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FLOCCULATION AND SOLID-LIQUID SEPARATION OF ANIMAL SLURRY; FUNDAMENTALS, CONTROL AND APPLICATION

PH.D. THESIS BY MAIBRITT HJORTH

FLOCCULATION AND SOLID-LIQUID SEPARATION OF ANIMAL SLURRY; FUNDAMENTALS, CONTROL AND APPLICATION

PH.D. THESIS BY MAIBRITT HJORTH, JUNE 2009

SUPERVISOR: PROFESSOR SVEN GEDDE SOMMER, UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN DENMARK, INSTITUTE OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING, BIOTECHNOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY EDUCATIONAL RESPONSIBLE: FACULTY OF ENGINEERING, UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN DENMARK EMPLOYING COMPANY: FACULTY OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, AARHUS UNIVERSITY FUNDING: MINISTRY OF FOOD, AGRICULTURE AND FISHERIES AND MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT, ACTION PLAN FOR THE AQUATIC ENVIRONMENT III

2009) .”Separated […] animal slurry is more environmentally friendly than untreated slurry.” (Danish Government. as it replaces mineral fertilizers better and leaches to a lesser extend.

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who made my stay at Aalborg University so very rewarding and was an invaluable partner in discussions. despite the tough times. Torkild Birkmose and colleages at The Danish Agricultural Advisory Service. who gave me so many possibilities and was so good at helping me to understand and value the realities of the researching world. Preben Nissen at AL-2 Teknik A/S and Kemira Miljø A/S.d. Agriculture and Fisheries and The Ministry of Environment as part of the Action Plan for the Aquatic Environment III. Adamsen. Hansen. Tina Christensen. Alistair Ward. you are invaluable guides to the missing knowledge in the real world. Lene Venke Kofoed at Novozymes A/S. Anders Larsen at Q-interline. Claudia Nagy and Heidi G.PREFACE This thesis is the termination of the ph. Agriculture and Fisheries and named The Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences. Christiansen for magnificent help and for making time so enjoyable in the lab. Henrik Møller. 3 . The Danish Agricultural Advisory Service. The largest thank you and respect goes to Sven G. Lisbeth Wybrandt. In addition. The study has resulted in six peer reviewed publications and five international conference papers. A large thank you goes to Gitte Hastrup Andersen. Tavs Nyord. study at The Institute of Chemical Engineering. Karl Martin Schelde and colleages at CBMI. Søren Brams at SB Engineering and Martin Rishøj at GEA Mechanical Equipment thank you so much for your highly competent help. I am much grateful of Morten L. The employing company has been The Department of Agricultural Engineering at The Faculty of Agricultural Sciences on Aarhus University. Sommer. The study is a part of the research project ‘Separation of Animal Slurry – Optimizing Harmony in Plant Nutrient Cycling and Reducing Odour and Ammonia Emission” funded by The Ministry of Food. And last but certainly not at least. The partners of the research project are Aalborg University. Torkild Frandsen and colleagues at Agrotech. Christensen. The Danish Pig Production. a very large thank goes to my dear husband and the best son in the world – the leave with you was a treat . Ryoh Nakakubo. Biotechnology and Environmental Technology at The Faculty of Engineering on Southern Danish University. a part of the work was carried out during a five months stay late 2006 at the Section of Chemistry at The Faculty of Engineering on Aalborg University. you made the days pleasant and managed to drag me back to the world during the breaks. Novozymes A/S and Kemira Miljø A/S. of which most may be found in the manuscript appendix of the thesis and/or listed in bold in the thesis references. which in the beginning though was a research institute of the Ministry Food. Micael Støckler. The remaining previous and present staff at The Department of Agricultural Engineering on Aarhus University I additionally owe a lot. A broad range of people and institutions has made this work possible. Anders M. There’s a surprisingly long list of scientist working with animal faces that includes people like Martin N. Copenhagen University. Karin Jørgensen and Anders Peter S. you’ve all been priceless coaches.and additionally our friends and extremely helpful family. talking with you develops me. The presented study was carried out at Research Centre Bygholm and Research Centre Foulum between September 2005 and June 2009. who surely supported me in all the ways possible. Nielsen.

drivhusgasser og lugt og deres effektivitet som et plantesubstrat. Polymeren neutraliserer en fjerdedel af partiklernes overfladeladning og inducerer polymer bridging. Mens trykfiltrering er den mindst effektive af de mekaniske fast-væske separeringsteknikker. Selvom forskning stadig mangler. anvendelse på marker. den flydende fraktions turbiditet og viskositet. 4 . der afgører flokkuleringens effektivitet. for at der ikke skal være nogen eller kun positiv påvirkning på gylleprodukternes samlede emission af ammoniak. Syv analyser har indikeret potentiale til at monitere gylleseparering i laboratorie skala forsøg eller online på fuldskalaseparatorer. Gyllens ionstyrke. indholdet af multivalente metaller og specieringen af næringsstoffer er gylleegenskaber. at energi fra ikkevedvarende energikilder forårsager omfattende udledning af drivhusgasser. gødskning og /eller energiproduktion. Opbevaring i tanke. Disse er den faste fraktions tørstofindhold. Flokkulering forud for mekanisk fast-væske separering øger fosfor og tørstofindholdet af den faste fraktion yderligere. Polymeropløsningen skal tilføres langsomt under nøje overvejet omrøring. fordi den nuværende praksis udfordrer landmænd og miljøet. Flokkulering af det konstant skiftende gylle input kan automatiseres. hvilket begrænser mulighederne for udvidelse og produktionsoptimering. hvilket har resulteret i at 3% af Danmarks gylle i 2007 blev separeret. som har resulteret i søers død og ændringer i biodiversiteten. Separering af gyllen i en lille næringsstofkoncentreret fast fraktion og en stor flydende fraktion med øget kvælstof-til-fosfor forhold kan mindske disse problemer. Omtrent halvdelen af det tilsatte jern fælder fosfor og koagulerer partikler. partiklernes zeta-potentiale. Miljøet er blevet eutrofieret på grund af tab af gyllens næringsstoffer. Landmændene har kun få nærliggende landbrugsområder til at gøde med gylle. kontrol og anvendelse af flokkulering og fast-væske separation af husdyrgødning. Gyllen kan fastvæske separeres ved dræning. Hvorvidt et flokkuleringstrin skal inkluderes er derfor et spørgsmål om de specifikke separerings. er meget allerede kendt om grundlæggende mekanismer. totale og specifikke tørstofindhold. anaerob udrådning. lineær polymer med stor ladningsdensitet.og produktkrav. som i sidste ende fælder ud af opløsningen. kationisk. Gyllens karakteristika afgøres af dyret der udskiller gyllen og behandlingen af gyllen mellem udskillelse og separering. den flokkulerede prøves flok størrelse. Hertil kommer. To flokkulering metoder er koagulering og polymer flokkulering. Gylle partikler kan koaguleres og fosfat udfældes ved at tilsætte FeCl3 eller Al2(SO4)3. Bagefter skal gyllen flokkuleres med en stor. Opmærksomhed er nødvendigt. Efterfølgende reguleres processens parametre i henhold til input gyllen. som tillader homogenisering og effektiv aggregering. Flokkulering medfører aggregering af opløste partikler i større flokke.RESUME Det meget intensive landbrug er den vigtigste årsag i Danmark for at udføre separere gylle. og målinger med nær infrarød (NIR) spektroskopi. membranfiltrering og afbrænding er potentielle nutids behandlinger af gyllesepareringsprodukter for at forbedre praktiske landbrug forhold. men mindsker volumen separeringen. Fast-væske separering og flokkulering forbedrer de fleste af de typiske gyllebehandlinger eller kan endda være en forudsætning. er centrifugering den overlegne af teknikkerne med hensyn til tørstof og fosfor separering. afvandelighed og kapillære sugetid. partiklernes overfladeladning.

control and application of flocculation and solid-liquid separation of animal manure. In addition. application on fields. Though research is still lacking. Solid-liquid separation and flocculation improve most of the typical handlings of manure or it may even be a pre-requisite. the slurry may be flocculated with a large. The polymer neutralizes one fourth of the particle charges and induces polymer bridging. much is known concerning fundamentals. which eventually settle out of suspension. the liquid fraction’s turbidity and viscosity. The farmers have only little agricultural fields nearby to fertilize with the animal slurry. membrane filtration and thermal conversion are potentially present-day handlings of slurry separation product. and near infrared (NIR) spectroscopic measurements. particle surface charge. This has resulted in lakes dying and biodiversity changes. Flocculation results in aggregation of suspended particles into larger flocs. which has resulted in the fact that 3% of Denmark’s animal slurry in 2007 were separated. according to the changing input manure. These improve practical farming aspects. While pressurized filtration is the poorest of the mechanical solid-liquid separation techniques. Seven analyses have indicated potential to monitor slurry separation in bench scale experiments or on-line at full scale separators. Afterwards. The aim is to regulate the process parameters subsequently. Consideration is necessary if the there should be no effect or there should be a positive effect on the slurry products overall emission of ammonia. greenhouse gases and odour. Two flocculation methods are coagulation and polymer flocculation. because current practice challenges the farmers and the environment. The manure could be solid-liquid separated by drainage. The polymer solution must be added slowly under carefully considered stirring allowing homogenisation and proper aggregation. This creates a limit to expansion and optimization of the production. fertilization and/or energy production. linear polymer with large charge density. cationic. extensive greenhouse gas emissions. total and specific dry matter content. Storage in tanks. centrifugation is the superior one of the techniques with respect to dry matter and phosphorus separation. Separating the slurry into a small nutrient concentrated solid fraction. Slurry particles may be coagulated and phosphate precipitated by adding FeCl3 or Al2(SO4)3. 5 . content of multivalent metals and speciation of nutrients are slurry characteristics in control of flocculation efficiency.ABSTRACT The highly intensive farming is the main reason in Denmark for performing animal slurry separation. and a large liquid fraction of increased nitrogen-tophosphorus ratio may alleviate these challenges. energy from non-renewable sources causes e.g. Flocculation prior to the mechanical solid-liquid increases the phosphorus and dry matter content of the solid fraction further. but lessen the volume separation. Thus inclusion of flocculation is a matter of the specific separation and product requirements. The slurry’s ionic strength. Roughly half of added Fe precipitate phosphorus and coagulate particles. the flocculated sample’s floc size. The characteristics are determined by the animal excreting the slurry and the handling of the slurry between excretion and separation. The environment has become eutrophicated by losses of slurry nutrients. and the products efficiency as a substrate for plants. dewaterability and capillary suction time. anaerobic digestion. particle zeta-potential. The flocculation of the continuously changing slurry may be automated. These are the solid fraction’s dry matter content.

