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Buane & II T P O'Neill

l0 On ferromagnetic materials it is normally preferable to use m.p.i..

,yp" of testing uses the forces of capillary action to detect surface breaking Tit defects. It is impossible to detect defects which do not break the surface with thii method, but it can be used on both magnetic and non-magnetic materials providing they are non-porous. There are several types of penetrant systems, this includes the following which are shown in a descendingorder of flaw detection sensitivity: o r r o o Post-emulsifable- fluorescent Solvent based- fluorescent Water based- fluorescent Solventbased- colour contrast Water based- colour contrast

Fluorescent penetrants require the use of an ultaviolet (uv-A) light to view indications, whilst colour conhast penetrantsare viewed with the naked eye. One of the most co[lmon sile used penehant systems uses solvent based colour contrastpenetrants aerosols.A typical sequence in ofoperations on a steeltest item is as follows: l. Clean area using wire brush, cloth and solvent. On aluminiums, other soft alloys and plastics, wire brushing should not be used, as there is a danger that surface breaking defectsmay be closed. red in colour and should remain on the part long enough to be draw into any surface discontinuities. This time can vary from about ten minutes to several hours dependingon the type of material and size/type of defect sought.


2 . Apply penetrant - leave for 15 minutes. Colour contrast penetrants are normally

3 . Remove surfacepenehant using cloth and solvent. Apply solvent to the cloth and
not directly on to the work piece. Clean thoroughly.

4. Apply developer - leave for 15 minutes. The developer draws any penetrant
remaining in any surfacebreaking discontinuities with a blotting action.

5 . Interpret area. Any discontinuities are indicated by a red mark, e.g. line or dot
against a white background. Fluorescent penetants would show green-yellow when viewed with an ultraviolet (UV-A) light.

This method of NDT may detect surface, and in certain cases, slight sub-surface discontinuities up to 2-3 mm below the surface. M.p.i. can be used on ferromagnetic materials only. 80 A magnetic field is introduced into a specimen to be tested, fine particles of ferromagnetic powder, or ferromagnetic particles in a liquid suspension, are then applied to the test area. Any discontinuity which intem.rpts the magnetic lines of force will create a leakage field, which has a north and soutl,pole on either side of it. This attracts the ferromagnetic padicles in great numbers. The disconthuity may show as a black indication againstthe contrasting background - usually white contrast pailt - or as a fluorescent indication which is usually green/yellow against a dark violet background. When m.p.i. is carried out using fluorescent inks, the use of an ultraviolet (W-A) light is necessaryto causefluorescenceofthe particles, although there is no need to apply a contrast paint. 100 Fluorescent ink methods are more sensitivethan black ink methods.


9Rurnc&TPO'Nctll Issuc8 0l/03/06


PHIC TESTING Principles Radiography is carried out using x-ray machines or artificial gamrna soluces (radioisotopes). When paint is dry. spatter. IQI(s) are pre-placed on the weld being examined and therefore show on the radiographic image. and by the activity of the specific isotope with gamma.q. these usually consist of seven thin wires decreasing in thickness. A negative is produced when the film is processed. The more wires visible the better the flaw detection sensitivity is likely to be. Cobalt 60 (Co60) has a very high penetrating power very short wavelength . tungsten and copper inclusions. radiography will not usually detect plate laminations. Apply ink (1.e. l0 Listed below is a sequenceof operations to inspect a weld using a permanent magnet with black ink: 6.turn magnet approximately 90" and re-apply ink.2 . X-ray machines can be switched on and ofi unlike gamma sources which permanently produce radiation and therefore require shielding when not in use. Ranrocn. Interpret area. lack of inter-run fusion or cracks pelpendicular to the x-ray beam. The thin areas of an object will be darker than the thicker areas. 100 @Rurnc&TPO'Nclll Issuc t 0l/03/06 NDTl.g.g. Advantages and disadvantages X-radiography requires bulky and expensive machinery in comparison with gamma radiography. Activity is measuredin Curies (Ci) or gigabecquerels(GBq).of a radiograph is also measured by using a densitometerto ensure it lies within a specified range for optimum quality. I L To look for tansverse defects. The intensity of the radiation is governed by the milli-amperage (rnA) when using x-rays.roughly over 2oh of the wall thickness in the same axis as the x-ray bearq i.and can be used on materials up to 200 mm thiclc lridium 60 192 (r192) is commonly used on steel weldments up to 50 mm thick. 8.5o/o particlesto a paraffin base). The radiation reaching the filrn will be determined by the object's thickness and density. 10. X-rays or gamma rays pass through the object to be radiographed and record an image on a radiographic frlm on the opposite side.25 to 3. but x-radiography generally produces better quality radiographs and is safer. For x-radiography 150-300 kI/ is typically used on steel weldments up to 50 approximately 30 mm total thickness. this is governed by the kilvoltage (kV) when using x-rays. shaddlc thc magnet over the weld. 7. €xceptions are excess weld metal. e.therefore most weld defects will show up dark in relation to the surrounding areas. coils. 12.Ruane & ll T P O'Neill There are many ways to apply a magnetic field. and isotope type with gamma rays. A major disadvantagewith radiography is that it will only detect defects which have significant depth in relation to the axis of the x-ray beam . a permanent magnet. this therefo re produces radiation with a Ionger wavelength than C060. Interpretarea. T\e density . lack of root penetration in a weld will increase the amount of radiation falline on the film in that area to a reduction in of blackness . prods. 70 Radiographicquality An overall assessmentof radiographic quality is made by the use of image quality indicators (IQI'9. 9. Clean areausing wire brush and cloth plus solvent if necessary. cables and a threading bar. Apply a thin layer of white contrastpaint. It is the wavelength of the radiation which governs its penetrating power. e.

