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# CHAPTER

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
Fourth Edition Ferdinand P. Beer, E. Russell Johnston, John T. DeWolf

Lecturer: Nazarena Mazzaro, Ph.D. Aalborg University Denmark

Torsion

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
Last class • • • • Strain ε=δ/L Strain-stress diagram (ductile – brittle) Hook’s Law: σ=E.ε Under elastic deformation δ=PL/AE (homogeneous rod) Pi Li (non homogeneous rod) δ=

∑ AE
i i

i

• • • •

Statically indeterminate problems -> ε Temperature changes: δ=α(∆T)L, ε=α(∆T) Poison’s ratio: υ= -εlateral /εaxial Shearing strain γ : τ=Gγ

Nazarena Mazzaro, AAU

3- 2

AAU 3.3 .MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Contents First part 45 min Torsional Loads on Circular Shafts Net Torque Due to Internal Stresses Axial Shear Components Shaft Deformations Shearing Strain Stresses in Elastic Range Normal Stresses Torsional Failure Modes Second part 45 min Angle of Twist in Elastic Range Shafts with variable cross sectional area Statically Indeterminate Shafts Design of Transmission Shafts Stress Concentrations Exercises 2 hr Nazarena Mazzaro.

AAU 3. • T and T’ are vector quantities that can be represented by vectors or curved arrows.MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Twisting torques • Twisting torque is a couple T .4 . • Typical applications: transmission shafts Nazarena Mazzaro.T’ that have the same magnitude but different directions.

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Torsional Loads on Circular Shafts • Interested in stresses and strains of circular shafts subjected to twisting couples or torques • Turbine exerts torque T on the shaft • Shaft transmits the torque to the generator • Generator creates an equal and opposite torque T’ Nazarena Mazzaro.5 . AAU 3.

3. the distribution of the stresses is not. T = ∫ ρ dF = ∫ ρ (τ dA) • Although the net torque due to the shearing stresses is known. equal and opposite to the applied torque.6 Nazarena Mazzaro.MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Net Torque Due to Internal Stresses • Net of the internal shearing stresses is an internal torque. • Unlike the normal stress due to axial loads. AAU . the distribution of shearing stresses due to torsional loads can not be assumed uniform. • Distribution of shearing stresses is statically indeterminate – must consider shaft deformations.

• The existence of the axial shear components is demonstrated by considering a shaft made up of axial slats. • The slats slide with respect to each other when equal and opposite torques are applied to the ends of the shaft.MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Axial Shear Components • Torque applied to shaft produces shearing stresses on the faces perpendicular to the axis.7 . AAU 3. • Conditions of equilibrium require the existence of equal stresses on the faces of the two planes containing the axis of the shaft. Nazarena Mazzaro.

• Cross-sections of noncircular (nonaxisymmetric) shafts are distorted when subjected to torsion.MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Shaft Deformations • From observation.8 . • Cross-sections for hollow and solid circular shafts remain plain and undistorted because a circular shaft is axisymmetric. φ ∝T φ∝L • When subjected to torsion. AAU 3. Nazarena Mazzaro. every cross-section of a circular shaft remains plane and undistorted. the angle of twist of the shaft is proportional to the applied torque and to the shaft length.

• H: each plane does not rotate as a solid rigid slab -> observer in A would argue to see (a). -> C’D’ lie in the same circle as CD.MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Shaft Deformations • H: Shaft does not remain undistorted -> observer in A would argue that C’D’ move away from him. AAU 3. observer in B would argue that C’D’ move away from him. -> Any diameter of a cross section remains straight (c) Nazarena Mazzaro. observer in B would argue to see (b).9 . The original circle rotates in its own plane.

10 . Nazarena Mazzaro. • The resulting deformation will be uniform across the entire shaft.MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Shaft Deformations • If all sections are to remain plane and undistorted the torques the ends of the shaft must remain plane and undistorted. • The torques must be applied to rigid plates. AAU 3 .

the shear strain is equal to angle of twist. • Since the ends of the element remain planar. As a torsional load is applied. • It follows that Lγ = ρφ or γ = ρφ L ANIMATION • Shear strain is proportional to twist and radius γ max = cφ ρ and γ = γ max L c Nazarena Mazzaro.MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Shearing Strain • Consider an interior section of the shaft. AAU 3 . an element on the interior cylinder deforms into a rhombus.11 .

