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2April are clear. been success. people have itout interest. many ofBritish and I hope like thousands of you find others. and We taken ofthe romments about handbook.he editionthis first of handbook abest-seller itcame towardsend became when out the 0f2004. And more have many will obtained astudy itas guide the tests knowledge life the for new of about in United Kingdom we which brought in during for who to 2005 people want become citizens. that benefits rases their ofour We think the ofthis approach increating and strong cohesive communities Thatwhy. i h e H o m e5 e ( r e t a r y I h e R t H o n J o h n R e i dM P . ceremonies celebrate which the achievement of people new Britons inbecoming have areal citizens. have account manv made the you reading handbook totake settlementorsimply Whetherare this inorder the test. people apply permanent we also asking who for will be inthe settlement United Kingdompass which be must obtained someone for before can apply citizenship-to same the test.wish know about Some will bought of ora to more the United Kingdom's and history instituiions. that. British Those together the citizenship with new te$s. is from 2007. to your increaseknowledge life institutions.will itboth interesting and helpful. like thank heartily the members Advisory on BoardNaturalisation ofthe Integrationhave this who led task. have the We taken opportunity this torevise handbook Iwould to thoroughly. tomake lives to more our and and inmany t0improve knowledge language.have They encouraged who have decided their inBritainlearn about culture institutions.

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and people family young (hapter3:T0DAY:PROFILE A UK Population The nations regions UK and ofthe Religion Customstraditions and (hapter4: THE HOW UNITED KINGD0M G0VERNED 15 The British Constitution The inEurope the UK and World (hapter NEEDS 5:EVERYDAY Housing Services forthehome inand Money credit and Health Education 7 8 10 13 17 21 73 (haoter 5:EVERYDAY continued NEEDS Leisure Travel transport and (hapter6: EMPL0YMENT Looking for work Equal and rights discrimination Atwork Workingyourself for Childcare childrenwork and at 75 77 79 82 B4 69 71 27 THE 29 chapterT: KN0WING LAW 30 The and rights duties citizen ofa (riminalcourts Civil courts 35 Legal and advice aid l7 Human rights 38 Children protection 40 Consumer ftaptera:50URCES AND 0FHELP INF0RMATION 43 lntroduction libraries 52 Public (CAB) Citizens Bureau Advice police The service Other sources ofinformation 55 BETTER 5B (haptere: BUILDING C0MMUNITIES 60 ot 87 90 90 91 92 96 97 101 102 'r03 103 104 107 66 GLOSSARY t'15 .CONTENTS 1: THE ftapter MAKING THE 0F UNITED KINGD0M What's name? ina Early Britain The Middle Ages period The modern early growthempire Stability the and of The century 20th Politics inBritain 1945 since A CHANGING chaoter2: S0ClETY Migration toBritain The changingofwomen role (hildren.

Scotland Wales. inthe including people they both. they British. national identity citizenship and donot always thesame The mean thing. But are there many several which closely important islands are differences between ofthe terms'United Kingdomi linked theUnited with Kingdom England. thereavery tradition is long of ethnic religious in and diversity goes the United Kingdom. say are This . and 'British lslesl'Britain' and'Brltishi but not part it the do form of Northern lreland. in newsoaoers TV. Wales Scotland. Wales [hannel and lsle lslands the of and Northern now lreland have parliaments orassemblies oftheir with rant own. people some 'British. Man. have their These kept own institutions Scotland. lnaddition tonational divenity.[hapter 1: 0understand it isimportant something itshistory. and Wales Northern ofgovernmentare and (the of lreland rest lreland isan called'Irown Tenitoriesi independent These country). born People in England more say will often that their nationality as well their as citizenship isBritish.sport are ln there four different teams football which play separately ininternational competiiions. Scotland. Wales Northern and lreland. but there only is one team Olympic forthewhole the of United Kingdom. section mentions who not this also necessarily important the most historically. their but that or'Great Britain'refers only to England. Great and Britain Northern lreland. account Any however. Many important institutions are common to[ngland. will as in chapter. Scotland. see this The Kingdom United consists today offour countries: England. such the and as laws customs ofthe [onstitution. but whose often names appearbooks. Historians disagree what include what exclude about to inhistorical As as and to accounts. howevet refers say are and usually they lrish some toeveryone UK.name'Britain' UK) The citizenship. well people are the historical and main events people. and on depends political on their and cultural allegiances. and not nationality isScottish orWelsh. InNorthern some lreland people toNorthern iheadjective say are Ireland. parliamentary and representative Iheresome is confusion about the rorrect meanings and use Northern There also lreland. are government. one isonly interpretation. acountry toknow about This isa chronological ofhow United section brief account the Kingdom tobe came what it istoday. four countries together came at different toform union times a called United the Kingdom of IntheUnited Kingdom. the Irown as symbolof and a unity. often ofhistory. Iimited signif but powen. This you back early to history. ScottishWelsh usually and will whichthe is official of name say they Briiish that have (or the country.

lnvery history land early the was populated who by tribes came totheBritish from lsles different parts Europe. years they ahundred later came queen was Boudicca. tribal economy. of the great prehistoric which temple still In55Btthe Romans. public in built and orEnglandkeep thePirts to out Ihelanguage Romans ofthe was (ancestors Scottish people. admini$ration laW built and and Hadrian.ofthe one emperon. they in Before left 4'10 they AD.had who an empire covering ofthe most Mediterranean first lands. and atribe to read write who over lreland). established medical practire. when tribes Latet the in the south island been ofthe had conquered. The Romans abigimpact had on lifeinBritain. and traders. was There strong Europe. astructure rreated of t i . with [aesar. Stonehenge. Latin local ofthe Those people who theScots oriqlnally were learnedspeak. ofthe the lceni what now in is eastern standswhat now English back began in is the and aconquest ofall county Wiltshire. centuries lnIater Britain opposition thenative from tribes was invaded by [eltic who tribes who foughttrytokeep to the had sophisticated and a culture RomansAfamous out. Latin became came from often admini$raton Parts wall stillbeseen ofthis can today. England. came to Britain Julius Nearl. Scotland and lreland. ofthe isone of ofBritain the except highlands greai monuments ofprehisto'ic ofScotland. awall thenorth great buildingsroads. people [eltic leader fought Romans The spoke who the dialects la{er which became the languages are which spoken loday parts insome ofWales.

Their inthe ofBriuin. conquered They many were the Angles calledJutes.people England united the basis The were under fought these ofBritain against kings ofWessex and became new invaderswere for and led a strong tofight enough against while the centurythe in 6th by the Mkings. the of atthe battle Hastings. first inthe Jewish settlemen6 U|( were established time. Alfred Great King the legendaryArthur. rommunities in up several and towns cities. Viking languages. Normans common The and kings followed the who them began conquest and the ofWales parts some oflreland. with local the mixed the populations St Augustine toBritain came and ronverted to and spread new the religion For in of {hristianity. lreland. people Ihese spoke ofEngland and Scotland. while the a (hristianity the across south. did They yet not invade srotland the but Scottish and kings nobilitythe in south strongly were influenced . ofthe kingdoms east small ofthe and Saxons. also atthis William [onqueror the encouraged from tosettle France in Jews grew Jewish Britain. defearcd inEngland theVikings at however. the invaden over the ofthe century. north languages an influence also had on early oftnglish the forms and. After Canute. isalso Wlliam He called the Conqueror defeated Wlliam Harold. dialects laier which became in 6radually the kingdoms the ofEnglish. 1lthcentury again they ruled Monks lreland the from did same England King under (anute. farmed They missionaties led from Rome by land. west tothe and north. were defeated inScotland also settingthek kingdoms and up own lreland. of The Norman Conquest last was the successful foreign ofEngland. took end fth They allofsoutherneastern and Britain.As Roman gradually In 8th 9th the Empire the and renturiet became n€w weaker.Saxons King the again [ngland an ruled until invasionbyWilliam. French Norman became language the official and abig had influenre the on Anglo-Saxon ofthe language people.manythe Yet of Viking pushingBritons and the tofte invaders especially in stayed. inScotland. tribes Vikings Denmark fom and invaded northern from Europe Norway Britain invaded and lookingbetter These for land. of led Duke (part Normandy oftoday's France) in1066. .King England. King Eventually. east where names ofplaces from come the During6th the tentury.French The by Norman culture. on 6aelic.. the ofEngland man. invasion The Normanscomplete took ownershipland ofthe and introdu{ed and new laws administration.

