ark Bittersweet clam Green mussel Green mussel Box mussel Box mussel Pearl oyster Thorny oyster Cupped oyster Hooded oyster Hooded oyster Jewel box Reflexed jewel box Jewel box Cockle Cockle Trough shell Tellin Tellin Donax clam Tumid venus Carpet shell Sunetta Sunetta

Arca avellana Scapharca sp. Glycymeridae Glycymeris sp. Mytilidae Perna sp 1 Perna sp 2 Septifer excisees Septifer sp. Pteriidae Pinctada mazatlanica Spondylidae Spondylus sp. Ostreidae Crassostrea sp. Saccostrea cuculata Saccostrea sp. Chamidae Chama echinata (Jewel box Chama pacifica shells ) (Chama reflexa) Chama sp. Cardiidae Trachycardium (Cockles) asiaticum Trachycardium sp. Mactridae Mactra sp. Tellinidae Gastrana polygona Gastrana sp. Donacidae Donax sp. Veneridae Dosinia sp. Gafrarium tumidum Ruditeps sp. Sunetta effosa Sunneta excavata Venus sp. Fissurellidae Patellidae Trochidae Scutus unguis Cellana ornata Monilea belcheri Monodonta australis Monododonta labio Trochus niloticus Trochus maculatus Trochus radiatus Umbonium sp. Astraea brevispina Astraea buschii Astraea semicostata Liotina peronii Turbo bruneus Turbo cinereus Turbo marmoratus Nerita albicilla Nerita chamaeleon

Limpet Monodont Labio monodont Commercial top Maculated top Radiated top Button top

Turbinidae

Neritidae

Brown Pacific turban Smooth moon turban Green turban Oxpalate nerite Chameleon ner ite
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Sl No 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55.

Order (Suborder)

Family (Subfamily)

Mesogastropoda

Littorinidae Cerithiidae

56. 57. 58. 59. 60.

Potamididae Strombidae

61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70. 71. 72. 73. 74. 75. 76. 77. 78. 79. 80. 81. 82. 83. 84. 85. 86. 87. 88. 89.
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Cypraeidae

Naticidae

Genus & Species (Previous Name) Nerita fulgurans Nerita lineata Nerita polita Nerita ziczac Nerita sp. Neritina smithi Littorina melanstoma Tectarius coronatus Cerithium sp. Clypeomorus batillariaeformis (Clypeomorus moniliferus) Clypeomorus sp. Rhinoclavis sinensis Cerithidea sp. Telescopium sp. Strombus aurisdianae (Euprotomus aurisdianae) Strombus canarium Strombus labiatum Strombus marginatus Strombus mutabilis Strombus sp 1 Strombus sp 2 Cypraea arabica Cyprea asellus Cypraea chinensis Cypraea cicercula Cypraea erosa Cypraea gracilis Cypraea hirundo Cypraea nucleus Cypraea subviridis Cypraea tessellata Cypraea xanthodon Cypraea sp 1 Cypraea sp 2 Cypraea sp 3 Cypraea sp 4 Cypraea sp 5 Cypraea sp 6 Cypraea sp 7 Cypraea sp 8 Cypraea annulus (Monetaria annulus) Cypraea moneta (Monetaria moneta) Natica elenae Natica lineata

Common Name (FAO Name)

Polished nerite

Periwinkle Coronate prickly-winkle Cerith Necklace cerith

Cerith Obelisk vertagus Horn shell Telescope snail Diana conch

Dog conch Plicate conch Marginate conch Mutable conch Conch Conch Arabian cowrie Little-Donkey Cowrie Chinese Cowrie Chick-pea Cowrie Eroded cowrie Marked Graceful Cowrie Swallow Cowrie

Gold ring cowrie Money cowrie

Lined moon snail


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Sl No 90. 91. 92. 93. 94. 95. 96. 97. 98. 99. 100. 101. 102. 103. 104. 105. 106. 107. 108. 109. 110. 111. 112. 113. 114. 115. 116. 117. 118. 119. 120. 121. 122. 123. 124. 125. 126. 127. 128. 129. 130. 131. 132. 133. 134. 135. 136.
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Order (Suborder)

Family (Subfamily)

Ficidae Cassidae Ranellidae (= Cymatidae)

