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Introduction to WiMAX Technology

Khalid Sheikh
January 2009

Presentation Overview
• • • • • • • • • • • • Introduction Overview of other wireless technologies Radio Architectures OFDM Basic OFDMA Basic WiMAX Architecture
– PHY, MAC, Control & Management

System Performance WiMAX Validation WiMAX Interoperability WiMAX Network Summary Q&A
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Introduction to WiMAX Technology

Wireless Systems
• Wireless communication has been around for over 100 years
– Pioneered by Thomas Edison who did not take serious interest in this technology and sold his patent to Marconi for a single song – Most non-broadcast typed applications geared to P2P & PMP – Generally standalone operation based on proprietary architecture • Incompatible over the air interface

• Many lacks interoperability with other equipment • Most failed to provide high data rate and mobility • Some commonly used recent LAN applications include
– Infra-Red, IR – Bluetooth (WPAN) – Mobile Phone – WiFi (LAN) – WiMAX (MAN)

Introduction to WiMAX Technology

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A Case, why we need it!
• Wide use of internet resulting in an increased demand for convenient internet access and high speed data access. • Increase demanded by new applications such as streaming video, on-line gaming, on-demand movie distribution, VoIP, video teleconferencing, telemedicine, serveillance & monitoring, etc. • Fixed wireless offers several advantages over traditional wired solutions. These advantages include lower entry and deployment cost; faster and easier deployment and revenue realization; ability to build out the network as needed; lower operational costs for network maintenance, management, and operation; and independence from the incumbent carriers

Introduction to WiMAX Technology

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WPAN, Bluetooth
• Wireless personal area networks based on IEEE802.15.1 • FHSS operation using TDD • Data rate – Sync., connection oriented, 64 kbps – Async., 433.9 kbps symmetric – Async., 723.2 / 57.6 kbps asymmetric, 1 Mbps aggregate bit rate – Ver2 to increase up to 3 Mbps • Three PO classes – Class 1, 1 to 100 mW, for 100 m range – Class 2, 0.25 to 2.5 mW, for 10 m range – Class 3, up to 1 mW, for 1 m range • Shares data among up to 8 Bluetooth enabled devices
Introduction to WiMAX Technology

• One of 79 channels in 2.402-2.480 GHz ISM-band • 100 bytes long packet length • BPSK for Ver1, DQPSK & 8-DPSK for Ver2 • GFSK with mod index of h = 0.28 • Limited QoS • Guarantees, ARQ/FEC • Connection setup time

– Depends on power mode – 2.56s max, 0.64s average
• Provides high level protocol support • Security

– Challenge/response (SAFER+) hopping sequence

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Bluetooth Protocol Stack
• Middleware Layer to support:
– L2CAP, logical link control and adaptation protocol – SDP, service discovery protocol
Audio Apps Management Apps Phone Apps Networking Apps vCard Application Layer

AT SDP Control Audio L2CAP TCS

BNEP RF Comm

OBEX
Middleware Layer

HCI, Host Control Interface Link Manager Baseband Radio
Required
Introduction to WiMAX Technology

Transport Layer

Optional

Not part of Bluetooth standard
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WiFi, Wireless Fidelity
• • • • • • • • • Low cost & very popular due to standardized architecture & mutual IOP Short distance coverage, ≤ 100 m in open area No QoS offered, best effort only Operation in License Exempt Band IEEE802.11a/b/g/n, Standard first adopted in 1997 Delivers services previously found in wired networks Relatively high throughput Highly reliable against interference by applying fragmentation technique Continuous connection – Every station reacts to every frame it receives – Requires participation of all stations • Low power operation to prolong battery life • Authentication services • Architecture includes IR, FHSS, DSSS, OFDM
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Infra-Red • Uses a near visible light as a transmission media • Typically Line of Sight operation or reflected from object • Restricted to indoor applications PSDU Symbol Mapping 16-PPM 4-PPM Modulator LED Driver • Can not pass through walls • Data rate 1-2 Mbps – Uses 4-PPM for 2 Mbps PSDU – Uses 16-PPM modulation for 1 Mbps Symbol De-mapping 16-PPM 4-PPM Demodulator LED Detector IR PMD XCVR • PPM is a modulation technique that keeps the amplitude and pulse width constant and varies the position of the pulse in time.IR.1 • Short range. ≤ 1m Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 8 . • Operates at base band • Inexpensive system based on IEEE802.15. Each position represents a different symbol in time.

No SNR improvement Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 9 .4 GHz band (2.FHSS. 4-level GFSK for 2 Mbps) • A set of hop sequence defined in 802.) – Hopping at least every 400 ms.4835 GHz) • Hopping sequence: 3 set of 26 channels (min hop distance of 6 Ch.) • Interference tolerant • Echo resistance • Simpler to install than the DSSS • Less expensive than the DSSS • More vendors/selections than the DSSS (not true anymore) • No spreading gain.5 MHz – 78 (75 min) frequencies.4 to 2.11 – Channels are evenly spaced across a span of 83. Frequency Hop Spread Spectrum • Data rate 1-2 Mbps. then resync before resuming data transmission – Predetermined pseudo random pattern • Used in licensed exempt 2. each occupying 1 MHz BW channel (total of 79 Ch. TDD (2-level GFSK for 1 Mbps.

42 2. Frequency Hop Spread Spectrum 80 Frequency Slots 60 1 MHz FHSS Packets Time 5 D E B A C 2.43 2.44 2.FHSS.40 2.41 2.45 40 DSSS Packet 20 DSSS Packet DSSS Packet 22 MHz 4 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Time 7 2 1 Freq (GHz) Hopping Pattern: C A B E D Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 10 .

