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Dr. Jose P.

Rizal
(1861-1896)

The Philippines' national hero. Born in Calamba, Laguna, on June 19,
1861. Published his masterpiece Noli Me Tangere in Berlin(Germany) in 1887 and his second novel El Filibusterismo in Ghent(Belgium) in 1891. His two novels stirred the conscience of his people. He contributed various literary works to La Solidaridad. For his leadership in the reform movement and for his incendiary novels, Rizal was arrested and later killed by musketry in Bagumbayan, Manila, on December 30, 1896. His execution was the last straw for other Filipinos who called for a bloody revolution against Spain.

Andres Bonifacio
(1863-1897)

He founded the secret society, Katipunan, on July 7, 1892, to fight
Spain. He was also president of the Tagalog republic from August 24, 1896 to May 10, 1897. Born in Tondo, Manila, on November 30, 1863. He grew up in the slums and never knew the benefits of a prosperous life. He married Gregoria de Jesus in 1892. He was killed on May 10, 1897, near Mount Buntis, Maragondon, Cavite.

General Gregorio del Pilar
(1875-1899)

Hero of Tirad Pass. Born on November 14, 1875, in Bulacan, Bulacan.
Died on December 2, 1899, in the battle of Tirad Pass, to enable Aguinaldo to escape from the Americans. One of the youngest and bravest generals ever produced by the Philippines.

1964. 1899. Bulacan. on February 6.Centennial | Heroes | Previous | Next General Emilio Aguinaldo (1899-1964) He officially proclaimed the Philippine independence in Malolos. 1869. Apolinario Mabini (1864-1903) Sublime paralytic and the brain of the revolution. He was captured by the American forces in December 1899 and deported to Guam in January 1901. Batangas. Cavite. Died at the Veterans Memorial Hospital. 1864. on January 23. on March 22. Born in Kawit. 1903. He joined La Liga Filipina in 1892 and Aguinaldo's revolutionary government from June 1898 to May 1899. with him as the first president. Born in Talaga. Father Mariano Gomez (1799-1872) . It was the first republic in Asia. Quezon City. on June 22. He died in Manila on May 13. Tanauan.

Manila on February 17. 1899. Kalayaan. 1872. . Died on April 16. He wrote the Kartilya ng Katipunan. He joined the Katipunan in 1894 and became Bonifacio's trusted friend and adviser. 1875. the primer of the Katipunan which embodied the teachings of the organization. for Father Jose allegedly instigating the Cavite mutiny. on December 15. Burgos (1837-1872) Father Jacinto Zamora (1835-1872) Emilio Jacinto (1875-1899) Brains of the Katipunan. Manila. whose first issue came out in January 1896. Born in Trozo.GOMBURZA Three intellectuals who crusaded for reform. Killed by garrote in Bagumbayan. He founded and edited the Katipunan newspaper. He was one of the heroic figures in Philippine history.

Kalookan City. and other material goods. 4)Maximo Gregorio. She died on March 12. and 13)Feliciano Cabuco. He was assassinated in Cabanatuan City. She is recognized as the Grand Woman of the revolution and the Mother of Balintawak. 5)Hugo Perez. on January 6. They were: 1)Maximo Inocencio. on October 29. Editor of La Independencia. whose first issue came out on September 3. 7)Alfonso de Ocampo. 1919. 11)Agapito Conchu. Melchora Aquino (1812-1919) B etter known as Tandang Sora. 1898. 9)Antonio de San Agustin. 2)Jose Lallana. 1866. 6)Severino Lapidario. the famous painter. 1896. Born in Banlat. 10)Luis Aguado. 12)Victoriano Luciano. 1812. He was one of the propagandists in Spain who were working for political reforms in the Philippines. Younger brother of Juan Luna. He contributed articles to La Solidaridad. 1899. 8)Francisco Osorio. Manila. who were executed by a firing squad on September 12. She helped the Katipuneros under the leadership of Andres Bonifacio by providing them food. Trece Martirez The 13 martyrs of Cavite. . Born in Binondo. shelter. on June 5. 3)Eugenio Cabezas.General Antonio Luna (1866-1899) The greatest general of the revolution.