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2 HOW SHOULD SLURRY BE SOLID-LIQUID SEPARATED? Efficiency of solid-liquid separation Efficiency of flocculation and solid-liquid separation 11 11 13 3 3.PREFACE RESUME ABSTRACT 1 1.4 HOW SHOULD SLURRY BE FLOCCULATED? Polymer flocculation Coagulation and precipitation Addition procedure Solid-liquid separation 14 14 17 19 19 4 4.1 4.3 3.5 HOW SHOULD SEPARATION PRODUCTS BE APPLIED? Storage Field application Membrane filtration Biogas Thermal conversion 28 28 28 29 29 30 7 7.2 WHAT AFFECTS FLOCCULATION? Physical and chemical characteristics of slurry Slurry origin and pre-treatment 21 21 22 5 5.1 3.3 HOW SHOULD FLOCCULATION BE CONTROLLED? At-line direct analytical methods At-line indirect analytical methods On-line indirect analytical methods 24 24 25 25 6 6.1 5.3 3 4 5 9 9 9 9 WHY SHOULD SLURRY BE SOLID-LIQUID SEPARATED? Legislation Ocurrence Motivation 2 2.1 1.2 6.1 6.3 6.2 5.1 WHAT LIMITS SOLID-LIQUID SEPARATION AND FLOCCULATION? Future studies 31 31 REFERENCES 32 7 .2 3.4 6.1 2.2 1.

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Three of the 11 intends are fraction by sedimentation. Definition: Solid-liquid separation The plan “Grøn Vækst” was published by The Danish Production of a solid and a liquid Government in April 2009. half the separators include a flocculation treatment prior to the mechanical solid-liquid separation. To enhance the motivation. slurry separation was not yet commonly applied in other countries (Burton. because large environmental profits make separation advantages for the society. lakes dying and biodiversity changes.2 Ocurrence Mainly caused by these previous Danish initiatives. extensive green house gas emissions. This creates a limit to expansion and optimization of the production. Thereby the nitrogen can be exported from the farm in the form of the solid fraction. A reduction in the required area of agricultural fields for slurry application per animal could be obtained by separating the slurry. In addition. because current practice challenges the farmers and the environment. flocculation pre-treatment. the future application of slurry separators in Denmark is expected to increase further. bedding material and water. 1. Framed by the European Water Framework Directive (2001). In the long term. By 2007. In contrast. Manure with a water content of more than 96% is defined as liquid. May include a nitrogen and phosphorus leaching.g. This has resulted in e. Input • ”Create frames for using up to 40% of Danish animal material is the slurry collected slurry for green energy in 2020. 1 million tons or 3% of Denmark’s animal slurry were separated in 2007 by 51 solid-liquid separators (Birkmose. animal slurry should be used for energy production” • “Investments in new green technologies” The means to achieve the goals include increasing the permitted fertilization distance to aquatic systems.1 WHY SHOULD SLURRY BE SOLID-LIQUID SEPARATED? Danish legislation encourages the application solid-liquid separation of animal slurry. 2007). improving the payment and sale of green energy. high investments in agricultural fields were not as necessary when expanding the production (Arealkravsbekendtgørelsen. In comparison. 2009). Manure with a moisture content between 90 and 96% is referred to as slurry. The farmers have only little agricultural fields nearby to fertilize with the animal slurry. Because 3 of the 11 goals of the new Danish plan Grøn Vækst is potentially related to solid-liquid separation of animal slurry.1 Legislation 1. Slurry separation may alleviate these challenges. .3 Motivation The highly intensive farming is the main reason in Denmark for performing animal slurry separation.g. Danish grants for solid-liquid separators were offered in 2006. 2006. and through grants for joint biogas plants and solid-liquid separators for slurry treatment (Danish Government. Additionally. energy from non-renewable sources causes e. while no separators were operating in 2001. Danish Environmental Protection Agency. 1. questions must necessarily be answered concerning the fundamental understanding. while manure with a moisture content of less than 90% is considered solid. control techniques and application potentials. drainage or • “An aquatic system of good quality” through reduction in pressurized filtration. The environment has turned eutrophicated by losses of slurry nutrients. all outside the livestock housing. 2006). Thus. 2007). slurry separation may be practically and economically advantages for the farmer. In addition. the Danish regulations have also previously encouraged the application of solid-liquid separation of animal slurry. 9 Definition: Manure and slurry Manure is a mixture of fecal and urinary excretions by livestock. potentially related to solid-liquid separation of animal slurry: centrifugation.

be further refined. Questions remain to be answered to motivate increased application of slurry separation. This is related to what is chemically occurring upon flocculation. environment and society gain further advantages from the technology: • • • • • • How should slurry be solid-liquid separated? The answer includes comparisons of efficiencies of the four types of solid-liquid separators. In addition. or as input material to production of mineral fertilizer. These are also compared with the efficiency of including a pre-flocculation. struvite crystallization and stripping. and it result in reduced phosphorus loss to the environment. or because of the small and concentrated character it may even be essential. the ammonium-to-total nitrogen ratio may be higher. slurry origin and slurry pre-treatment effects are discussed. thus the nitrogen becomes initially more available to the plants. and in consequence closer to slurry source. For instance by membrane filtration. 10 . The fraction may be used. The liquid fraction may alternatively to the field application. evaporation. Based on that and experimental comparisons. Thus the liquid slurry may be spread on a smaller field area. What limits solid-liquid separation and flocculation? The answer includes discussions on further questions necessary to examine. and a water-ish product for water deficient fields or washing on the farm.Slurry separation produces a large liquid fraction with a reduced nitrogen and phosphorus content compared to the raw slurry. What should separation be combined with? The answer includes considerations on the effect of potentially present-day handlings of separation products on emissions and nutrient plant availability. This will generate fertilizer concentrates for plant production. In particular the phosphorus. How should flocculation be controlled? The answer includes evaluations of chemical analytical methods for monitoring the slurry separation. dry matter and organic matter contents are high and liquid content is low. What affects flocculation? The answer includes considerations on the physical and chemical slurry characteristics. In addition. and ensure that both farmers. How should slurry be flocculated? The answer includes identification of what is chemically occurring. Alternatively. the fraction may be used for green energy production through biogas production and thermal conversion. optimum chemical and physical treatment are determined. A small. highly concentrated solid fraction is also produced by the slurry separation. This matches the plants requirements better. The nitrogen-to-phosphorus ratio is increased. on distant phosphorus deficient fields.

000 g for 35 sec. Et ( x) = Concentration is one of the main purposes of separation. Though rarely desired. E. the phosphorus separation. the separation index or the reduced separation index may be applied. 2009): Half litre subsamples of one swine slurry and one cow slurry were allowed to settle for 24 hours.1 Efficiency of solid-liquid separation Solid-liquid separation produces a solid and a liquid fraction of the input slurry.e. with e. the volume separation can be calculated (Petersen and Sorensen. 2. In contrast. Thus centrifugation versus flocculation is a matter of the specific product requirements. It may be sedimentation. and it may be carried out before the solid-liquid separation. The reduced separation indexes of the swine and 11 . respectively. if 10% of compound x is present in the solid and the mass of solid is 40% of the total input slurry. i. this may be difficult to measure. 1985). the nitrogen separation and the separation of the ammoniacal nitrogen may be of interest. because of the non-volatile nature. drainage and pressurized filtration. to obtain the largest amount of compounds in the smallest solid fraction. A reduced separation index at 0 corresponds to no increase in concentration in either solid of liquid fraction. 1985).89. For the calculations. This results in a negative reduced separation index. the masses of the liquid and solid fractions are necessary. the slurry being treated by the separator and of the solid fraction being produced (Svarovsky. It has proved useful to apply cobber as reference element. the dry matter separation. For comparisons. The range of the separation index is 0-100%. Separation methods may be compared on the basis of the different separation goals. Drainage was not performed. the volume of the fractions.2 HOW SHOULD SLURRY BE SOLID-LIQUID SEPARATED? Pressurized filtration is the poorest of the mechanical solid-liquid separation techniques with respect to dry matter and phosphorus separation. Et(P) = 80% indicating that 80% of phosphorus is present in the solid fraction. The calculation of the separation index (Et): m( x) solid × 100% m( x) slurry (1) where m(x)slurry and m(x)solid are the mass (g) of x in consideration in. An experiment has been performed (Jørgensen and Hjorth. an increasing concentration in the liquid fraction may occur. centrifugation is the superior one of the mechanical techniques. Additionally. Flocculation increases the phosphorus and dry matter content of the solid fraction further. If 90% of compound x is present in the solid and the mass of solid is 10% of the total input slurry. the reduced separation index (Et’) takes this into account: Et ( x) − Et ' ( x) = 1− msolid mslurry (2) msolid mslurry where mslurry and msolid are the total mass (g) of slurry being treated and the total mass of solids being produced (Svarovsky. 2008). they have been centrifuged at 3. but reduces the volume separation.g. and have been filtered through a static 1 mm filter with 6 bars pressure applied by a piston.5. However on continuous separators. A flocculation cause aggregation of the slurry particles. In contrast to the separation index (Et). as filtration through a static 200 mm filter produced a filtrate being 5% of the total volume. the reduced separation index equals -0. centrifugation. From the concentrations in the input slurry and the solid and liquid fractions.g. the reduced separation index equals 0.

