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Liceul Teoretic „Alexandru Ioan Cuza‖ - Bucuresti

Lucrare de atestat la limba engleza – 2010


Candidat: Morarescu Andrei Clasa aXII-a D Profesori Coordonatori: Maier Doina Malancu Paula

Table of contents

1.0 Argument…………………………….………………………………….….. 4 2.0 Introduction……………………….………………………………………... 5 3.0 Origins……………….…………………………………………………..…. 6 3.1 Detroit Sound………………….…………………………………… 7 3.2 School Days……………………………………..…………………... 8 3.3 Juan Atkins……………………………………………………...….. 10 3.4 Music Institute………………………………………….….……….. 11 4.0 Developments………………………………………………….…….……. 13 4.1 Exodus………………………………………………….…….…….. 14 4.2 Berlin………………………………………………….……….…… 15 4.3 A Techno Alliance………………………………….…….………. 16 4.4 Minimal-Techno…………………………………………..……….. 17 4.5 Intelligent-Techno…………………………………….….………… 18 5.0 The New Era……………………………………………………….……… 20 5.1 Free Techno……………………………………………………….... 21 5.2 Tech-trance………………………………………………….……… 23 5.3 Tech-house……………………………………………………….… 24


6.0 Techno Music Festivals………………………………………………….. 27 6.1 Love Parade……………………………………………………….. 27 6.2 Time Warp………………………………………………………… 33 6.3 I love techno………………………………………………………. 38 7.0 Conclusions……………………………………………………………… 39 Bibliography…………………………………………………………………. 40


1.0 Argument
The main reason for choosing the history of techno music as a subject for this project is my passion for EDM (electronic dance music), especially techno and house music. I discovered EDM almost 10 years ago due to some older friends and as the years passed, although I was one of the few my age who listened to this kind of music, I started to discover and listen to more and more genres of EDM such as trance, progressive, techno, electro, house and so on. As the years passed and my knowledge about music and the history of music grew, I started to pay more attention to the people actually playing this music in clubs or in festivals. I really appreciated the work of the DJ‘s and producers so I decided to try it out, first playing music on computer software to try to understand the basic principles and through that, adding the help of other DJ‘s, I got to learn how to play music and actually mix different tracks between them on real hardware, not just on my PC. One of the most exciting moments in my life was the first time I played music in a club in the front of a crowd. Soon I started to play music at more and more clubs and pubs in Bucharest. All in all, I can say that one of the biggest loves of my life is music, EDM more precisely. Furthermore, I want to show you how it all began and evolved in huge techno music manifestation, practically changing people‘s perceptions of electronic music around the world.


This unique blend of influences aligns techno with the aesthetic referred to as afrofuturism. The initial take on techno arose from the melding of Eurocentric electronic music by artists such as Kraftwerk with African American music including funk.2.Many styles of techno now exist. in reference to a genre of music. but Detroit techno is seen as the foundation upon which a number of subgenres have been built. Chicago house and electric jazz. electro. 5 . Music journalists and fans of techno are generally selective in their use of the term.0 Introduction Techno is a form of electronic dance music (EDM) that emerged in Detroit. such as electronic music and dance music. Pioneering producer Juan Atkins cites Toffler‘s phrase „techno rebels‖ as inspiring him to use the word techno to describe the musical style he helped to create. To producers such as Derrick May. so a clear distinction can be made between sometimes related but often qualitatively different styles. was in 1988. the transference of spirit from the body to the machine is often a central preoccupation. Added to this is the influence of futuristic and fictional themes that are relevant to life in American late capitalist society—particularly the book The Third Wave by Alvin Toffler. The first recorded use of the word techno. „Techno‖ is also commonly confused with generalized descriptors. such as tech house and trance. Michigan (USA) in the mid to late 1980s. In this manner: „techno dance music defeats what Adorno saw as the alienating effect of mechanisation on the modern consciousness‖. essentially an expression of technological spirituality.

Michigan. the four had recorded and released material under various guises: Atkins as Model 500. Derrick May (the socalled Belleville Three). and Rhythim Is Rhythim. and Magic Juan. There were also a number of joint ventures. Kevin Saunderson. the most commercially successful of which was the Atkins and Saunderson (with James Pennington and Arthur Forest) collaboration on the first Inner City single.3. by Juan Atkins. Saunderson as Reese. „Big Fun‖. R-Tyme.0 Origins The initial blueprint for techno was developed during the mid-1980s in Detroit. 6 . and Kaos. By the close end of the 1980s. near Detroit. and Eddie Fowlkes. all of whom attended school together at Belleville High. Fowlkes simply as Eddie „Flashin‖ Fowlkes. with May as Mayday. Flintstones. Keynotes.

disco. pushing electronic dance music into uncharted terrain. stretching it rather than simply using it. They deliberately rejected the Motown legacy and traditional formulas of R&B and soul. and instead embraced technological experimentation.3. but by another journalist a decade later as ―soulful grooves‖ melding the beat-centric styles of Motown with the music technology of the time. so the experimentation has become more intense. 1988 The resulting Detroit sound was interpreted by Derrick May and one journalist in 1988 as a ―post-soul‖ sound with no debt to Motown. we’re tired of hearing about being in love or falling out. the Detroit underground has been experimenting with technology. As the price of sequencers and synthesizers has dropped. enabled by the increasing affordability of sequencers and synthesizers. ― Within the last 5 years or so. merged a European synth-pop aesthetic with aspects of soul. funk. and electro. May famously described the sound of techno as something that is ―…like Detroit…a complete ‖ 7 . We call it techno! —Juan Atkins.1 Detroit Sound The early producers. Basically. tired of the R&B system. so a new progressive sound has emerged.

