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Master of Computer Application [ M.C.A. ] Semester- III & IV
Effective from 2010-11
test planning implementation planning and performance evaluation. user interface design and prototyping . project scheduling. design and implementation of information systems. designee of output and control. System Design: Design of input and control. documentation.doc -2- PAPER XX INFORMATION SYSTEM: ANALYSIS. structured systems analysis and designee and object oriented methodologies for application development data modeling. file design database design. user interface design. Information requirement Analysis: Process modeling with physical and logical data flow diagrams data modeling with logical entity relationship diagrams. ISO and capability maturity models for organization growth. object modeling. group-based approaches. The course should be based on lectures. size and cost estimations. Application Development Methodologies and CASE tools: Information engineering. Managerial Issues in Software Projects: Introduction to software markets. Process design. structures walk through and design and code reviews. object oriented data bases. measurement of software quality and productivity. communication. DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION Theory 60 Sessional / Practical 40 Overview of Systems Analysis and Design: System Development Life Cycle. software constructions. interviewing. prototyping. use of computer aided software engineering (CASE) tools in the analysis. process modeling. Developing a Proposal: Feasibility study and cost estimation. planning of software projects. logical design. object oriented design and object oriented programming systems for implementation. group dynamics: risk and feasibility analysis. Design and Implementation of OO platforms: Object oriented analysis and design through object model technique. software quality metrics: application categories software package evaluation and acquisition. Concept and Models: requirement determination. case analysis and laboratory work. database design.91459269. . JAD. presentation skill. dynamic modeling and functional modeling object oriented. Cases should be used to illustrate each major topic in the course. prototyping. physical design.
processing and output. Human body represents a complete natural system.doc -3- Introduction to System Analysis and Design 1. Basically there are three major components in every system.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. For example. economic system. namely input. because it gives overall list of processes and subprocesses required developing a system. We are also bound by many national systems such as political system. mainly deals with the software development activities. System development life cycle means combination of various activities. 1. The subject System Analysis and Design. In this dynamic world.1 INTRODUCTION Systems are created to solve problems. In a system the different components are connected with each other and they are interdependent.3 Defining A System A collection of components that work together to realize some objective forms a system. 1. In the . you should be able to: • • • • understand a system understand the different phases of system developments life cycle know the components of system analysis know the components of system designing 1. The objective of the system demand that some output is produced as a result of processing the suitable inputs. In other words we can say that various activities put together are referred as system development life cycle. It helps in establishing a system project plan. educational system and so forth.4 SYSTEM LIFE CYCLE System life cycle is an organisational process of developing and maintaining systems.91459269. One can think of the systems approach as an organized way of dealing with a problem.
This gives a clear picture of what actually the physical system is? In practice. In the first phase.doc -4- System Analysis and Design terminology.5 PHASES OF SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT LIFE CYCLE Let us now describe the different phases and the related activities of system development life cycle in detail. the system study is done in two phases.1 Fig.91459269.1 Different phases of Software development Life Cycle 1. the system development life cycle means software development life cycle. Following are the different phases of software development cycle: • • • • • • • • System study Feasibility study System analysis System design Coding Testing Implementation Maintenance The different phases of software development life cycle is shown in Fig. The proposed system contains the .29. The second phase of the system study is more detailed and in-depth study in which the identification of user’s requirement and the limitations and problems of the present system are studied. a system proposal is prepared by the System Analyst (who studies the system) and placed before the user. (a) System Study System study is the first stage of system development life cycle. the preliminary survey of the system is done which helps in identifying the scope of the system. After completing the system study. 29.