τ = Gγ .12 . γ= ρ c γ max ⎯ Gγ = ⎯→ ρ c Gγ max From Hooke’s Law. AAU ( ) • The results are known as the elastic torsion formulas. τ τ T = ∫ ρτ dA = max ∫ ρ 2 dA = max J c c 4 4 J = 1 π c2 − c1 2 c τ min = 1 τ max c2 Nazarena Mazzaro.MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Stresses in Elastic Range • Multiplying the previous equation by the shear modulus. so τ= J = 1 π c4 2 ρ c τ max The shearing stress varies linearly with the radial position in the section. τ max = Tc Tρ and τ = J J ANIMATION 3 . • Recall that the sum of the moments of elementary forces is equal to the torque on the shaft at the section.

13 . the less the beam will bend. • I: Moment of Inertia of a beam’s cross-sectional area measures the beam’s ability to resist bending. The larger I is. AAU 3 . The larger J is the less the beam will twist. The farther away from the axis of rotation the mass is. the harder it is to make it turn. 2 I y = ∫ x dA Nazarena Mazzaro.MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Polar Moment of Inertia – Moment of Inertia • J: Polar Moment of Inertia of a beam’s cross-sectional area measures the beams ability to resist torsion. 4 ⎯ ⎯⎯ J = ∫ ρ 2 dA ⎯circulararea → J = πc 2 J refers to how difficult it is to get an object to rotate on an axis.

02/0. c is the outer radio=0. b) What is the τmin in the shaft? a) Tmax ? By which τ ≤ 120 MPa (<σy) T=J τmax/c.021.034 − 0.08 kN b) τmin occurs in the inner surface and is obtained by: τmin = (c1/c2)τmax= = (0.10 −6 m 4 then T=4.01 a) What is the largest T that can be applied to the shaft if τ ≤ 120 MPa.MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Example 3. AAU 3 .02 4 ) = 1.03)120 = 80 MPa Nazarena Mazzaro.14 .03 m J= π 2 4 (c2 − c14 ) = π 2 (0.

• Consider an element at 45o to the shaft axis. AAU 3 . • c is subjected to a tensile stress on two faces and compressive stress on the other two. • All stresses for a and c have the same magnitude Nazarena Mazzaro. Combination of normal and shearing stresses may be found for other orientations.MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Normal Stresses • Elements with faces parallel and perpendicular to the shaft axis are subjected to shear stresses only.15 . F = 2(τ max A0 ) cos 45° = τ max A0 2 F τ max A0 2 = = τ max A A0 2 σ 45o = • a is in pure shear.

e. • When subjected to torsion. • When subjected to torsion. Brittle materials are weaker in tension than shear. along surfaces at 45o to the shaft axis. Nazarena Mazzaro.e..16 . a ductile specimen breaks along a plane of maximum shear. i. AAU 3 .MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Torsional Failure Modes • Ductile materials generally fail in shear. a brittle specimen breaks along planes perpendicular to the direction in which tension is a maximum.. a plane perpendicular to the shaft axis. i.

AAU 3 .MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Sample Problem 3. Solution • Apply statics -> free body diagrams to find internal torques.1 Shaft BC is hollow with di= 90 mm and do= 120 mm.17 . Calculate a) τmax and τmin in BC. b) the required diameter d of shafts AB and CD if the τall in these shafts is 65 MPa. • With the internal torques apply τ=Tc/J Nazarena Mazzaro. Shafts AB and CD are solid of diameter d.

0454 ) = 13.064 − 0.m] π π diagrams TBC = −20kN. d is calculated by: τ = Tc (6kN.2MPa = 64.m)c ⇒ 65MPa= π 4 J c 2 c3 = 58.7MPa τ max c2 60mm τ max = τ 2 = Finally.8mm Nazarena Mazzaro.m)(0.92×10 m 45mm Τmin is calculated by: τ min c1 = ⇒τ min = 86.2MPa −6 4 J 13.1 a) Τmax is calculated by: τ max = τ 2 = where J = TBCc2 J 4 (c2 − c14 ) = (0.m TBCc2 (20kN.MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Sample Problem 3.9mm d = 2c ⇒ d = 77. AAU 3 .8×10−6 m3 ⇒ c = 38.92×10−6 m−4 2 2 TBC is calculated with statics and free body ∑M x = 0 = TA + TB − TBC = 6 +14 − TBC [kN.06m) = = 86.18 .