4 to 2.4835 GHz) – 3 non-interfering 25 MHz apart channels – Extremely crowded band Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 11 .4 GHz ISM band (2.11b • 1 or 2 Mbps using 11-bit Barker spreading code – Spreading yields processing gain at receiver – Requires channel linearity over 11 MHz • Operates in license exempt 2. Discrete Sequence Spread Spectrum • Regulated per IEEE802.DSSS.

size & technical difficulties • Processing gain = 10*Log (chip rate / bit rate) = 10.DSSS. power.4 dB for 11 chips • Feasible to achieve negative SNR at lower modulation in equivalent BW 1 bit Original Data Barker Sequence Spread Data 1 chip Narrowband Signal Interfere Noisefloor SNR Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 12 . (1) • Fairly effective at low data rate • Bandwidth requirement becomes too large at higher data rate – Not practical to implement due to increased cost.

CCK for 5.DSSS.5 & 11 Mbps with enhanced 802.4 GHz Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 13 . (2) • Frequency.11b • Interference tolerant • Upgradeable to higher speed while operating in 2. BW & PO are regulated worldwide – PO of 100 mW nominal • Data rate up to 11 Mbps – operates at 11 Mbps and falls back to 1/2 Mbps as the legacy 802.11 – DBPSK & DQPSK for 1&2 Mbps.

DSSS Spectrum • Regulated spectral mask – Signal occupies in about 20 MHz BW regardless of data rate (1.22MHz fc fc + 11MHz fc + 22MHz Minimum Channel spacing between center frequency Transmit Channel Shape 25 MHz 25 MHz 2.462 GHz (channel 11) 2.437 GHz (channel 6) 2.412 GHz (channel 1) 2.11MHz fc . or 11 Mbps) – Spectral shape of the channel represents sin(x)/x function – Spectral products to be filtered to -30 dBr from central frequency and all other 0 dBr products to be filtered to -50 dBr -30 dBr -50 dBr fc . 5.483 GHz Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 14 .400 GHz 2. 2.5.

DSSS & FHSS Implementations Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 15 .

Summary • DSSS – Short latency time – Constant proc gain = a better SNR – Quick lock-in as radios synchronize – No dwell time – No re-sync with other radio necessary – Short indoor range – Long outdoor range (40 km in LoS) – Greater overall data throughput – Noise immunity (high) • FHSS – Long latency time – No processing gain – Slow lock-in.DSSS vs. FHSS. must search a channel – 400 ms dwell time – Must re-sync with other radio after every hop – Short indoor range – Short outdoor range (10 km in LoS) – Lower overall data throughput – Noise immunity (low) – Multipath immunity (good) – Multipath immunity (none) Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 16 .

11a. main difference resides in the convolution encoding method • Operates in 5 GHz UNII license-exempt band – Three 100 MHz bands in ANSI operation • PO restricted per operating band – 40 mW in 5.825 MHz – Antenna gain restricted to 6 dBi max • The centers of the outmost channels shall be at a distance 30 MHz from band‟s edges for the lower and middle bands. 200 mW in 5.7255.35 MHz & 800 mW in 5.11a • Minimum sensitivity -82 to -65 dBm depending on the chosen data rate & Mod • PER rate to be less than 10% at a physical sub-layer service data units of length 1000 bytes Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 17 .25 MHz. 20 MHz for the upper bands • Channel frequency numbers are defined by 802.802.15-5. (1) • LAN standard revised and released in 1999 • Multicarrier OFDM system – Similar to ETSI Hiperlan-2.25-5.

11a. (2) • BPSK to 64 QAM modulation • Different FEC rates.802. ≤ 100 m • Best effort service (no QoS) • Sync using a fixed training sequence lasting less than 16 us • Data rate. FEC & Mod throttle up / down based on path conditions • Encrypted security with enable/disable option Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 18 . double encoding (inner & outer) & block interleaving • Raw data rate up to 54 Mbps • Multi-path fade tolerant • Intended for short range.

802. (dB). 1e. 1dB Alternate Adjacent Channel Rej. Receiver Performance Requirements • Required minimum threshold & tolerable interference level • NF dependency per frequency band • FEC & Mod dependency Data rate (Mbps) Sensitivity (dBm). 1dB 6 9 12 18 24 36 48 -82 -81 -79 -77 -74 -70 -66 16 15 13 11 8 4 0 32 31 29 27 24 20 16 54 Introduction to WiMAX Technology -65 -1 15 Page 19 .6 Adjacent Channel Rejection (dB).11a.

8 = 4 us Symbol rate: 250 kHz Bit rate at 64QAM-3/4: Symbol * FEC * Active-Subcarriers * Symbol-rate = 6 * (3/4) * 48 * 250k = 54 Mbps • 20 MHz BW Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 20 .5 kHz Per channel spacing: 3. Example Symbol • OFDM using 64-points IFFT/FFT – – – – – – – – – – Data subcarriers: 48 Pilot subcarriers: 4 DC subcarrier: 1 Null subcarriers: (6+5) Subcarrier spacing: 20M/64 = 312.2 + 0.11a.8 us Symbol spacing: 3.802.2 us Guard band: 0.

PLCP physical layer convergence procedure. • Preamble (header) is always BPSK-1/2 for ruggedness PLCP Header Rate 4 bits Reserved 1 bit Length 12 bits Parity 1 bit Tail 6 bits Service 16 bits PSDU Tail 6 bits Pad bits Coded OFDM (rate is indicated in signal) PLCP Preamble 12 symbols Signal One OFDM symbol Data Variable number of OFDM symb PPDU Frame Format Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 21 .11a. MPDU MAC protocol data unit.802. PPDU preamble and header to create the PLCP protocol data unit. Example Frame • Frame format: PSDU PHY sub-layer service data unit.