Personidae Bursidae Acteonidae Planaxid ae Muricidae

Neogastropoda

Thaididae

Buccinidae

Columbellidae Nassaridae Melongenidae

Fasciolaridae

Harpidae Turbinellidae Olividae

Genus & Species (Previous Name) Natica tigrina Natica sp. Polinices didyma Polinices mammilla (Polinices tumidus) Polinices sp. Ficus sp. Phalium areola Phalium sp. Argobuccinum australasiae Cymatium pileare Cyrineum natator Distorsio reticularis (Distorsio reticulata) Bursa sp. Solidula sp. Planaxis sp. Chicoreus brunneus Chicoreus sp. Murex sp. Naquetia sp. Morula granulata Morula margariticola Morula marginalba Repena rapiformes Thais alounia Thais bufo Thais hipocastanum Thais mancinella Thais tissoti Thais sp. 1 Thais sp. 2 Babylonia formosae Babylonia spirata Cantharus undosus Cantharus sp. Anachis miser Buillia vittatum Nassarius sp. Pugilina cochlidium Pugilina colosseus Pugilina sp. Fusinus rostratus Latrius polygonus Latrius sp. Pleuroploca filamentosa Harpa major Turbinella pyrum Agaronia nebulosa

Common Name (FAO Name) Tiger moon snail Bladder moon snail Pear-shaped moon snail Moon snail Fig shell Checkerboard bonnet Bonnet

Common hairy triton Reticulate distorsio Frog shell Small buble shell Cluster wink Adusta murex Murex Murex

Turnish shaped rapa Alou rock shell Toad purpura

Ivory whelk Ivory whelk Waved goblet Goblet

Nassa Spiral melongena Colossal melongena Melongena Many-angled spindle Filamentous horse conch Major harp

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Order (Suborder)

Family (Subfamily)

Marginellidae Mitridae

Costellariidae

Conidae

Turridae

Basommatophora

Terebridae Architectonicidae Siphonariidae

Doridacea

Dorididae Kentrodorididae Chromodoridae

Genus & Species (Previous Name) Amalda ampala Oliva gibbosa Oliva hirasei Oliva oliva Oliva vidua Oliva sp. 1 Oliva sp. 2 Oliva sp. 3 Oliva sp. 4 Oliva sp. 5 Oliva sp. 6 Oliva sp. 7 Oliva sp. 8 Oliva sp. 9 Oliva sp. 10 Olivancillaria sp. Marginella angustata Marginella sp. Mitra ambigua Mitra barbadensis Mitra coronata Mitra hindsii Mitra punctostriata Mitra ticaonica Mitra variabilis Mitra sp. Pusia porphyretica Vexillum cerebriliratum Zierliana sp. Conus catus Conus erythraeensis Conus geographus Conus inseriptus Conus striat us Conus textile Conus sp. Gemmula speciosa Lophitoma indica Surcula javana Turris crispa Turiculla tornata Terebra affinis Architectonica sp. Siphonaria javanica (Siphonaria siphon) Sophonaria sp. Doris sp. Jornua funebris Chromodoris sp.

Common Name (FAO Name)

Common olive Black olive

Textile cone

Indian turrid

Auger shell Sundial shell Javanese false limpet False limpet

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Sl No 185.

Order (Suborder)

Family (Subfamily)

Genus & Species (Previous Name) Glossodoris atromarginata Ischnochiton boniensis Chiton granoradius

Common Name (FAO Name)

Class: Amphineura 186. Polyplacophora 187.

Ischnochitonidae Chitonidae

Source: MoEF (2001b), Survey of Fauna, National Conservation Strategy (NCS) Implementation Project-1.