Mariano Ponce (1863-1918) Researcher. on March 23. Born in Jaro. Bulacan. 1918. Del Pilar. Iloilo. in Barcelona. he undertook propaganda campaigns in Spain. he joined the propaganda movement and became one of the initiators of La Solidaridad. While in Spain. Died in HongKong on May 23. diplomat. Panday Pira (1483-1576) First Filipino cannon-maker. bibliographer. Together wtih Jose Rizal and Marcelo H. He died on January 20. historian. physician. . which became the vehicle of expression for Filipino propaganda in Spain.Graciano Lopez-Jaena (1856-1896) Founder and first editor of the newspaper La Solidaridad. folklorist. later becoming its managing editor. 1896. on December 18. Born in one of the islands in Southern Philippines in 1483. 1856. He died in 1576. Spain. Born in Baliwag. 1863. and an outstanding reformist. He forged the cannons which Rajah Sulayman used in defending the Muslim Kingdom of Manila against the Spanish invaders. propagandist.

Born in Ermita. She actually fought alongside her husband during the revolution. the organ of the revolution. journalist. Emilio Aguinaldo appointed him as Minister Plenipotentiary to the peace conference in Washington and Paris. 1859. Wife of Andres Bonifacio and Lakambini of the Katipunan. on May 9. Born in Taal. Considered the greatest lyric poet in Spanish. Fernando Ma. at the Manila Doctor's Hospital. on May 26. Died in Manila June 12. Felipe Agoncillo (1859-1941) Outstanding diplomat of the Philippine revolution. 1875. on May 30. When the revolution broke out. Manila. and lawyer. . Born in Kalookan City.Gregoria de Jesus (1875-1943) One of the brave and patriotic women who played a heroic role in the Philippine revolution. Batangas. Guerrero (1873-1890) Musician. 1873. politician. 1941. 1943. he fought for the Filipino cause with his pen. Gen. She died on March 15. 1929. Thus. General Antonio Luna invited him to join the editorial staff of La Independencia. Died on September 29. She organized the Katipunan's Women Chapter. aside from being the custodian of the Katipunan documents.

Del Pilar (1850-1896) Political analyst of the Filipino colony in Spain. He was closely associated with the Reform Movement. SPOLARIUM. 1939. Died on July 4. Bulacan. scholar. La Independencia. Norte. He cofounded with Gen. and writer. on October 24. on October 23. Cebu's first daily. Born in Kupang. 1857. on August 30. He died in Hongkong on December 7. Diariong Tagalog. Rafael Palma (1874-1939) Orator. Born in Tondo. he became the editor of La Solidaridad and became the moving spirit behind the propaganda movement. . Ponce. Born in Badoc. together with Rizal. Later. he founded the nationalistic newspaper. It is also known as the greatest painting of all times.Juan Luna (1857-1899) A genius of the brush and a patriot of the highest order. statesman. Bulacan. In 1882. 1850. Manila. 1896. etc. educator. In December 1889. Lopez-Jaena. which was awarded the gold medal in the Exposicion Nacional de Bellas Artes in Madrid in 1884. 1899. he also founded El Nuevo Dia. Creator of the world-famous painting. Antonio Luna the revolutionary newspaper. Ilocos. 1874. Marcelo H. He was involved in the propaganda campaign against the Spaniards. Died in Manila on May 24.

on April 19. Born in Batac. Her poems were given international recognition at the Exposicion in Madrid in 1887 and in Paris in 1889. 1911. 1884. Ilocos Norte.Pedro Paterno (1858-1911) Statesman. Jose Palma (1876-1903) . Born in Vigan. Ilocos Sur. 1938. first poetess of the Philippines. 1945. poet. Artemio Ricarte (1866-1945) The unconquerable hero of the revolution. Died in the jungles of Sierra Madre on July 31. he was a gentle public school teacher who became a dashing revolutionary general. Died on October 9. Known as Viborra. He was the founder of the first Philippine labor union. Gifted son of Leona Florentino. and peacemaker. Died on October 4. Born in Vigan. 1858. 1866. on October 20. Born in Manila on February 27. He was the negotiator/mediator of the Pact of Biak-na-Bato. Ilocos Sur. Leona Florentino (1849-1884) First poetess of the Philippines. as well as the first independent Filipino Catholic church. on July 7. Isabelo delos Reyes (1864-1938) Last of the propagandists. He helped prepare the Malolos constitution. writer. 1864. He aroused the hostility of the friars and government officials when he openly criticized the evils of the Spanish rule and he advocated reforms. 1849. Died on April 26.