4 GHz band –Higher data rate (54 Mbps) than the 802.11b –OFDM based transmission Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 22 .11g • Covers both 802.11a and 802.11a equivalent operation in 2.802.11b standards • Same MAC layers for all variants (802.11b. a & g) • Adds 802.

802. STBC. Tx Beam Forming) • Increased throughput to 100 Mbps per stream (600 Mbps with all options) • Enhanced QoS & FEC • Selectable CP delays (400n or 800n) • Backward compatibility for 802.11a/b/g • Increased data sub-carriers (48 to 52 in 20 MHz.11n • Uses either 20 or 40 MHz channel • Transmit diversity with multiple data streams • Increased use of MIMO operation (SM. double for 40 MHz) Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 23 .

09 • Peak data rate – 100 Mbps in 20 M BW in the DL (with 2x2 MIMO) – 50 Mbps in 20 M BW in the UL (without MIMO) • Control plane latency – Transition time from idle to active state ≤ 100ms – Transition time from dormant to active state ≤ 50ms • User plane latency – Measured from UE to edge of RAN (one way) – Shall be less than 5 ms for single user for small IP packet • Control Plane Capacity – At least 200 active voice calls / cell / 5 MHz • Mobility – Optimum performance at low speeds – from 0 to 15 km/hr – High performance at higher speeds – from 15 to 120 km/hr • Spectrum flexibility – 1. 2. 1.15 and 20 MHz • All IP network – All services in the packet switched domain – No circuit switched domains Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 24 .25.LTE – High Level Requirements • Standardization effort for LTE was launched in Nov 2004 – Expected to complete in Oct.5.6. 10. 5.

WLAN Standards. Perspective Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 25 .

Super Heterodyne Architecture Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 26 .

Zero-IF Architecture Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 27 .

Radio Architectures • Direct Conversion – Advantages • No off-chip IF filter • Single synthesizer • Super-heterodyne – Advantages • Low LO leakage • Wide LO pulling range • Cheap • Low power consumption • No image signal – Disadvantages • LO leakage • LO pulling range • High freq low PN requirements • I/Q mismatch • Quadrature LORF • DC Offset Introduction to WiMAX Technology • No quadrature LO • Design flexibility • Superior I & Q matching at IF • High performance – Disadvantages • Off-chip IF filter • Two synthesizers • Low integration • High IF-RF separation to avoid Image signal Page 28 .

Software Defined Radio • Advantages (with direct conversion) – S/W configurable in the field for specific conditions • Disadvantages – DC offset issue due to RF to LO isolation or 2nd order non-linearity • Appropriate mixer design ≥ high IP2 – S/W upgrade in the field – Reduced parts count – Reduced die/board space – Lower power consumption • 2nd order nonlinearity in the LNA generates low frequency beat – Static (slow varying) DC offset due to LO to RF isolation • DC offset cancellation at each received packet – LO pulling • VCO at multiple or sub-multiple of LO • Fast synthesizer response – LO emission • LO leakage to mixer input or antenna – Lower over all cost – Simpler assembly – Single integrated synthesizer – Almost spurious free • Reduced RF filtering Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 29 .SDR.

Disadvantages of Direct Conversion. (conti’d) • Gain control to move to RF section • Higher cost to pay for lower phase noise higher frequency LO • No possibility to reduce in-band noise & spurious generated by signal chain • Suffers LO and side band leakage when DAC Synth a low IF • Flicker noise – Low frequency noise in all active devices – WLAN has a large modulation bandwidth. no energy at low frequency • Phase and gain mismatch the IQ-symbol – Difficult to correct imperfect quadrature error Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 30 .

LAN, 3G & others vs. MAN, (1)
• MAN
– BS connected to public networks – BS serves subscriber stations • BS and stationary/mobile SS • SS typically serves a building (business or residence) & mobile • Provide SS with first mile access to public networks – Multiple services (voice, data & multimedia) with different QoS priority simultaneously – Robust security – Many more users – Much higher data rate – Much longer distance – Selectable bandwidth (1.25- 20 MHz) & data rate – Adaptive modulation & coding – Advanced antenna techniques – TDD & FDD, symmetric & asymmetric rate – Spectrally efficient – Lower cost than 3G solution – Link layer retransmission – OFDMA for mobility, freq & multiuser diversity – Support for fixed SC, MC & mobility – IP based architecture

Introduction to WiMAX Technology

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LAN, 3G & others vs. MAN, (2)

• LAN
–Already covered under 802.11

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LAN, 3G & others vs. MAN, (3)
• 3G:
– Fixed operating bandwidth – Very difficult & expensive to spread higher data rate using CDMA – Established infrastructures in process of upgrading – GSM using UMTS and or HSDPA
• DL only, 14.4 Mbps in 5M BW using 15 codes (specified but a challenging task) • DL only, 3.6 Mbps in 5M BW using 5 codes but typically averages about 250 kbps • DL only, 7.2 Mbps in 5M BW using 10 codes but typically averages about 750 kbps • UL specified to support 384 kbps but typically averages about 40 to 100 kbps

– CDMA using 1x EV-DO
• Rev A DL, specified to support 2.4 Mbps in 1.25 M BW but typically 100 to 300 kbps • Rev A UL, specified to support 1.8 Mbps in 1.25 M BW • Rev A to provide low latency of 30 ms, VoIP, video, QoS, fast handoffs and broadcast applications • Rev B is specified to support 73 Mbps DL, 27 Mbps UL in 20 M BW
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LAN, 3G & others vs. MAN, (4)