01)e 0.37 (0.. the colloids are detained in the solid fraction if the filter or the filter cake detains it. P) by Turkey’s t-test (P = 0.10 (0. statistically equal results are indicated by equal letters.40 (0.93 (0..2 Efficiency for separation of five parameters by five separation methods applied to swine and cow manure (Hjorth et al.13 (0. polymer flocculation and drainage cow slurries were similar (12 of 16 were statistically equal).03)a 0.06)b 0. However.08 (0.70 (0.02)c 0.77 (0. When filtering with or without applying pressure.91 (0.02)a 0.39 (0. 2000).02)b Phosphorus Swine Cow 0. With respect to phosphorus. The effect of the different separation methods has been compared for each slurry characteristic (volume.09)a 0. Separation method Volume 22 (4)ab 14 (7)ab 23 (16)b 11 (15)a 22 (16)ab Separation index. that the studies has been performed on slurries of a range of characteristics. the pore size of the filter needs to be relatively Table 2.02)a 0.05) (R development core team.05)b 0.70 (0. 2009).. both by gravity and forced as in centrifugation. statistically equal results are indicated by equal letters.01)a 0. The differences between the solid-liquid separation techniques are primarily a matter of the distribution of the colloids (10nm-1µm particles) between the two fractions.05) (SAS Institute Inc.03 (0.14 (0. It is essential to keep in mind when comparing the separation indexes.29 (0. 2005). Despite the lower information level. depends on the size and weight of the particles (Henriksen et al. Further specification on the individual studies may be found in Hjorth et al (2010) and the cited references.1 Efficiency for separation by five separation methods applied to swine and cow manure (Jørgensen and Hjorth. cow) (n=3) and slurry characteristic (DM.Table 2.02)a 0.02)a 0.. thus it is necessary to be cautious with the conclusions.2).20 (0. with the phosphorus content being large in this fraction (Christensen et al.02)a 0. 2009.. Masse et al.34 (0. Separation method Dry matter Swine Cow 0. i.01)c 0. One in six articles presents data sufficient to calculate the reduced separation index (Et’). In general. P) by Turkey’s test (P = 0.98 (0.02)b 0. though.07 (0. TAN. 2008). Et’ Nitrogen Swine Cow 0.01)b 0.40 (0. 1998).03)b 0. centrifugation is generally superior to pressurized filtration and equal to sedimentation (Table 2. Filtering slurry. N.03)b 0. 2010). Centrifugation is superior with respect to phosphorus separation. the colloids will settle by allowing long time for settling and/or by applying sufficient force.15 (0. Sedimentation may therefore be as efficient as centrifugation.01)ab Reduced separation index. Brownian movements are substantial for the light colloids.06)b 0.25 (0. the separation index is therefore a better option than the reduced separation index. which causes settling to be slow. DM.05)a 0.( -) 70 (13)c 43 (24)b 20 (14)a # Experiments Phosphorus 52 (21)bc 71 (14)c 34 (21)b 17 (14)a 79 (21)c Sedimentation Centrifugation Drainage Pressurized filtration Flocculation and solid-liquid separation 3-6 5-16 4-14 13-17 10-28 12 .37 (0.02)d 0.02)a 0.03)a 0.14 (0.10 (0. the literature indicates that sedimentation and drainage provide similar separations (Table 2. and pressurized filtration is less efficient with respect to phosphorus separation.1).01)c Sedimentation Centrifugation Pressurized filtration Polymer flocculation and drainage Coagulation. settling. N. The three mechanical techniques are equal for nitrogen and dry matter. for comparing the studies presented in the literature. The effect of the different separation methods has been compared for each slurry type (swine. Numerous solid-liquid separations have been performed and presented in the scientific literature.17 (0.13 (0.90 (0. According to Stokes law. Et (%) Dry matter Nitrogen Total ammoniacal nitrogen 56 (10)ac 33 ( 2)b 28 ( 2)a bc ab 61 (16) 28 (10) 16 ( 8)a ab ab 44 (27) 27 (17) 23 (19)a a a 37 (18) 15 (17) . One in four contains information to determine the separation index (Et).02)b 0.01)a 0.e.

20% Superfloc c-2260. 2009): Subsamples of one swine slurry and one cow slurry were flocculated and drained 30 min through a 200 mm filter. For further discussion on the differences between solidliquid separation techniques.1). linear cationic polyacrylamide (PAM) with 40 mol% charge density. Only the phosphorus separation was more efficient for swine slurry. 13 . the force destroys the filter cake causing a more compact structure. The reduced separation indexes of the two slurries proved an increased efficiency of the solid-liquid separation due to the flocculation pre-treatment (Table 2. The cake may therefore have fewer sites for colloids. a large. 0.7 L.80 L 0. 1.20% Superfloc c-2260 in small dosages. An experiment has been performed (Jørgensen and Hjorth. This is in opposition to the results of the previously mentioned study. The efficiency of flocculating slurry before the solid-liquid separation may be determined by comparing the efficiency of the solidliquid separations without a pre-flocculation to the efficiency of the solid-liquid separations with pre-flocculation. because of the applied force. the necessarily large pore openings cause large loss of the colloids to the filtrate. but the sedimentation without flocculation caused only 17% of the phosphorus to end in the solid fraction. The phosphorus separation is. causes the phosphorus separation index calculated from the studies presented in the literature to be significantly improved at flocculation. smaller pore sizes may be utilized. Smaller amounts of the colloids are therefore detained by the cake compared to upon drainage. to improve the dry matter separation (Table 2. In drainage.2). more than 60% of the phosphorus was reported particle-bound. which may be caused by the low sedimentation time (20 min). see Hjorth et al. Two flocculation methods are coagulation by multivalent ions and polymer flocculation. respectively. In pressurized filtration. Per litre swine and cow slurry was added 10 mM FeCl3 and subsequently 0. Definition: Flocculation To clump together (aggregate) suspended particles into larger masses (flocs). respectively. Per litre swine and cow slurry was added 0.0 L 0. if the coagulation step was included. not indicated to be significantly improved by the flocculation. which eventually settle out of suspension. In addition. The coagulation did not improve the solid-liquid separation flocculation significantly. 2002). However. the colloids may penetrate the filter and thus lost to the filtrate. The swine and cow slurries were also coagulated and flocculated before drainage for 30 min through a 200 mm filter. (2010).2 Efficiency of flocculation and solid-liquid separation A flocculation may be carried out before the solid-liquid separation. Flocculation is caused by polyelectrolytes. 2. however. with and without a coagulation step included.7 L.large for any filtration to occur at all. Excluding this experiment from the calculations of the average separation efficiency. Comparisons of literature separation efficiencies indicate flocculation. One experiment provided exceptionally low phosphorus separation indexes (Powers and Flatow.

1973). two ‘neighbour’ charges on a particle are matched by two charged monomers on a linear polymer that are separated by 3 charged monomers. because polymer loops and tails are formed (Gregory. Polymer bridging occurs when long-chained polymers adsorb onto the surface of more than one particle. the separation of dry matter and phosphorus is improved. Due to steric hindrance between the particles. 1989).. the charged polymer becomes more coiled because of the attraction and repelling by the increasing amount of charges within the solution. Deflocculation occurs at high doses of added polymer or at high ionic strength of the slurry. 3. The mechanisms behind the reaction between a cationic polyelectrolyte and a suspended anionic particle are charge neutralisation. the many polymers compete for the particle charges. The manure could be solid-liquid separated by drainage. This is because of an increasingly more coiled structure of the polymer.3 HOW SHOULD SLURRY BE FLOCCULATED? Slurry particles may be coagulated and phosphate precipitated by adding FeCl3 or Al2(SO4)3. 1989). which result in Figure 3. which eventually settle out of suspension (Gregory. Upon addition of cationic polyelectrolytes. particles are dispersed evenly because of an electrostatic barrier.1 Principle of interactions between suspended particles and multivalent ions/polymers. 3.. In a stable solution. At increasing ionic strength. and loops and tails are formed. because the positive polyelectrolytes react with the negative particles and the particles are therefore coupled.1c). linear polymer with large charge density. The polymer solution must be added slowly under carefully considered stirring allowing homogenisation and proper aggregation. polymer bridging and patch flocculation (Gregory.e. 3. the interaction is a very strong ionic adsorption. the particles are negative and repel one another. When a cationic polymer is added to anionic particles.1c) (Gregory. b: patch flocculation and c: polymer bridging (Hjorth et al. the slurry should be flocculated with a large. Afterwards. The maximum adsorbed mass of polymers increases with increasing ionic strength (Eriksson et al. i.1 Polymer flocculation If flocculation is carried out before solid-liquid separation. Roughly half of added Fe precipitates phosphorus and coagulate particles. Flocculation clumps together (aggregate) hundreds of suspended particles into larger masses (flocs). causing the formation of large flocs (Fig. This causes a more erratic reaction with the particles. a: charge neutralisation. which cause the polymers to be more randomly attached. 1989). The polymer neutralizes one fourth of the particle surface charges and induces polymer bridging. If e. the loop and tail formation leads to deflocculation at large polymer amounts (Gregory. cationic. the part of the polymer string consisting of the three unattached charged monomer and the four related neutral monomers becomes a loop (Fig. the solution becomes destabilized. At high polymer concentration. 1993). 2008) 14 .g. 1973).