Rajah Soliman ( -1571) The last rajah of Manila. on June 3. Leonor Rivera (1867-1893) Cousin and fiancee of Jose Rizal. in the Battle of Bangkusay. Died in 1575. Rafael Palma. He was a staff member of La Independencia. he was feared most by the Spaniards. He was killed on June 3. which became the lyrics of the Philippine National Anthem. Rajah Lakandola ( -1575) One of the most illustrious ancient Filipinos. He fought alongside the Spaniards against the Chinese pirate. Limahong. Died in Manila. noted for his daring and bravery. Younger brother of Dr. He wroteFilipinas. Chief of Tondo. 1903. . Of all of the early rulers of Manila. on February 12. Born in Tondo. 1876. when Legazpi came to Manila in 1571. 1571. after the king of Spain. a patriotic poem in Spanish. He became a Christian and took the name of Carlos. She was the Maria Clara in Rizal's Noli Me Tangere. He made the blood compact with Goiti.Poet and soldier. Nephew of Rajah Lakandola. Manila.

M. Died on May 30. Died in Barcelona. on August 19. Jose Ma. Born in Taal. Batangas. on February 1. Camarines Norte.Marcela Mariño Agoncillo (1859-1946) Maker of the first Philippine flag. under the pen names Jomapa and J. more popularly called the Propaganda Movement. 1859.P. Spain. Diego Silang . on June 24. She labored to make the Filipino flag in Hong Kong with the help of Delfina Herbosa de Natividad. He wrote articles for La Solidaridad. Panganiban (1863-1890) Avenger of Filipino honor. Born in Mambulao. A good friend and co-worker of Rizal. Married to Felipe Agoncillo. Galicano Apacible One of the founders of La Solidaridad. 1946 in Taal. Batangas. 1863. a niece of Rizal. 1890. He was Bicolandia's greatest contribution to the historic campaign for reforms.

1763. 1730. he is considered the prince of Tagalog poets. and his uncle. Died in Orion. The revolt started in Vigan. 1788. on April 2. upholding moral and social values. MARIA JOSEFA GABRIELA SILANG. Born in Aringay. Lapu-Lapu (c. Nicolas Cariño. He fought and killed Magellan in a battle in Mactan. La Union. it served as the basic foundation of the Philippine literature. He wrote Florante at Laura. She too lost her life for freedom's sake on September 30. 1862. a Spanish mestizo who bore grievances against Diego Silang. Francisco Baltazar (1788-1862) More popularly known as Balagtas. 1763. Bataan. Ilocos Sur. a masterpiece of local versification. He was killed by Miguel Vicos. 16th century) Chief of Mactan who led the first successful Filipino armed resistance against Spanish aggression.(1730-1763) He led the revolt of the Ilocanos in opposition to the tribute and abuses of the Spanish officials. Maria Josefa Gabriela Silang After the death of Diego Silang on May 28. Bulacan. Born in Panginay. on December 16. Bigaa. . on April 27. 1521. on February 20. the fight was carried on by his wife.

in Manila. Born in Malabon. . The immediate cause of the revolt was the refusal of a Jesuit priest to give a Christian burial to Dagohoy's brother. 1928. Known as the Visayan Joan of Arc. and librarian. It was only in 1829 that they finally succeeded in bringing to end the revolt started by Dagohoy. historian. Francisco Dagohoy (c. bibliographer. painter.Epifanio delos Santos (1871-1928) Lawyer. Died on April 28. Born in Pototan. antique collector. Died in August 1947. poet. on November 4. on April 7. Mid-18th century) He led the longest revolt in Bohol against the Spaniards. 1871. 1871. biographer. The Spaniards needed 85 years before they were able to suppress the rebellion. musician. Teresa Magbanua (1871-1947) The first woman in Panay to fight in the Philippine revolution. Iloilo. literary critic. journalist. philosopher. Rizal.

Agueda Esteban Katipunan member who later married Artemio Ricarte. 1848. . Julian Felipe (1861-1941) Composer of the Philippine National Anthem. Died on June 28. she became known as The Mother of the Philippine Red Cross. She commuted from Cavite to Manila to buy saltpeter. Even though women-members of the Katipunan were exempted from the pact. 1928. She also carried secret messages about the planned offensives against the Spanish posts. 1941. Bulacan. on November 18. Born in San Miguel. Born in Cavite City on January 28. A dedicated music teacher and composer. and copper which where used to make ammunitions. 1861.Trinidad Tecson (1848-1928) Mother of Biak-na-Bato. lead. he was appointed by Aguinaldo as Director of the National Band of the Philippine Republic. She fought fearlessly in 12 bloody battles of the revolution in Bulacan. Later. including the famous Battle of Biak-na-Bato. she participated in Sanduguan(blood compact). Died in Manila on October 2.