mistake. Atkins. they were one of the main reasons why disco didn’t really grab hold in Detroit in 1979. Kraftwerk. and Tangerine Dream. one now commonly referred to as ―Detroit techno. In fact. and danceable selections of new wave music from bands such as Devo and the B-52‘s. Atkins has noted: ― He [Mojo] played all the Parliament and Funkadelic that anybody ever wanted to hear. When ‚Knee Deep’ came out. Mojo used to play a lot of funk just to be different from all the other stations that had gone over to disco.‖ 3. Saunderson. and Fowlkes shared common interests as budding musicians. yet it also maintained an identity as a genre in its own right. They also found musical inspiration via the Midnight Funk Association. and aspiring DJs. Those two groups were really big in Detroit at the time. and WJLB-FM from 1977 through the mid1980s by DJ Charles ―The Electrifying Mojo‖ Johnson. Mojo‘s show featured electronic music by artists such as Giorgio Moroder. ―mix‖ tape traders. an eclectic five-hour late-night radio program hosted on various Detroit radio stations. including WCHB.‖ The sound exerted an influence on widely differing styles of electronic music. that just put the last nail in ‖ 8 . alongside the funk sounds of Parliament. May.2 School days Prior to achieving notoriety. It‘s like George Clinton and Kraftwerk are stuck in an elevator with only a sequencer to keep them company. WGPR.

offices. groups of DJs began to band together to market their mixing skills and sound systems to the clubs in order to cater to the growing audiences of listeners. Comrades. Locations like local church activity centers. Rumours. Ciabattino. Derrick ―Mayday‖. launched themselves as a party crew called Deep Space Soundworks (also referred to as Deep Space). Despite the short-lived disco boom in Detroit. and in 1981. ―Magic Juan‖. Atkins taught May how to mix records. As these local clubs grew in popularity. Rafael. Hardwear. Juan Atkins among them. and Weekends created the incubator in which techno was grown. These young promoters developed and nurtured the local dance music scene by both catering to the tastes of the local audience of young people and by marketing parties with new DJs and their music. vacant warehouses. one of whom was Eddie ―Flashin‖ Fowlkes.the coffin of disco music. 9 . which they did end up doing the following year. and YMCA auditoriums were the early locations where underage crowds gathered and the musical form was nurtured and defined. it had the effect of inspiring many individuals to take up mixing. Snobs. Charivari. Gables. in conjunction with three other DJ‘s. In 1980 or 1981 they met with Mojo and proposed that they provide mixes for his show. Subsequently. During the late 1970s/early 1980s high school clubs such as Brats.

it is Juan Atkins who is recognized as ―The Originator‖. This trio released a number of rock and electro-inspired tunes. such as Kraftwerk. but he later heard Afrika Bambaataa‘s ―Planet Rock‖ (1982) and considered it to be a superior example of the music he envisioned.‘ Atkins has used the term to describe earlier bands that made heavy use of synthesizers. the most successful of which were ―Clear‖ (1983) and its moodier follow-up. 10 . Atkins viewed Cybotron‘s ―Cosmic Cars‖ (1982) as unique. he resolved to continue experimenting. from whom he borrowed the terms ‗cybotron‘ and ‗metroplex. According to a recent bio on MySpace. taking as one inspiration the works of Futurist and author Alvin Toffler. synthesized funk. although many people would consider Kraftwerk‘s music and Juan‘s early music in Cybotron as electro. Jon-5) as Cybotron. In the early 1980s. Atkins‘ role was likewise acknowledged in 1995 by the American music technology publication Keyboard Magazine. Inspired. which honored Atkins as one of 12 Who Count in the history of keyboard music.3. Atkins …coined the term techno to describe their music. Germanic. and he encouraged Saunderson and May to do likewise. Atkins began recording with musical partner Richard ―3070‖ Davis (and later with a third member. ―Techno City‖ (1984).3 Juan Atkins Of the four individuals responsible for establishing techno as a genre in its own right.

” I thought I was just going to make my money back on it. Atkins has said ― When I started Metroplex around February or March of 1985 and released „No UFOs. Of this time. and Baker and Chez Damier playing to a mostly gay crowd on Saturday nights. So when I came out with ‚No UFOs. The club 11 . he released a seminal work entitled ―No UFOs. and in 1985 he established the record label Metroplex. Derrick’s parents had moved there. located at 1315 Broadway in downtown Detroit.000 and 15.’ he took copies out to Chicago and gave them to some DJs. I had no idea that my record would happen in Chicago.4 Music Institute In mid-1988.‖ one of the first Detroit techno productions to receive wider attention and an important turning point for the music. 3.Eventually. Atkins started producing his own music under the pseudonym Model 500. In the same year. developments in the Detroit scene lead to the opening of nightclub called the Music Institute (MI). The venue was secured by George Baker and Alton Miller with Darryl Wynn and Derrick May participating as Friday night DJs.000 copies. and he was making regular trips between Detroit and Chicago. but I wound up selling between 10. and it just happened.