the English were kings unable to(onquer scots the the during Middle Ages. withtheir agreement.l period the The after Norman language became compulsory for purposes. House The House of[ommons represented landowners country wealthy and people market and inthe towns cities. The English Parliament was not unique: were there parliaments inScotlandmuch rest and ofthe ofEurope Middle The inthe Ages. orthe medieval lt lasted until 1485. English Parliament however.Later French the fought much reign spent ofhis taking back reclaimed country. English tried the kings to dominate Welsh. as the such The origins Parliament the of liein early Middle Before 15. the Welsh by They huge tomaintain built castles power bythemiddle their and of the the century lastWelsh 15th rebellionsbeen down. begandevelop Judges to English commonby process law a ofprecedent tradition. of of The powerful most landowners.. the barons.there also but was a separate ofCommons. Athome. becomemost the developed in Europe. Ages. Scots the the and thelrish. king ofthe The could noIonger taxes collect with0ut the consent barons. and their part the in Crusades. imposed its laws Wales the on and English ofLords. aristocratsgreat The and Iandownen the in House sat . Scots. the wilh At end '13th ofthe century. the wrth called Hundred Wan English Yean The won some important battles against French. wanted make that to sure their were and voices heard that new could be taxes only made '12'15. Richard I Shakespeare inhis describes play (known Richard Lionheart) Henry as the V. which of Holy King the Land. They and were independentCrowr. did. ofrights thecommon for butit didtake theabsolute away power king. the the Lords. kniqhts 13th many from British took in the lsles part inwhich the [rusades. the English managed the of todestroy power princes 1300. Parliament gradually the becameplace where king the consulted his with subjects. defeated English the at thebattle ofBannockburn in1314. ofthe InScotland were there similar developments. Jerusalem other in and of cities the banle Aqincour{.make ofthe To or change hehad consult laws to and negotiale them. [ommons the and clergy. 12th and centuries. 12 there nolaws limit were to the power theking England. the ln barons King tosign forced John a charter rights theMagna of called (which the [arta means Great Charted. byRobert The led theBruce. had put From England 1536. kings foughtlong English also a war theFrench.the were acodified one laws written down.was acharter This not people. there except that were Houses three ofParliament (called'estatej). and the system legal developed as . European (hristians for fought control of During Middle the the Ages. lnWales. [onquestcalled Middle is the Ages legal official and period. atime about ltwas of almost constant lnthe war. however.

owned landlords the land thepeople worked who and ontheir were serfs. social New clases appeared. The feudal gradually system changedsystem toa based onwages. . inNorman times.lnEngland. same food The system developed insouthern Scotland. they have did asmall ofthe area lord's onwhich grew land they enouqh tosurvive. the but in north of Scotlandinlreland was and land owned rommon members in by of the tlansl populairon In1348. large including landownen gentry called and smaller called farmers yeomen. under system the called feudalism. land called They not any did earn money for their ontheland were work and not allowed tomove but away. third a ofthe of[ngland inthe died plague called Black This the Death was one worst ofthe disasten ever tostrike and Britain Europe but because itcreated ashortaqe oflabour lt helpedimprove to conditions poor the for the in lonq run.

Merchantsfrom came Germanyltaly. isstill The power popular InScotland. 190 approximately of middle by end the population. end 14th dynasty House ofthe ofTudor. DuringMiddle an the Ages France. ofLancaster red and was rose a inEngland tothink began of the rose the white was symbol themselves nation. the ofthe berausesymbol the Norman Conquest. Middle saw drvelopment Ages the which ofthe language Scots was significantly from different English south the spoken ofthe Scottish border period also of This was atime trade. Itdescribes different themany Vll weakened kindspeople met Henrydeliberately of who and independent power went pilqilmsacity the military as to called poem ofthe aristocracy to and began Canterbury. poem in along the ofBosworth. from great independent glass ofthe landlordsthere a30-year in was civilwar [nglish language and culture manufacturers and from ltaly than ancestors ln their had between aristocratk gradually into This been. were and There also people cameEngland who to with special such weavers from skills.1485 civilwar In the first ofliterature the works tobe when Tudor ended Henry won writtenEnglish.Henry King Geoffrey was Chaucerwriilen HenryVll.Ihey much became more Atthe ofthe end Middle Ages. as .0ne as one of ofYork. cathedrals inEngland. This was war knownthe yean as Wars today. engineers6ermany. clas the of and ofthe those House ofYork. hundred after Three people Roses.000 (or tothe development ofastrong Housefamily)Lancasler Norman Great of French. the the state. ln growing led groupt 5upporten the towns.established the and atthe ofthe century. battle killing called'The [anterbury by Tales' Richard became lll. strengthen the central of today. England two from came being. wealth the ofthe wasmixture a ofAnglo-Saxon 1440 were foreigners and there 16. canal builders Holland. were manythem use the buill in of medievalperiod.

Elizabeth The king. her which despite many lreland. crcated lrish This asense flizabeth same the managed peace tokeep -agreat movementof opinion ofnational consciousness inEngland. other and mafly remained tatholic.Ihey the called Prote*ants. Caholics that Under Protestants Queen was persecuted. was in own Edward strongly fleet) conquer to England and (alholicism instead Latin. Mary. ofplotting accused believe. By keeping people required for what were to rebelled the captivity 20years. kept ln appoint bishops toderree the inlreland. Proteslantscalled between the Englishthe and Atthe time Reformation rebels. Elizabeth baby. mother French. led. her the ofthe who inlreland. The Protestantsage 1 and half-sister of 5 his queen. died Scotsi acousinilizabeth queen Vlll I and crowned of was Henry wanted adivorce authority (hurch. expected dangerous. Henry His son Vlll policy. there much fighting (atholics the extreme was and more (later Puritans). who had inlreland Scatland. aProtestant.too. was The surviving lnorderget heir. became These stronger European The countries.however. the the attempted inEngland known became as refused. re-established inScotland to 5he control When husband Mary. ofthe as after ashort and only reign the his while was a because [atherine wife.Scotland she only gradually strength gained in Her Aragon. not the etleryone church toanend but Mary wanted trytotake Pope. fled England.read Henry only and was attemptof Spanish Vlll's son heir the Armada' (or Bibletheir languages Edward.'Mary. away the of . who opposed were Pope when English the the the defeated HenryVll alteady had begun tostrengthen the central administration and ofEngland power reducemilitary ofthe the aristocracy. itfor themselves. interpreted ofin Protestant.united Manythe the ofthe enemies.against Elizabeth l. was of essentialt0 t0the submit were Mary. of The believed it Pope. approval Popg successful the of [hurch Englandthe and murdered lover practired was had over in byher and authority allChristians [hristian as religion siluation more western When Pcpe Inlreland. Church English governing laws believed ofEngland. not him had given a was Elizabeth. had power inheritance The to over the now the to ofland. established the Protestantism Mary to Henry toimpose and Anglicanism. with strong oftnglish feelings pople patriotism. Elizabeih l. ideas next the Protestant monarchher was half-sister. rival EnglandScotland and more than groups fought and he needed 16th but much divorce remarry ieniury. leaden did ask of not questions about theEnglish and her throne. to a during the Iwas moderate Mar/ soMary a(atholic.chieftains. of against power Pope. [nglish her became Europe. of by Pope.died the and but he at re$ore in1588. was lnScotlandProtestant the believed individual's Mary that earh became Mary personal was more relationship with God adevout and [alholic brought reformation extreme led was supreme changes of importance. Norman-English settled ElizabethS rose. Mary Later against English and toa'middle way'between the was brutal executed. real the and tribes the lheir beliefs. popularity along was happening in[ngland. were less Inher religion. continued this HenryVlll was famousbreaking most for from [hurch Rome. England toobedience back tothe and toconstant of g0vernment. howevet Gradually.

Iwas province This oflreland.he times Normanil had and but Queen but was the ofthe [ommons supposed were aProtestant.however. north-easternappointed (harles in the by God. he not ideas when could with Englishespecially get and Parliament with toagree his policies. colonies Ingland. was son lreland centuries many influential. laws tobreak the and down power whom wanted strongly amore ofthe leaden. Scottish Protestant Many religiousforeign he farmers. and Scotlandlreland. more Parliaments. who stillwidely is recognisedgreatest as the period writer English. Francis Sir Drake. the broke balance intere$s. events serious tosettleAmerica. English first settlers began to colonise the ea$ern of coast America. Englandbegun was king had invasions Parliament more into became powerful (in and JamesJames the of Vl. ldied At time. its and especially for plays poems the and of Shakespeare. Lords Mary. which amovement greatly increased next inthe cenrury.period Today Elizabethan is the remembered richness for the of poetry drama. of middle many oflaw. there ofeach but 'Palei Tudor Henry countries become did not united The kings Vll were merchant strong and atthis Scotland its time. He King became only succeeded inoccupying tobe land mutually dependent and JamesEnglandthe Iof but two around an called Dublin.one After ofthese Europe time atthat believed inthe rebellions. government were skilled ofthe English les to inmanaging abolish power (atholic these the ofthe conflicts. 1ttime. political and to of rebellions many skills tried againstEnglish out. and trade al when atime European cOuntries t0exert began power influence parts inother of and the world.the James English relative the ofScotland. I these James (harles strengthenedattempts and son by the his l.Ihe is in also important for England's discoveries overseas. ofNew .The before king. Ibegan James apolicy theory divine of of'the right 'plantation'or of colonisation kings'+hat was by the king directly forceUlster. When Elizabeth in1603. thinken Many in Church. kept own and HenryVlll managed had to commercial inthe interests House parliament for hundred gain another control whole ofthe country ofCommons. the local policy. one the founders ofEngland's naval InElizabeth tradition. mainly tried rule to without any calling from south-west the of5cotland. involved particufa{ly influenced by these (atholic replacing the landholders and.nearest completely country. this lreland an was almost During reignsElizabeth the of I (atholic had children. she no Her and l. commander defeat inthe ofthe Spanish was of Armada. representing a yean still its system and and has own startedintroduce to English growing class. During Protestant Elizabeth I had rule Elizabeth.area the respectful other. and 'planten'went toUlster. of Anumber (atholic policies Land from taken the refugees the from religious rebels givencompanies ofJames Charles was to in Iand Idecided London. lhey These had in where long consequences established Puritan term for the new England. ofScots.