e. which is adjusted by the neutral-to-charged monomer ratio. The polymer bridging may result in 1-100% charge neutralisation (Stoll and Buffle. 1973). This is because large molecules with long tails are capable of catching by-passing particles relatively easily and thus ‘bridge’ to them. because a relative large area of the particle surface has to be covered by the polymer (Bratskaya et al. patch flocculation has been not been observed for low-molecular-weight polymers. as this affects the number of loops and tails that are formed and the interaction between polymer and particles (Ashmore and Hearn. as the polymerization reaction is difficult to control. neutral or negative. at low ionic strength (Gregory. polymer bridging has previously proved less significant. This results in a strong positive-negative electrical attraction between the particles. This is because branched polymers are more rigid and cannot stretch out and match the charges on the particle.. Hence it may be speculated that 20-80% of the surface charges need to be neutralized (Gregory. 2008). Charge density is also important. High ionic strength reduces the significance of electrical attractions. Larsson et al. as this causes 50% of the negative charges to become positive. 1999). This mechanism may be considered as a combination of polymer bridging and charge neutralisation (Fig.. Patch flocculation is the adsorption to particles of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes with a charge density higher than the charge density of the particles. Patch flocculation may be speculated to require close to 100% of the charges for highest efficiency. Greater tendencies to patch flocculation are expected for branched polymers compared with linear polymers (Bouyer et al. 1973). Definition: Polymer A large molecule consisting of a series of monomers covalently linked. Deflocculation will occur when the particle surface charges have been reversed. The charge neutralisation mechanism (Fig. Polymer characteristics of importance to polymer bridging are molecular weight and the molecular structure (Bouyer et al. medium. local positively and negatively charged areas are formed on the surface of the particles (Fig. Thus.1). Thus it appears to be reasonable to assume. the polymer needs to catch every particle. This was explained by the fact that the polymer adopt a rather ‘flat’ configuration on the negative particle. The actual significance of the different mechanisms may be studied by considering the charge neutralisation degree prior to deflocculation. Two very different polyacrylamides both proved optimum flocculation at a charge neutralisation degree of one fourth (Hjorth et al.fewer of the polymer charges to be available for reaction with the particles. large or very large. 3... o Molecular weight/size: Small. 2001). Variations include: o Charge: Positive. thus there is also an upper limit for the cationic polymer charges added. the high ionic strength of slurry (Christensen et al. The analysis assumes a simple one charge-to-one charge reaction. which is controlled by the monomers charges. However. thus a minimum of cationic polymer charges is required. Thus in contrast to this previous study. no specific sizes.1a) may be speculated to neutralize up to 100% of the charges for high efficiency. that polymer bridging is the main mechanism. 3. which is adjusted by sites available for polymer chain reaction on monomers. 1996). 2001. This will thus create more local surface charge reversal than the flexible linear polymers. and thus reduces the opportunity of bridging contacts (Gregory. o Charge density: 0-100 mol%. For cationic polymer and anionic particles.1b) (Gregory. 2005). 1973). 15 .. 3. especially when the electrical attraction extends far into the solution. On the other hand. i. i.e. 2009) may cause the increased significance of polymer bridging. o Structure: Linear or branched. Additionally. 2000). deflocculation due to difficulties with finding available particle sites and steric repulsion needs to be avoided. 1989)..

Polymers of medium charge density (20–40 mol%) have been shown to be most efficient in most studies. An experiment has been performed (Hjorth et al. large polymer with a charge density of 40 mol% and a branched. The reason may be the very efficient capture of smaller particles by the large flocs.. This confirms that polymer bridging is the main mechanism behind flocculation in slurry (Hjorth et al.2) is because of the increased steric 1e+12 hindrance at a smaller polymer amount above 1e+11 optimum.. 2010) most studies indicate that a cationic polyacrylamide polymer is superior to anionic and neutral polymers. molecular size and structure (Hjorth et al. with efficiency being one or several of the motivators discussed in section 1. Hence it has the ability to catch particles efficiently as required in polymer bridging. 2009). The large. If the polymer was under dosed. and neither must patch flocculation be significant. This resulted in efficient catching of the small particles. slurry (Hjorth et al. The samples were separated by centrifugation. 2010). Thus a slightly lower liquid turbidity and liquid phosphorus content following drainage was observed. charge. 2008): Subsamples of a swine slurry sample were flocculated with different amounts of two cationic polyacrylamides: a linear. i.. especially when using separators. 3.. 3. The high filtration resistance induced by overdosing 1e+13 the linear polymer (Fig. This results in deflocculation and destruction of floc 1e+10 structure.2 Average specific filter-cake resistance at pressurized filtration of flocculated resistance to filtration.. 2010). 2008. but the Fe and linear polymer lowest resistance to 1e+14 filtration. That is. as the liquid more easily passed by the small and dense flocs.e. Additionally. a polymer of medium charge density also has many non-charged sites. Small differences were observed between the polymer types. Vanotti and Hunt. Further indications on the optimum polymer characteristics are that polymers of large molecular weight are preferable to those of smaller molecular weight (Hjorth et al. low-charge-density polymer created large and loose flocs. Hence charge neutralisation (Fig. linear. The higher 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Polymer charge (meq/kg slurry) liquid turbidity caused Specific filter-cake resistance (m/kg) 16 . In the literature (Hjorth et al.. Small and compact flocs was formed by the smaller.1a) is not pronounced.The efficiency of the slurry flocculation depends on the polymer characteristics. the linear polymer caused fewer difficulties with the Figure 3. 1999). where liquid is drained off the solids. It will therefore not neutralize the particular area of the particle surface completely.. drainage and pressurized filtration. medium sized polymer with a charge density of 80 mol%. However. which correlates well with the fact that the particles in animal slurry are mainly negatively charged (Christensen et al. a polymer of medium charge density has a large number of charged sites. This caused the observed slightly larger dry matter content of the solid and slightly lower resistance to drainage. branched. It will leave charges available on the particle surface for another polymer. large-chargedensity polymer. charge density. which were mainly because of the different shapes of the flocs. 2008) If the polymer was 1e+16 overdosed.3. the resulting large size shape of the flocs may be an advantage in the solid–liquid separators used to treat the flocculated slurry. the branched polymer branched polymer Fe and branched polymer caused the largest linear polymer 1e+15 liquid turbidity.

.. 2001. 2002).. the linear. 2010). In addition. with the objective of replacing polyacrylamide with potentially less toxic polymers. this fraction is to be anaerobically digested or thermally converted. as well as the natural flocculants guar gym..g. Definition: Polyacrylamide (PAM) Consists of n times the monomer acrylamide and m times a charged monomer. The solid fraction will contain the majority of the polymer. Through addition of multivalent cations (coagulants) it is possible to neutralise the particle’s surface charge by oppositely charged counterions. the environmental and health consequences may be expected to be less. The sum of these interaction contributions has been assumed to result in the attraction and repulsion between particles.. the DLVO approach. Aggregation is induced because of the reduced electrostatic repulsion.2 Coagulation and precipitation Flocculation may include a coagulation step before the polymer flocculation. Therefore. nitrogen and phosphorus. i. The reactions between iron and orthophosphate include 17 . seed extracts and microbial extracellular polymers (Garcia et al. Selecting between the two polymers are thus a matter of the individual application.N-dimethylaminoethylacrylate methylchloride: CH CH2 C O (CH2) 2 O m CH CH2 C O NH2 n The polymer applied for slurry flocculation + N in the literature is primarily polyacrylamide Cl CH3 CH3 (Hjorth et al. 3.g.g. 1989). the effect of polyacrylamide and chitosan flocculation has been compared with respect to the separation of dry matter. 2009. the compact flocs are less efficient at adsorbing the small particles. The Stern layer is surrounded by diffusive layer of positive counterions distributed more broadly in the dispersion medium (Gregory. low-charge-density polymer appears to be the appropriate polymer in many applications. showed the risk of polyacrylamide to be minimal (Schechter et al. starches. the Van der Waahls forces induce attraction between particles. 1989. The result is two interaction energy minima and thus two particle-particle interaction distances. 2009). Sievers et al. However. the cationic N. however. volatile solids. The cationic chitosan was proved potential as a replacement of polyacrylamide in slurry separation (Garcia et al. However. Gregory. 1989). 1994). a nerve toxin (Caulfield et al. there is a need for further studies on the efficiency of alternative polymer types for slurry separation. as the positive particle surfaces will cause increased repulsion between two particles (Gregory. Overdosing occurs if the adsorbed ions reverse the surface charge. 2002). The secondary electrical minimum and longest interaction distance predominantly is related to polymer flocculation. Recently. In addition to charge neutralisation. sodium alginate. According to the modified double layer theory. a process termed charge neutralisation (Fig 3. these additives are considered to be ‘generally recognized as safe’ (GRAS) when added to the slurry below a specific application rate related to the end use (Vanotti et al. a negative particle is surrounded by the rather stationary Stern layer of positive counterions electrostatically attracted to the particle. the multivalent positive ions may precipitate the dissolved orthophosphorus. if e. when considering new polymers. Salehizadeh and Shojaosadati. A study on separated slurry products.by the branched polymer. large. The primary electrical minimum is related to the coagulation interaction with a multivalent cation. Although polyacrylamide has proved nontoxic. Alternative flocculants include the synthetic polymer polyethylene imine and polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride and the natural polymer chitosan. The separation products CH3 are often destined to be applied to cultivated (Cytec Indutries Inc..e. Furthermore.1a). 2006) fields. PO43-/HPO42-/H2PO4-.. 1995).. is that despite the less pronounced deflocculation. it is necessary to consider the toxicity of the organic components produced during degradation of the polymers. Thus the environmental and health consequences of the applied polymer must be considered. e. the monomers of polyacrylamide are toxic and e. In the USA.