AAU Ti Li i J i Gi 3 . γ max = cφ L • In the elastic range. the angle of rotation is found as the sum of segment rotations φ =∑ Nazarena Mazzaro.19 . the shearing strain and shear are related by Hooke’s Law.MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Angle of Twist in Elastic Range • Recall that the angle of twist and maximum shearing strain are related. with γ max = L φ = TL JG Ø [rad] • If the torsional loading or shaft cross-section changes along the length. and recalling τmax=Tc/J τ max Tc γ max = G = JG • Equating the expressions for shearing strain and cφ solving for the angle of twist.

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Example 3. AAU 3 . JG φ → G = 77GPa.021×10−6 m4 Nazarena Mazzaro.829kN .02 What torque should be applied to the end of the shaft to produce a twist of 2 deg? G= 77 GPa. L = 1.5m We apply: T = L 2πrad calculating: φ = 2o ( ) = 34.9 ×10−3 rad 360o 2 Replacing: T = 1.m J= π 4 (c2 − c14 ) = 1.20 .

we apply ø=TL/JG to a disk of thickness dx. dø represents the angle by which one face of the disk rotates with respect to the other.21 .MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Shaft with variable cross sectional area • Variable circular cross sectional area. Tdx Tdx dφ = ⇒φ = ∫ JG JG 0 L Nazarena Mazzaro. AAU 3 .

8Nm TB= 50. LJ TA + 1 2 TA = 90 lb ⋅ ft L2 J1 TA=69.22 . TA + TB = 120 Nm 120 Nm A cavity has been drilled which is not sufficient to find the end torques. AAU 3 . • From a free-body analysis of the shaft.MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Statically Indeterminate Shafts 125mm 125mm • Given the shaft dimensions and the applied torque. • Divide the shaft into two components which must have compatible deformations. The problem is statically indeterminate.2Nm Nazarena Mazzaro. φ = φ1 + φ2 = TA L1 TB L2 − =0 J1G J 2G LJ TB = 1 2 TA L2 J1 120 Nm • Substitute into the original equilibrium equation. we would like to find the torque reactions at A and B.

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Design of Transmission Shafts • Principal transmission shaft performance specifications are: .Speed of rotation • Designer must select material and cross-section to meet performance specifications without exceeding allowable shearing stress. τ max = Tc J T J π 3 = c = τ max c 2 (solid shafts ) T π 4 4 J c2 − c1 = = τ max c2 2c2 ( ) (hollow shafts ) Nazarena Mazzaro.Hz=Watts] • Find shaft cross-section which will not exceed the maximum allowable shearing stress. AAU 3 .power . • Determine torque applied to shaft at specified power and speed. P = Tω = 2πfT P T= = ω 2πf P ω: angular velocity [rad/s] F: frequency of rotation [Hz] P [Nm.23 .

AAU 3 . gears and pulleys attached to shafts by keys in keyways. and cross-section discontinuities can cause stress concentrations • Experimental or numerically determined concentration factors are applied as τ max = K Tc J TJ/c calculated for the smaller diameter shaft. • The use of flange couplings. τ max = Tc J assumed a circular shaft with uniform cross-section loaded through rigid end plates. K: stress concentration factor Nazarena Mazzaro.MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Stress Concentrations • The derivation of the torsion formula.24 .

= = 0. The steel used has a τall= 55 MPa. a) Determine the maximum power that can be transmitted. AAU 3 . D= 95 mm The shaft is to rotate at 900 rpm transmitting power from a turbine to a generator.m.2 T = 7.MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Sample 3. b) If the radius is increased so that A=24 mm what will be the percent change in the power.15 → K = 1.m cK 1Hz f = (900rpm) = 15 Hz 60rpm Pmax = 2πfT = 656kW P = 2πfT ⇒ τ max = K r = 24mm → K = 1.82% Pa 656 b) Nazarena Mazzaro.6 a) Pmax= 2πfT r a) D= 190 mm.33 K→ = d d 95 95 J πc 3 π (47. r= 14 mm.5mm) 3 = = = 168.96kN . P = 2π (15 Hz )(7710 Nm) = 727 kW Change% = 100 Pb − Pa 727 − 656 = 100 = 10.71kN .25 . that can be transmitted? τ J Tc ⇒ T = max J Kc D 190 r 14 = 2.3 × 103 mm3 c 3 3 τ J T = max = 6. with respect to A=14 mm.