along with Detroit‘s early techno pioneers. MI was known internationally for its all-night sets. with Derrick May playing ―Strings of Life‖ along with a recording of clock tower bells. and that’s why…we got the best of the best. I think we were peaking – we were so full of energy and we didn’t know who we were or [how to] realize our potential. notes Dan Sicko.closed on November 24. Our careers took off right around the time we [the MI] had to close. and maybe it was the best thing. no standards. we just did it. and it didn’t last because it wasn’t supposed to last. We had no inhibitions.” ‖ 12 . “helped give life to one of the city’s important musical subcultures – one that was slowly growing into an international scene. and its juice bar stocked with ―smart drinks‖ (the Institute never served liquor). That’s why it came off so fresh and innovative. The MI. Though short-lived. May explains: ― It all happened at the right time by mistake. its sparse white rooms. 1989.

13 .4. the original techno sound had garnered a large underground following in the United Kingdom. and Belgium. Derrick May‘s experimentation on works such as Beyond the Dance (1989) and The Beginning (1990) were credited with taking techno in dozens of new directions at once and having the kind of expansive impact John Coltrane had on Jazz. By the late 1980s and early ‗90s. The growth of techno‘s popularity in Europe between 1988 and 1992 was largely due to the emergence of the party scene known as rave and a thriving club culture. This ranged from relatively pop oriented acts such as Moby to the distinctly anti-commercial sentiments of the appropriately named Underground Resistance. it also diverged to such an extent that a wide spectrum of stylistically distinct music was being referred to as techno. Germany.0 Developments As the original sound evolved in the late 1980s and early 1990s.

following the closure of a free party venue called UFO. Larkin. Ontario). Lenny Dee. By 1993. looked to Europe for their future livelihood.4. releasing “tough. launched the influential imprint Plus 8 Records. Berlin was considered the unofficial techno capital of Europe. some of whom relocated to Berlin. In Berlin. Richie Hawtin. the club Tresor opened in 1991. Although eclipsed by Germany. Octave artists.” according to one music journalist. Bolland. The venue was for a time the standard bearer for techno and played host to many of the leading Detroit producers. This first wave of Detroit expatriates was soon joined by a number of up-and-coming Craig. as interest in techno in the UK club scene started to wane. Jay Denham. Belgium was another focus of second-wave techno in this time period. New York. In the same period.1 Exodus In America.J. and Joey Beltram. and Chicago. apart from regional scenes in Detroit. with business partner John Acquaviva. notably Frankie Bones. Kenny and Stacey with UR‘s Jeff Mills. The Ghent-based label R&S Records embraced harder-edged techno by ―teenage prodigies‖ like Beltram and C. Developments in American-produced techno between 1990 and 1992 fueled the expansion and eventual divergence of techno in Europe. Producers from Detroit. frustrated by the lack of opportunity in their home country.Mike Banks. metallic tracks…with harsh. close to Detroit (Windsor. A number of New York producers were also making an impression at this time. discordant synth lines that sounded like distressed Hoovers. and Robert Hood pushing their own unique sound. particularly in Germany. 14 . interest was limited. the so called ―second-wave‖. including Carl Pullen. One.

or perhaps influenced by UR‘s paramilitary posturing. possibly as an expression of a commitment to the underground aesthetic of the music. At the moment the tracks I play are an average one 15 . an illegal party venue. and a rave scene comparable to that in the UK was established. DJ Tanith commented at the time that: Berlin was always hardcore. By 1987 a German party scene based around the Chicago sound was well established. and now we have a very hardcore house sound. Der Bunker. free underground techno parties mushroomed in East Berlin. Motte established UFO. hardcore punk. as an acid infused techno began transmuting into hardcore. It was in Tresor at this time that a trend in paramilitary clothing was established (amongst the techno fraternity) by a DJ named Tanith. East German DJ Paul van Dyk has remarked that techno was a major force in reestablishing social connections between East and West Germany during the unification period. and the Berlin Techno scene centered itself around three locations close to the foundations of the Berlin Wall: Planet (later renamed E-Werk by Paul van Dyk). In 1989 German DJs Westbam and Dr. The following year (1988) saw acid house making as significant an impact on popular consciousness in Germany as it had in England. including UFO. In the same period German DJs began intensifying the speed and abrasiveness of the sound. and the relatively long-lived Tresor. and co-founded the Love Parade.4. hardcore hippie. In 1991 a number of party venues closed. After the Berlin Wall fell on 9 November 1989.2 Berlin Germany‘s engagement with American EDM during the 1980s paralleled that in the UK.

with the assistance of Tresor. In the same period. Front 242. Düsseldorf‘s Kraftwerk having 16 . fans referred to this sound as ‗Tekkno‘ (or ‗Bretter‘). Jeff Mills and Blake Baxter even resided there for a time.hundred and thirty-five beats per minute and every few months we add fifteen more. Juan Atkins collaborated with 3MB‘s Thomas Fehlmann and Moritz Von Oswald and Tresor affiliated label Basic Detroit‘s Channel had National taken Sound to having their the releases mastered by Corporation. Other influences on the development of this style were European Electronic Body Music groups of the mid-1980s such as DAF. styles that were in their own perverse way paying homage to Underground Resistance and Richie Hawtin‘s Plus 8 Records. Underground Resistance released their X-101/X-102/X103 album series. 4. main mastering house for the entire Detroit dance music scene. and Nitzer Ebb.3 A Techno Alliance In 1993. In some sense popular electronic music had come full circle. As the mid-90s approached Berlin was becoming a haven for Detroit producers. a testament to the influence of the Detroit sound upon the German techno scene and a celebration of a ―mutual admiration pact‖ between the two cities. In Germany. This emerging sound is thought to have been influenced by Dutch gabber and Belgian hardcore. the German techno label Tresor Records released the compilation album Tresor II: Berlin & Detroit – A Techno Alliance.