Interviews. logical data structures and miniature specifications. identification of data store and manual processes. To describe the system study phase more analytically. In the process of feasibility study. meeting user’s requirements.91459269. Using the following steps it becomes easy to draw the exact boundary of the new system under consideration: • • Keeping in view the problems and new requirements Workout the pros and cons including new areas of the system All procedures. feasibility study takes place. Analysis involved a detailed study of the current system. The main points to be discussed in system analysis are: • • • • Specification of what the new system is to accomplish based on the user requirements. data dictionary. effective use of resources and . we would say that system study phase passes through the following steps: • • • problem identification and project initiation background analysis inference or findings (b) Feasibility Study On the basis of result of the initial study. on-site observation and questionnaire are the tools used for system analysis. Analysis is a detailed study of various operations performed by a system and their relationships within and outside the system.doc -5- findings of the present system and recommendations to overcome the limitations and problems of the present system in the light of the user’s requirements. decision points and transactions handled by the present system. System Analysis also includes sub-dividing of complex process involving the entire system. leading to specifications of a new system. the cost and benefits are estimated with greater accuracy. data are collected on the available files. The feasibility study is basically the test of the proposed system in the light of its workability. (c) System Analysis Assuming that a new system is to be developed. List of attributes of the entities . Function network which are similar to function hierarchy but they highlight the those functions which are common to more than one procedure. requirements must be analysed and documented in the form of detailed data flow diagrams (DFDs).of course.these are the data items which need to be held about each entity (record) (d) System Design . The main goal of feasibility study is not to solve the problem but to achieve the scope. the cost effectiveness. the next phase is system analysis. Functional hierarchy showing the functions to be performed by the new system and their relationship with each other. During analysis.
if any. This helps in fast development. a test plan should be developed and run on a given set of test data. (f) Testing Before actually implementing the new system into operations. the design of the system becomes more structured. At this stage. computer oriented work begins in earnest. which we refer as programs. . These tools and techniques are: • • • • • • Flowchart Data flow diagram (DFDs) Data dictionary Structured English Decision table Decision tree Each of the above tools for designing will be discussed in detailed in the next lesson. After codifying the whole programs of the system. This is the phase of system designing. Coding the new system into computer programming language does this. If the project is still considered to be feasible. a test run of the system is done removing all the bugs. the new system must be designed. There are several tools and techniques used for designing. It is an important phase of a successful system. we move to the detailed design stage. Structure or Detailed design: In the detailed design stage. if required. Normally. Input. It is a most crucial phase in the development of a system. Structure design is a blue print of a computer system solution to a given problem having the same components and inter-relationship among the same components as the original problem.91459269. output and processing specifications are drawn up in detail. the features of the new system are specified. In the design stage. The output of the test run should match the expected results. the design proceeds in two stages : • • preliminary or general design Structure or detailed design Preliminary or general design: In the preliminary or general design. the whole system is required to be converted into computer understanding language.doc -6- Based on the user requirements and the detailed analysis of a new system. (e) Coding After designing the new system. maintenance and future change. The costs of implementing these features and the benefits to be derived are estimated. It is generally felt that the programs must be modular in nature. It is an important stage where the defined procedure are transformed into control specifications by the help of a computer language. The programs coordinate the data movements and control the entire process in a system. the programming language and the platform in which the new system will run are also decided. This is also called the programming phase in which the programmer converts the program specifications into computer instructions.
(g) Implementation After having the user acceptance of the new system developed. training of the users starts. (h) Maintenance . After loading the system. as it used to do. This strategy builds the confidence and the errors are traced easily.91459269. the results or output of the system is analysed. Any undesirable happening must be noted and debugged (error corrections). it may be found that the outputs are not matching the expected out of the system. the errors in the particular programs are identified and are fixed and further tested for the expected output. During the result analysis. The complete system is executed on the actual data. they must be individually tested with the prepared test data. When the results are found satisfactory then only other parts are implemented. At each stage of the execution. Implementation is the stage of a project during which theory is turned into practice. the new system is installed in parts. When it is ensured that the system is running error-free. During this phase. the users are called with their own actual data so that the system could be shown running as per their requirements. Main topics of such type of training are: • • • • How to execute the package How to enter the data How to process the data (processing details) How to take out the reports After the users are trained about the computerised system.doc -7- Using the test data following test run are carried out: • • Unit test System test Unit test: When the programs have been coded and compiled and brought to working conditions. computerised and manual are executed in parallel. At this stage the test is done on actual data. In such case. System Test: After carrying out the unit test for each of the programs of the system and when errors are removed. manual working has to shift from manual to computerised working. The following two strategies are followed for running the system: i. This strategy is helpful because of the following: o o Manual results can be compared with the results of the computerised system. both the systems i.e. does not affect the working of the organisation. Parallel run: In such run for a certain defined period. Failure of the computerised system at the early stage. the implementation phase begins. i. then system test is done. all the programs of the system are loaded onto the user's computer. Pilot run: In this type of run. Some part of the new system is installed first and executed successfully for considerable time period. because the manual system continues to work.