87% respectively 92% of the total phosphorus was retained in the solid fraction.precipitation of ironphosphates such as FePO4.5 mmol phosphate per L and the 10mmol Fe added caused the precipitation of 0. Takacs et al. 2009).05mmol precipitated). and adsorption of phosphate ions onto ferric hydroxide ions which could be Fe(OH)3+(aq) (Pierri et al. 2000. The essential iron-phosphate precipitate is FePO4 (Takacs et al. 2008. 2005). 2006).. 1999).. Unlike the multivalent ion addition.3. Under the specific experimental conditions and assuming that the phosphate was not retained as dissolved in water within the flocs upon polymer flocculation. a rather efficient phosphorus removal may still result. approximately 50% of the added Fe ((5 mmolFe for coagulation + 0.. Based on this. The rough estimate that half the added Fe precipitate phosphorus and coagulate particles indicate that the Fe is also involved in other reactions.. If the multivalent cation added to the slurry is calcium. Masse et al.5 mmolFe for precipitation) / 10mmolFe added) is precipitating or coagulating.g..2 has been measured (Smith et al. this will not result in the dissolved phosphate to be precipitated. However. which may be more effectively coagulated.3gP / 31g mol-1 * (92%-87%)).5 mmol Fe L-1 slurry (0. the efficiency is ranked as CaO > Ca(OH)2.. 2009.5mmol phosphate/10mmol Fe). A broad range of multivalent cations have been tested for slurry treatment.05 phosphate ion precipitating per added iron atom are very low compared to in municipal waste water. 2008. Takacs et al. the efficiency is ranked as Al2(SO4)3 > AlCl3. When comparing the most efficient molecule of the three mentioned multivalent ions. If the multivalent ion is iron.3 g total phosphorus and 0.. 2010). 2006).05 phosphate ion per added Fe atom (0. despite the apparent Fe and P excess (1. it would require 5 mmol Fe L-1 slurry (9. Jørgensen and Hjorth. with efficiency being one or several of the motivators discussed in section 1. Hjorth et al. Additionally.. 0. by the absence or only low reduction in polymer requirement and dewatering (Hjorth et al. and to assess which multivalent ions provide the best slurry separation (Hjorth et al. An experiment has been performed (Hjorth et al. an estimate may be obtained on how much of the added multivalent ions coagulate and how much precipitate phosphorus. 2009.* 1meq P / 1meqFe). of formation of non-P containing Fe hydroxides. the reaction ratio in slurry was therefore roughly estimated 0. if 100% charge neutralisation of the slurry particle surface actually had occurred. This provides the opportunity to compare the efficiency of additives. in which a reaction ratio of 0. The efficiency of Fe appears to be low in slurry under the higher conductivity conditions of slurry. 2006).. the efficiency is ranked as FeCl3 > Fe2(SO4)3 > FeSO4. if the multivalent ion is aluminium. 2008): A swine slurry characterized by 0. Aggregation of the small particles may alternatively be performed by a small polymer instead of or in addition to the coagulation by the multivalent ion (Odegaard et al.81meq / 2meqFe/mmolFe). and after polymer flocculation and drainage. It was evident from the appearance of the floc formation in the slurry solution that 100% charge neutralisation did not occur. The improved phosphorus separation by the multivalent ion addition is a result of phosphate precipitation and/or agglomeration of small particles.. This may be because e.g.. 18 . However.81 meq L-1 slurry was used. Thus the iron-phosphate precipitate has a 1:1 molar ratio in P:Fe. co-precipitation with ferric hydroxides which could be Fe(OH)3(s).05 g phosphate per L and a particle surface charge of -9.3-1. The phosphate precipitation will therefore require approx.. ion exchange on existing slurry molecules and precipitation of other slurry components. the efficiency order is: Al2(SO4)3 ≈ FeCl3 > CaO. However because of the relatively high phosphorus content in the small particles (Christensen et al. The slurry contained 1.5mmol PO43. the calculated ratio of 0.5mmol phosphate available but 0. the particle agglomeration in slurry is only slightly significant. which is expressed e.5 mmol phosphorus (0. The slurry samples were added 0 and 10ml 1M FeCl3 per L slurry. While. Thus.

an initial vigorous mixing causes a homogeneous distribution.3 Addition procedure The addition procedure is essential for the reactions to be efficient. Iron is slightly larger than aluminium. For example. has a large impact on the formation of the aggregates. aluminium is toxic to organisms living in water (Nahm. In laboratory this is e. 2005). in addition. be considered when selecting the multivalent ion. and the efficiency for reducing the particle repulsion decreases..The higher the cationic valence. The flocculation kinetics are controlled by the actual particle collision mechanism.. coagulated slurry particles and orthophosphate precipitates. This may be preferable when nitrification/denitrification or NH3 stripping is to follow the separation (Szögi et al. This causes the aggregates to be non-uniform and unstable. 3. This is necessary for polymer bridging and patch flocculation to occur. which is explained by the increasing efficiency for reducing a particle’s surface charge (Gregory. orthokinetic flocculation (fluid motion which occur at large shear) or differential settling (different particle density/sizes causing different settling velocities and thus collisions which occur at lower shear). An experiment has been performed (Hjorth et al. This should be followed by a longer lasting slow stirring (e. That is. 30 sec). 1999). 2008). the polymer is added to collect the larger particles and the agglomerates formed by the multivalent ion. a decrease in pH is observed upon addition of FeCl3 and Al2(SO4)3 (Hjorth et al. CaO causes pH to increase. iron and calcium are naturally present in soils. A secondary longer and slower stirring is performed with the aim of allowing time for reactions ensures efficient reactions (Szabo et al. This could be an advantage as this will reduce NH3 emissions. 0. 1989. Aluminium may be only trivalent: This is one explanation to the absence of a straightforward efficiency comparison. 2 min). 2009). Upon addition in batch experiments. Under continuous operation. The shear applied. Too low a shear causes primarily perikinetic flocculation and differential settling. Aluminium. However. 2010). 2006). Additionally. In addition. and polymer droplets may even act as ‘nuclei’ for floc formation. 2008): Swine slurry was flocculated with four flocculent combinations and centrifugation. 3. The ultimate use of the separation products should. and the applied shearing velocity should be carefully selected. 1989). 5 tons per hour on a belt separator (Hjorth et al. decreasing the radius of a particle without changing the charge. which depends on the specific sample and shear conditions.1-1 L samples drained by using a cylinder covered by a filter cloth in the bottom (Hjorth and Christensen.. too large a shear causes primarily orthokinetic flocculation. Next.4 Solid-liquid separation After the careful multivalent ions and polymer additions and flocculation.g. or even the polymer chains to be broken (Gregory. the design of the stirring chamber has an effect on the flocculation kinetics. the polymer should be added continuously and gradually. which depends on the time and stirring velocity of the impeller. In batch experiments. and on farms being continuous separation of e.g. and additionally for the polymers flocculation of slurry particles. the hydration layer thickens. The possible mechanisms are perikinetic flocculation (brownian motion/diffusion which occurs at low shear). That is. for the coagulation and phosphorus precipitation induced by the multivalent ion. Mikkelsen. the particle catchment will be inefficient. In addition. as e. If both additive types are used. the slurry may be transferred to ordinary solid–liquid separators. 2008). The 19 . the atomic size is also slightly relevant. and cause the aggregates to be destroyed. the more efficient. the particle approaching velocity decreases. but though added as Fe3+ it may under the typically anaerobic conditions of slurry be present as Fe2+. the significance of the amount added with slurry relative to the natural content should also be considered.. drainage and pressurized filtration was performed.. the polymer should be added slowly in small doses during a short vigorous stirring (e.g. the multivalent ion is initially added to the slurry to collect the dissolved phosphorus and small particles in larger agglomerates.g. On the other hand.g.

Hence the settling time in the experiments may not have been sufficient for settling of the smallest particles. Alternative solid-liquid separation techniques are being developed for flocculated slurry that take into account the fragile nature of the slurry flocs. The relative efficiency of solid-liquid separation techniques may depend on the flocculation.e. sequentially expanding and contracting the diameter (Christophersen. 20 . which has a high amount of phosphorus. Very little shear is applied to the flocs upon drainage. Examples are the Filter tower. Comparing the studies in the literature the indication is the following efficiency ranking for separation phosphorus: drainage > centrifugation > sedimentation. 2008). drainage though a filter sock and gentle squeezing sideways by balloons (Timmerman. while for separation dry matter and nitrogen: sedimentation > drainage > centrifugation. Another example is the solid-liquid separator draining along a pipe. 2008). with small compact flocs preferential upon settling and fluffy easily-drained-by flocs preferential upon drainage. The largest particles generally settle the quickest. i.effect on the dry matter separation. and gentle squeezing along the pipe by multiple rings slowly. and therefore are drainage an efficient solidliquid separation following flocculation. The previous studies indicate that sedimentation removes dry matter and nitrogen but not phosphorus efficiently from the liquid. phosphorus separation and liquid turbidity by the three solidliquid separations techniques were insignificantly different.