Hood describes the situation in the early 1990s as one where techno had become too ―ravey‖. too ―arty‖). basslines and funky grooves and only what‘s essential. raw sound. is largely responsible for ushering the emergence of the minimal strain of techno.4 Minimal techno As EDM continued to transmute a number of Detroit producers began to question the trajectory techno was taking. Only what is essential to make people move‖. finding the term minimalism. 4. with increasing tempos leading to the emergence of gabber. Just drums. The dance sounds of Chicago also had a German connection as it was in Munich that Giorgio Moroder and Pete Bellotte had first produced the 1970s Eurodisco synth pop sound.been a primary influence on the electronic dance music of the 1980s. Such trends saw the demise of the soul infused techno that typified the original Detroit sound leading Hood and others to redefine the music as ―a basic stripped down. Hood explains: 17 . It is thought that Robert Hood. in the artistic sense of the word. a Detroit based producer and one time member of UR. One response came in the form of so-called minimal techno (a term producer Daniel Bell found difficult to accept.

Detroit techno had maintained its integrity throughout the rave era and was inspiring a new generation of so called intelligent techno producers. It sounded great from a production point of standpoint. the term had gained common usage in an attempt to differentiate the increasingly sophisticated takes on EDM from 18 . I thought it was time for a return to the original underground. German techno the noise.5 Intelligent techno In 1991 UK music journalist Matthew Collin wrote that ―Europe may have the scene and the energy. but there was a ‚jack’ element in the [old] structure. no feeling in techno anymore. People would complain that there’s no funk. but it‘s America which supplies the ideological direction…if Belgian techno gives us riffs. was evident.“ I think Dan [Bell] and I both realized that something was missing – an element…in what we both know as techno. by a number of European producers and labels who were attempting to redress what they saw as the corruption and commercialization of the original techno ideal. As the mid-1990s approached. the ideal of an intelligent or Detroit derived pure techno aesthetic began to take hold. ” 4. Following this. then Detroit supplies the sheer cerebral depth‖. and the easy escape is to put a vocalist and some piano on top to fill the emotional gap. British techno the breakbeats. By 1992 a general rejection of rave culture.

and electronica. ambient techno. Dutch Gabber. which became a milestone… it felt like we were leading the market rather than it leading us. The sound fed the scene. namely the auteur theory of the solitary genius who humanizes technology…”. Schranz. but all were used to describe an emerging form of post-rave dance music for the sedentary and stay at home. and having the most interesting part of the night listening to totally tripped out music. progressive rock. including variants such as breakbeat hardcore.‖ Simon Reynolds observes that this progression “…involved a full-scale retreat from the most radically posthuman and hedonistically functional aspects of rave music toward more traditional ideas about creativity. off their nuts. and overtly commercial strains that were simply referred to as ―cheese.other strands of techno that had emerged. Warp founder and managing director Steve Beckett has said ― …the dance scene was changing and we were hearing B-sides that weren’t dance but were interesting and fitted into experimental. so we decided to make the compilation Artificial Intelligence. Intelligent Dance Music eventually became the 19 . Warp Records was among the first to capitalize upon this development with the release of the compilation album Artificial Intelligence Of this time. Warp had originally marketed Artificial Intelligence using the description electronic listening music but this was quickly replaced ‖ by intelligent techno. Following the commercial success of the compilation in the United States. In the same period (1992–93) other names were also bandied about such as armchair techno. the music was aimed at home listening rather than clubs and dance floors: people coming home.

wider attention. 100% Pure (1993). Eevo Lute Muzique (1991). interacting with music production technology is now possible using means that bear no relationship to traditional practices: musical for performance laptop instance. General Production Recordings (1991). 5. Although it is primarily Warp that has been credited with ushering the commercial growth of IDM and electronic. Mille Plateaux (1993). In the last decade a number of software-based virtual studio environments have emerged.0 The New Era In recent years. with products such as Propellerhead‘s Reason and Ableton Live finding popular appeal. if any. performance (laptronica) and live coding. Amongst others they include: Black Dog Productions (1989).phrase most commonly used to describe much of the experimental EDM emerging during the mid to late 1990s. New Electronica (1993). Kirk Degiorgio‘s Applied Rhythmic Technology (1991). and Ferox Records (1993). Carl Craig‘s Planet E (1991). as computer technology has become more accessible and music software has advanced. in the early 1990s there were many notable labels associated with the initial intelligence trend that received little. These 20 .