groups enough Parliament Some toget to questioned For years ofpeople refused togive tovote money to were expelled. religious they no took title the had flourished had England briefly who ruled and inParliament's but the Scotland the reason him tohelp suppress the from 1653. The Puritans policies. When Gtholics the oflreland.Ihe was credible no king.who ofCharles for to (harles no who afraid Parliament was king well. Church like Scots. as officers. for the tofight war. so begun using tothe obedience Pope. to refused rights the ofScotland. (atholic. king this Many England arepublic became foundation society the he secretly was he ofthe and a power inParliamentPuritans were who. there toEnglandcrowned and (harles power the invadednorth was in1649. demanded ofthe became Ihe they the fearedking atDunbar Worcestet and and Protestant inEngland majority because itagainst Charlesbrought completely rapidly wonied he would use them. under ideasproperty social of and class. eleven the whole supportpolicies though his and. of death out and Many had Scots bitterly opposed people tired were ofchange and harshly. chairman put the rebellion who The down lrish ofEnglandforce and England back (the had in1641. llwanted but Scots the of and executed successor tohis (harles money Parliamenthad submit power no system itself to England. called [harles. was In1660 he Presbylerians. it in Parliament wanted with king extremism.also He finally might toabolish (hurch wish Itried anest parliamentary his to the which leaders. armies by were during Republic time Cromwell's most kept ofpower veated 5cots.When in1685 hedied rebelled Parliament son King ll. ofthe All ofthe of[ommons House refused the much violence even the that today James's during short actions his Speaker) totell king isstill reign-his appointment of[atholics where had and that memory they gone said of[romwell hated his some Catholics. war out England broke in . 19th the decidedthe general. compromise with Parliament Cromwell howevet recalled died. as (harles his brother. When Netherlands. English tosee Parliament's thurch defeated by was ceremonies ofthe of came Cromwell best solution tobring back Puritan Cromwell. ll. afterwards they crowned children. Parliament that [harles toimpose the Later.saw who the ofLord Protector Levellers. fled. Inresponse. re-established ofthe the party. soon were that their as and had legitimate his might their anack religion.ltried After years Iwas four [harles inthe century.who James was control army defeated intwo Charles. the time its only in history.Ihe he not his be by Parliament. battles openly [atholic. needed and clear of he understood rule also that to government civil rule own and inpeacecould repeat tofight Scots this the and could tothe ofits army inplace. as defender England Protestants the on the 0liver the ofParliament's Charles his inthe llfrom exile who were however. Members ofParliament who war created and had religious fathers mistakes. Scotland became that five under control. quarrels the with bishops his ot in1642. against (rown. wishedareturnstability. popular He was only granted but peace the political whenmel 1640. the execution l.The English fint the opposedking's the the of0liver democratic ofEngland.(romwell in1641. king. army defiance o{ he loyal tothe was only commandby lrish the made Parliament laws by and [ivil ofthe House ofCommons. leadership Cromwell.

When Mary. Prote$ant ofthe lreland the ruler remained adeeply Netherlands. he invaded.he Mary and and This took the over throne. and who called were Jacobites.(hurchEngland-made In1688. in Boyne and fled James toFrance Wlliamt while armies re-conquered this lreland. victory isstill celebrated by Prcteitant loyalists To today. royal threat James had supporterl ll still many apecially inScotlandlreland. was resistance there no ' inEngland. Louis Wlliam defeated llat battle Jamesthe of the '1690. the lrish further were fiom Gtholics prohibitd . himself and William married was ll! toiames daughter. chanqe was called later the'6lorious Revolution' because inEngland itwas accomplished without bloodshed and because itended the ofarbitrary power.prevent any rebellions. proclaim king. great who public and the of the lords holding office there these suspi(ions stronger. 0range. James was determined the toreclaim crown got English and military supportan for invasion ofkeland from powerful ofFnncg the king XlV. were opposed ll toJames were other many restrictions placedthe conspired toaskWlliam of on [atholic fturch. [ngland troubled toinvade country.

lreland ln1922 split important inParliament minister Parliament not would support: into two-the became South a became as Prime knownthe this called' is con$itutional dominionthe and North remainedMinister:the tohold fintman this monarchyl AfterWlliam lll. union England while had Some constituencies a only keeping own system their legal few traditional and laws.the inthe Union. When Anne in1714. Anne. monarchto had the Scotland the becameKingdom House called ofLords themselves have ministers(abinet ina who ofGreat lthad flag Bftain.) and time not was dem0cratic because While Scotlandno was longer an men only ifthey could vote owned independent the country.English Ihe monarchParliament. dependent ministers on and monarchtoask had Padiament called theTreaty in ofUnion theirfollowers control who could place1707. the electors were and completely and controlledsingle by a aristocrat Presbyterian remained [hurch who force voters law could the to established by .new choose heir (later years this power least three every the throne the than English. one eitherWhigs {aname orTories could regularly amajority deliver the flag called Union often the still todayrefer the used to to (lhe ofvotes two inthe Houses Union Ja*.lhe most could insist policies not on that ActofUnion.TheseWlliam Mary's and successor. figure two centuries for more but lreland aftersecond the 19th in a late century.ordergovern the ln to The kingdoms ofEngland the House of(ommonsthe and and effectively. Queen died Parl permanently iament were changed called'pocket boroughsi Queen had surviving ParliamentaGerman.to the of children. obtained advantages trading no women allowed were fiom with tovote.Scots property certain and ofa value. torenew fundingthe for army The Scotland. year itisfive Every the tojoin inan of his England Act Union. government monarch. and Anew voters be were could bribed called became that Scots because Annet worried the he was nearest 'rotten Parliament be had elected to at borouohsl would adifferent to Protestant The king relative.The Government office Sir was RobertWalpolq who monarch's gradually ministen for years oflreland of1922 Act created was Minister20 Pffine important the became more than the United Kingdom ofGreat unril 1742. The ofthe Britain Northern lreland.l801. the balance between while boroughs the where ofpower small l.tt * s After many of 1688.ith parties mass The ofParliament monarch Great becameUnited true Britain the political remained important an Kingdom Britain ofGreat and membenhip emerge did not until . no chose governmentGeorge be king Britain. political h. The still some had political and put became years now seven and Englishpresurethe on Scots influencewas more but much years). Parliament.This in took members of and navy.t * * . Acts elect whoever he wished. Kingdom of modern Conservativebut Party).

The centuryatime lBth was however. and back tobacco goods. principles clans defeating atthe most after them important population ofthe colonies. was part for North America ofthe as increase overeas in intrade and clearances. in British for family. infarming. the lBth Britain the rountry was fi6t and spices withlndia began and peace Britain. orin flocks ofsheep were inwhat inweaving safts. Although people inIndia thecoune 18th many in ofthe power influence the and ofthe from Scotland. India interested greatest thinkers inhis regain attemptto the people British ofthe many migrated the gradually from atfi6t only irading. fintJewscome The to to clans collective lost ownership should theright their have to own Britain the since Middle had Ages '1656 ofthe (hieftains land. for their Many individual farms destroyed small were educated and and skilled make for ortrofts'to spacelarge worked as scientistsbanking. there in1745 was peace ofgreater domestic and scale. tea . Indonesia. century ofrelative within inBritain atime was toindu$rialise on large a inthe which iscalled area today (hanges However. led James was ll. refugees from came France. and bringing sugar. the of greater and science brought efficiency and 0ften. techniques Dutch Spanish mining the and traden Iharles (Bonnie Stuart Prince atime many ideas of new in power and use the ofsteam foramonopoly oftrade the in (aribbean. Ihese became who topay tenants had were Huguenots. the Perhaps left Britain lrelandthe and for new century. inthem. trade tothe grandson politics. expanded Britain powerorler world. than ltwas metalworking. the expanded battleCulloden lhe of in1 745. ofthe Many large factoriesbuilt were and East Company.He supported mainly which production. colonisation. landlords many penecuted religion. togetheroften are called increased Ihe fint annexation tenitories: ofnew Ihe inthe by clansmenHighlands theEnlightenment. they In the the were Protestants been and had I9th century. became political religious and settledLondon and and beliefs in in landlordsthrough favour that state only the the should attempt between and many not 1680 1720 English and king clansmen todictatethese ofthe in matters. Enlightenmentthat were everyone rapidly. philosophy Charlie). its all the Merchants with traded North America theWest Indies. or other called the'Highland clearancesl people deported Many were orleft At same there an the time. called Ihey for land used.David such as countryside rities work qained ofvast tothe to control tenitories king's ruthlessly army repressed Hume Adam came and Smith. in oiher Irade textiles.British The fought with inScotland arebellion led by tolerance previously. throne his The Enlightenment. Generally.