1989). i. It may be measured by quantifying the amount of a small well-defined polymer required to reach a zeta-potential of 0 mV (Mikkelsen. The average surface charge of one swine slurry was assessed to -10 meq/kg (Christensen et al. This is according to the DLVO theory. The chemical and physical characteristics of the input slurry are therefore of significance to these processes. A particle’s zeta-potential is the electrical potential at the plane of shear. municipal wastewater. as the interaction between charged particles is governed predominantly by the overlap of diffusive layers (Gregory. 2009). the overall slurry particle charge is negative.4 WHAT AFFECTS FLOCCULATION? The slurry ionic strength. 15-20% humic substances/lignin. 1989). 1995). the conductivity has been observed to be 17-21 mS/cm (Christensen et al. this ionic strength is high. particle zeta-potential.. The high ionic strength will also reduce the molecules activities/effective concentrations. The characteristics are determined by the animal excreting the slurry.e.. 2003). 10-30% carbohydrates/cellulose. 2009). The ionic strength expresses the ionic content of the liquid. Additionally. For slurry of young pigs.g. which may be expected to result in reduced phosphate precipitation by the multivalent ion. such as municipal wastewater. the size of the zeta-potential indicates the slurry solution to be moderately stabile. thus it does not flocculate spontaneously (Gregory. which spontaneously flocculate. The slurry’s physical and chemical characteristics differ significantly from other media commonly flocculated. Hence. Therefore the polymer flocculation may be less efficient as e. finishing pigs and gestating sows. 10-25% hemi cellulose. the thinner the ion layers is required to balance the particle charges (Gregory. and the handling of the slurry between excretion and separation 4. 2009).1 Physical and chemical characteristics of slurry Polymer flocculation. A particle’s free surface charge may be measured at the plane of shear. The charge density will therefore decrease. This causes the mechanisms of polymer flocculation. because as the concentration of counterions in the Stern layer and diffusive layer increases. Thus it affects the potential range of interaction. the polymer becomes curled. because it reduces the spatial extent of particles electrostatic attraction and repulsion. When increasing the amount of flocculating agent. 10 * 10-3 equivalent positive charges need to be added per kg slurry. if 100% charge neutralization is to be obtained. 5% fat.. Relative to e.g. That is plane of shear is the actual surface charge partially neutralised by the Stern layer counterions. The particle zetapotential is approximately -35 mV in swine slurry (Christensen et al. Thus the chance is larger for reaction between the cationic polymer and a nearby ion. It is reasonable to apply this as a measure of a particle’s surface charge. 1989). the zetapotential will increase. particle surface charge. A solution with a zeta-potential of 0 mV is an unstable solution. between a particle and a fluid when there is relative motion between them (Gregory. The chance of coagulation is increased due to the reduction in layer thickness and thus reduced electrostatic repulsion. The surface charge originates from ionization of surface groups and specific adsorption of ions. The conductivity is typically applied to express this (Sommer and Husted. coagulation and phosphorus precipitation are modifications of the slurry’s chemical and physical characteristics. Slurry particles consists of 10-15% proteins. Increasing the conductivity affects flocculation. and in addition 15-25% inorganic 21 . 1989). and the flocculating agents need to be cationic. total and specific dry matter content. and the slurry solution will become instable and flocculate. More charges in the liquid are available for reaction at high conductivity. content of multivalent metals and speciation of nutrients are slurry characteristics in control of flocculation efficiency. Thus. coagulation and phosphorus precipitation to differ. The zeta-potential is assumed an adequate substitute of the Stern-potential between the Stern and diffusive layer.

2009). 2009).compounds such as struvite (Christensen et al. (2009) and cited references. This is supported by experiments on polymer flocculation of slurry. 5-20 mg/kg and 2-3 mg/kg. an equally efficient polymer flocculation will require lower polymer amount.. 0. 2005). 1998). 2009. Hence the naturally occurring multivalent ions play a significant in the phosphorus precipitation and coagulation. this results in an increased polymer demand. 2009).. E. see e. 22 . while keeping the particles being the same. The protein content appear to hold the main responsibility for the different surface charge of different particle size groups. pH and viscosity. is contained in particles (Christensen et al. Jørgensen and Hjorth. Mg and Fe (Masse et al. 2010). 2010). Cattle and swine manure have different chemical compositions (Hjorth et al.. In a flocculation experiment with efficient phosphorus separation.. 2009). the polymer bridging may not be as efficient due to difficulties with catching the particles. Thus increasing the phosphorus content in the small particles will raise the need for a coagulating agent.2 Slurry origin and pre-treatment The slurry’s physical and chemical properties are determined by the animal origin and pretreatments of the slurry. showing that slurry with low dry matter content requires a very high polymer dosage for deflocculation (unpublished data). however.. the slurry particles free surface charge density increases. 4. however. Powers and Flatow.. The dissolved content is 200-300 mg/kg. At very low particle concentration. By increasing the relative content of the high charge compounds such as the humic substances. The dissolved multivalent cation content is highest for the finishing pigs. further in Hjorth et al. not be linear (Stoll and Buffle. respectively.g. The feeding strategy of swine has proved an effect on the separation (Daumer et al. sows and finishing pigs (Christensen et al. 2002. The relative amount of free charges on these compounds varies. as humic substances is a mixture of partially degraded organic compounds. steric hindrance and thus deflocculation may more likely occur. At high particle concentrations. Rico et al. The argument is that the charged organic compound primarily changing in content between particle size groups are the protein (Christensen et al. Coagulation is the primary mean of flocculating the small particles of slurry. In addition.. Approximately 30% and 70% of swine slurry nitrogen and phosphorus... This causes a smaller polymer volume range to result in optimum flocculation. E. slurry particle rigidness. and the additionally added multivalent ions may merely push the chemical equilibrations. 1996).45-10 µm particles (Masse et al. The most significant multivalent ions naturally occurring in slurry is Ca. (2010) and Christensen et al. The most essential nutrient in the small particles is thus phosphorus..5 mgFe/L was added (Hjorth et al. 2009.. no general trend on the flocculation efficiency between the slurry types (Hjorth et al. the particle surface charge is the highest for sows. 2004. 70% of the phosphorus and particle-bound-nitrogen is contained in or adsorbed to the 0.. In addition. This may be expected to have an effect on the flocculation efficiency. The polymer bridges between the particles. 2007).. 2010.. 2009). respectively (Christensen et al. Hjorth et al. There is. fat have fewer free charges than the humic substances. Other characteristics that may have an effect of slurry flocculation include the particle shapes. Approx.g. the required shear for optimum floc formation may depend on the dry matter content. The chemical composition of swine manure differs between young pigs. The relationship between the slurry’s dry matter content and the polymer requirement may. the particle size distribution has an effect on the surface area available for reactions and the particle sizes present for polymer catching. 2004. thus by lowering the concentration of dry matter. Liao et al. This is 5-20% of the total content of the specific multivalent ion.. 2005).g. The total dry matter content of slurry is 4-7% under Danish conditions (Sommer and Husted. Nitrogen and phosphorus separation is of large importance to farmers. This is indicated by experiments performed on polymer flocculation of slurry (Vanotti et al. Thus. Zhang and Lei. 1995).

The optimum charge density of the polymer for the unfermented slurry was 40%.g.g. the optimum charge density of a cationic. storage for 8 days at 18 ºC has proved to reduce the particle sizes. may however be ascribed to the low storage temperature. while the content of phosphate increased (Christensen et al.. During storage of three pig slurries for 35 days at 12 ºC. 2006). while storage at 20 º C for 5 months has proved to decrease the dry matter content by 25% (Kunz et al. be a result of slow dry matter degradation. the phosphorus separation was determined. In addition. The optimum charge density of fermented slurry was 10%. the absence of change in total content of dry matter and humic substances and the free particle surface charge does not support the findings in practice of the increased polymer demand. high charged humic substances into smaller.. Phytase addition has resulted in increased separation efficiency of phosphorus upon screw press separation and reduced separation efficiency of phosphorus upon flocculation and drainage. addition of acids for reducing NH3 emission and ozonation for reducing H2S emissions may result in a change in the physical and chemical characteristics of the slurry and therefore affect the flocculation. the free surface charge. The decrease in required charge density may be explained by the fermentation’s extensive degradation of e. 2000). lower charged substances such as volatile fatty acids. The phosphate increase may result in a reduced phosphorus separation index. 23 . and thus the low microbial metabolism. Additionally. the decrease in the dry matter content would result in a decreased polymer demand..g. e. 2009). as phosphorus containing compounds may have been entirely degraded.2002. The required polymer dosage was 1/3 larger than the unfermented slurry. as was the optimum polymer amount. e. 2008). The absence of effect on the expected polymer demand. very large polymer was determined. a changed charge density of the polymer to be applied.g. 2009): Swine manure was fermented in a thermophilic reactor with a retention time of 15 days to produce biogas. causes fewer phosphate ions to be adsorbed as a counterion on the particles. Moller et al. 2010).. the content of smaller particles of partially degraded organic matter (humic substances) may increase. and therefore increase the free particle surface charge density. In addition. If assuming unchanged composition of the dry matter. 30% reduction in the required polymer amount may be explained by the 40% reduction in DM and VS content upon fermentation. This degradation may also have caused the reduced phosphorus separation. as has also been observed in several experiments previously (Hjorth et al. The approx. Storage of slurry has in practice been observed to increase the polymer demand (Nissen. and for polymer flocculation. 2009.. This may be explained by the phytase’s effect on the particle size distribution (Sommer et al. Storage may thus result in an increased polymer demand and/or e.g.. Thus the particle bound phosphorus would have turned into dissolved phosphorus. though. large. The observed dry matter decrease must.. Thus e. the total content of humic substances and total content of dry matter remained unchanged. Previously. and showed a decrease after fermentation. An experiment has been performed (Hjorth et al. However. a reduced amount of surface charges on the particles. linear. Three FeCl3 dosages were applied to the unfermented and the fermented slurry. Sommer et al. 2008).