It was largely based around an alliance between warehouse party goers from various urban squat scenes and politically inspired new age travellers. DiY in Nottingham. 21 . The high point of this free party period came in May 1992 when with less than 24 hours notice and little publicity more than 35. Such advances have democratized music creation. The new agers offered a readymade network of countryside festivals that were hastily adopted by squatters and ravers alike. free party scene had established itself in the UK.000 gathered at the Castlemorton Common Festival for 5 days of partying. leading to a massive increase in the amount of home-produced music available to the general public via the internet. and thanks to advances in microprocessor technology. Prominent among the sound systems operating at this time were Tonka in Brighton. it is now possible to create high quality music using little more than a single laptop computer. Devices that once existed exclusively in the hardware domain can easily have virtual music production tools provide viable and cost-effective alternatives to typical hardware-based production studios. 5. Circus Warp. effects modules. and various composition environments.1 Free techno In the early 1990s a post-rave. Artists can now also individuate their sound by creating personalized software synthesizers. LSDiesel and London‘s Spiral Tribe. Bedlam. DIY.

effectively leaving the British free party scene for dead. 22 . the US. Goa in India. In the rest of Europe.This one event was largely responsible for the introduction in 1994 of the Criminal Justice and Public Order Act. such as the annual Czechtek event in the Czech Republic that gave rise to several French. Spiral Tribe. It was European Teknival free parties. due in some part to the inspiration of traveling sound systems from the UK. Following this many of the traveller artists moved away from Britain to Europe. Koh Phangan in Thailand and Australia‘s East Coast. Many of these groups found audiences easily and were often centered around squats in cities such as Amsterdam and Berlin. and audiences were quick to appropriate the free party ideology. German and Dutch sound systems. particularly Eastern Europe where it was cheaper to live. Bedlam and other English sound systems took their cooperative techno ideas to Europe. rave enjoyed a prolonged existence as it continued to expand across the continent.

leaving the drums and a completely different synth to begin. the melody containing strings and pads will begin once the beat has completely stopped. Tech Trance was pioneered by Oliver Lieb in the mid 90‘s. The synths are short. playing by itself much like a Trance breakdown. with its repetitive nature and strong 4/4 beat. This appealed to several Trance DJs such as Ferry Corsten. Tech Trance incorporates traditional elements of Techno.5. who each started incorporating Tech Trance into their sets. repetitive and contain less note changes than Trance. see Sam Sharp‘s „Deep‖. Tiesto. Commonly. Chris Cowie and Marmion. Other early Tech Trance producers are Humate. Tech Trance tends to utilize a more driving sound while commonly using distortion as an effect on the melodies. For an example. often having the same note played in an interesting sequence. Tech Trance compositions tend to have a tempo of around 135-150 beats per minute. Tech Trance later took a new turn in the early 2000 when producers such as Marco V and Randy Katana sprung out as the leading Dutch Tech Trance producers. 23 . This melody will suddenly stop.2 Tech-trance Tech Trance is a sub-genre within Electronic Dance Music that draws upon the Techno and Trance genres as the name suggests. whereas Trance songs would generally continue with the same melody. while deriving the melodic elements from Trance. and Armin van Buuren.

Reaching mainstream popularity worldwide from 2000 to roughly 2005. by experimenting same simplicity in techno subgenres. tech house was eventually succeeded by the more prominent electro house movement. but rather takes it to a new level. The genre came to prominence in the late-1990s atmosphere of American clubs as soul influenced Detroit-style techno that also borrowed elements from house before reaching Europe. As a result. but is growing in popularity due to its hard-edged nature and growing list of producers. 4-to-4 beats found in soulful deep house. 5.3 Tech-house Tech house is a subgenre of house music that mixes elements of minimal techno into simple. As one reviewer for Amazon. more abrupt stops and starts are used to increase the effect of sudden changes within the music. with only short phrases or single words normally incorporated.‖ Unlike progressive house that arose on European dance scene during the same era. Tech Trance is currently quite an underground genre. they are less prevalent in Tech Trance. tech house does not represent a breakaway from electronic simplicity. Vocals are also quite rare within the Tech Trance suggested. 24 .While breakdowns and builds within a song are important elements of many electronic genres. this style fuses „steady techno rhythms with the soul and accessibility of house.

tech-house is found to be as enjoyable a „headphone experience‖ as it is a dancefloor one. soulful. such as Luomo‘s music). after all–they will be more on the restrained side. and techno elements. some minimal techno and microhouse (especially with a soulful feel. dub. tech-house often aims at achieving an even ―groove. this is especially true since the turn of the millennium. Later tech 25 . which tends to have a progression over the course of the mix ending in an ecstatic release of energy at the end. which tends to have a more ―laid-back‖ feel. However. as well as the ―middle ground‖ that adds a ―splash of color to steel techno beats‖ and eschews the ―banging‖ of house music for intricate rhythms.As a mixing style. a fact not lost on the creaters of such music – a classic release by the duo MRI on the Force Tracks label was their 12‖ titled „Nightclubbing at Home‖. which too can contain deep. and even some hard techno at times–has more energy than tech-house. techhouse often brings together deep or minimal techno music. There is some overlap with progressive house. Also in contrast to most progressive house.‖ Although there might be dips and peaks in the energy level — any interesting mix will have them. the soulful and jazzy end of house. trance. Tech-house fans tend to appreciate subtlety. the typical progressive-house mix– which might integrate some funky house. As such. as progressive-house mixes have themselves often become deeper and sometimes more minimal. and very often some dub elements.