is reflected back and displayed on a cathode ray tube (c.Ruane& ll T P O'Neill A major advantageof radiographic testing is that a permanent record is produced. when using ultrasonic testing the defects should ideally have their major face at 90o to the axis of the ulfrasonic beam.e. e. A probe is used which contains a piezo electric crystal to transmit and receive ultrasonic pulses. cladding thickness measurementsand alloy sorfing as well as flaw detection. JU 60 Enny cURRENT TEsrrNG Eddy current testing uses the electomagnetic induction of electrical currents . typically above 2 MHz (2.p. Eddy current testing is able to detect passthroughmaterials. they are then displayed on a meter or a cathoderay tube (c.r. the defects must have depth in line with the radiation beam. but one major disadvantage with most of the equipment used is that no permanent record of results is produced. Lamination checks are easily carried out using ultrasonic methods (opposite to radiography).eddy currents . but for all types of testing. ultrasonic equipment is quite portable. knife edge probes and many unique designs for specific applications. An interface could be the opposite side of the plate. For the ultrasound to enter a material a couplant must be introduced between the probe and the specimen.8 0l/03/05 NDT1-3 . glycerine or water.000.). both magnetic and non-magnetic. Equipment that is able to record results is currently expensive. The actual display relates to the time taken for the ulhasonic pulses to havel the distance to an interface and back.s. Ultrasound hitting any air interface. oil. wall thickness measurements can easily be made. It is excellent for surface flaw detection. welds can be tested using angle type probes. these include: intemal bobbin-type coils. often by the use of a probe which induced the currents initially.r. Eddy current testing is quite versatile. the radiography. e. the opposite is tue for ultrasonic flaw detection. therefore. Many different types of probe attachments are available.e.e.and the other to ict as a receiver. the further away the interface. These current changes are detected by the test instument. one to act a -as 20 t ransmitter of ul tra so und. The currents are affected by any section change in the material. i.g. Sometimestwin crystals are used. can only be used on conductive materials. 90 70 80 ORurnc&TPO'Nclll Issu. It is used for coating thickness measurements.t. the presence of defects.t. although this requires more operator skill to apply and interpret results.g. l0 Ur. grease.). To detect a linear defect with radiography. the longer the time. Defects in welds usually can be located but the type of defect is sometimesdifficult to identify. extemal coils. a material. but the depth of eddy current penekation is limited.000c.). or an interface with a different material density. because ultrasound does not havel very well through air. which is perpendicular to the ultrasonic beam.rnasomc TESTING This method uses the ability of high frequency sound waves. i.