When performing slurry flocculation. Thereby the analytical method may be termed indirect. and near infrared spectroscopic measurements.g. the liquid fraction’s turbidity and viscosity. with the term direct referring to the fact that an analytical method is directly linked to a separation criterion. and the dewatering measure. i. Because the separation criterions may be achieved at similar polymer amounts (Hjorth and Christensen.1 At-line direct analytical methods Because the slurry origin and pre-treatments have such effect on the physical and chemical characteristics of slurry. 2006). which is lost because the colloids are mainly organic and colloids may be lost to the filtrate. dewaterability and capillary suction time. the polymer dosage is determined in laboratory scale by multiple.1) Table 5. The two analytical methods may be applied to monitor the connected separation criterion as well as the other four separation criteria. the aim and the connected direct analytical method (Hjorth and Christensen. 5. which is determined by heating the sample to 105 ºC for 24 hours. A simple. This is done initially for assessing the required polymer volume and on a regular basis on continuously running separators. This makes it impossible to merely add a large polymer amount to ensure proper flocculation. the dry matter content of the solid fraction. the polymer amount required to achieve the optimum flocculation of slurries varies considerably. because the sty with animals of different ages and feedings are emptied randomly into the manure pre-tank to handle. deflocculation occurs if the polymer dosage becomes too high (e. In practise today. Phosphorus is primarily contained in the particles. control of the flocculation is necessary to ensure optimum flocculation.2). because an efficient and time-limited dead-end drainage causes the largest volume of filtrate. 2008) Connected direct No. Dewatering and dry matter content of retentate are related (Fig 5.1). 2008). Two of the analytical methods have proved the largest potential. manual tests in 1L beakers by trained personal (Nissen. e. The slurry origin varies rapidly on farms. with the aim of subsequently regulating the process parameters according to the input manure. the flocculated sample’s floc size. which is calculated from the continuously monitored weight of the filtrate (Hjorth and Christensen. 2008). 3.1 Separation performance criteria.g.5 HOW SHOULD FLOCCULATION BE CONTROLLED? The flocculation of the continuously changing slurry may be automated. These are the solid fraction’s dry matter content. In addition. Thus. fig. Seven analyses have indicated potential to monitor slurry separation in bench scale experiments or on-line at full scale separators.e. Separation criterion Aim analytical method 1 Low P content of liquid fraction Reduce P loss after field-spreading of manure P content of liquid fraction 2 High DM content of solid fraction Minimize long-distance transportation of nutrients DM content of solid fraction 3 High VS content of solid fraction Increase the energy concentration VS content of solid fraction 4 High throughput of separator (L/hr) Reduce cost Dewaterability 5 High floc strength Avoid reduction in dewatering and Surface erosion in separation efficiency Five direct analytical methods are therefore of interest for monitoring the flocculation. The reason for the relation between the dry matter and the volatile solid content are that the dry matter and volatile solids mass ratio is not significantly affected by small extra loss of organic matter upon separation. which may be done by monitoring the flocculation using an analytical method. five aspects are essential (Table 5. cheap and quick analytical method would thus be preferred for assessing the optimum polymer volume. thus increasing the dry matter content of the solid fraction 24 . an analytical method may also be useful for monitoring the fulfilment of a nonconnected separation criterion.

correct polymer addition needs to be monitored continuously as the input slurry varies. Samples were flocculated with different volumes of the indicated additives (Hjorth and Christensen. 1968. CST is determined by pouring a flocculated sample into a cylinder positioned centrally on a filtration paper. thus evidently. Baskerville and Gale. such as when emptying a slurry tank. particle zeta-potential. See further on the relationship between the methods in (Hjorth and Christensen. Thus measuring one or a combination of these characteristics of unflocculated slurry may also have potential for indirectly determination the polymer demand. 2008). 2008). the particle becomes Branched polymer Branched polymer + FeCl3 more entangled by the polymer Linear polymer Linear polymer + FeCl3 causing less erosion on the floc 0% surface. 2003). which dry matter content of the obtained solid fraction. 5. the dry matter content of the solid 10% fraction may be used to monitor the flocs surface erosion. Large flocs cause minimum surface erosion. Ionic strength. Dewatering measurement requires specific equipment and calculations. Sludge volume index (SVI). In addition. See further on the relationship between the methods in (Hjorth and Christensen. Turbidity of the liquid fraction. therefore the relation to the dewatering despite different sample height-to-filter area of the two techniques. particle size distribution and speciation of nutrients are slurry characteristics that affect the flocculation. capillary suction time (CST) and floc size have previously proved valuable as indirect methods for the laboratory determinations of the optimum polymer volume of other media (Bache and Zhao. viscosity of the liquid fraction and particle dispersion analysis (PDA) have previously proved valuable as indirect methods for the laboratory determinations of the 25 DM (%). In addition. a quick and on-line analytical method is preferred for the process monitoring. particle surface charge. when 0 1 10 100 improving the polymer 1/2 Dewatering (L/s ) flocculation. 5. the solid fraction dry matter content and liquid fraction 15% phosphorus content and the dewatering. total and specific dry matter content. but are correlated to the direct measurements of the criteria. 2001.3 On-line indirect analytical methods In continuous operation on farms. more particles becomes entangled by the polymer. Of the three. solid . By improving the polymer 5% flocculation.1 Correlation between gravity dewatering of flocculated slurry and of the solid fraction. Floc size is a relative visual determination with 1 being practically no floc visible and 5 for the largest flocs. the large flocs has the particles firmly attached to the polymer. For continuous operation. 2008). explains the correlation between 2008).increases the phosphorus content Figure 5. content of multivalent metals. Zhao. and measuring the duration for saturation of the paper. the actual flocculation needs to be performed.2 At-line indirect analytical methods Dry matter determination of the solid fraction is time consuming. thus improving the dewatering and increasing the solid content of the solid fraction.1) and therefore termed indirect analyses. floc size and CST determination have proved large potential in slurry (Hjorth and Christensen. Additionally. Capillary suction time expresses the velocity of drainage through the sample. Alternative analytical methods measure other flocculation characteristics than the ones measuring the separation criteria directly (Table 5.

The energy is absorbed by overtones and combination bands of a molecular vibrations and rotations. 1992. vials with a 3 mm path length were applied. thus to obtain the optimum number of scans to average for a spectrum. and calibration was done with PLS1 on spectra pretreated by mean centering and validated using cross validation. thus the resulting slurry spectrum becomes a disturbed water spectrum (Fig. However. and an alternative sampling apparatus has therefore been developed (unpublished data. therefore. See further on the relationship between the methods in (Hjorth and Christensen. Saeys et al. dry matter and volatile solid separation as well as the dewaterability were determined. and therefore the relationship between dewatering and liquid turbidity. 2005. Of the three. 5. was applied.2 Near infrared spectra of one cow.. Of the flocculated samples and liquid fractions transmission NIR spectra was obtained: The FT-NIR QFAflex600 from Qinterline/Bohmem was used. 5. 1996). Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is a method that may have potential to be applied on-line. A flow cell has been developed (Holm-Nielsen et al. transmission is not possible. Multivariate analysis is therefore required such as PLS1 with a validation set. Sampling is essential to obtain the optimum NIR spectra. An NIR spectrum. C-C..optimum polymer volume of other media (Dentel et al. 2010).. The phosphorus. Eriksson et al. These molecular movements are executed by covalent bondings. Comparisons of the r2.. An experiment has been performed (Hjorth and Larsen. 2000... transmission has proved advantages over reflection measures e. Liquid viscosity is measured with a devoted apparatus as the resistance exhibited by the liquid on a rotating object. 2005). These clog the filter and formed filter cake. 2008). one pig slurry and water (2.. 100-200 samples needs to be analyzed for the actual characteristic... Slurry particles settles rapidly (Hjorth et al. which relates to the amount of small particle in the flocculated sample. standard error of cross validation (SECV). In contrast to the previously mentioned methods. Slurry contains multiple organic components and 90% water. That is impossible to interpret directly. and is therefore related to the liquid turbidity. for determining slurry pH and ammonia content (unpublished data). NIR may be applied without flocculating the slurry. an InGaAs detector Figure 5. primarily displays band of O-H.. 2008). Turbidity estimates the particle size distribution and amount in the liquid. Sorensen et al. Liquid viscosity increases with particle content. C-H.2). All are methods that may be applied on-line. in through a polyethylene hose with 4 mm path length containing slurry in movement. Fig.2). 2004. the slurry needs to be in motion. the 10 respectively 1 replicate measures of 1L samples). ratio of NIR standard error prediction to sample standard error prediction Wave number (cm-1) 26 .g. The NIR region of the electromagnetic spectrum is 800-2500 nm. 2009. 2007). This causes filtration resistance. C-O. 2008). Absorbance 10 sec 50 scans was obtained and averaged to obtain a spectrum. and NIR spectra needs to be obtained (Malley et al. 2007): Swine slurry was flocculated with forty different flocculant combinations and drained. liquid turbidity and viscosity determination have proved large potential in slurry (Garcia et al. measured as transmission resolution was 32 cm-1. thus. 2007). Due to the dark colour and high particle content of slurry. Hjorth and Christensen. Liquid turbidity is measured as the light scattering at 600 nm with a spectrophotometer. However. C-N bondings one or more places in the spectrum (Benito et al. Huang and Chen. reflection measurements have previously been used (Malley et al. To obtain a calibration curve of one slurry characteristic.

79) to control the phosphorus.97.88 respectively 0.77. 27 . the precision should be improved before the calibration may be applied. NIR may additionally be a potential technique for determining the optimum slurry flocculation. 0..(RPD). Because of the low sample amount in the calibration. and the liquid fractions were superior to the flocculated sample (r2 = 0.87 versus 0. However. 0. Thus. 2005). dry matter and organic dry matter separation. as RER = 8-12 which is equal to a moderately successful/useful calibration (Malley et al. the near infrared spectrum of the liquid fraction provided excellent/moderately successful predictions. and ratio of the sample value range to standard error of NIR prediction (RER) were performed.81 respectively 0.