Died in La Paz. the Newspaper of the Katipunan. Mother of Philippine Revolution Printing of the Kalayaan. Born in La Paz. She also kept important documents of the Katipunan. 1871. who joined the Katipunan. Manila. General Aguinaldo appointed him as one of the brigadier generals of the Central Luzon area. Emilio Aguinaldo 15/ (1889) Anniversary of La Solidaridad 17/ (1872) Death Anniversary of GOMBURZA March 22/ (1869) Birth of Gen. 28/ (1861) Birth of Julian Felipe February 6/ (1964) Death Anniversary of Gen. 1875. on April 30. on July 18. who was one of the Trece Martirez. on September 17. with 18/ (1896) Emilio Jacinto as Editor. 1950. 1922. General Francisco Makabulos (1871-1922) Leader of the revolt in Tarlac. Died on October 25. which had a constitution called the Constitution of Makabulos. Born in Trozo. executed by the Spanish officials in 1896. He was the first patriot in Tarlac.Marina Dizon (1875-1950) Daughter of a Katipunan leader in Cavite. Tarlac. Emilio Aguinaldo 22/ (1897) Tejeros Convention . Calendar of Events MONTH/DATE/YEAR EVENTS January 4/ (1897) Execution of 15 Bicolano Martyrs 6/ (1812) Birth of Melchora Aquino. Tarlac. 20/ (1896) Death of Graciano Lopez-Jaena 23/ (1899) Inauguration of the First Philippine Republic at Barasoain Church. She joined the Katipunan in July 1893. one of the first women to have done so. He established the Central Executive Committee.

Cavite Independence Day Celebration Jose Rizal's Birthday Anniversary of La Liga Filipina Centennial Celebration of MH del Pilar Founding of the Katipunan / Rizal's Exile to Dapitan Birth of Apolinario Mabini Cry of Pugad Lawin Battle of Pinaglabanan. first major victory in the revolution Cry of Sta. Buntis. first cry of revolution against Spain in Visayas Birth of Andres Bonifacio Birth of Graciano Lopez Jaena Birth of Emilio Jacinto. Maragondon. Barbara. Founder of Kalayaan Execution of Rizal PHILIPPINE FLAGS . Imus.23/ (1897) April 16/ (1899) May 10/ (1897) 13/ (1903) 28/ June 12 19/ (1861) July 3 4 7 22/ (1864) August 23/ (1896) 30/ (1896) 31/ (1896) September 23/ (1896) November 11/ (1896) 27/ (1896) 30/ (1863) December 17/ (1856) 15/ (1875) 30/ (1896) 19 Martyrs of Aklan Death of Emilio Jacinto Death of Andres Bonifacio at Mt. Cavite Death of Apolinario Mabini First flag was raised due to victory of the Battle of Alapan. first major battle Start of Philippine Revolution in Cavite Execution of 13 Martyrs in Cavite Battle of Binakayan.

with three white K's arranged to form three angles of an equilateral triangle. The sun had eight rays representing the first eight provinces (Manila. Batangas. Pampanga. It was a rectangular piece of red cloth. Nueva Ecija. The first Philippine flag was the war banner adopted by Andres Bonifacio in 1892. Bulacan. Several months before the outbreak of the revolution in 1896. In October 1896. in the ancient Tagalog script. But all of them traced their origin from the common endeavors of the Philippine revolutionaries to show their love for the country. Laguna. Tarlac. with a whiterayed sun in the middle and three white K's below it. In the middle of the white sun was a white K. This flag consisted of a red rectangular field.and Cavite) to take up arms against the Spaniards. This served as the Katipunan standard.The current Philippine National Flag evolved out of many earlier versions. Gen. . Bonifacio had another flag made. with a white sun in the middle. Emilio Aguinaldo fashioned out a banner consisting of a rectangular field.

