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Simulation Of Antilock Braking System

Imdad A. Rizvi Department of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering, Don Bosco Institute of Technology ,Mumbai. ( e-mail:dineshc@yahoo.co.in ) Dinesh Chawde Don Bosco Institute of Technology ,Mumbai ( e-mail:imdadrizvi@gmail.com ) Department of Mechanical Engineering
the rear brake. This prevents continuous rear wheel lock-up which is one cause of rear-end skidding and second shorter stopping distances may be generally achieved by automatically providing the average rear brake pressure necessary for maximum stopping force. These advantages are generally achieved over a wide variety of road surfaces, weather conditions, and driving situations. However, the extent of the wheel lock control brake system advantages is determined by many factors such as Road surfaces, weather conditions, driver proficiency, vehicle speed, tire tread wear, tire inflation brakes and suspension components. The remainders of this paper are organized as follows. In Section 2, the need of ABS is discussed. ABS for two wheelers along with the program flowchart is discussed in Section 3. In Section 4, Fabrication is highlighted. The simulation results of the anti-lock braking system are illustrated in Section 5. Finally, some concluding remarks with future development are given in Section 6. II.NEED OF ABS Shortly hitting the brakes can be sufficient to cause wheel lock-up even on a dry road. Locked-up wheels cannot transfer lateral forces. The consequences: The vehicle doesn’t react to the driver’s steering input. ABS recognizes very early, if one or more wheels show a Fig.1: Basic principles of braking Fig. 1: Basic principles of braking. tendency to lock-up while braking. In this case ABS ensures that the braking pressure is kept on a constant level or reduced. The wheels do not lock up and the vehicle remains steer able. Thus the vehicle can be decelerated quickly and safely and an obstacle can be avoided. Above shows the basic principles of braking. III. ABS FOR TWO WHEELERS As two wheelers are more unstable in comparison with four wheelers so there are more chances in bikes of getting skid on slippery roads or there are chances of an accident during panic braking. This can be avoided if the similar technology of

Abstract-- This paper develops the anti-lock braking control system integrated with active suspensions applied to a two wheeler. In emergency, although the braking distance can be reduced by the control torque, the braking time and distance can be further improved if the normal force generated from active suspension systems is considered simultaneously. Finally the future developments on the ABS are dwelt on. Keywords-- Anti-lock Braking System, Backstepping Design, Lateral forces, longitudinal forces, friction, braking principles.

I. INTRODUCTION Owing to advanced development of vehicular technology, the requirement of safety for automobiles becomes more and more important. The techniques applied for various vehicles have already improved system stability and passenger safety with the use of several significant control systems, such as anti-lock braking systems (ABS) [1][2], active suspension systems [4],traction control systems [3], and so forth, popularly used in automobile industries. Recently, there are some integrated studies which combine the previous mentioned subsystems in order to control vehicle dynamic states to reach better efficiency. For example, the concept of integrating anti-lock braking systems with active suspensions has been investigated in [1]. Many theories and design methods for anti-lock braking systems and active suspension systems have been proposed individually by several literatures for decades. Various researchers have considered a slip-ratio control of anti-lock braking systems in the use of sliding mode control schemes [5]. When a driver of a vehicle hits a conventional brake hard that is during panic braking, the wheels may lock causing the vehicle to skid, especially on wet and slippery roads. Antilock brake systems provide the capability for shorter stopping distances and the ability to steer and to maintain control during hard braking, especially on wet and slippery surfaces. This system allows the driver to achieve the two main braking advantages during maximum braking stops, one better lateral stability control may be achieved by automatically pumping

spring. Thus this increase & decrease in pressure will buit enough traction between wheels & roads. When brake lever is pressed.The expansion caused in the line will decrease the brake fluid pressure. second relay gets triggered thus energizing solenoid actuator the solenoid actuator would pull master cylinder piston thus sucking in the fluid . The next step consists of fabricating and assembling various components of the hydraulic circuit like single acting cylinder. threaded rod. As soon as first relay gets triggered current flows from battery to solenoid valve . A m. battery stand. Due to this solenoid valve & solenoid actuator remains OFF. To achieve above in bikes . FABRICATION The first step was to replace the original front wheel drum brake by disc brake kit. skidding of bike then micro controller will first trigger the relay which is connected to solenoid valve.This action of increasing & decreasing pressure will respectively stop & rotate the wheels referring to figure 2. Solenoid actuator will no more have power to hold the shaft & thus due to spring action shaft which is connected with piston of master cylinder will move towards left thereby increasing the pressure of fluid thus locking the wheels. Therefore ABS can prove as a life saving guard. As this case is of normal braking operation rpm1 will be equal to rpm2 hence it does not give any output signal. This traction will help the driver to take bike to safer position.As soon as this condition is encountered microcontroller will first switch OFF solenoid actuator & then solenoid valve thus bringing every thing into normal state. hoses etc. After a delay of few seconds that is after triggering first relay. During this process sensors continuously send their output signals to micro controller. 3/2 valve.Due to this solenoid valve gets energized disconnecting hydraulic connection between master cylinder & brake caliper & makes hydraulic connection between brake caliper & injection cylinder. As we know the rpm sensed by front & rear wheel sensors are continuously supplied to micro controller. Now if found that rpm1 is lesser than rpm2 which is the condition for Fig 3: Programming Flowchart IV. main aim is to reduce brake fluid pressure inside disc brake caliper in the situation when the bike is just going to skid (after applying brakes) . sensor holder. the fluid pressure inside the hose pipe connecting master cylinder with brake caliper through solenoid valve increases to about 8 bars . It was then fasten to the body of solenoid linear actuator by using three metal .This will built the necessary traction or grip between wheels & road thereby giving the rider a steering control & thus saving an accident. flat was cut to the required size and three holes were drilled in it.s.antilock braking system used in cars is used in bikes.as the pressure is reduced wheels will start rotating & just after a few milliseconds the pressure is increased thereby locking the wheels . PROGRAMING FLOWCHART Fig 2: ABS in two wheeler For working of ABS we will consider two cases. Case 2: In this case the actual working of ABS system takes place. Soon after few milliseconds second relay connected to solenoid actuator gets triggered. This process are repeated till micro controller finds the condition rpm1 equal to rpm2. Case 1: This case is regarding normal braking operation of bike that is when there is no skid of bike. Soon after microcontroller switch Offs the second relay thereby disconnecting the supply from battery to solenoid actuator.The pressure so produced is enough to bring friction pads of disc brake in contact with rotating disc thus stopping the bike. Micro controller checks for the condition of skidding that is whether rpm1 is equal to rpm2 or rpm1 is less than rpm2. This is turn would give some motion to the locked wheel. solenoid actuator.