in1833. on to abolish Public Ihe trade started slave had in slavery. notionliberty flee6. the very inthe strong colonies. all Australia and of Independence universal large ofAftica. were numbers Afiicans offree and as escaped often slavet working Some servants orcraftsmen. toescapedominance Britaint atthat was navy time the the ofthe inEurope. towork appalling Several inthe such cities U[ as gained LiverpoolSristol. asserted Historians ffrts principles govemment. the freed They and [aribbean. a Inl8th-century there London. the from Scotland ofpeace.There an side this was evil to Wl Wilberforce. trade in1807became and Itwas slaves dominated and totrade inBdtish or by Britain ships the colonies inAmerica. many people the Kingdom to left United find opportunities new overseas. When Spanilh winning battle governmenl in1805. great and prosperity ofthis as result trade. said should taxation In18'15. inSouth mines Africa. bad conditionsanddied inEast and the 0nce the way. with wan France England. 400 million As empire the developed. callthis expansion empire ofthe offree people after American independence the Many inBritain and 'Second Empire political who British ltbecame Europe wanted laryest world. were invery workedsugar inthe slaves transported on plantations many on Caribbean. The slave from ports. the the British tiedto ofTrafalgar ln1815 pay their French ended the tax colonies for the to Wars with defeat wars North America the ofthe Napoleon the in against Emperor by French the American DukeWellington of atWaterloo. ruled there be'no Britain tenitories parts inthe in(anada. 833.million After'l 2 ships them work the plantations lndian (hinese in and workers sugar tobacco and Americathe ]he replaced slaves. rolonies They the rebelled. after especiallythe 'l Revolution lmking abetter and for life also French of 789. in the became slaves the plantation and ownen had ofthe in conditions. and Native tribes. ofover people. an inthe with reform wdcomedideasthe the the of population estimated Dmlaration.5ome inBritain. in Americat railways Aftica inthe prop€rty armyKenya.This inAustraliasouthern yean the led Ameican to the Ahundred later. . such the as evangelkal ftristian American defeated InNorth America the The colonies British were the coloniesprospered had and British with help army the of lmmigrants French. Brithh l"ater. fought Britain landlordsofthe and established str0ngest The of was against rombined and French church. wrote books their about experiences. the without representation' Parliament. afew and settlements Bdtish and Afiica refused tocompromise. The conditions slaves ofthe inthe were bad many colonies so that revolted their slaves against people owners. Parliament ofIndia. British colonis had further dedare independence from [mpire expanded to Briain 1776.Ihe in Dedaration coverofIndia. and lreland gone North had to Americacontinued. commercial and expansion put pressure prosperity-the slave Parliament Atlantic trade. Emancipation Act abolished traders men women the bought and I from Afrio. opinion the Elizabethan was era and fully gradually against slave turned the it illEal established I8th by the century. abrief After period mainly self-governing. liam were opposed slave They tothe trade. Caribbean. British West and slavery throughout the Britbh took to on Empire.

Althoughthartists a the failed. powerthis middle George Robert and Stephenson of new class pioneeredrailway the engine and led the to Reform of1812. oflrish incities as and other wjthout their Liverpool. notuntil that t0 lt was 1928 allmen women theright and had tovote.many and as as thebuilding ofcanals. vote.Many inSouth settled Africa.the 19th In early century. Although 1867 the Reform ports. numbers These were enough. there been rn 1853 1913. and as ofthe workers labouren. and By 1861 were populatrons After the there large 1832. working classes resortcivil to disobedience to people such people property achieve goals. longer. was The aristocracy still dominated Parliament was but there a challenge the from growing property qualifications ofthe to vote. universal (the suffrage right with voten gave few and more ofeveryone took tovote) much parliamentary the seats cities. Manchester begandemand right London. right women vote The of to was after long won a campaign by the Women sSuffrage Movement (the Suffragettes) to who had byimmigrant labourfrom lreland. industrythe British led world in [anada. to the to and Glasgow. Kingdom Much Brunel. generati0n theintense later rivalry between[onservative the Party (led Benjamin by Disraeli)and the Liberal (led Party byWilliam Gladstone) inthecreation resulted more seats ofmany urban in Parliamentafurther lowering and . This apermanent began shift Many people lrish migrated to ofpower from landed away the England toescape and famine interests aristocracy ofthe tothe poverty settled agricultural interests cities. between and around thebuilding therailways of began. late New 19th Inthe l8th and United Between century had aboom the States. linked These (itizens the 1l million British left factories rities the the inthe to country.000 and RussianPolish There also advances onpropertythe were great in but number of Jews toBritainescape other such thebuildinq people came to areas as of entitled vote greatly t0 was persecution Many athome. howevet the toforce parties leaders political ofthe tocreate organisations torearh out ordinary This to voten. leadersthis The of movement were the called Ihartists. indunrial and The towns cities. bridges engineers lsambard increased. Ao 1870 1914. of For Act again expandednumber the commercial and entrepreneurial voters. example. The tovote still riqht was based 120. like democratic Even many anrient ronstituencies so. also like by The Act abolished settled London's End in in East and Manchester and Leeds.Zealand the century. Australia. only third men of still a of middle inthenewly class wealthy (and women) allowed no were tovote. ofthe heavy ofcreating work Britain's indu$rial infrastructuredone was the beglnning ofsomething politics. were many There also migranb Britain various from to parts theworld.

ould collapse ot because soon They the rhrs. complete favoured was FirstWorld -18). as belween European several Ihis the War Fenians.. such were or killedwounded. Around were Men threatened Home toresist Rule 40. over introduced 1million fought behalf settlen Indians on inthe plantations. Australia. Boen manpower resources took massive from empire defeat To At beginning century them. British was inthe Empire involved fighting: who descendants were ofthe for example.new politi(al the party.'. the provided lreland afamine. unity theempire toothers of but :rpansion British ofthe promoted empire the by it was warning theempire a that )rsraeli raking Victoria Empress would of eventually The collapse. by ofarms. ofthe . ofthe whole ProtestantsNorth inthe oflreland. also colonies from the benefited the nfluence Eritish.uch lndia's as northwe$ Africa. Rule'(devolution). . in the British the Somme resulted 400. as Others. nationalist grew mot'ement stronger whenterrible broke war out during a period. Retirement for Inthe middlethe century. Labour Party. thought (ontinuous parls . of 19th potato had and poor financial for the and help aop failed. reformed more on a democratic very difficult inlrish pensions basis. British expanded rnto South tocontrol Africa the gold which mines theTransvaal. futile.rdwere of and of roverty themistreatment :lepopulations colonies. Indies.I the 19th late century. the the to ofthe imperialistsshowed this the there amoodoptimism was of some lreland been with had unified in Great by Act Union Britainthe of '1B01. ofthe 'lB99to iheBoerWarof 1902 nade viewpoints more both The entrenched. suchthe nations.The government inBritain. 1 7th-century ofthe all the UK over world.000 casualties promised Rule lreland British Home for about probablysame Rule started to and the number and Home Bill the go The through Padiament. from diseasestartlation and and people to ireland. local There was failedhelp lrish to the people that ageneral inmodernity adequately.vars many oftheempire in frontier .cnservativefavoured Empire. l9thcentury been had a Local was period history. oelieved uade commerce that and reeded military security law and and They believed that order. . of had colonised bysettlen been from Netherlandsthe called the The resistedit and Boen. suffered This the unemployed were huge the and a caused numbers ofdeaths by government.The were come in Liberals British Empire finally to did roreuncertain theempire anend aresult eventsthe in about as of influenced bystories twentieth century.berals believed the that empire rad become over-large and . New lealand and Because outbreak ofthe ofthe Canadafought behalf also on of Wal British FintWorldthe the British. but the ofGermans. (1914 Millions ofpeople independence.l6. Iharles Parnell. the Party the . force from theWest Africa.belief shatteredstill The lrish That was continues. lr southern were rhe bycontrast [onservatives. aroserepresent the interests many had leave 0f t0 government inLondon the working inParliamentThe classes and gorlernment. battle the attack alone. British on government finally in19.000 killed.this Some. bitterness belief and causing progress. Oueen rdia 18/6. Stuart advocated 0ne 'Home In19'13.