such as XP and Scrum. Top Terminal Question 1. The new project will then proceed through all the above life cycle phases. Computer systems are complex and often (especially with the recent rise of service-oriented architecture) link multiple traditional systems potentially supplied by different software vendors. Overview The SDLC is a process used by a systems analyst to develop an information system. The review of the system is done for: • • • knowing the full capabilities of the system knowing the required changes or the additional requirements studying the performance If a major change to a system is needed.91459269. Iterative methodologies. and the models and methodologies that people use to develop these systems. is a process of creating or altering information systems. It also means the review of the system from time to time. reaches completion within time and cost estimates. and user (stakeholder) ownership. "incremental". or Software development process in systems engineering. To manage this level of complexity. These methodologies form the framework for planning and controlling the creation of an information system: the software development process. Define a system. information systems and software engineering. a number of SDLC models or methodologies have been created. such as "waterfall". "rapid prototyping". Discuss the importance of system analysis and design in the development of a system? Systems development life-cycle The Systems development life cycle (SDLC).doc -8- Maintenance is necessary to eliminate errors in the system during its working life and to tune the system to any variations in its working environment. "spiral". What do you understand by system development life cycle? 3. Explain the components of a system. such as rational unified process and dynamic systems development method. and is inexpensive to maintain and cost-effective to enhance. "Agile software development". It has been seen that there are always some errors found in the system that must be noted and corrected. works effectively and efficiently in the current and planned Information Technology infrastructure. training. focus on lightweight processes which allow for rapid changes along the development cycle. focus on limited project scope and expanding or . 2. a new project may have to be set up to carry out the change. In software engineering the SDLC concept underpins many kinds of software development methodologies. Agile methodologies. Any SDLC should result in a high quality system that meets or exceeds customer expectations. and "synchronize and stabilize". SDLC models can be described along spectrum of agile to iterative to sequential.
propose alternative solutions. Sequential or big-design-up-front (BDUF) models. These stages can be characterized and divided up in different ways. describe costs and benefits and submit a preliminary plan with recommendations. other possible solutions can some form interviewing may have already discovered some solutions. Describe the costs and benefits. you need to find out the organization's objectives and the nature and scope of the problem under study. pseudocode and other documentation. suppliers and consultants. and synchronize and stabilize. while the systems development life cycle focuses on realizing the product requirements". rapid prototyping. According to Taylor (2004) "the project life cycle encompasses all the activities of the project. clients or customers affected by it. The System Development Life Cycle framework provides a sequence of activities for system designers and developers to follow. With this data. Analyzes end-user information needs. Even if a problem refers only to a small segment of the organization itself then you need find out what the objectives of the organization itself are. Propose alternative solutions: in digging into the organization's objectives and specific problem. Other models. you may have already is covered some solutions. such as planning. build and fix. other possible solutions can some from interviewing people inside the organization. and implementation. incremental. including the following: • Preliminary analysis: The objective of phase1 is to conduct a preliminary analysis. you can have three choices. improve it. focus on complete and correct planning to guide large projects and risks to successful and predictable results. and the best known. In project management a project can be defined both with a project life cycle (PLC) and an SDLC. process diagrams. A number of system development life cycle (SDLC) models have been created: waterfall. is the waterfall model: a sequence of stages in which the output of each stage becomes the input for the next.91459269. A Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) adheres to important phases that are essential for developers. spiral. Systems design: Describes desired features and operations in detail. business rules. Then you need to see how the problem being studied fits in with them. during which slightly different activities occur. • Systems analysis. Development: The real code is written here. such as Waterfall. You can also study what competitors is doing.doc -9- improving products by multiple iterations. such as Anamorphic Development. Conduct the preliminary analysis: in this step. and are explained in the section below. It consists of a set of steps or phases in which each phase of the SDLC uses the results of the previous one. requirements definition: Defines project goals into defined functions and operation of the intended application. You can leave the system as is. or develop a new system. tend to focus on a form of development that is guided by project scope and adaptive iterations of feature development. design. fountain. The oldest of these. analysis. • • . including screen layouts.