• Others
–IEEE820.20
• Standard under development • For mobility up to 250 kmph • 3.5 G band • 4 Mbps DL, 1.2 Mbps UL

–IEEE820.22
• Standard under development • Broadband access targeted for far reaching rural area

• Using unused VHF & UHF bands

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WiFi vs. WiMAX
Parameter Licensed Band Operation AGC Range (dB), 64QAM OFDMA Advanced antenna Mesh antenna Power Output (dBm) 802.11 No N/A No, yes with 803.2a None Can introduce mesh topology, but not supported by Restricted in unlicensed bands Optimization centers around PHY and MAC layer for 100m range. Range can be extended by cranking up the power - but 10 ≤31 N/A WiMAX Yes 50 Yes Standard supports advanced antenna technique Std supports mesh network topology ≥43, per local regulatory requirements PHY and MAC designed with multi-km (40) range in mind. Standard MAC 7 ≤31 30 Channel bandwidths can be chosen by operator (e.g. for sectorization). 1.25 MHz to 20 MHz width channels. MAC designed for scalability independent of channel BW 10, 20 ~2.7 ~4.5 Designed to handle many users spread out over distance No "near-far" compensation Optimized for indoor non-line-of-sight (NLoS) Designed to tolerate greater multipath delay spread performance (signal reflection). Optimized for outdoor NLoS. MAC designed to support(CSMA/CA) ≥ no guaranteed MAC designed to support thousands of users Contention - based MAC 10‟s of users QoS Standard cannot currently gaurantee latency for Voice, Grant-request MAC Video Designed to support Voice and Video from ground up Standard does not allow for differentiated levels of Supports differentiated service levels: e.g. T1 for service on a per user basis business customers; best effort for residential TDD only - asymmetric (proposed) QoS is prioritization TDD/ FDD/HFDD – symmetric or asymmetric No QoS today. 802.11e only Centrally enforced QoS Convolution RS & CC Existing standards is WEP. 802.11i in process of addressing security RSA (1024 bits) Optional RC4 Mandatory, triple-DES (128 bits)

Range NF, dB SNDR (dBc), TX Alternate channel Rej

Channel BW (MHz) Maximum bps/Hz User handling Multipath MAC capability MAC operation Latency Services Transmission QoS FEC Security Encryption

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Technology Throughput Comparison

Introduction to WiMAX Technology

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Spectral Efficiency Comparison

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Point to Multipoint WiMAX Applications

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WiMAX, (1)
• Stands for Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access • A cost effective alternative to wireline services especially in the developing countries where no existing wireline services available • Operation in licensed & licensed exempt bands using 1.25-20 MHz BW • QoS, advanced security & higher throughput than WiFi • Supports QoS, VoIP, video distribution, on-line gaming & real time video conferencing • Standards and interoperability is the key to its success • GPS and IEEE 1588 over IP to synchronize the network from a master clock – GPS may be more expensive and difficult to access open sky if in the basement – IEEE 1588 requires a master source access in the network – WiMAX network is entirely IP and there is no option of recovering timing signal (without embedded mechanism) as there is with the TDM application • Dynamic frequency selection for operation in unlicensed bands • Longer wavelength makes multipath more significant – LOS not feasible in residential applications – There may be cost associated with outdoor mounted antenna

• Uses a very versatile configurable modulation schemes that adds complexity
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WiMAX, (2)
• Why we need it? Demand created by internet & mobile usage. Broadband access to residential, SOHO, SME, backhauling hotspot, long wait time for increased T1 services. Lack of land lines in some countries. Mobility to offer in two stages (portable-nomadic and seamless mobility)
– Higher data rate – Multiple levels of guaranteed QoS – Stationary & Mobility – Multipath tolerant by using multiple lower frequency carriers – Switchable mode – Concatenated FEC – Low latency – Security – Ease of installation – Lower cost deployment and operating solution – Large system gain (about 150 dB) and coverage range
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WiMAX, (3)
• Mobility under 120 km/hr (target applications are handset, laptop). Standard released in Nov‟05.
• Support for both LOS & NLOS

• It is not mandated by standard but TDD is most likely mode of choice for mobile applications because it divides the entire frequency spectrum into upstream and down stream time slots (more efficient use of limited frequency)
• Uses all IP backbone • OFDMA-PHY with sub-channelization allows time & frequency resources to be dynamically allocated among multiple users across DL & UL subframe
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WiMAX, (4)
• Broadcast and Multicast support, low latency ≤ 100 ms, low to zero packet loss during handovers at speed 120 km/Hr or higher • Simultaneous support of real time multimedia and isochronous applications like VoIP • Simple self installed user station (SS/MS)
– Automated management of IP connection with session persistence – Automatic reestablishment following transitions between access points

• Likely applications: single carrier for back haul, OFDM for fixed access in up to 28 MHz BW, scalable OFDMA is most versatile and preferred for mobile operation in 1.25 to 20 MHz BW • Frequency inaccuracy of 1e-6 max for FDD and TDD • Time accuracy: N/A for FDD but 5-25 us for TDD
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EV-DO by CDMA). HSDPA by GSM operators.Other Systems • Non-standard i-Burst from ArrayComm and FlashOFDM from Qualcomm • 3G (UMTS. better QoS. WiFi (higher data rate than 3G due to 20 M BW.11n is being enhanced to support 100 Mbps. using inefficient CSMA protocol-”carrier sense multiple access”) • WiFi standard 802. transmit diversity and other enhanced techniques Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 43 .

management procedures and interfaces for fixed and mobile 802.16g.16h.16 in 1999 802. a & c. 864 pages 802. policies and MAC enhancements for coexistence in licensed exempt bands 802.16f. fixed WiMAX management information base.16e. bridging amendment 802. Timeline • • • • • • • • • • • Evolving standard. merging into 802. Addresses efficient handover and further improves the QoS support. multi-hop operation 802. higher data rate and higher speeds Page 44 Introduction to WiMAX Technology . (with drawned). July’04. MAC function to support higher layer handoff in under 6 GHz band. Jan‟03 802. mechanisms.16 systems.16a.16k.16m. 802. Dec’05.16d.16i.16. advanced air interface for next generations.16-2008 802. Mobile WiMAX management information base.16j. work started under 802. 895 pages 802. replaced 802. Added multi-hop functionality 802.WiMAX Standards.