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Annex 10: Other invertebrates recorded at St Martins Island


CRABS
Order (Suborder) Decapoda (Infraorder: Brachyura)

(Class: Crustacea)
Family (Subfamily) Xanthidae Calappidae Species Name (Synonym) 1. Atergatis integerrimus 2. Matuta lunaris 3. Matuta planipes 4. Charybdis feriatus 5. Portunus pelagicus 6. Portunus sanguinolentus 7. Scylla serrata 8. Thalamita crenata 9. Dotilla myctiroides 10. Ocypode ceratophthalma Common Name Red Egg Crab Moon Crab Flower moon crab Crucifix crab Flower crab Three-spot swimming crab Giant mud crab Crenate swimming crab Soldier crab Horned ghost crab

Portunidae

Ocypodidae

ECHINODERMS (Crinoids, Stars, Sea Urchins and Sea Cucumbers)


Class (Sub Class) (Subphylum: Crinozoa) Crinoida (Subphylum: Asterozoa) Stellaroida (Subphylum: Echinozoa) Echinoidea Holothuroidea Order (suborder) Comatulida Family (subfamily) Colobometridae Mariametridae Tropiometridae Oreasteridae Echinometridae Diadematidae Holothuriidae Species Name 1. Cenometra bella 2. Stephanometra indica 3. Tropiometra afra 4. Protoreaster sp. 5. Echinometra mathaei 6. Echinostrephus aciculatus 7. Echinortrix calamaris 8. Holothuria atra Common name Feather stars Feather stars Feather stars Horned sea star Matha's Sea Urchin Needle Spined Sea Urchin Banded Sea Urchin Sea cucumber

Valvatida Echinoida

Aspidochirotida

Source: MoEF (2001b), Survey of Fauna, National Conservation Strategy (NCS) Implementation Project-

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Annex 11: Stakeholder Analysis


Extracted from POUSH (2006d) for more information see full report. PAPD: The Island consists only one Mauza and the whole Island is ECA. There are 7 paras in the mauza, viz: 1. Dail para 2. Purba para 3. Nazrul para 4. Majer para 5. Paschim para 6. Kona para 7. Daskhin para The PAPD for St. Martins Island was conducted from 24 to 26 January 2006 at Majer Para Cyclone Center. There were 60 participants from almost every para. The following stakeholder groups participated: Boat owner: 05 Businessman: 13 Farmer: 01 Service Holder: 02 Fisher: 18 Housewife: 21 For the PAPD they were segregated on the following 3 groups based on their status: 1. Fishers 2. Businessmen 3. Women Ranking of problems identified
Sl No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Problems Obtained scores per group Fishers Tourism related problem Lack of sanitary latrines Lack of fresh water supply and water logging Lack of fishes in the sea Lack of trees in the area Decrease of animals in the island Problems in livestock and poultry rearing Problems in the cultivation Problems of transportation in the rainy season Less production in vegetable Presence of stones beneath the agricultural land 8 8 6 10 6 2 2 Business men 29 5 8 6 12 2 8 3 10 3 6 Women 8 12 10 4 13 5 8 5 5 5 5 Total scores 45 25 24 20 25 13 16 10 15 10 11 Group weight 3 3 3 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 Grand Total 135 75 72 60 50 39 32 30 30 30 22 Rank

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

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Obtained scores per group 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Land sliding caused by the sea Decrease of Pezla in the sea Decrease of coral in the island The crisis of animal food Trawling in the shallow sea Lack of medical treatment in the island Crisis of money Population problem Lack of roads in the island Problem in business Dowry problem Lack of educational facilities Lack of safe Ghat and collection of excess toll at Ghat The attack of robbers in the sea 8 4 15 12 12 1 2 3 3 2 9 2 5 1 10 15 12 12 5 9 4 5 3 3 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 20 15 12 12 10 9 8 5 3 3 1 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

25

25

Stakeholder analysis
Problem Solution Crisis of the drinking water Deep tube well and ring well should be setup in the area by Govt. initiatives Tourism related problem Arranging at least 1 safe transport from Teknaf to St. Martin during the summer and rainy season To arrange loan facilities to the local entrepreneurs to build boarding of medium class for the tourists Sanitation problem Ring slab in the local area should be distributed as a Govt. donation or arranging loan for the purpose