In each angle of the triangle is a five-pointed star. each group consisting of three rays. Mrs. This flag was used in the Truce of Biak-na-Bato. Inside the white triangle is a central sun with eight rays. Radiating from the sun were eight group of rays. nose. and mouth. 1897 Aguinaldo displayed a new banner at the Naic Assembly. This was a rectangular red cloth. Agoncillo sewed the banner that later became the Philippine National Flag. Assisted by her eldest daughter Lorenza and Miss Delfina Herbosa ( Rizal's niece ). . on December 14-15. During Aguinaldo's exile in Hongkong. This flag is made of two stripes . The upper stripe is blue and the lower stripe is red. the other blue .one red. with a white mythological sun in the middle adorned with eyes. Marcela Agoncillo to make a new flag.and a white stripe to the left of the flag area. He requested Mrs.On March 17. 1897.

Newspaper of the Katipunan. The cause was the abolition of some privileges of the Filipinos. which first came out on January 18.religious.Rizal's second novel.The secret revolutionary movement founded by Andres Bonifacio on July 7. 5. The civic aim revolved around the principle of selfhelp and the defense of the poor and the oppressed. Insulares .Spaniards born in the Philippines. who lent him the money to print the book. The three stars represent the three major islands of Luzon.and Mindanao. good morals and attacking obscurantism. Katipunan . hygiene. . Cavite Mutiny . 3. Visayas. This is a political novel in which Rizal predicted the coming of the revolution. 2. The political aim consisted in working for the separation of the Philippines from Spain. and weaknesses of character. El Filibusterismo .fanatism.Moral and Civic. GOMBURZA were arrested and killed because of the suspicion that they were involved in the said mutiny. with Emilio Jacinto as editor. Rizal dedicated this book to Gomburza.Manila.Filipino soldiers in the fort of San Felipe in Cavite rose in mutiny under the leadership of Sergeant La Madrid.1892 in Tondo.The sun symbolizes liberty. 4. TERMS FROM THE PHILIPPINE REVOLUTION 1. The moral objective focused on the teaching of good manners. with the financial support of Valentin Ventura. the eight rays represent the first eight provinces that fought Spain. Kalayaan . It laid down three fundamental objectives: Political.1896. the three martyr-priests. It means KATAASTAASAN KAGALANG-GALANG NA KATIPUNAN NANG MGA ANAK NG BAYAN. published in 1891 in Belgium.

One faction of the Katipunan in Cavite. in the field of science. Its first issue came out on February 15. and industry. Pact of Biak-na-Bato . Known as Sol to the propagandists. commerce. The novel gained popularity immediately.1892. Its aim was to gather.American teachers who came to the Philippines in 1901 to teach English to the Filipinos. Palabra de Honor . published in 1887. Peninsulares . o encouragement of instruction. agriculture. 11.Word of honor.A political tract written by Apolinario Mabini which became the bible of the Filipino rebels. Cavite. 13.Agreement made between the Filipinos and the Spaniards. 7. Thomasites .Founded by Rizal on July 3. Magdiwang . letters. Magdalo .The most famous painting of Juan Luna. it became the mouthpiece of the Filipinos in Spain. prohibited its reading. La Solidaridad .agriculture. they were called Thomasites. to collect liberal ideas which were daily exposed in the camp of politics. The True Decalogue . 14. and o study and application of reforms.The other Katipunan faction in Cavite.vigorous. mediated by Pedro Paterno. 8.Cavite.Rizal's masterpiece. Noli Me Tangere . Manila. Primo de Rivera would pay cash money to the rebels. 15. 10. It is a novel. This is a sociohistorical novel based on facts that Rizal gathered while in the Philippines. 16. wherein Aguinaldo and his companions would go into voluntary exile in Hong Kong while Governor Gen. La Liga Filipina . its aims were: o to unite the whole archipelago into one compact. led by Baldomero Aguinaldo. with headquarters in Kawit. especially the friars whom Rizal ridiculed in the novel. or keeping one's promises. in Tondo.1889. but not fiction.Organ of the Reform Movement in Spain. hence. 12. . Spolarium .Spaniards born in Spain. with Graciano Lopez-Jaena as its first editor. and commerce. led by Mariano Alvarez. but the Spanish authorities. o defense against all violence and injustice. and homogenous body.6. The first batch of these teachers arrived aboard the American ship Thomas. with headquarters in Noveleta. arts. 9. o mutual protection in every want and necessity.