g. Some of these aspects are: .It refers to the overall structure of the software and the ways in which that structure provides conceptual integrity for a system. 5. 4. 7. in terms of performance.Software architecture is divided into components called modules. where the software is put into production and runs actual business. one or several instructions of a given program are decomposed into more detailed instructions. A good software architecture will yield a good return on investment with respect to the desired outcome of the project. Abstraction . Design considerations There are many aspects to consider in the design of a piece of software. Information Hiding . A set of fundamental design concepts has evolved. quality.Abstraction is the process or result of generalization by reducing the information content of a concept or an observable phenomenon.doc . Horizontal partitions define separate branches of modular hierarchy for each major program function. moves to a different computing platform and more. This is often the longest of the stages. In each step. schedule and cost. typically in order to retain only information which is relevant for a particular purpose. Software Procedure . 6.The program structure can be divided both horizontally and vertically. They are: 1.10 - • Integration and testing: Brings all the pieces together into a special testing environment. e. installation. Refinement .A program structure that represents the organization of a program component and implies a hierarchy of control.Modules should be specified and designed so that information contained within a module is inaccessible to other modules that have no need for such information. A hierarchy is developed by decomposing a macroscopic statement of function in a stepwise fashion until programming language statements are reached. Maintenance: What happens during the rest of the software's life: changes. Control Hierarchy . bugs and interoperability. Modularity . deployment: The final stage of initial development. correction. 2. 8. Abstraction and Refinement are complementary c 3. additions.It is a representation of the logical relationship among individual elements of data. The importance of each should reflect the goals the software is trying to achieve. Structural Partitioning .It is the process of elaboration. Vertical partitioning suggests that control and work should be distributed top down in the program structure. • • Design concepts The design concepts provide the software designer with a foundation from which more sophisticated methods can be applied. then checks for errors.91459269.It focuses on the processing of each modules individually 9. Acceptance. Software Architecture . Data Structure .
New capabilities can be added to the software without major changes to the underlying architecture. For example.11 - • • • • • • • • • • • Compatibility . Group dynamics are at the core of understanding racism. Maintainability . sexism.The software is able to withstand hostile acts and influences. All compatibility information should be visible on the outside of the package. The study of group dynamics can be useful in understanding decision-making behavior.The software user interface must be usable for its target user/audience. a piece of software may be backward-compatible with an older version of itself. Extensibility . or between social groups (intergroup dynamics). tracking the spread of diseases in society. it can be designed with a resilience to low memory conditions. For example. Security .Printed material such as the box and manuals should match the style designated for the target market and should enhance usability. Packaging . antivirus software may include the ability to periodically receive virus definition updates in order to maintain the software's effectiveness.The software is able to perform a required function under stated conditions for a specified period of time. Usability . Modularity . Default values for the parameters must be chosen so that they are a good choice for the majority of the users. Reliability .The software can be restored to a specified condition within a specified period of time. creating effective therapy techniques.The software is able to operate under stress or tolerate unpredictable or invalid input.The software is able to operate with other products that are designed for interoperability with another product. Robustness .The software is resistant to and able to recover from component failure. All components required for use should be included in the package or specified as a requirement on the outside of the package.91459269. That leads to better maintainability. and other forms of social prejudice and discrimination Business Impact Risks . For example. Fault-tolerance . The components could be then implemented and tested in isolation before being integrated to form a desired software system.the software is able to add further features and modification with slight or no modification.doc . Group dynamics Group dynamics refers to a system of behaviors and psychological processes occurring within a social group (intragroup dynamics).the resulting software comprises well defined. independent components. This allows division of work in a software development project. and following the emergence and popularity of new ideas and technologies. Reusability .
and improving the quality of specifications. Miscommunications can carry far more serious repercussions if not addressed until later on in the process. expediting development.12 - Affect of this product on company revenue? Reasonableness of delivery deadline? Number of customers who will use this product and the consistency of their needs relative to the product? Costs associated with late delivery or a defective product Customer Related Risk Have you worked with the customer in the past? Does the customer have a solid idea of what is required? Will the customer agree to spend time in formal requirements gathering meetings to identify project scope? Is the customer willing to participate in reviews? Technology Risk Risk Associated with Staff Joint application design Joint application design (JAD) is a process used in the prototyping life cycle area of the Dynamic Systems Development Method (DSDM) to collect business requirements while developing new information systems for a company.91459269. "The JAD process also includes approaches for enhancing user participation. to define and review the business requirements for the system." It consists of a workshop where “knowledge workers and IT specialists meet. This acts as “a management process which allows Corporate Information Services (IS) departments to work more effectively with users in a shorter time frame.” The attendees include high level management officials who will ensure the product provides the needed reports and information at the end. In the end. (See below for Key Participants and Key Steps to an Effective JAD). The workshop follows a detailed agenda in order to guarantee that all uncertainties between parties are covered and to help prevent any miscommunications. sometimes for several days. .doc .” Through JAD workshops the knowledge workers and IT specialists are able to resolve any difficulties or differences between the two parties regarding the new information system. this process will result in a new information system that is feasible and appealing to both the designers and end users.