Stakeholders Fishermen +,+,+ +,+,+ +,+,+ +,+,+ Fishery Businessmen +,+,+ +,+,+ +,+,+ +,+,+ Hotel management +,+,+ +,+,+ +,+,+ +,+,+ Tourist boat owner +,+,+ +,=,+ +,+,+ +,+,+ Local Govt. members +,+,+ +,+,+ +,+,+ +,+,+ Upazilla social service +,+,+ +,+,+ +,+,+ +,+,+ officer Religious leaders +,+,+ +,+,+ +,+,+ +,+,+ Non fishing businessmen +,+,+ +,+,+ +,+,+ +,+,+ Notes: + means if the solutions are implemented, the stakeholders will be always benefited - means if the solutions are implemented, the stakeholders will always will face loss = means if the solutions are implemented, the stakeholders will be neither benefited nor looser + (-) means if the solutions are implemented, the stakeholders will be initially benefited but looser in the long run - (+) means if the solutions are implemented, the stakeholders will be initially looser but benefited in the long run
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Annex 12: Compilation of new rules identified for St Martins Island ECA
Current regulation/new rule A. Natural forest and tree felling and harvesting 1. Restrict cuttin g of Pandanus to branches only 2. Extend to include restriction on collection of fruits to 75% of fruits 3. No mangrove cutting (natural or planted) 4. Extend to include collection of marine algae for commercial trade 5. Restrict collection of marine algae for research purposes B. Wildlife or game killing 1. Seasonal or complete ban on specific fishing gear in cetacean habitat 2. Allow killing of stray dogs 3. Allow killing of house crow and other alien predatory birds 4. Ban use of air gun/sling shots 5. Include hunting and trapping of birds 6. No killing of sea cucumbers High rate of by-catch Raid turtle nests and eat eggs; kill nesting turtles Predate native bird eggs; reduce habitat available for native bird species Used to kill birds for fun Birds not specifically included Not specifically included Removal of whole plant destabilises sand dunes and beach sediments Collection of fruit is limiting natural regeneration While natural forest is protected under regulations, planted forest is not Important for sand dune formation Food source for Green Turtles; habitat for marine fauna Justification

C. Catching or collection of corals, bivalves, turtles and other wild life 1. No turtle egg collection 2. Include hunting and trapping of birds 3. Extend to include sale and purchase of coral 4. Include no collection of crustaceans, shells or echinoderms for curio businesses 1. No use of seine nets restricted in marine algal communities 2. No anchoring in coral areas Not specifically included currently Egg collection equally, if not more, damaging Birds not specifically mentioned

D. Destruction or alteration of habitats for flora and fauna Important habitat Damages coral

3. No boulder removal from intertidal rocky zone or Affects habitat and species directly rocky land habitat 4. No infrastructure development within 15-20 m of Adversely affects dune structure dune areas (to be clarified 5. No infrastructure development in rocky land habitat Adversely affect habitat and species 6. No conversion of mudflat for any purpose Only mudflat habitat in whole site.

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Current regulation/new rule

Justification

E. Any activities that relate to the destruction of the natural characteristics of land and water 1. No untreated sewerage disposal into marine environment 2. No planting of invasive alien species 3. No clearing of dunes for any purpose Water pollution Adversely affects native species biodiversity Essential for protection

F. Establishment of industries that might pollute the land, water, air and make sound pollution 1. Include controls on existing industries e.g. fish drying Marine water pollution of offal from fish dressing/washing

G. Any activity that might harm fish and other aquatic lives 1. No boat discharges outside general use zone 2. No solid waste disposal into marine environment 3. Use of TED-equipped shrimp and fish trawl nets 4. No use of ESBN, MSBN and drifting gill nets with 2 km of beach during turtle nesting season 5. Ban on harvesting juvenile/sub-adult coral fish 6. Breeding season ban on use of fine-meshed nets in coral community areas 7. Restrictions on fishing during intensive breeding seasons 8. Restrictions on the use of gill nets including meshsize 9. Ban on oil and gas exploration and extraction within 20km of the site 10. Ban on the use of rock-weighted gill nets over coral beds 11. Ban on harvesting crabs in intensive breeding season of June-July 12. Rule on safe release of turtles, cetaceans and jelly fish by-catch 13. Ban on the collection, sale and purchase of ornamental fish 14. No untreated sewerage released into marine environment Additional regulations 1. All tourism providers to be certified under ecocertification program 2. All infrastructure development at the site to be subject to EIA and approved by DoE Water pollution Water pollution Minimise turtle trapping Minimise turtle trapping Adversely affects age structure/recruitment Minimise juvenile by-catch Adversely affects recruitment Adversely affects recruitment, and cetacean and turtle by-catch Adversely affects marine biodiversity Adversely affects coral Adversely affects age structure/recruitment Non-safe release is tantamount to killing Adversely affects coral-associated species diversity Marine pollution