there (the was uprising Easter an Rising) the againstBritish by lrish nationalists Ihe inDublin. role the the was UK exhausted economically. theupper winning hand. under only strengthened the support for nationalism and inlreland led aguenilla against to war the British and police. complacent Hitler his ofGermany. . allies and became arepublic in1949. was which (hurchill party.apolicy known as resistance United inthe Kingdom. first intheNorth. the invaded France the qained Belgium. therest while of UK blamed (onservative the Prime were inSingapore defeated by lreland became lrish State Ministers time being the Free ofthe for too the who were Japanese. ln1916. however. leaders uprising ofthe were executed military This law. USA ofwar. in lreland separated theNazi Adolf The and 1922 was nearly destroyed. victories (hurchill Prime inNorth and while Winston became Africa ltaly. the won crucial brought thetotal and about defeat of economic depression and crisis. compromisestillwished and for realised togotowar it had against independence for whole the of lreland. their fighter 5pitfires and and 1930s atime the were of Hunicanes.has This caused many years in ofconflicttheNorth This conflict. six two The counties British tomake tried concessions encouraged spirit anational of in toHitler. tothe British is sometimes the'Troublesi called recently peace has returned 0nly lreland. battle the inthe of called the'Battle ofBritainl Even British Ministen Prime inthe 1930s toundentand failed the so. the Minister Britain's leader and war Germans lost millions ofsoldiers as result their a of attack Russia on in1942. national Inthis crisis.gOvernment tne p0stp0ned changes promtsed ithad to lreland. the were Finally. Protestant. France into With Russian they their allies mass planes. created unemployment. between wishing those for lrish full independence and those wishing toremain loyal government. Liberation orselfgOvemmenl grew movements stronger more and successful in India other and colonies. British East. Although played ithad an The against was war Japan ended when United exploded the States seriousnessthreat ofthe ofthe ofLondonofother and British German and dictator leader of cities as su(h Coventry. toNorthern When Japanese the the bombed United naval atPearl States base Hitler's succesfully Harbor. British tothis The ia. were which mainl. towards and IheJapanese then people parts Some inboth of expansionist ambitions racist occupied and and Burma threaiened government lnd lreland opposed were ideology. armies the entered war. Hitler. totally into parts. army the ln 1 1apeace was 92 treaty signed prepared Inthe 1920s were there The Germans toinvade improvements housing the inpublic United Kingdombefore but and generalinliving a rise they do they could this needed standards worldwide but the tocontrol airThe the Brrtish 'Great fron Depression' 1929 resisted Germanforce the air with 6ermans inWestern in Europe landings1 After theD-Day of 944. Germanforce able the was air to(ontinue night-time bombing itsnewly developed bombs atom over cities Hiroshima the of and Nagasaki weeks afew later. bitter fightingthe on bearhes ofNormandy. 'appeasementi people Many inthe lntheFar however. the United Kingdom.pressed they on through and Germany. and Iheallied gradually forces Netherlands. aerial againstGermans Germany summer1945. part remainedofthe important inwinninq war. Allies strong enough toattack the Germany Hitler when invaded Poland1 Inthe year in 939.

The Prime was new Minister recovered war after the After governments the encouraged UK (onservative governments Cement The Attlee. and water electricity supplies afree the market aframework betweengovernment within and put public were under ownenhip ofpublic Many ownership utilities.country by rapidly. was under The run a'mixed was of coal economyi This atime ronflict gas. believed ofkey trade transportcommunications. the had much and that unions too {nationalised). the unions.minfs. goodl inNorthern so the 20 {*mmunities lreland into flared violen€e government provided The The led controversial Labour Labour returned Party to whirh tothe power 1 to1 and for UK's the defence by developing from964 970 ofthe there deployment army its atomic and own bomb joining then from to1979. Labour. (onservative power inself-government for the longer on rely military and Labour Both globaleconomic governments former coloniesso and granted toprotect its fared many independence Pakistan.3. problems inflation.people lil 1 the The it for Ihere 945 British elected In1951 was Labour defeated. Parliament. than paid inexports). much success war and as fiom 1940s austerity restraint the and. 95 arrivalin UKof the immigrant establishedNational afree Health made changes new few tothe workers the from former colonies guaranteed nationalised and Indian Service which a institutions to inthe subcontinent and the {NHS) standard welfare which been (aribbean. railways. government too oflabour aLabour despite had demanded was ashortage also Churchill's as leader. government 1 1. colonies the Ihe Africa. again 1974 lreland new Atlanti(Treaty the now many UK faced economicofthe original Northern the North (NAT0). Afailed invasion in1 ofSuez 956 power that restrained and they government The Party believed showed Britain no Labour also that could and business. the onwards. 1970s did to in which much and aperiodincreasing of 1947. government. 0ther in Minister day confidence British inthe Prime ofthe destroy ftribbean the and Pacific achievedsummedup aphrase this in that eronomy. 1950s toIndia. minimum ofhealthcare the state had reduced introduced Ihe for Unemployment all.so. quoted:'You've il too. ofpayments' more Union its . the in1972. atthis ltwas time. interests. threai the exchangeand rates the'balance were inthe by (importing Soviet and allies. but and suspension.000lives Some of 0rganisation an surh alliance as personnel and ofnationsup resist set to the unstable internaiional cunency civilians security perceived ofinvasion lost decades 1 after 969. the independence next over {he isstill never had that tensions between years. were large-scale strikes the during Even the (eylon Sri (now Lanka) prosperity.

the policies inEastern In1992. ltaly. Belgium. her and way Economic Community The believed the influence that UKt until the 1990. its member AEuropean Minister Heath lhe states. governmentwar her ofdefending returned principles sense UK's ofthe interests inthe EEC the ofharmonisingwould too and its had goal be great. British When the comOetition. . were important more lower ofpublic housing the empire more European have countries stock including countries by 1990s. water. led amuch This to betweenUK the and membership. country still a called Europan the [ommission. could an form economic bloc Europe. de was financial services. the did tohold The Atfrnt UK not next Labour Conservatives nousrng wish join EEC Eritish areferendum inwhich wno InmunKrpal to the Many in1975. and crealng a would undermineaims. those Conservatives the policy. free the Prime services: gas. military led the as had without office 1997. lrveo politicians that links the majority tocontinue {council the tobuy voted its believed the houses}right homes. credentials as nati0nal a relations itsmembers both between and and market (0mm0n privatised main leader many although with voters. planned a agricultural ltalso nationalised and industriespublic for others remained many she fiaure. as internationalfor an centre were twice in1963 vetoed first insurance The tnvestmentt and othel and in1967. Margaret unforeseen. ofthe Union 0thers. and Mn trade closeness United tothe States. also amassive wrongly that assumed the EEC its and relaed the caused decline inindustry. until Under but action Luxembourg Netherlands these developed and involvement aho Thatcher. President. (see foreign wished tied the chapter 4) say was this caused by tobe to UK this there economically.issue and led reslricting tostrike. strict control money ofthe supply Eurooean established Union economic The Thatche/s culturallyeconomically. greatly by legislation was dividedthe on reducd new Strasbourgcivil and service. French again (harlesGaulle. afree economy. the economic controlled poliry Treaty renamed basedsterling. that in lslands was committed aims the tothe of EE( election and in1979 remained Falkland in1982 France. Conservative the electricity. many their the and U5A Since then. Minister Prime from tothe recovery islands. divisive tomake borden between In1972. time At governmenr that in it was agreat did decide also incease wanted i6appli(ations the ofthe ofLondon role (ity tojoin. Edward negotiated telephones railways.this on but ofMaastricht the inflation some but believed thev institutions. and the power trade was Parliament was established the entry the The ofthe unions in UK's into EEC.Thatcher's many Mn and the that (ommonwealth joined. ofjoining. Germany.(onservatives general The invasion West not convinced UK the was The won the by Argentina ofthe Meanwhile. ofthe The had formed European the British De Gaulle '1979 (EE(). howevet countries [ommonwealth European(EU). that tothe ofa political. this the the right government people gave inBrusels.

. political. are . most believe it has {see has The UK been Scottish Parliament substantial diminished. and tenorism.. public private pluralistic :... its such as or Scottish. has a powenlEislate. isstillgreat inequality between -aboul the like (onservativet the rich poor. global identity.e and sectors.anangements past. has more clas consciousitwas the than in goals to --nservatives. United any of agreement the The Kingdom isperhaps ": services which unionist other orindustries and parties. debates identities..vhether utilities be both ethnic religious in and terms.i -abour now public Party. branded over services.'ficient more and accountable. iies publicownenhip inco-operation lrish and asylum. the or culturaland "i.'sofpowerthe innEotiating to in 1970s. more mobile less socially and -:i been proved privaised by the ihit however. toseek ' ::d re-nationalise not am0ng nationalist. had afflicted over taxation. of and with the immigration :. and health.rke public generations existing services devolution. Welsh The multi-national and muhi-cuhural to . law 'l%9 '. led -. such agreed have than previous in and health more :: education and Although there been intenuptedare and cunently tend live to longer.::ur. ofthe Some being its '. policy introducing itis [onservative by althoughactively combated Parliamentand in aScottish aWelsh both opinion inlaw and and people that AssemblychapterThe 4). . were for hs elusive. hasparent a orgrandparent born outsideUK. ordet education. are very and people 'avoured partnerships generally inreal between wealthier terms. government. privately orpublicly but owned. -: ^qeshad (onservatives' it undergoneits able build the since to on violence 0ther inInq. . have heahh and People better . The isalsomore UK a -he were longer argumentsno society itwas years than 100 agq public should . susoended. New success an end domestic as such disagreements pensions.l^ taxationpublic for services. in1998. Labour toemphasise the lreland Blair was Welshlrhh national the government warming. the Racism The governmentwith remains insome Blair broke aproblem areas. English. Post-war immigration that means about right ofpublic the mix nearly ofthe 10% population and private enterprise. InNorthern are international. byTony wished the'Troubles'which Blair.. :'eak the Labour province from old ihe since and.' 19l (onservatives Asembly fewer governmefitseveral societyalong without were the has legislative Todayt faces for timg problems this athreattoBritish powers considerable in general by :i::?n the election but control issues.