2008. increasing the addition of FeCl3 causing further reduction in the ammonia emission (Fangueiro et al. It may be applied by a tractor with slurry reservoir using a broad spreader. The solid fraction 28 . greenhouse gases and odour and the efficiency as a substrate for plants. Mechanical separation increases the emission of ammonia and CO2. Fangueiro et al. be caused by pH reduction by the multivalent ion.1). and thus result in reduced leaching to the environment. fertilization and/or energy production. Depending on the posttreatment. according to Danish legislation. application on fields. Flocculation causes a decrease in the ammonia. solid and liquid fraction and fractions further refined may be applied onto agricultural fields. and minor amount of small particles.g. 2009). A tendency toward odour reduction has been observed following the polymer and FeCl3 addition (Hjorth et al.2 Field application Raw slurry. Storage of the raw slurry and of solid and liquid fraction should... trailing hoses or injected. 2008. membrane filtration and thermal conversion are potentially present-day handlings of slurry separation product. 2008). 2008).. 6. Raw slurry application according to the nitrogen requirements of the crops results in excessive phosphorus application. different practical and environmental goals may be achieved.. and is a passive but essential treatment. 2006). when observed.6 HOW SHOULD SEPARATION PRODUCTS BE APPLIED? Storage in tanks. Field application is performed to re-cycle the nutrients and replace mineral fertilizers. However.. Flocculations reduction of emissions from the liquid fractions may.1 Storage A well-controlled flocculation and solid-liquid separation produce products useful for many purposes. Mechanical separations have no effect on the odour emission (Zhu et al. 6.1 One of many combinations of slurry treatments superior for the liquid fraction (Nyord et al. 2006.. the slurry becomes aerobically/anaerobically digested and emission of ammonia. Solid-liquid separation and flocculation improve most of the typical handlings of manure or may even be a pre-requisite. Attention is necessary if the overall result should be no effect or there should be positive effect on the slurry products emission of ammonia.. Hjorth et al. and thus leaching into the environment.. odour and greenhouse gasses occur. methane and CO2 emission from the liquid fraction with e. anaerobic digestion. the liquid fraction produced at separation contains less phosphorus. Dinuccio et al. with injection proving Figure 6. lower nitrogen content. 2008. 2009). and decreases methane emission during storage from the solid and the liquid fraction compared to the raw slurry (Amon et al. Petersen and Sorensen. 6. Storage is performed until further treatment. The actual degradation of the slurry and the emissions depends on the specific separation performed. During the storage and upon filling and emptying the storage. which involves one or several additional treatments (Fig. occur in a covered storage tank with dimensions sufficient to contain 9 months production of slurry (Husdyrgødningsbekendtgørelsen. These improve practical farming aspects. 2001).

. 90% reduction in dry matter. 6. 2007. Wen et al. and thus may have an economical value. A concentrated nitrogen fertilizer could be produced that may be applied for plant fertilization by farmers or exported to other industries... Pieters et al. With reverse osmosis. If ensured that no disease transport will occur. the liquid fraction may alternatively be applied for washing of barns. thus the potential for greenhouse gas emissions of the slurry is reduced.. 2007). The emission of ammonia. 1992.4 Biogas Anaerobic digestion of slurry produces methane and carbon dioxide that can be used for heating and electricity. 1999. On the other hand. Previously applied pre-treatments include filtrations two times through screens of reducing mesh. The liquid fraction may be used for watering nearby fields. Depending on the required products ultrafiltration. 2007. Thorneby et al. Gordon and Schuepp. Ultrafiltration screens away particles larger than 0. Fractions of both mechanically and polymer flocculated slurry has been observed to increase the plant yield (Chantigny et al. 6. Fanguelro et al. The ammonia emission increases due to the pH 29 .contains a large amount of phosphorus. Additionally... A large amount of the easily converted carbon is collected as methane and carbon dioxide. Ebeling et al. 1999. it may be explained by an increased availability of nitrogen. The changed distribution of the nutrients in the slurry may cause reduced slurry transportation.g. 2000. The liquid fraction may be applied to low retention timereactors (Faculty of Agricultural Sciences. Emission of ammonia is reduced from the solid and liquid fraction relative to raw slurry application (Amon et al. 2009). retention of Ca and Mg has been observed. it is an initial advantage that the ammonium content-to-total nitrogen content is increased under the digestion of nitrogen containing compounds such as proteins. 2009... microfiltration. Hjorth et al. Raw animal slurry and/or the solid fraction combined with other substrates are widely applied for biogas production. Fanguelro et al.. Applying the slurry to agricultural fields. On the other hand. a negative impact on plant yield could be expected by flocculation upon multivalent ion addition as a result of reduced plant availability of the phosphorus (Romer. 2007). 2006). 2004). the very high concentrations of the chemical substances as ammonium in the water-ish fraction and additionally the possibly high pH of the concentrate. nanofiltration and reverse osmosis may be applied. yet remains uncertain as the polymer itself may create other fouling troubles (Masse et al. The digestion of the slurry molecules causes the profile of odorous compounds to change and the odour to reduce (Hjorth et al. and thus returned to the animal slurry instead of drinking water. Chantigny et al.. potassium concentration and ammonium concentration have been measured (Thorneby et al. 2008... And e. 2007. The methane and nitrous oxide emissions have been indicated to increase... Reverse osmosis removes NH4+ and particles larger than 100 Da including virus and bacteria (Masse et al. 2009).. Balsari et al. In the liquid fraction. the reduced amount of organic matter is a disadvantage. 1999). 2002. application of the liquid fraction with increasing FeCl3 amount result in decreasing ammonia emission.. 2007). Zhang et al..1-5 µm. 2007). Norddahl and Rohold. 1994.. thus an efficient particle removal from the input slurry liquid by solid-liquid separation is essential (Masse et al. and because of possible toxicity of the multivalent ion and monomer of polyacrylamide (Caulfield et al. 2003. It may therefore be applied as a phosphorus source on phosphorus deficient fields. Nahm. Fouling is a substantial problem. and another applied pre-separation is flocculation followed by solid-liquid separation (Bilstad et al. 2005).3 Membrane filtration The liquid fraction may be divided into a water-ish liquid and fertilizer concentrate(s) by membrane filtration. 2006. 2007).. Whether the considerable removal of the small and fouling particles at flocculation is advantages. odour and greenhouse gases may be affected by the high infiltration rates.

Emission of greenhouse gases as carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide occurs during the thermal conversion. the ash has a large nutrient value on agricultural fields. if the ash is to be used as a phosphorus source for plants. separation of slurry is a pre-requisite. 2009). especially following degradation of stable phosphorus compounds by an acid treatment (Moller et al. 30 . Especially a high organic matter content of the solid fraction is an important parameter. In consequence. the optimal separation prior to anaerobic digestion of the solid fraction separates the largest amount of organic matter into the solid fraction. Moller et al. 2006). In terms of additives. all of the organic matter is lost and is not a value on fields (Thygersen et al. Fermenting the slurry after the separation produced a biogas yield equal to fermenting the slurry before and after the separation.5 Thermal conversion Upon thermal conversion of solid fractions together with other substrates.. Thus. 2007b). 6. 2003). 2009. as calcium-phosphorus minerals will be formed. In addition. the productions were similar. Slurry transport to and from a biogas plant will be optimized by combining the operation with separation. and the raw slurry and the six solid fractions were anaerobically digested.. which is a separation including a flocculation (Jorgensen and Jensen. This flocculation could include addition of a multivalent ion such as CaO.. the raw and digested slurry were each separated with three flocculant combinations. heat and ash is produced (Sweeten et al. 2007a). A particulate removal at separation following the digestion reduces the emissions from the liquid fraction. Depending on the oxygen availability and temperature. Because water inhibits the thermal conversion. An experiment has been performed (Hjorth et al. A separation before the transport will reduce the required transportation.increase and the increased ammonium content. The biogas production per slurry volume was superior from the solid fractions of raw slurry over the raw slurry. pyrolysis or gasification. minimizing the FeCl3 amount and increasing the polyacrylamide amount added to raw slurry. 2009): A swine slurry was anaerobically digested for 15 days in a thermophilic reactor. Thus the emissions must be controlled and possibly collected. the emission from the ash is minimal. a highly efficient phosphorus separation may be advantages. As biogas is degraded organic matter. such as performing an initial flocculation.. the thermal conversion may be termed incineration. Because gaseous compounds containing phosphorus is uncommon. In terms of volatile solids. In contrast to the anaerobic digestion.. causes the largest biogas production. the phosphorus ends in the ash. which in contrast to ironphosphorus minerals are largely available to the plants (Romer.

addition of a cationic multivalent ion also be applicable. Analytical methods useful for controlling flocculation have been identified. if the separation products are to be used for membrane filtration. Much is known concerning fundamentals. These answers must necessarily include the elements of a life cycle analysis. It may be combined with other attractive slurry technologies. or omitting the multivalent ion and only adding the small and the large polymer. This includes addition of a small polymer between the addition of the multivalent ion and the large polymer. And equivalently. and the superior separation following or prior to other slurry treatments should be clarified.g. The superior separation technique and possibly the flocculation method should be identified if the slurry has been pre-treated e.e. Studies to carry out include full-scale experiments applying the already identified analytical techniques. However. A range of slurry parameters responsible for slurry flocculation has been located. but much research is also still ahead.g. Questions additionally arise on which separation technique to apply to slurry post or pre-treated by specific technologies. and improve the collection of the present anionic particles. many questions have been answered. is useful to determine the flocculant amount required should be carried out. The optimum flocculants to apply may be further investigated. control and application of flocculation and solid-liquid separation of animal manure. Examination on whether the raw slurry’s average free surface charge is useful to calculate the required polymer amount must be performed. cheap and quick methods for controlling and automate flocculation and/or solid-liquid separation further research is needed. Neutral and anionic polymers may together with e. 7. To identify promising simply. thermal conversion or phosphorus fertilizer production. Aspects of the flocculation mechanism remain unclear. whether NIR spectra of the raw slurry may be applicable must be examined. biogas production. Additionally. Alternative polymers to the potentially toxic polyacrylamide flocculant should also be identified.1 Future studies The slurry’s massive contribution eutrophication and the farmer’s substantial transportation of slurry may be reduced by performing solid-liquid separation and flocculation of the slurry. slurry separation is beginning to be established. several aspects still need to be investigated. and the slurry technologies to combine with separation have been determined. by ozonation or acidified. 31 . because through numerous investigations. In Denmark. In addition the relative responsibilities of the slurry properties for the flocculation requirements need clarification. such as the humic content. need further exploration. The effect of addition procedure. Investigation on other raw slurry characteristic. How raw animal slurry should be solid-liquid separated and flocculated has been determined. This includes the optimum charge neutralisation degree and the primary flocculation mechanism for different samples and flocculants. the mean of addition and mixing. control apparatus should be identified. i. as do the optimum solid-liquid separation technique depending on the specific flocculation.7 WHAT LIMITS SOLID-LIQUID SEPARATION AND FLOCCULATION? Flocculation conditions may be improved further.

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