Eco-certification program being developed as part of tourism management at the site to ensure ecotourism standards are met by tourism providers To manage unplanned development at the site

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Annex 13: Awareness Raising


The following outlines the scope of awareness raising required with respect to human impacts on species, habitat and community conservation at the site. There is scope within the CWBMP to utilise professional assistance for awareness raising activities, which should be drawn upon for these activities. The experience and lessons learnt from awareness-raising conducted under ECFCP and SEMP should also be drawn upon. Raise awareness at the site about ECA regulations (listed below) and of DoEs intention to enforce these regulations via a combination of direct and community-based enforcement: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Natural forest and tree felling and harvesting Wildlife or game killing Catching or collection of corals, bivalves, turtles and other wild life Destruction or alteration of habitats for flora and fauna Any activities that relate to the destruction of the natural characteristics of land and water 6. Establishment of industries that might pollute the land, water, air and make sound pollution 7. Any activity that might harm fish and other aquatic lives Raise awareness of proposed extensions to ECA regulations to be promulgated under the CWBMP (compiled in Annex 12) and of DoEs intention to enforce these regulations via a combination of direct and community-based enforcement. Raise awareness among the relevant user groups about the impact of their activities on habitats, communities and species:
Activity Pandanus clearing Seaweed collection Fishing Fish dressing/ washing Turtle egg collection Bird hunting/ trapping Coral collection Habitat/community/species affected Pandanus (abundance and distribution), sand dunes (destabilisation), beach (erosion) Sand dunes (limits formation), beach (erosion) Coral fishes, marine algae (destruction), cetaceans, turtles and jelly fish (by-catch), coral (destruction), crustaceans (juvenile by-catch). Marine algae (growth), marine water (pollution) Marine turtles (abundance) Birds (abundance/diversity) Coral (species abundance, diversity; coral habitat destruction); coral fishes and spiny lobster (habitat destruction) Beach (erosion), molluscs (diversity and abundance), echinoderms (diversity and abundance) Sea cucumber (abundance) Intertidal rocky habitat (destruction), molluscs and echinoderms (habitat destruction); marine algae (destruction) Sand dunes (destabilisation, destruction), dune vegetation (diversity and abundance) Relevant ECA regulation(s)* 1, 4, 5 5 3, 4, 7 5, 6, 7 3 2,3 3, 4, 7

Shell/echinoderm collection Sea cucumber killing Boulder removal

3, 4, 5, 7 3, 7 4, 5, 7

Infrastructure development on/adjacent to dunes


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Activity Conversion of land to cultivation


* From list of 1-7 above

Habitat/community/species affected Rocky land habitat (destruction/degradation), terrestrial species

Relevant ECA regulation(s)* 4, 5

Raise awareness among the local community and property developers of the importance of Pandanus for both coastal and livelihood protection, and the possibility of limited use by the local community of Pandanus for fuelwood via the cutting of branches only. Raise awareness among the local community about the significance of the indigenous onion species and the risk it faces in being replaced by other species. Raise awareness among fishermen of the impact of the use of seine nets on marine algae communities. Raise awareness of near- and off-shore fishermen at the site on the safe release of turtles and cetaceans caught in fishing gear, reducing turtle and cetacean by-catch and superstitions regarding turtles. Implement an awareness raising campaign among shrimp trawl owners and operators to initiate the installation of TEDs in shrimp/fish trawling nets. Raise awareness of responsible/sustainable fishing methods, including minimising by-catch, use of environmentally-friendly and non-destructive (positive) gears, innovative site-specific fishing techniques and hygienic post-harvest technologies (e.g. HACCP). Raise awareness among farmers of the effect of pesticide use on bird habitat and integrated pest management methods, including the judicious use of pesticides. Raise awareness among fishermen of the importance of coral-associated fishes, the unique and significant nature of the Islands coral and its dependent fish species and the impacts of their actions on coral fish biodiversity. Raise awareness of both the local community and tourists nation-wide of the importance and significance of coral at the Island, both nationally and internationally, including editing and preparing a commentary in Bangla for the underwater video taken by Tomascik (1997), to be broadcast nationally on TV. Raise awareness among fishermen of improved fishing gear (lobster pots with escape routes). Raise awareness among the local community of the impacts of their activities on the fragile dune habitat and dune dependent species, including the provision of dune stewardship fact sheets in words and pictures. Raise awareness of the significance of the remaining mudflat area, particularly for birds given the declining habitat for birds at other parts of the Island. Raise awareness about invasive alien species occurring at the site, their impact on biodiversity and the necessity for both managing those species and avoiding any further introductions. Raise awareness among the local community of the importance of not selling land to outsiders for short term gain. Longer term gains can be made by keeping land and conserving it.