quicker hi-hats. tech-house uses the same basic structure as house. For this reason. also known as The Timewriter. as they feel that popular perception of tech house is a vastly inaccurate representation of their work. and equally as much raw electronic sounds in his music. Cochois. The term tech house has proved controversial over the years as some say that the use of the expression has mutated to represent a very particular and narrow style of music (see above). certain artists such as Asad Rizvi no longer attach the term with their work. a rich techno-like kick and bassline seems to be a consistency amongst tech house music. 26 . The well known tech-house producer. noisier snares and more synthetic or acid sounding synth melodies from the TB-303. Jean F. tracks include „Dirty Vegas – Days Go By‖ (2002) and „Fab Four – Last Night a DJ Blew My Mind‖ (2003). darker and often distorted kicks. has often used jazzy. However. elements of the house ‚sound‘ such as realistic jazz sounds (in deep house) and booming kick drums are replaced with elements from techno such as shorter. However. including raw electronic noises from distorted sawtooth and square wave oscillators. As a musical (as opposed to a mixing) style. soulful vocals and elements. rather than the broad-minded attitude and approach to Djing and production that the tech house scene once was during the mid-nineties. smaller.

Internationally. Budapest. It was started by the Berlin Underground under the initiative of Matthias 27 . Leeds. Rio de Janeiro. San Francisco. Cape Town. In 1989. It was held in Germany annually between 1989 and 2003. Germany. Vienna. Acapulco. Sydney.1 Love Parade The Love Parade (German: Loveparade) is a popular festival and parade that originated in 1989 in Berlin.6. spin-off Love Parades have occurred in Zurich.0 Techno Music Festivals 6. Oslo. Geneva. The 2004 and 2005 editions in Berlin and the 2009 edition in Bochum were cancelled. Mexico City. it was first celebrated four months before the demolition of the Berlin Wall. Tel Aviv. The Love Parade has its roots in the spirit of a changing Europe. Caracas. and then from 2006 to 2008. Santiago.

Roeingh aka "Dr Motte" and his then girlfriend Danielle de Picciotto. and the golden angel on top of the column has become a symbol of the parade.000 in 2001. and in 2004 and 2005 the parade was canceled due to funding 28 . 2002 and 2003 also saw lower figures. Since by then. Attendance at the 2001 festival was significantly lower because the date of the parade was changed with little advance notice. Juni" which is near the Tiergarten Park in the center of Berlin by the Brandenburg Gate and provided plenty of space. The center of the parade is the Siegessäule in the middle of the park. It was held as a political demonstration for peace and international understanding through love and Music. the parade moved to the "Straße des 17. Many people from Germany and abroad travel to Berlin to take part in the Parade—over a million attended in the years 1997 through 2000 and 800. the parade was held on the famous Berlin "Kurfürstendamm". Until 1996. not only the Kurfürstendamm was overcrowded but the streets and even railway tracks near the Ku'damm too.

Techno. and Schranz music. the parade made a comeback with the help of German exercise studio McFit. Attempts to introduce other music styles. 29 . The Love Parade 2007 was planned for July 7. The music played at the events is predominantly electronic dance music: in this case mainly Trance.difficulties. 2004 did however host a scaled-down version which served more as a mini-protest. it was announced that the Love Parade would move to the Ruhr Area for the next five years. Hardcore and Gabber music were part of the parade in early years. In 2006. the Berlin event was cancelled in February as the Senate of Berlin had not issued the necessary permissions at that time. such as hip hop. The next parades are planned to take place in Bochum.6 million visitors attended. In 2008. Dozens of clubs promoted the weekend-long event all over the city. The Parade in Essen saw 1. and was promoted with the title 'Love Weekend'. on July 21. but were later removed. Gelsenkirchen and Duisburg. which makes it the largest Loveparade to date. They are now celebrated separately on a counter-demonstration named ironically after the original festival. However. After negotiations with several German cities. The first event took place in Essen on August 25. House. The official estimate is that 1. the festival took place in Dortmund on July 19 on the Bundesstraße 1 under the motto Highway of Love. with various clubs staying open for 3 days straight without closing. have failed. 2007 in Berlin. with parties throughout the region.2 million visitors in comparison to the 500. For the first time the Turkish electronic scene was represented by an own float "Turkish Delights (music project)".000 who attended the 2006 parade in Berlin. The event was planned as a "Love Weekend".

or important. which gave the event's nickname "the greatest amateur circus on earth". 23 participants were caught with drugs and 49 were charged with bodily harm. Armin Van Buuren. are allowed. Paul Van Dyk. commercial signs. The parade consists of the sound trucks that usually feature local. labels or stores. charges were pressed for 6 robberies. In 2008. with box-systems mounted on the side or rear. DJ 30 . clubs and their DJs. after the parade. DJ Rush. a girl under the influence of ecstasy was run over by an S-Bahn after she had been leaning on the door too hard. for example. The finale of the demonstration is by the so-called "Abschlusskundgebung" which are half-hour sets of the world's leading top DJs such as DJ Tiesto. 40 thefts. seeing only little arrests. trees. The trucks are usually open on top and feature dancers. Carl Cox. 3 sexually-related offences. Love Parade is a place where some exhibit and enjoy other people's exhibitionist tendencies. Some attendees enjoy carrying around toys such as pacifiers or face masks. One famous picture from the Love Parade is people sitting and dancing on streetlamps. such as clubs. the parade produces an extremely loud sound floor. Arrests are usually related to drug crimes and most other incidents feature mostly people passing out due to dehydration or hyperthermia. but advertising space was increased after the 2006 event to offset the high costs of equipping a truck. telephone booths. The Love Parade has been quite peaceful for event of its size. Often the crowd is imaginative in terms of clothing (or lack thereof) and appearance. It has become a rule that only trucks that have sponsors from a techno related field. 177 Love Parade visitors were provisionally arrested by the police. In 2000. With its water-cooled sound systems on every truck.The love parade is seen to be louder and more crowded than most concerts.