16 Completed Dec‟01 Alignment Mode LOS only Spectrum 10-66 GHz 802. 256 OFDM or 256 OFDM or 2048 OFDM scalable sub-carriers OFDMA (128.16a Jan‟03 LOS & NLOS 2-11 GHz. Single carrier.16e Dec‟05 NLOS 2-11GHz for fixed.16d June‟04 LOS & NLOS 2-11GHz 802. only 256 OFDM or 2048 OFDM sub-carriers 802. 2-6GHz for mobility Up to 75 Mbps Up to 15 Mbps 20 MHz 5* MHz Single carrier. 2048 sub-carriers) Bit Rate Bandwidth Modulation Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 45 . (1) Standards 802.802. 512. 1024.16s Comparison. licensed & license exempt Up to 134 Mbps Up to 75 Mbps 28 MHz 20 MHz Single carrier Single carrier.

256Q optional Fixed/Portable 802.25-25 MHz 20. internet.802. Indoor Portable backhauling backhauling broadband broadband hot spots hot spots. 28 MHz 1. 25. (2) Standards Modulation Mobility Bandwidth 802. users (HSpeed Mobile internet. PMP mesh.16e 4/16/64 QAM.16d 802.16a 4/16/64 QAM. 256Q optional 256Q optional Fixed/Nomadic Mobile/Portable 1. E1/T1 services. uplink to conserve Po PMP mesh. VoIP) Always best connected Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 46 . TDD and FDD TDD and FDD TDD and FDD TDD and FDD E1/T1 services.16s Comparison. PMP mesh.25-20 MHz.16 4/16/64 QAM Fixed 802.25-20 MHz MAC Architecture Applications 1. 4/16/64 QAM. PMP mesh. access for access for Wireless DSL residential consumers.

9. 32 Mbps with 1:1 7Mbps in 10MHz with 3:1 DL to UL ratio. 3.4Mbps initially.3Mbps in 3. Release 6 N/A N/A N/A No N/A 1xEV-DO Rev A 3GPP2 N/A N/A N/A No N/A WiBRO IEEE 802. 6.4 Mbps using all 15 codes. 1/32 Mobile WiMAX IEEE 802.5bps/Hz. 1/8.8Mbps 5. 5.11a/g more than 100Mbps peak layer 2 throughput using 802.1/32 Wi-Fi 802.8Mbps later 1.4Mbps in 3.16e 1024 864/840 96 Yes 1/4.5MHz with 3:1 DL to UL ratio TDD. Rev B DL to UL ratio will support TDD. 46Mbps with 3:1 DL to UL ratio TDD.7 bps/Hz peak data rate. 1/32 HSPA 3GPP.1Mbps.b.16e 2048.g 64 52 4 No 1/4 Yes Yes No No Yes No Yes Yes No No Yes No ~2.2 Mbps with 10 codes ~4.5 Mbps with 1:1 ~4. 2048 1680/1728 166/192 Yes 1/4. 1024. 4 Mbps with 1:1 14. 27 Mbps 4.5 bps/Hz.4 Mbps with 1:1 same as above Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 47 . 7.11n Peak DL data rate ~4.5MHz with 3:1 DL to UL ratio TDD. 54Mbps shared in 20MHz using 802.1/16. 6. 1/16. 1/8.11a. 1/16.9Mbps with 1:1 Peak UL data rate 1.16d 256.5 bps/Hz.1 Mbps with 1:1 3. 128 various various Yes 1/4.1/8. 38 Mbps with 3:1 3.9 Mbps with 3:1 DL to UL ratio.WiMAX & Others Parameter Standards FTT size User carriers Pilot carriers MIMO Guard period Multiple users over frequency (@1 symb time) Multiple users over time (@1 channel) Fixed WiMAX IEEE 802. 512.

16QAM.11 a/g. 20/40M for 802.5MHz and 7MHz in 3. 11M for 11b BPSK.WiMAX & Others (conti’d) 1xEV-DO Rev A Parameter Bandwidth Fixed WiMAX Mobile WiMAX 3.3G. services. 16QAM.8GHz 10M & 8. 16QAM. 64QAM TDM/OFDMA TDD initially 2.16QAM TDM/CDMA FDD 800/900/1800 /1900M 1-3 miles High 8. 10MHz in 5. Grant Grant request MAC request MAC DL only DL only 2. FDD 3. 5G <100ft indoor 1-3 miles <1000ft outdoor High Low QoS designed in No QoS for support. 64QAM TDM/OFDMA TDD 2. 16QAM.5G initially HSPA WiBRO Wi-Fi 5M 1. working to differentiated standardize. 28M max QPSK.5G and 5.8G initially 3-5 miles Not applicable QPSK.5GHz band.5G &3. 5M.75M QPSK. 16QAM TDM/CDMA FDD 800/900/1800 /1900/2100M 1-3 mile High 20M for 802. 64QAM CSMA TDD QoS <2 miles Mid QoS designed in QoS designed in for for voice/video. differentiated differentiated services. 28M max initially.25 x 2 M QPSK.5M.75M band. 3.3G Modulation Multiplexing Duplexing Frequency Coverage (typical) Mobility QPSK.11a.4G.11e voice/video.802. 7M. 64QAM TDM TDD. 8PSK. voice/video. QPSK. 2. services. Grant Contention based request MAC MAC Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 48 .