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Annex 14: Ecotourism Development Plan (DRAFT)


Tourist/Visitor Information Program: Identify a suitable location for and establish an Information/Visitors Centre(s), to serve as a focal point for tourism at the site. All ecotourism program information and registered/certified local guides will be available from the Centre(s). All of the guided ecotourism program will start and conclude from the Centre(s). The Centre(s) will be equipped with a map of the site, explaining the sites zones, habitats and species, location of attractions, location of tourism facilities, infrastructure etc. Brochures containing much the same information as the map will provide a portable version of the map for tourists to refer to during their time at the site and to take home. A list of ecotourism programs with their costs will be available at the Centre(s). The Centre will be manned by several staff (from local community) that will be available to answer questions, provide necessary information regarding attractions and ecotourism best-practices, and arrange guides and other support for the ecotourism program options. The Centre(s) will be contactable directly by hotel and tour operators on the mainland, to refer customer bookings and make travel arrangements etc. The Centre will also sell refreshments, and souvenirs prepared by the local community. The limited availability of materials at the site for making souvenirs will need to be addressed first by CWBMP via provision of start-up costs, but should become self -sustaining. Natural materials at the site should not be used for making souvenirs. The Centre should also include toilet and washing facilities. The Centre(s) may also be associated with tourism monitoring and surveillance. Registered/Certified local guide development program: A number of local people will be selected for a guide training program. The guide training program will be developed according to ecotourism principles. Upon successful completion of training guides will be registered for work as guides on the Island and will be available through the Information Centre(s). The guides will conduct tours, provide interpretive inf ormation, answer tourists questions, explain best-practice tourism guidelines and monitor tourist behaviour. Guides will also report species/habitat information to ECA managers, e.g. species sightings, observation of any damage etc. Local cultural progra ms: One or more groups will be formed with the participation of local people (VCG members) to entertain tourists with local songs and puthi. These groups will be available through the Information Centre(s) via a booking system. Turtle watching program Guided turtle watching programs at the western beach (Zones 2 and 3 as identified in Section 3.2) will be developed. These programs, which will only be run during the nesting season, will provide the opportunity for tourists to observe the hatchery program, turtle nests and where possible turtles emerging from the shore to nest. A small information centre at the hatchery(s) will provide information on turtle breeding and nesting habits, migration etc. and pictures of turtles, nesting turtles, nests and their eggs, hatchlings and hatchlings being released into the sea. Two types of programs will be available a) A day-return trip to visit the hatchery and turtle nesting site, and b) an overnight stay to visit the hatchery and observe turtles emerging to nest. The programs will be 100% guided; group sizes are to be determined. Guided walks: Guided walks will be developed to help tourists get a better understanding of the Island, its biodiversity, habitats, local lifestyle etc. Three types of guided walks are p roposed at this point i) a half-day walk through the villages and other interesting places in Zones 3 and 4 (north to
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Golachipa); ii) a full-day walk to include sections of walk (i) and places south of Golachipa (in Zones 3, 5 and 6); and iii) a half-day walk/boat trip to the places south of Golachipa (Zones 3, 5 & 6). The number of people per group and the number of groups visiting Zones 3, 5 and 6 daily will be fixed. This will be regulated via entry points for example at Golachipa and South Para ghat. Fishing tour/Dolphin watching tour: Opportunities also exist for programs related to the observation of local near-/off-shore fishing activities which will also include opportunities for dolphin observation. Coral Appreciation Coral appreciation programs via snorkelling, SCUBA diving and the use of a glass -bottomed boat are options for the coral lagoon site off-shore from zone 3.

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