Drum Connection. In the 31 . Marusha or Chris Liebing. Many people used to come to Berlin only for the parties and miss the parade in order to sleep. Parties range from clubs with a hundred exclusive mostly guests. Or they enjoy it with other "ravers" in the park right next to the parade route. Miss Djax. During this time all trucks (usually about 40) are connected to each other and set online to the statue of victory where the turntables are. Together with Mayday. Westbam. Under German law the state has to pay for security during political demonstrations as well as cleaning up the streets after the demonstration. At the weekend of the Love Parade many clubs hold special events and parties and book wellknown DJs for this occasion. This is one of the few chances a DJ can ever have to play for a crowd of about one million people. to almost raves with several floors and ten thousand dancers. Nature One the Love Parade is one of the oldest and largest Festivals of Electronic music.Hell.

the organizer must cover these expenses. This not only included merchandise and CDs but also fees for participating clubs. however it is organized by two companies set up just for the Love Parade. Love Parade. is a registered trademark and the organizing companies have been busy getting license fees for the use of their name. Since there are numerous other Love Parade-like but commercial events in Germany.000. vendors of soft drinks and the like along the streets and even broadcasting fees for the TV stations MTV and Germany's counterpart. For a large event like the Love Parade the costs are quite high: an estimated €300. To be noted that the mayor of Dortmund.000 to €400. The Love Parade was initially held as a "political demonstration" to save costs. the organizers claimed they do not have the necessary funds anymore to host it again. Germany and the police confirmed for the Love Parade Festival held there in 2008 the number of 1. Due to this there was a dispute between the organizers and the city of Berlin every year about the status of the Love Parade and who should bear what costs. Germany's RTL 2. along with. Finally in 2001. for the cancellation. the courts ruled that the Love Parade had to be held as commercial event. In 2004. the other being the fast dropping number of participants. for the first time. 32 . The name of the demonstration. or at least is not the only reason.600. there are speculations that the funding is not. of a commercial event however.000 participants. Love Parade 2006 was the first time in that Berlin's RBB did not broadcast direct from the Siegessäule.

we will once again demonstrate how international the spirit of Time Warp truly is. with our next event in Vienna in May 2006. the party breaks totally loose for 33 . And. TDK Marketing Europe has been presenting the timehonoured event as its headline sponsor. The numerous visitors from abroad who have been coming and keep on coming to the original location in Mannheim were joined by legions of new visitors at our very first and highly successful event in Prague in October 2005. Time Warp has grown into one of Europe's most important dance events and has developed into an exchange platform for electronic music and lifestyle.6. 1994 is the year of birth of Time Warp! The intention was mainly to produce a high quality program without belonging to the mainstream – Techno! On a perfect cultural location in Ludwigshafen. the promotion company behind the successful Time Warp brand.2 Time Warp Established in 1994. Since 2005. With TDK Marketing Europe. has found a strong partner to share and bring to life a new vision for a truly unique and exciting form of event. cosmopop.

34 . In 1995 is the transition to the Maimarkthalle in Mannheim. Peak of the evening was the live act of Cosmic Baby. Most of the people remind the set of Speedy J. Orbital (live) was for many the main act of the evening. is playing for the first time at Time Warp.more than 3000 surprised party people. Sven Väth. In the year 1996 Time Warp leaves her home port and the party is build up in the Arena in Berlin. and the back 2 back set of John Acquaviva and Heiko MSO. and carrying out the true spirit to the audience in the North of Germany. The return of Time Warp for the second time in 1995 does not harm the party. The name Time Warp becomes a conception in the surroundings. DJ Hell and Speedy J are taking care of the musical glamour. with loads of spectacle and a high dancing driven level! The next station of the trip is Bremen in 1997. the group of party people grows and grows. the techno super star from Frankfurt. This time Sven Väth. on the contrary.

the program and the decoration are taking care of an unsurpassed match in Germany. In the industry hall they build up 7 areas. The line up was gigantic. The sound system. The infrastructure has improved and the Maimarkthalle has been transformed by magic into a huge party temple. seemed to have found their way to 35 . Time Warp has finally executed her last location switch. More than 10. and loads of visitors came from all over Europe to witness the event. On the Tribal Floor ―Der Dritte Raum‖ and Paul von Earth Nation performed a SUPER live show for the audience! Also because of the extraordinary decoration pieces the year 2001 was definitely a successful edition. Time Warp has found her home base. a chill out and an outdoor area.000 party people from all over Europe. One of the best moments of the party was Laurent Garnier with his live act ! One of the climaxes of this 12th edition was ―King― Sven Väth with his performance on the Abstract Floor. Back to the Maimarkthalle. On the Industriestrasse in Mannheim the location scouts found a perfect location. as far it goes for the yearly event.The movement to the TFO-Halle in Mannheim (same year) is the 6th venue change in the history of Time Warp were the organizers show their flexibility.