Orthogonal Freq Division Multiplexing • A combination of modulation and multiplexing technique • Mapping of information on changing in the carrier phase..OFDM. not the bandwidth • Orthogonality allows simultaneous transmission on many subcarriers in tight frequency space without interfering each others Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 49 . freq. amplitude or a combination • Method of sharing bandwidth with other data channels • Channel bandwidth divided by a number of sub-channels – Aggregate data rate throughput is about the same but data rate on each sub-carrier is much lower – Longer symbol time practically eliminates the effects of variable time delays • Integer number of cycles to complete for each sub-channel • OFDM bit rate is based on number of active data sub-carriers.

Example 1 • Single carrier like water flowing from a faucet • Multi-carrier like water flowing from a shower head Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 50 . Interference Response.OFDM.

OFDM. Interference Response. Example 2 • Reliable delivery mechanism Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 51 .

Signal orthogonality happens in frequency domain (peak of one signal at zeros of all others) • Time & freq domain representation Ch1 Ch2 Ch3 Ch4 Ch5 Power FDM-Frequency Ch2 Ch1 Ch3 Ch4 Ch5 Power Bandwidth saving OFDM-Frequency Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 52 . used to be expensive to implement).OFDM Basic-1 • Converts single bit stream (wider bit rate) into multiple (smaller bit rate) parallel bit streams • Efficient BW (No BPF between sub-channels) usage • Orthogonal approach using FFT technique (50 yrs old.

Signal in Time & Frequency Domain Subcarriers FFT Ts TFFT Guard Intervals Tg Frequency Symbols Time Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 53 .

DVB and DAB Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 54 .OFDM Basic-2 • An area under a complete sine/cosine wave is always zero – When multiplied by another integer or non-harmonics. already being used in cable modem. the result is zero – It is non-zero only when multiplied by the same harmonics – Integral 0 to T of sin2π(ft)*sin2π(2f)t dt=0 where T is multiple of 1/f • FDM must apply a bank of RRC filters – OFDM uses optimized channel spacing and RRC does not buy you much • A proven technology. DSL. WiFi.

OFDM Basic-3 f1 Mod 1 Mod 2 Rs S/P Mod N fN Rs/N f2 ∑ Time-frequency Grid Data Frequency Subcarrier f0 T=1/f0 One OFDM Symbol Time Time Wavefom Introduction to WiMAX Technology Carrier Freq using N point FFT Page 55 .

OFDM Basic-4 • Treats source Symbol as frequency domain and converts it into time domain with IFFT • N carriers results in N orthogonal-sinewaves • N tones are generated digitally to avoid bank of phase locked oscillators • Each N determines a complex Amplitude & phase for that sub-carrier • Sin(x)/x spectra for unfiltered sub-channels but their orthogonality prevents interfering to one another • Output of IFFT is sum of all sub-carriers and makes up a single OFDM symbol (whose length = NT. T is IFFT input sampling period) in time domain Data In Mod M-QAM IFFT DAC BB OFDM Data Out DMD M-QAM FFT A/D BB OFDM Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 56 .

• IFFT Symbol (active subcarriers) vs. The subcarriers are variable for S-OFDMA.5 to 20 ms • Each UL subframe is preceded by preamble to allow BS to sync on each individual SS 1 Frame (2. center subcarrier is not used due to being easily susceptible to RF carrier feedthrough • Constant number of subcarriers regardless of BW. OFDM Symbol (IFFT plus the gap) • Configurable DL and UL frame length from 2.Example of an OFDM Parameters • FFT/IFFT process must use 2^N tones (use zero filling for non-used tones) • Each sub-carrier produces its sin(x)/x spectra • Relatively simple DSP algorithms • 256 subcarriers (192 data + 8 pilot + 28 null at start + 27 null at end + 1 DC).5 to 20 ms) P H B1 B2 B3 B4 TTG P B1 P B2 P B3 P B4 RTG Downlink subframe (basestation) Introduction to WiMAX Technology Uplink subframe (subscriber) Page 57 . Advantage at Narrow BW.

ISI. multipath fading – BW = 1+ % RRC alpha roll-off.SC (Single-carrier) vs. 3 dB bandwidth of SQRT raised cosine filter • Decreasing roll-off increases the PAPR and interference • MC: each user can employ number of subcarriers to transmit data simultaneously – Parallel modulation scheme – Slower subcarrier rate that makes it easier to process and more rugged against interference – Simpler frequency domain equalizer – Manageable DSP – Robust to interference Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 58 . MC (Multi-carrier) Modulated System • SC: each user transmits & receives data with only one carrier at the same time – Serially modulated scheme – To increase throughput would require higher symbol rate which is more susceptible to channel effects • Highly susceptible to crosstalk.