the field should be applied from two directions at or near right angles to each other. improper fit-up. some defects can be missed. permits controlled sensitivity. poorly formed beads. bench unit.Ruane& ll T P O'Neill Advantages and limitations of NDT test methods for weld inspection Visual Testing (VT) l0 Equipment required: Welding gauge. can be applied whilst work is in process. skilled interpretation of indications and recognition of non-relevant indications. Remarks: Linear defects parallel to the magnetic field may not give an indication. provides no permanent record. best suited to linear defects. slightly sub-surface defects detectable with d. no indication of depth.permitting correction of faults. mechanical damage. can be used for locating leaks in weldments. Enables detection of: Surface cracks not readily visible to the unaided eye. )o indication ofincorrect procedures. Magnetic Particle Testing (MT) Equipment required: Permanent magnet. accessiblesurfacesonly. a source of ultraviolet light . Limitations: Applicable to fenomagnetic materials only.. is the necessary function of everyone who in any way contributes to the making of the weld. Enables detection of: Surface flaws . fluorescent ink for high sensitivity. easy to use. inspectionlight. containing fluorescent or dye penetrants. magnetic ink. Enables detection of: Excellent for detecting surface cracks. no matter what other techniques are required.steelruler. Remarks: Should always be the primary method of inspection. surface or near surface defects only. post cleaning.if fluorescent method is used. Advantages: Low cost. Advantages: Simple to use. electromagnetic yoke. amount of bleed out can indicate size/depthof defects. low cost. is the only pro ductive type of iaspection. rapid results.cracks.&TPO'Nclll Isuc E 0U03/06 NDTl-4 . simplp to use. warpage. less surfacepreparation than penetrant testing. overwelding.c. rapid results. unfilled craters. porosity. no Limitations: Applicable to surface defects only. no indication ofdepth. under-welding. Advantages: 100 Applicable to magnetic and non-magnetic materials. Liquid Penetrant Testing (PT) Equipment required: Commercial kits. relatively low cost method. background paint. for this reason. misalignments. boroscope. developers and removers.

less reliant on operator skill. be difncult when component geometry makes cleaning difficult. non-metallic inclusions. excessive root penetration. can measure defect's depth. penehantsnow available for porous material.Ruane& Il T P O'Neill Limitations: only surface defects are detectable. Enables detection of: Surface and sub-surface flaws. Remarks: Extensively used on austenitic and duplex stainless steels in the nuclear and food processing industries. phasedanay and TOFD now extensiyely used on pipelines. set up and processingtime. useful in qualification of welders and welding processes. film and processiag facilities. incomplete root penetration. Advdntages: Permanent record. cracks. accessto both sides. expensive. Enables detection of: Internal and external defects. Radiographic Testing @T) Equipment required: commercial x-ray or garnma units. permits probing of joints inaccessible to radiography or too thick for radiography. laminations: corrosion. only needs access from one side. expensive. interpretation ""r. fully automated systems. l0 @Rurnc&TPO'Nclll Lsuc t 0t/03/06 NDT1-5 . Advantages: Very sensitive. crawlers for pipelines. calibration blocks. no indication of depth. becausi of health risk. 90 Remurks: Pulse echo equipment is highly developed for weld inspection purposes. limited thickness. skilled real indication of depth. can be carried out on most materials.y equipment. orientation of planar defects. blow holes. its use should be limited to those areaswhere other methods will not provide the quality assruancerequired. no permanent record with manual scanning. post cleaning often required as penetrants can contaminatecomponent. including those too small to be detected by other methods. lightweight and portable equipment which can be used in difficult access situations. good surface finish required. burn through and undercut. iea. Ultrasonic Testing (UT) Equipment required: Analogue and digital flaw detectors. Remurks: X-ray inspection is required by many codes and specifications. cannot be used effectively on hot assemblies.surface preparation is critical. Limitations: Protection against harmful radiafion.porosity. Limitations: Requires high degree of skill in interpreting pulse echo patterns. various angled probes.. auto-ur. little surface preparation. large. fluoroscopic viewing equipment.

Limitations: High degree of operator skill. can measure defect depth. Enables detection of: Surfacebreaking cracks through non-conductive coatings. comparator blocks.6 .probes.non-uniform geometry can causefalse readings. no permanent record for manual scanning. ferromagnetic and nonmagnetic materials. Remarks: Now being widely used to test welds offshore with rope access.Ruane & Il T P O'Neill Eddy Current Testing @T) Equipment required: Analogue and digital flaw detectors. coils. lightrveight and portable equipment which can be used in difficult access situations. expensive. needto remove non-conductive no coatings. Advantages: very sensitive. @Rurnc&TPO'Ncill Isiuc 8 01/03/06 NDT1.