They trace roots regions can their to throughout world asEurope. land stayed.:hrs chapter isinformation there about Migration to Britain The history immigration long of tothe United Kingdom reasons people Different why migrated UK tothe = Iheidentity. Asia the lnthe (see invaders toBritain. Migration 1945 since After Second War 939-45). For example. the right inthe 1 and 20th late9th early centuries against women Discrimination workplace in inthe and education Changing towomen attitudes working. Huguenots Protestants) Britarn came to toescape -1840s wastenible penecution lnthe religious inFrance. people toBritain From to1910. was huge of World (1 the there a task people rebuilding Ihere not work. the Britain. from example. and Iextile set sent engineering from north England theMidlands frrms the of and . over last years . and family young people people inBritain have origins other Many living today their in countries.responsibilities and of men women home and inthe socral attitudes Children. mid there a famine lreland many people in lrish migratedBritain. Britainproud itstraditionoffering topeople are is of of safety who 'lBth perse(ution escaping hardship.ChAPtCr2: A CHANGING SOCIETY MigrationBritain to . chapter More 1). was ashortagelabour theUK. centres peopledrive were upinthe Indies recruit West to to buses. tastes patterns lifestyle and of people childrenyoung and =tEducation and work inimmigration Basic changes patlerns the 30 Health hazards: cigarettes. Ukraine and Belarus. the Indies also to and in The During 1950s. people t0 t0 with from West were invitedcome work. distant East. the Middle Africa. were enough t0dothe so government worken lreland other 0f British encouraged from and parts Europe In1948. and [aribbean. and better life. 16th inthe and and (French centuries. interests. tocome theUK help thereconstruction. including tovote. lrish Many and t0 men labourers helped canals railways became and tobuild and acros Britain.large 1880 numberJewish a of came (called'pogrom()was called t0escape attacks racit inwhat then the Rusian Empire from countries called and the now Poland. came seized and jobs a people to recently. UK the there still of immigration 1950s economic and inthe for reasons many encouraged For industries advertised forworkers overseas. come Britainfind to safety.=' alcohol illegal and drugs Ihechanging ofwomen role n Young people's political and thanges tofamily structures women's since rights the and 1 century 9th Women! campaigns for rights. the such past.

New South and Zealand. immigrants bld'[ommonwealth from althouqh (ountries as such Australia. t0 and tofind For 25 from theWest India. early990s. to travelled work settleBritain. Inthe 1 of people the from former Union toBritain Soviet came looking anew for and way life.972 UK In1 the aaepted thousands ofpeople Indian of origin programme who been toleave had forced Another Uganda. immrgration t0Britain. people Vietnam introduced late from was inthe Since more 19/9.000 refugees South Asia been from East have allowed settle to in the UK. than 25. strict groups Australia. 1994 has aglobal inmass safer of Since there been rise migration politicaland reasons. this howevet UK able help large the was to a number of refugees. lealand [anada nothave face Inthe1980s largest New and groups from did to immigrant were theUnited the States. Indies.people aqents India Pakistan workers. such controls. about yean. for both economic . Africa. later and Banqladesh. and in The numberpeople of migrating these fellinthelate from areas 1960s pased laws and 70s early because the Government new torestrict During time. tohelp '1970s. Pakistan.

awoman had right her Until when qot property m0ney manied. Inmost households. campaigned and demonstrated rights inparticular. despite that to still jobs. to Ioday. days leave These girls school. and secretarial retail there strong work.earnings.The changing ofwomen role WomenBritain in today poorer r lgth-century families usually and many Britain. is evidence attitudes changing. quite womenleave jobs they manied. In late and 20th the 19th early centuries. an increasing ofwomen number greater and. Parliament new giving the to prohibiting from employersdiscriminating women against because of and (see chapter their sex also 6). female such teaching. 1882. inthe Despite improvements. 1857. not always thesame t0promotion better-paid have and access The is les average pay forwomen2070 than men. men greater Employment f0rwomen n0w opportunities are much than they inthepast. For itwas common for employers toask example. and her automatically to belonged her husband. continue the women tohave main responsibility for There childcarehousework. against workplace. average. this many Despite pr0gress. over age of30 finally the tovote tostand election were given right and for to Parliament. Although made important they an economic contribution. . WomenBritain make 5170 thepopulation 4570 in today up of and workforce. jobs closed Many were to their when got for t0enter During t0women itwas and difficult women univeruities..'omen had rights men. were large in romes women children men.isevidence and is greater in that there now equalityhomes that and more men are taking responsibility the some for raisingfamily doing and housework. stillfaced these women discrimination workplace. and towardsfamily allcontributed the rcome. ofthe on with qualifications boys there now women better than and are more than atunive6ity. and leaving after univerity women earn than . thelaws exist preventWomen do it. are to to for There particularly stillexamples inthe ofdiscrimination women. for protests the htt0vote. hourly rate for most still less men. the World ended191 women the When First War in 8. in wider of than Research that fewpeople believe women shows very today in that Britain should athome notg0out work. not 1928 w0men the tovote 21. the pressure womenequal 1960s 1970s was for and there increasing from passed laws women right equal pay rights. became as'Suffragettesi rig Ihey known lhese during FirstWorldbecause joinedthe War women in war decreased the greater of than had effort therefore much varietywork they and did a before. were Although women continuebeemployed to in traditional areas ashealthcare. people believe more that greater needs bedone achieve equality women. that are and wOmen now are active amuch range work before.. ltwas until that won riqht at at same as trle age men. stay and almost three-quarters ofwomen schoo children inpaid with l-age are WOTK.voman no todivorcehusband. inBritain fewer than Until amanied .

tests important The give information children's progress about and achievement. is one-quarter UK ofthe population.Children. and interestsfashions toolder people. towards and Today. 25% inlonealmost live parent families. people different Young have identities.isalso There increased for concern children and are stories ssafety there many innewspapers about child molestation bystrangers.11and yean (ln they 7 14 old. are there almost million 15 people tothe children young and up age 1 Thisalmost of 9. Wales. assess teachers children's progress they 7and 1and take national atthe when are 1 they a test age of14). Education The states children law that between ages 5and 6 must the of 1 attend school. inEngland The that take very and and Scotland children national inEnglish. ofthe the Part reason this increased entertainment for is home such as television.there noevidence this ofdanger but is that kind isincreasing. young people away their Many move from family when home they become but varies one adults this from community t0another. thesubjects are they dolng inand areas they well the where need help. and videos computers. 1070 within stepfamily. Over last years. patternsBritain been the 20 family in have transformed because ofchanging attitudes divorce separation. childrenBritain and live a Most in receive pocket from parents many extra weekly money their get and jobs moneydoing around house. extra . 65% childrenwith birth of live both parents. and family young people IntheUK. tests pupils are important. for the [hildren theUK notplay in do outside home much they in the as as did past. take tests mathematicsscience and when are.

and school girls than tostudy of People 16 ofage also over years may choose atColleges products under range From 10ctober it isillegalsell 2007 to tobacco toanyone orAdult Centres. Many referto bythe nameAlevels. are courses. Many believe part+ime (AGGs). leisure and (ontact local develop interestsskills.Scottish Authority Standard still school. thought are million in ltis children atany atwork or. voluntary often and a'gap lhis out take yeal year ofeducation includes pmple to and young work eam save Smoking: work travel and overseas.lhree are A5 units considered part course. your collegedetails. unirorHigher/Advanced in Higher helps tobecome independent as more as wdl providing them level A5 level Grada children good orSQA will sometimes theirfamilies) inc0me. take qualifications.lhe common are most delivery work Grade examinations are At17 18. (ertificates parents that work vocational General ofEducationAdvancedsupermarkets atan and newsagents. isgenerally not allowed buildings and well courss which and vocational available as courses as academic places for the UK.org. 5cotland. more Subsidiary they work wwwworksmart. and Schoolscollegesexpect GCSE Standard (and resuls allowing astudent on AGCE toenrol an orScottish Grade before Higher course.more age smoke boys.uk A5 are levels Advanced AS as one-halfofan AGCE. work throughout . and many one time. cigarette isslowly in adult young are people smoking. There laws the when are about age children take paid can up work Higher/Advanced (usuallybefore the 0fwork can and number not 14). with extra Scotland. more units be for to Itisvery important that are t0note there concerns Hfety the of Inthe second ofthe three A5 can studied qualification. is Further Education Education lhere awide of years Smoking inpublic 18 old. many route entry education but higher traditional for tohigher qualifications. at there 2 Qualifications (SQA) jobs newspaper and in when they 16. @ more Although smoking fallingthe population. Some ' money for university living t0pay their fees and expenses. Health hazards students with kinds education enter different of parents that children misuse and Many wony their may drugs addictive eduotion atcollEe or Onethree people go tohigher in young now on entrance a 50me people their univerity. who illegally are properly work who not supervised AQCE children or and the complete the law also 84 employment isstrictly ofchildren controlled (see pages by people AGffs old of AGCEs the and 85).Wo* job they people apart-timewhile are young take General young tohave Education Itiscommon for Most people the Certificate ofSecondary (G(5E). young defer univenity for year substances. three units. type they do the of qualifications by gainedcompleting houn can (see for information).

a used drugs time another. illegal at one 0r Ihereastrong betweenuse hard (e. amphetamines and cannabis. toposess such heroin. itisillegal drugs as cocaine. also drugs mental and and hard and illness. about ofthe have as whole.9. more tohelp including this onthe-spot fines. cocaine link is the 0f drugs crack and heroin) crime.Ihe misuse has ofdrugs ahuge and social financial for country. the . statistics that show half young and athird population ofall adults. lt is as'binge drinkingi illegalbe to drunkpublic there now in and are penalties control problem. isa This cost the serious and society tofind effective ofdealing isue British needs an way with problem. lllegal drugs: As most in countries. (urrent ecstasy. thereconcern the some people but is about age young start drinking and amount alcohol the ofalcohol drink one known they at time.Alcohol: people the of'18 not Younq under age are allowed alcohol tobuy in Britain.