TIFFT IFFT sampling duration Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 59 . where T is the IFFT symbol duration – BWOccupied = NaxTIFFT.MC. Multi-carrier • Divide the shared wideband channel into N sub-channels – Data divided into Na active substreams • Substream modulated onto separate subcarriers – Substream bandwidth is B/N where B a total bandwidth – B/N < Bc implies flat fading on each subcarriers (no ISI). sharper roll off due to lower sub-carrier frequency (higher IFFT rate) & DSP process. Na active subcarriers. Bc a coherence time bandwidth • Spacing between two carriers is proportional to 1/T.

error Phase noise Nonlinear distortion Linear distortion Carrier leakage Frequency error Amplifier droop Spurious Introduction to WiMAX Technology OFDM State spreading (uniform/carrier) State spreading (uniform/carrier) State spreading (nonuniform/carrier) State spreading State spreading (uniform/carrier) State spreading Usually no effect (equalize) Offset constellation for center carrier only (if used) State spreading Radial constellation distortion State spreading or shifting of affected subcarrier Single Carrier Distortion of constellation Distortion of constellation State spreading Spinning constellation Constellation phase arcing State spreading (may be more pronounced on outer state) State spreading if not equalized Offset constellation Constellation phase arcing Radial constellation distortion State spreading. generally circular Page 60 . MC systems Impairment IQ gain balance IQ Quadrature skew IQ channel mismatch Uncompensated freq. MC • Impairments affect differently on SC vs.Impairment Affects on SC vs.

processing resources and cost for IFFT/FFT – Reduced spectral efficiency due to added guard interval Page 61 . real estate space and cost – Sensitive to phase-noise and clock inaccuracy – Additional circuit. Pulse length ~N/B – Flat fading per subcarrier – N long pulses – ISI is comparatively short – N short EQs needed – Facilitate NLOS operation with added guard interval – Manage spectral efficiency with null subcarriers – Easier to exploit frequency diversity – Allows to deploy 2D coding techniques – Dynamic signaling – Exploit MIMO operation Introduction to WiMAX Technology • MC Disadvantages – Higher linearity requirements due to PAPR • Reduced system gain due to additional back off • Higher power devices require more power dissipation.Multiple Carrier Modulated System • MC Advantages – Data are shared among several subcarriers and simultaneously transmitted.

SC. making it suitable for asymmetrical operations – High level of narrow-band noise immunity due to inherent capability by use of adaptive equalization – Less susceptible to phase noise • SC Disadvantages – Data are transmitted over only one carrier. Pulse length ~1/B – Selective fading – Very short pulse – ISI is comparatively long – EQs are then very long – Poor spectral efficiency because of band guards – Sensitive to group delays – Lower peak to average ratio – Frequency domain equalization for performance improvement Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 62 . Single Carrier • SC Advantages – Efficient and lower power consumption – Complexity of transmission is much simpler than that of reception.

if the channel encounters interference at this frequency.MC. the problem is reduced since only a few of the N subcarriers will be affected. Rx receives a composite of sinusoids – Same frequency but different phase and amplitude – Fairly robust in frequency selective fading channel • For single carrier transmission system. the entire transmission can fail • In OFDM. This means loss of a few bits instead of the entire OFDM symbol • Powerful error correcting codes can be used to help restoring the erroneous bits in the corrupted subcarriers SC Hi-Freq Signal Multipath Signal Combined Signal Delay OFDM Low Freq Signal Multipath Signal Combined Signal Time-frequency Grid Used Bandwidth Data bits Frequency f0 Bad subcarriers T=1/f0 One OFDM Symbol Time Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 63 . Multi-carrier Delay • For each subcarrier.

multi-path. The solid area is the receiver input Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 64 . MC.SC vs. long symbol time S0 S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 Serial symbol stream used to modulate a single wide band carrier Single Carrier Each of the symbols is used to modulate a separate carrier Deep Fade OFDM Mode Level Frequency Frequency The dotted area represents the transmitted spectrum. (1) • The ability to overcome delay spread. short manner that allows for symbol time higher data rate throughput • As an example. it is easier to equalize the individual OFDM subcarriers than it is to equalize the broader single carrier signal Single Carrier Level OFDM Mode Frequency S0 S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 Time Frequency Symbol have narrow freq. and ISI in an efficient Symbol have wide freq.

SC vs. (2) • Single Carrier systems are fairly robust to frequency offset errors and are more appropriate for mobile environment that experience large frequency offset errors • The complexity of the equalizer for Single Carrier system is much greater than the multi-carrier system • Multicarrier systems are fairly robust to timing errors compared to a Single Carrier system. MC. Their performance is similarly affected by the loss in SNR caused by frequency offset errors. Intuitively. this is easily understood from the fact that the Multicarrier symbol duration is N-times longer than its single carrier counterpart operating at the same data rate Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 65 .

Dm distance in m. Rx signal reaches through reflections. H antenna height – Radio LOS. λ=c/f wavelength in m – Optical LOS. Dkm = 3.57 SQRT (H). NLOS • LOS. scatterings and diffractions – Signal have different delay spreads. Dkm = 3.LOS vs.57 [SQRT (kHB)+SQRT(kHM)]. k effective earth kfactor • NLOS. direct non-obstructed path – LFSL = 10Log(4πDm /λ)2. polarization & stability relative to direct path – OFDM technology takes advantage of this phenomena – LNLOS = Free space loss + terrain induced loss Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 66 . attenuations.