screws. i. An axial force of 100 N on the internal threads on actuator side. 2. Two m. RESULTS: Threaded rod is modeled for the first iteration by following considerations. referring to figure 4.s. threaded rod was then mounted on to the chassis of the bike to ensure whether it fits properly.s. The 3/2 solenoid valve holder was made from M. After ensuring that the sub assembly was fitting properly we disassembled it. flats were cut to the required length and then welded with the m. Stress (Von Mises) The results are displayed using the visualizer which shows the above quantities graphically using a spectrum of colour. The sensor holders were made from M. The FE Model is then assigned with Aluminum as the material. The refined mesh is then checked for any errors 2.e. . Thus the frame structure was formed. V. single acting cylinder. One end of the threaded rod was screwed with the plunger of solenoid linear actuator. Boundary conditions are then substituted which consists of following constraints and restraint sets: 1. Length of the threaded rod is known since it is equal to the free length of the spring which has already been designed. And the CAD model is then updated to reflect the changes as shown below: Nominal diameter of the external threads is initially assumed as 15mm.S flat by bending it to the required shape & drilling two holes in it. solenoid actuator. The third port was connected to the auxiliary hose which connects the single acting cylinder. Other end of the threaded rod was screwed with the piston of the single acting cylinder. nut and locknut to it and then mounted the assembly again on to the bike. The sub assembly consisting of frame. fitted spring. The holder was then fitted on to the chassis through one of the holes & 3/2 solenoid valve was then mounted on it through the second hole using nut bolts.S flat by bending it to the required shape & drilling two holes in it. L = 200mm. Then sensors were fitted on it. The main hose line was cut in to two halves & their ends were connected to the normally open ports of 3/2 solenoid valve through hose connectors. A restraint at the internal threads on piston rod side The FE Model is then meshed using 4 node non-uniform tetrahedral solid elements. The holders were then fitted on to the front & rear fork. flat which was fastened to the solenoid linear actuator.

V. Rosiglioni. He is currently working as a lecturer in Don Bosco Institute of Technology. “Yaw control algorithm via sliding mode control. . September.c output should be given to appropriate terminals as to switch on the hydraulic circuit. Kurla . “Improved vehicle performance using combined suspension and braking forces. Mumbai. from those 3 timer. Drakunov. Say timer T1 and T2 are used as counter in mode 01 and timer T0 is used as a timer for enabling the counter for counting the no of pulses in 1 sec duration. pp. pp. REFERENCES [1] A. FEA and ABS.” Vehicle System Dynamics. In case of 8031 or 8051 there are only two timer . & f2 be the no of pulses counted by timer 2. Vol. B. 580-583. Drakunov. Dinesh Chawde is holding M. If we used 8032.E. Dearborn.the program that will check for the condition of skidding of bike & soon as the condition is satisfied to send signal to appropriate components.Cd-rom.2. Instead of Imdad Rizvi is holding M. “ABS control using optimum search via sliding modes. P. Yi. June 2000.e. Image processing and Wavelets. If f1 . Brouchers).Chicago.” Proceedings of the 1996 IEEE International Conference on Control Applications. Vol. X. He is currently working as a lecturer in Don Bosco Institute of Technology. Ashrafi. [4] E. Horowitz “Emergency braking control with an observer-based dynamic tire/toad friction model and wheel angular velocity measurement. “Nonlinear indirect adaptive control of a quarter car active suspension. Let f1 be the no of pulses counted by timer 1 per sec. 2003. Alleyne. Dix and B. March 1995. 81-97 [3] S. Then 5v d. (Electronics) degree from University of Mumbai. U.” IEEE Transactions on Control SystemsTechnology. Kurla . Illinois. Claeys and R.” Vehicle System Dynamics. His area of interest includes Embedded systems. one can be used for counting seconds & other two can be used for counting no of pulses. His area of interest includes Machine design.” Proceedings of the American Control Conference.39. Ozguner. from which we use one timer to count no of pulses & other to calculate seconds. 1996. Another development that could still improve the efficiency of ABS is to have mechanical components with very high responses. Ashrafi.f2 is not = to zero .235-265. Issue: 1. pp. VI. MI. Hence both two timer are required for detection of one wheel speed. Mumbai. (Mechanical) degree from University of Mumbai. GERMANY (Dvd-rom .V.-S Kim. FUTURE DEVELOPMENT One of very prominent development required in ABS is to have a good program that will be fed in to micro controller . then there are three timer & the codes are very much similar as that in case of 8031.61-66. J. pp. [2] L. [6] BOSCH AG. Pages: 79-85. [5] S. Volume: 3. Vol.27. and A.1.E. 1997. No. Alvarez.The ABS on the Two wheeler looks like this : displaying these frequencies on the circuit we can used them for further operations i.