right down to screens and menus . 2. Scoping identifies the business functions that are within the scope of the project. Define project deliverables In general. and the outside experts that will be needed for a successful workshop. Identify project objectives and limitations It is vital to have clear objectives for the workshop and for the project as a whole. the system owner. JAD use was most effective in sKey participants Executive Sponsor: The executive who charters the project. The facilitator serves the participants and does not contribute information to the meeting. For best results. a field study was done at three organizations using JAD practices to determine how JAD influenced system development outcomes. The facilitator is responsible for identifying those issues that can be solved as part of the meeting and those which need to be assigned at the end of the meeting for follow-up investigation and resolution. Scribe/Modeller/Recorder/Documentation Expert: Records and publish the proceedings of the meeting and does not contribute information to the meeting.can be designed in 8 to 10 workshop days. little is actually known about its effectiveness in practice. set the expectations of the workshop sponsors and participants. the planning and scoping. The political sensitivity of the project should be assessed. the deliverables from a workshop are documentation and a design. Facilitator/Session Leader: Chairs the meeting and directs traffic by keeping the group on the meeting agenda. It also tries to assess both the project design and implementation complexity. the IS professionals. It is important to define the form and level of detail of the workshop documentation. This group is the backbone of the meeting. 9 Key Steps 1. systems projects should be sized so that a complete design . Subject Matter Experts: These are the business users. They are to sit behind the participants and are to silently observe the proceedings. The results of the study suggest that organizations realized modest improvement in systems development outcomes by using the JAD method. planning. and direction. Observers: Generally members of the application development team assigned to the project." According to Journal of Systems and Software. What types of diagrams will be provided? What type or form .91459269. They must be high enough in the organization to be able to make decisions and provide the necessary strategy. The pre-workshop activities. Has this been tried in the past? How many false starts were there? How many implementation failures were there? Sizing is important. Identify critical success factors It is important to identify the critical success factors for both the development project and the business function being studied.doc . 3. they will drive the changes.13 - "Although the JAD design is widely acclaimed. How will we know that the planned changes have been effective? How will success be measured? Planning for outcomes assessment helps to judge the effectiveness and the quality of the implemented system over its entire operational life.
It is the facilitator's job to build consensus and communications. The most important thing about a diagram is that it must be understood by the users. educate the workshop participants All of the participants in the workshop must be made aware of the objectives and limitations of the project and the expected deliverables of the workshop.doc . with each sub-team working on a piece of the problem or working on the same thing for a different functional area. Prepare. the IS professionals. the team-building has been done. what's in it? A decomposition diagram? A high-level entity-relationship diagram? A normalized data model? A state transition diagram? A dependency diagram? All of the above? None of the above? It is important to define the level of technical diagramming that is appropriate to the environment. and the outside experts that will be needed for a successful workshop. The workshop material consists of documentation. High-intensity exercises led by the facilitator energize the group and direct it towards a specific goal. Briefing of participants should take place 1 to 5 days before the workshop. It's up to the facilitator to mix and match the sub-team members to accomplish the organizational. with each other. diagrams.91459269. to force issues out early in the process. it will take the participants from one to three hours to reestablish the team psychology of the initial workshop. Organize workshop activities and exercises The facilitator must design workshop exercises and activities to provide interim deliverables that build towards the final output of the workshop. For example. and political objectives of the workshop. Prepare the workshop material Before the workshop. The second day is spent learning to understand each other and developing a common language with which to communicate issues and concerns. the facilitator designs exercises into the workshop agenda to get the group to develop those diagrams. There is no need to worry about the technical implementation of a system if the underlying business issues cannot be resolved. the facilitator can mix the expertise. and even props that will help the participants understand the business function under investigation. and parallel exercises. 5. the project manager and the facilitator perform an analysis and build a preliminary design or straw man to focus the workshop. for instance. These are the true "back bones" of the meeting who will drive the changes. 6. By the third day. A workshop combines exercises that are serially oriented to build on one another. everyone is working together on the problem and real productivity is achieved. The pre-workshop activities help design those workshop exercises. for a Business Area Analysis. 7.14 - 4. It takes the participants most of the first day to get comfortable with their roles. inform. of narrative will be supplied? It is a good idea to start using a CASE tool for diagramming support right from the start. the facilitator can match people with similar expertise from different departments. Shorter workshops can be scheduled for subsequent phases of the project. The initial workshop for a project should not be less than three days. The narrative is best produced with your standard word processing software. worksheets. Most of the available tools have good to great diagramming capabilities but their narrative support is generally weak. Once the diagram choice is made. Select the participants These are the business users. After the initial workshop. 8. To integrate the participants. Low-intensity exercises allow for detailed discussions before decisions. To help participants learn from each other. A workshop operates on both the technical level and the political level. However. cultural. The discussions can involve the total group or teams can work out the issues and present a limited number of suggestions for the whole group to consider. This briefing may be teleconferenced if participants are . to verify a prototype. and with the environment. Define the schedule of workshop activities Workshops vary in length from one to five days.