As a landmark of the region‘s cultural variety. but for many people totally unforgettable! From 24 until 31 March 2007 Mannheim will once again be the world‘s premier meeting point for progressive electronic music and experimental media arts. the Time Warp concept has been expanding since 1994 to cater for new ideas and concepts. the infamous TDK Time Warp where club culture‘s leading stars and artists will be appearing and performing in Mannheim‘s Maimarkthalle visitors can look forward to a whole host of exciting and innovative events at various venues around town. Under the name ―Colours of Rhythm― three new event zones were produced: blue. Main thought of TDK Time Warp is the integration of all electronic sorts of music. 36 . the sevenday Festival of Contempoary Music and Media Arts is officially part of the festivities marking Mannheim city‘s 400 year anniversary.Mannheim. and this was definitely a way of saying thanks to the loyal audience and the organizers of the event! 14. Therefore they presented a new culture festival in the electronic scene. This time Green Velvet was on top of the top 10 list of best performances. In 2007. green and red. with the connection to artistic arts. to hear the best Dj‘s in the world.000 people were present at this specific event to enjoy the music and to celebrate Time Warps anniversary! In 2005 Cosmopop decides to broaden their successful concept to more elements. On March 27th Time Warp celebrated its 10th birthday! For this jubilee all favorite vinyl athletes were invited to Mannheim. The Dj sets were amazing. where the party went completely crazy! This was the first party abroad. TDK Time Warp Prague: more than 7000 people entered the Prumyslovy Palast. In the run-up to the final event. technical developments and lifestyle.

various workshops. our traditional dance party on 31 March 2007 in Mannheim‘s Maimarkthalle. lectures and panels will be held in the Musikpark Mannheim and the Popakademie. They invited the party people to the hottest clubs of these cities! A sophisticated line up combined with a special stage show will transfer the Time Warp experience. Rotterdam and Torino. Romanian DJ Raresh played on 29th of February 2008 at the Time Warp Club Event in Torino. seminars.The threefold ―colours of rhythm‖ system that designates the individual zones consists of the following geographical and cultural areas:  blue: refers to all music events. 37 .  red: dealing with all aspects of the music business and music production. The focus is on club culture. electronic music and film. „Europe comes to us and we come to europe‖. After successful events in Prague and Vienna they presented in 2008 Time Warp Club Events in the european metropols Zurich. Italy . live film score events and contemporary music concerts promoted by TDK Time Warp. including the final event.  green: various evenings have been planned with documentaries and movies.

The 2008 edition took place on 15 November. France. Justice. Because of the sudden growth of the party. Dave Clarke. 38 . Digitalism. Booka Shade. Ireland. Famous national and international DJs perform every year at this event. the Blue. the Yellow.3 I Love Techno I Love Techno is an international techno event that takes place in Flanders Expo in Ghent. Belgium. Richie Hawtin and Magda. The first edition of this event took place in 1995 at Vooruit in Ghent and attracted 700 people. Spain and Germany as well other parts of Europe and the rest of the world. Underworld.6. the United Kingdom. The 2009 edition took place in Ghent on 24 October. The last editions each attracted about 35. In Flanders Expo there is one central room and connected to this room are 5 other rooms: the Red. with acts including Boys Noize. The Netherlands. I Love Techno has become one of the biggest techno events in Europe. Hot Chip. the Orange and the Green room. the event had to move to Flanders Expo. In these rooms the action takes place.000 visitors from Belgium.

000 fans. The evolution and the spreading of techno can‘t go unseen and we all have to admit that this really is the music of the future. I can say that techno and electronic dance music. in general.600. A lot of people dedicated all their life to techno and electronic music. is a vast subject that deserves everybody‘s attention and if you find it interesting you can always research the internet because what I have presented in this project is just a slice from what it really is out there. every person can interpret this music in his own way. in 2008 the Love Parade Festival has gathered 1. 39 .0 Conclusions In the conclusion. to evolve it and in the same time to spread it all over the world. constantly changing its influences and targets. I can say that the main reasons for me liking this music are: great background stories since the beginning. constantly changing the influences from industrial sounds to acoustic instruments and last but not least. In the ‘80s almost nobody had heard of techno music.7.

. M. 1998 (ISBN 9780330350563). P. Indiana University Press.  Butler. Last Night a DJ Saved My Life: The History of the Disc Jockey.Bibliography:   http://www. Rough Guides.sflovefest. Hamburg: Rowohlt.  http://en. Unlocking the Groove: Rhythm.. & Broughton F. T.  Barr. Avalon Travel Publishing.  Brewster B. & Walder..wikipedia. 40 . Techno: The Rough Guide. 2000 (ISBN 978-1858284347). S. 1999 (ISBN 3908010144).J. (ISBN 978-0802136886). 2006.. and Musical Design in Electronic Dance Music. Energy Flash: a Journey Through Rave Music and Dance Culture. Pan Macmillan. (eds.  Reynolds. Meter. Techno. 2006 (ISBN 978-0253218049).).