amphetamines. labourer Although young show interest politics. is t recruit most people little inparty there strong evidencemany interested political such I restrict that are inspecific issues as r political the and cruelty environment toanimals. i compulsory * informal * methodsofassessment I defer t gapyear t independent a income I misuse ] addictive substances i abuse I bingedrinking f on-the-spotfines r controlled drugs I criminaloffence I possess I heroin. for Similar have found inScotland and charity. isues political I specific I concern t environment I tenorism. inthe famine. isthat immigrant I persecution. mugginq r debate t politicians. and people: I eligible I concern o molestation I anitudes I hazards . ict tlabour. confl political proces. t workforce part National where study atschool they (itizenship ofthe as .political social peopleS and aftitudes Young Ched pu undershndkey and that the terms vocabulary chapter for this a birth stepfamily parent. ecstasy. crack cocaine. rheir earnings people taken in %ofyoung had part some ofcommunity over r rights. has agreat over reasons Some Ihere been debate the for this. vote. same asked people The survey young about renorism. 4emonstrate I discriminate.1in5firsttime used 2001 election. results been insurveys discrimination f'lorthern Many o prohibit get lreland. immigrate. process. cocaine. found 86 t income. 9nd participation and inpolitical community They that events. children involved activities first inthese while (uniculum. Migration can in toBritain: general however. 50% taken infund-raising orcollecting money I campaign. cannabis r burglary. voters their only I migrate. racism a participation | fund-raising people Young inBritain vote elections the of1 Inthe from age 8. household a promotion family young Children.equal form event righr past and had part rhe year. political paqpolitics. people not researchers one think that reason young are interested immigration. war/ ftanging ofwomen: the most issues were drugt role racism health. asylum I the effoft war people In2003survey a ofyoung inEnglandWales that and showed they believefive important inBritain crime.

health. occupation. ethnicity.7 million million 59./% The has since and 1971. growth been has by population UK years. of and maritalstatus.9 million 1.1 million 2. collects isa lt also statistics 0n Acensus count whole ofthe place birth. The census population.some such theNorth-East inthe 20 in areas as and North-West ofEngland has adecline.l 5. fa$er more recent Although general inthe has in the increased last years. lreland (3% population) ofthe € Customstraditions and IoUIUK source: Statistics National population grown 7. housing. are people now anageing has For there more over under 6. is a numberpeople of aged 60than children 1 Therealso record 85and over.instance. topics as such age.ftAPtCr3: UKTODAY: A PROFILE Population Inthis chapter isinformation 2005 population United there In the ofthe Kingdom justunder million was 60 ADOUT: oeoole. there been Both birth and death are the rate the rate falling as result UK and a the population. = Ihe population UK ofthe € lhecensus + Ethnicdive6ity € The regions ofBritain population UK 2005 England (8470 population) ofthe population) Scotland (8% ofthe million 50.8 Wales (5%ofthepopulation) * Religion religious and freedom N. .

5 1.4 0. aform toevery inthe This ask detailed form for information each about member ofthe household must completed and be information bylaw. inlarge such London. people Australian. Australian.gov.population UK 2001 Acensus been every years 1 except the has taken ten since 801.Todayhalf membenthese about the of communities were born the in United Kingdom.Ihe remains confidential and anonymous. Black African Black other 1. second War next Million White (including of European. be itcan only released public tothe after 0. lulian. [aribbean. Pakistani.2 Ihere also are considerable ofoeoole inthe who numbers resident UK are Chinese (anadian.3 0. Greek Turkish Polish.'l 0. Black Bangladeshi ethnic and mixed descent up make 8. oflrish.6 i'. during World The censustake in20'l will olace 1. Black of Chinese. isdelivered household country. New ZealandAmerican Larqe and descent.4 0. and Black Black or British lreland) different Northern has customs. groups notidentified Ihese are separately census inthe statistics in the followinq table.7 1.1 'l.2 years.2 0.5 0. census trends Asian Asian or British More and help to planning. information the about census. and attitudes histories Black [aribbean PeopleIndian.2 population UK 7o 92 During acensus.2 0. descent) American Mixed 54. Scotland Wales. Source: srarhticsrhe census Narional from 2001 . African.0 0.8 0. numbers also have arrived 0ther since from new European states European 2004 the East member ofthe Union.3 0.370 UK ofthe population.statistics.B 1. Each four ofthe countries UK 0fthe (England. and Cypriot.4 0. many 100 when people researching family their history it very find population General information toidentifl isused useful.2 0. the census form and statistics previous from censuses found can be at Ind n ia www. uk/census Pakistani Ethnic diversity Bangladeshi The population UK isethnically and changing especially diverse is rapidly. isnot cities as it always t0get exait s0 easy an 0ther Asian picture ethnic ofallthepopulation census ofthe origin from $atistics.0.7 0.

This indifferences isseen United inarchitecture.400 kilometres). Yorkshire Ea$ North and and --mberside.One dialects inNorthern iscalled lreland ofthe spoken Ulster Scots. In Wales.Scouse and (Liverpool) (London). Geordie Cockney Many languages inaddition other toEnglishspoken UK. they nearly ofthe populations -"1fr). longest on the fiom 0'Groats north of5cotland End the John on the coast t0Land's in (approximately south-west ofEngland. insome local intypes customt offood. 870 corner isabout miles 1. the Most population towns cities. speak varieties and dialects ofEnglish. are inthe especially in iiotland 2oh Northem lreland lesthan rnuhicuhural 1% cities. . live in and of parts There many are variations and inculture language different inthe ofthe Kingdom. especially and inlanguage. toqan In Wales. increasing ofpeople number speakWelsh. The isamedium+ized UK country.The nations regionstheUK and of groups lVhere the do largest minodg ethnic live? -re figures the census that members large from 2001 show most ofthe groups U|( in i:tnicminority inthe live England. ofthe Some dialem ofEnglish inScotland the spoken show influence old ofthe Scottish languagg Scots. they up where make population. the South the West. areasEngland large minority Other of with ethnic West :'ethe Midlands.45% minofity live people in ?r ofthe total ofall ethnic :'e London where form one-third population area. The English i:portion groups countries UK ofethnic minority inthe ofthe language accentsdialects. are clear has many and Thesea indication ofregional inthe Well*nown inEngland differencs UK. dialects are l'oland 9% Wales (Iyneside). ScotlandNorthern people different and lreland.The distance mainland. which in InScotland and lslands in Gaelic isspoken partsthe insome of Highlands and and Northem afew lreland people lrish speak Gaelic.istaughtschools unirlersities.

Religions UK inthe (10% Catholic) ftristian ofwhom Roman are Muslim 71.6 2.3 .6 0.0 sikh Jewish Buddhist 0ther ToulAll No religion Not stated Source: Statistics the census National ftom 2001 b 0. number who other also Although people UK they religious cunently many inthe said held belieft. only around ofthe 10% population religious More anend services.3 0.3 t7 15. people inScotlandNorthern than England and lreland in and attend services InLondonnumber ofpeople attend who religious is services Wales. 2001 to the oftheir Inthe census.over There 75% they areligion: of10 had 7out ofthese Christians.7 1.5 7. just right practisereligion choice. the increasino.Religion has the AlthoughUK historically the is aChristian everyone legal society. were said were aconsiderable ofpeople followed religions.

not holidays exceptfor .rh Wales Northern in lreland. Bank r ce made thePrime call these .rter4).rotland intheUSA. and -. Ihurch Scotland The of isPresbyterian. rcralchurch state the[hurch ofthe is ofEngland.isno There established ofits General .a edthe isa lreland l7 March -. Chnstian inthe are .. )atron saints : and. nobishopsisgoverned purposes lthas for spiritual and .Supreme 5t. Wales Northern each anational lreland have saint Scotland. Presbyterians.spiritual ofthe who The leader thurch of 5t.(hurches (hristian The Patron saints'days link ingland isa(0nstituti0nal there between and The church state.1 patron Each hasfeast Inthe these pa$ were a saint saint a day holy when people aday had offwork.Ihe ofEngland St.:rodists Quaken. and from nati0nal free '. thurch David's Wales day. lnNorthern lreland).:: are public l/ MarchNorthern in lreland. ofthe of The monarch allowed isnot to ''ryanyone isnotProtestant. [hurch England Protestant and The of church 5t. and other church but usually the There four'Bank Holidayland other four ayear are peopleall is by Minister arommittee and appornted bythe holidays Holidays). (see . : has inthe 1530s chapter 1for existed the since Reformation ': anatron)king queen monarch) head. orin ' :r Protestant gr0ups UK Baptists.t the public holidays (most Archbishop senior officials. i. . most representative s0 its senior isthe Moderator ' :rrperson)annual Assembly.ernoI [hurchEngland. : series ofcourts.Georges England (the isthe The or 23April or day. monarch theright ofCa to .:t control. Today i:rfated days many as ' . ofChristians [atholic 1070 Roman and are : . lMarch Anglican inother [hurch countries theEprscopal and [hurch .Andrew's Scotland day.rrchSeveral ofEngland (see [hurch sit of bishopsintheHouseLords .Patrick Northern sday. i0 November The has I andistheArchbishop nterbury.