masking tape. a methodology for mission-critical work. 9. In any case. Experience with JAD allows companies to customize their systems analysis process into even more dynamic ones like Double Helix. but requirements. Project Scope Definition. mall.15 - widely dispersed. as it is "the first accelerated design technique available on the market and probably best known".or anything else that seems appropriate. They can vary from simple flip charts to electronic white boards. logic. and develop the sense of project ownership.91459269. JAD sessions help bring experts together giving them a chance to share their views. and lots of other props should be prepared. Structured Walkthrough Major objective: FIND ERRORS Uncover errors in function. The briefing document might be called the Familiarization Guide. It is a document of eight to twelve pages. screens. or implementation for any representation of the software Look for weaknesses or errors Verify that the software meets its requirements Ensure that the software has been represented according to predefined standards Make projects more manageable Achieve software that is developed in a uniform manner . Advantages • • • • JAD decreases time and costs associated with requirements elicitation process. clearly focused projects and less effective in large complex projects. Projectors. markers. agreed upon by various system users.doc . are identified. Easy integration of CASE tools into JAD workshops improves session productivity and provides systems analysts with discussed and ready to use models. PCs. Coordinate workshop logistics Workshops should be held off-site to avoid interruptions. tables. or the Management Definition Guide . understand views of others. and can easily be applied by any organization. Briefing Guide. During 2-4 weeks information not only is collected. the layout of the room must promote the communication and interaction of the participants. The methods of JAD implementation are well known. Post-It notes. The briefing itself lasts two to four hours. and it provides a clear definition of the scope of the project for the participants. It provides the psychological preparation everyone needs to move forward into the workshop. What specific facilities and props are needed is up to the facilitator.
the inprocess quality metrics of a project are both process metrics and project metrics.doc . the project parameters such as the number of developers and their skill levels. design features. based on the findings. process. the staffing pattern over the life cycle of the software. and the response time of the fix process. Examples include the effectiveness of defect removal during development. process metrics. cost. and project metrics. and project. and. software quality metrics are more closely associated with process and product metrics than with project metrics. The essence of software quality engineering is to investigate the relationships among in-process metrics. Examples include the number of software developers. schedule. Product metrics describe the characteristics of the product such as size. Software quality metrics can be divided further into end-product quality metrics and in-process quality metrics. Nonetheless. Project metrics describe the project characteristics and execution. and quality level. Some metrics belong to multiple categories.91459269. to engineer improvements in both process and product quality. the pattern of testing defect arrival. the size.16 - Design and Code Reviews Software Quality Metrics Software metrics can be classified into three categories: product metrics. performance. For example. project characteristics. the schedule. complexity. Moreover. we should view quality . and end-product quality. and productivity. Process metrics can be used to improve software development and maintenance. and the organization structure certainly affect the quality of the product. In general. Software quality metrics are a subset of software metrics that focus on the quality aspects of the product.
we should include metrics that measure the quality level of the maintenance process as another category of software quality metrics.17 - from the entire software life-cycle perspective and.doc .91459269. In the last sections we also describe the key metrics used by several major software developers and discuss software metrics data collection. In this chapter we discuss several metrics in each of three groups of software quality metrics: product quality. and maintenance quality. in-process quality. in this regard. .
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