0fart.apublic is holiday. other and cards decorate houses. usually People celebrate night 0nrhe 0f 31 December. people their Many decorate atree. Day [hristmas usually isalso celebrated bypeople who are Christian.as ul-Fitr such Eid (Muslim).Therecelebrations and are also ofnon-religious public hollday traditionsas such NewYear Other festivals traditions and NewYear 1lanuary. isalways Diwali and widely in the He shown pictures along in with white beard. people lokes each unril 1April. thildren about atschool. [hristmas special forchildren young isa time Very children that believe (or an man. usually theday home eat special The not People spend at and a Sunday weeks Easter day three before isa when children cards send meal. main learn these The Christian festivals dressed Boxing 26December. 3l December Hogmanay iscalled and 2January apublic isalso holiday. theUK. April Day Fool's The Christian main festivals Ihristmas Day 25December.(ustoms traditions and Festivals Throughoutyear are the there festirlals music culture. isthe after lt rs are IhristmasEaster. give other send gifts orbuy fortheir mothers. holidaysome than for Valentine's Day 14February. lovers iswhen exchange and Sometimes people cards gifts send anonymoustosomeonesecretly cards they admire. holiday. each turkey.a inred.Scotland In Hogmanaybrgger isa people Christmas. isalso important Easter an Christran festival. Mother's Day . Many go [hristians tochurch Christmas(24 on Eve December) oron Christmas itself. InScotland. often which includes They each gifts. and such as Notting [arnival west the Hill in London theEdinburgh and Festival. day Christmas. them Customs and traditions various from reliqions. celebratesbirth the oflesus Irtsapublic Christ. is when 0ften TV newspapen stories and carry intendeddeceive to credulous viewers and readers. [hristmas old Father Santa brings presents Caus). aday play on other midday. (Hindu) Hanukkah (Jewish)are recognised during night. Day.

r0mmemorates who fighting World l. ll am. War those died in (a flower) people poppiesred \ror War and wan. teams and England. agroup [atholics byGuy plan when of led Fawkes intheir failed . Scotland. tennis. 0pen and the golf championshrp and Wimbledon tournament the tennis lemembrance Day I November. . are sports There no United Kingdom forfootball rugby. who At there two-minute isa silence. d 2 other Many wear in nemory ofthose died. and ruqby cricket very are popular intheUK. Grand the National race.Sport -. ancient Younq will dress isavery 'frrqhtening toplay'trick Giving sweets costumes 0rtreati them 0r rocolates stop playing 0n Sometimes you people might them atri(k lanterns out pumpkinsacandle made of :rry with inside. Scotland Wales).llowe en festival. occasion peopie isan when inGreat set Britain offfrreworks it h0me inspecial 0r displays oriqin this The of celebration anevent was ^ 1605.ryFawkes Night 'lovember. . Waies and Northern have Own lreland their teams lmportant sporting events (FA) include. people often up 0ctober. kiI the Pr0testant abombthe king with in Houses ofParliament. ' plays part peoples Football. Football horse the Associationcup (and final equivalents inNorthern lreland. 5port kinds aimportant inrnany ofall lives.

Parliament. ofwhich of many checks other's Government Ihesystem ofgovernment Ihe monarchy Iheelectoral system parties Political The British [Onstitution written inany isnot down single document. and laws and would that conventions theBritish form [0nstitution. people argue Some theroles less formal institutions. Denmark. others but believe anunwritten that publrc forinstitutions tomeet changing circumstances and scope toadapt powen. Cabinet. ismainly like theUnited Kingdom never alasting has had revolution. most important institutions been existence have rn for so 0ur hundreds Some believe there be srngle ofyean.ChAPICI4: UNITED THE HOW KINGDOM I5GOVERNED The British Constitution about: governeda Inthis chapter isrnformation As constitutional there theUnited Kingdom rs by a democracy. America or France. and by Prime . has The like the Norway. as media pressure such the and ofother groups. and the or can elections. policies MinisteI decisi0ns the 0ngOvernment are enc0uragePrime the made the MinisterCabinet. formal lreland. also seen part (onstitution.civrl the the service. Spain Sweden. judlciary. Wales Northern Toqethe. people that shoulda constitution more allows document. isalso She ElizabeththeHead State theUnited of Queen inthe themonarchHead State many or of for countries [ommonwealth. these institutions. means theking Ihis that or does constitutional which have the the country. devolved have set administrationsbeen upforScotland.the and institutions government. and ofthe of HouseLords). provide oneach wide range institutions. a queen notrule monarchy. Being acitizen Voting (ontactingMP your This because as theconstitutions other are ofmany countries. oflocal More recently. should be as ofthe The inEurope the UK and world expecIaIr0ns. and UK. Netherlands. the the police. appoints government thepeople chosen but warn indemocratic Although queen king advise. The European Union The [ommonwealth The United Nations The monarchy ll is of Kingdom. offce Prime of the of Minister. ofthese the Most institutionsoflong are standing: include they (c0nsisting House[ommons the monarchy.

0n occasion Queen a intheir this the makes constituency.The ChlefWhip attends or often [abinet (abinet judgments European butit was Union the and ofthe Court. lfan (MP) ofParliament inageneral election. Ihesystem ofgovernment United inthe Kingdom parliamentary isa democracy. c0mment the 0n what q0vernment and debate isdoing. MP MPs for Each reDresents a parliamentary constituency. with the The House ofCommons The House[ommonsthemore of is importantthetwochambers of in parliamentary European elections Elections European for the Parliament held five Ihere are also every years. there 646 The has ceremonial as opening roles such the ofthe MPs anumber have ofdifferent responsibilities. House Ihememben House ofthe of(ommons are called'Memben ofParliament'or short.oldest isthe tothe her son. atleast five voters each every years in constituency their elect Member though may held they be sooner Prime ifthe Minister so decides. willbe dies there another called election. lheQueen reigned her has since father's in1 Prince deah 952.Ihe party wins isthen by Ihelaw requires elections that new toParliament held least tobe at every majority ofconstituencies. Parliament. they important national issues. the candidategerthe votes who most government formedthe which the iselected. MPs of Most belong apolitical and party to past his her or constituency. They represent Queen important everyone parliamentary each new session year. ABill change theonly towhich HouseLords give to it is one the of must its consent. the are seats representatives UK the 78 for from the in European Parliament Prime Minister almost themembentheGbinet members and and all of are elected members Members Eurooean are called of the .Ihe divided 646 is UK into parliamentary constituencies and The Whips group appointed party The are small ofMPs Whips a by their leaden. which these House the ofCommons Soeaker. Ihey people that power Parliament Some argue the of islessened of because are responsible for discipline party making MPs intheir and sure attend theobligationtheUnited 0n Kingdom toaccept rules European the the ofthe House of(ommons t0vote. in party the House[ommons. oftheelected form All MPs the MP orresigns. scrutinise help they new they and policies year government's for speech summarises that the the ahead. the Prince ofWales. [harles. heir throne. aby-election. fveyearsso is fundamental nogovernmentsought change that has t0 it. elected asystem MPs are through called'first government. ofthe orarea country: are ofthese.itsmembers democratically Nowadays and are elected. Parliament 5hadow meetingsarranges and the schedule ofproceedings in itself created obligations. tocreate laws. Government Elections There be general toelect atleast five must a election MPs every years.ofthe of[ommons. with larqest the number forms posti ofMPs the the Ineach constituency.

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For further information UK contactNARlt, Ltd, House, ECflIS 0riel Road, Oriel (heltenham GL50 telephone:0870 Glos, 1XB 990 4088, email: info@naric.org.uk Applications Interviews paid local can be for lower and jobs often ananged by telephonepenon. many you tofillinan orin For jobs need application (CV) acovering or form send ofyour or acopy cuniculum vitae with letter letter ofaoolication. Acovering isusually letter letter ashort attachedcompleted toa gives detailed application whileletter application more form, a of information you applying job why think why are on for the and you you suitable. (Vgives detailsyour Your are specific on education, qualifications, employment, interests. previous skills and lt isimportant (Von computer processor t0type letten your a any and 0rword as this your ofbeing for interview improves chance calledan

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Rights Commission disabiliry Each with isues. of deals these organisations offers and advice information insome and can, cases, support individuals.0ctober their From 2007 functionsbe will brought together new ina Commission and for Equality Human You Rights. can get information the protecting atwork the people from more about laws Advice website: Citizens Bureau www.adviceguide.org.uk (ommission information provides InNorthern the lreland, Equality and inrespect advice of allforms ofunlawful discrimination. The Commission Equality,5t House, for Racial Dunstans -2 1Borough Street, SE1 telephone: 20 1 1 Hh ig 1 London, Gl, 7939 fax:020 0001, 020 000, 7939 www.cre.gov.uk

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,rployers employees responsibilities and have legal atwork. ,:rshave pay to employees work they treat forthe that do, them ,- Jtake responsiblefortheir care health safety. and Employees rotheir with work reasonable care follow skill and and all ': einstructions. They not should damage employer's their

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