Dkm total distance – Destructive affects at even orders of Fz • Signal summation of same and or opposite phase Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 67 .31 SQRT{(d1* d2) / (Dkm fGHz)}. d1 & d2 distance from obstruction to antenna.Fresnel Zone • Fresnel zone clearance depends on frequency & path length – 1st Fz = 0.5 wavelength = 17.

media • Diffraction occurs when the propagation path between Tx and Rx is obstructed by a dense body with dimension that are large relative to λ. Reflection Diffraction • PRX = PTX GTX GRX (λ / 4πD)2 for LOS path Scattering Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 68 . attenuation. billboards. rough surface or any surface whose dimensions are on the order of λ or less. Doppler shift. street signs and foliage. • Multipath propagated signal affected by – Velocity.Multipath Fading • More than one transmission path between Tx and Rx • Receive signal is the sum of many versions of the Tx signal with varied delay and attenuation • Reflection occurs when a propagating electromagnetic wave impinges upon a smooth surface with very large dimensions relative to the RF signal wavelength (λ=c/f. causing the energy to be spread out or reflect in all directions. In an urban areas it is caused by lamppost. time delay. Wave bends around sharp objects – Terrain. path. etc. number of paths. f operating frequency) – Buildings. c speed of light. top of buildings • Scattering occurs when a radio wave impinges on either a large. ground.

wave will traverse multiple paths – Radio waves arrive at receiver from different directions and with different time delays – Resultant signal at receiving antenna is vector addition of incoming signals – Individual signals can add constructively (resultant signal has large power) or destructively (resultant signal has small power) depending on relative phases • EM wave impinging on surface will be reflected with some attenuation (determined by reflection coefficient) • Two-ray model assumes one direct LOS path and one reflection path each reaching receiver with significant power Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 69 .Two-Ray Ground Propagation Model • If there are obstructions between the transmitter and receiver.

1 6 0. 1 km Suburban. Attn dB @ 2. 1 km Rural open space.3 20 24. 1 km Urban. per cm Office wall Wooden wall Brick wall Metal wall Foliage. Philadelphia. Newark. per cm Clear glass. 1 km Urban.5GHz 2. Tokyo. per cm Mesh glass. per cm Sheetrock wall.4 104 117 119 125 139 Page 70 .Typical Signal Attenuation Environment Drywall. 3 m deep FSL. 2x4 Office whiteboard. 1 km Urban.3 100. 1 km Introduction to WiMAX Technology Sig.1 10 15 30 45 8.

example Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 71 .Sector Antenna Pattern.

F1 F1 F1 F1 F1 F1 F1 F1 F1 F1 F1 F1 F1 F1 F1 F1 F1 F1 F1 F1 F1 F1 F1 F1 Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 72 . this multiuser diversity technique can achieve significant capacity gains. In broadband wireless channels. By allocating a subset of sub-carriers to each MS for which the MS enjoys the strongest path gains.Frequency Selective Scheduling • OFDMA is fairly resistive to frequency selective fading since its parallel nature allows errors in sub-carriers to be corrected • Mobile WiMAX signal occupies a portion of the bandwidth. propagation conditions can vary over different portions of the spectrum in different ways for different users. WiMAX makes it possible to allocate a subset of sub-carriers to mobile users based on relative signal strength. Mobile WiMAX supports frequency selective scheduling to take full advantage of multi-user frequency diversity and improve QoS.

Must do up front performance tradeoffs – Interference. Omni antenna – Higher directivity (higher gain). range and cost tradeoffs F2 F1 F3 F1 F2 F1 F3 F1 F3 F2 F3 F1 F3 F2 F2 F2 F1 F3 F1 F3 F2 – Interference from overlapping section of the sector’s edge • Single & dual-pole antenna – Lower order modulated signal may use the same frequency adjacent sectors on single polarized antenna – Higher XPD requirements on a dual poled antenna especially for higher order modulated signal • Applies dynamic frequency reuse across sectors based on loading and interference conditions – Allocating non-overlapping subchannels for poor SINR area at the expense of spectral efficiency Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 73 .Frequency Reuse Approach (1) • Sectorized vs.

Lower interference & lower spectral efficiency at edge • Transmission from BS (all sectors) and SSs must be synchronized while using different permutation subchannels to minimize interference • PUSC typically uses 1/3 subcarriers per sector – Randomly assigns subcarriers to subchannels using PUSC scheme in an unloaded network (not very affective when load increases) • FUSC & AMC would result in large coverage holes F1S2a F2 F1 F2 F3 F1 F3 F1 F1S1a F1S2 F2 F3 F2 F1 F3 F1S3a F1S1a F1S2a F1 F2 F3 F2 F1 F3 F1S3 F1 S 1 F1S2 F1S2a F1S3a F2 F1 F3 F1S2 F1S3 F1S1 F1S3 F1S1 F1S3a F1S1a Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 74 .Frequency Reuse Approach (2) • (NcxNsxNf definition). Cluster of cell x Sectors per cell x Frequencies per cell – 1x3x1. Lowest interference (CCI & ACI) lower spectral efficiency – 1x3x11-3 Subchannels. Higher interference (CCI) higher spectral efficiency – 1x3x3.

Frequency Reuse (3) • Mobile WiMAX also support frequency reuse one. While for the edge users. all cells/sectors operate on one frequency channel to maximize spectrum utilization.e. due to heavy interference in (common frequency) reuse „1‟ deployment. i. each cell/sector operates on the zone with a fraction of all sub-channels available. However. Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 75 . users at the cell edge may suffer low connection quality • In WiMAX the sub-channel reuse pattern can be configured so that users close to the base station operate on the zone with all sub-channels available.

S1 F2: F.S2 F3: F.S3 F1 F1 F1 F F1 F F F1b F1c Fractional Freq Reuse Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 76 . F1b and F1c represent different sets of sub-channels of the same frequency • Full frequency use (maximum sub-channels) at the center while fractional frequency use at the edges • The sub-channel reuse planning can be dynamically optimized • Other implementation forms include time-coordinated and power-coordinated transmission • Transmission across BSs and sectors are coordinated in order to achieve maximal F=F +F +F F interference avoidance F 1x3x1 Reuse 1 2 3 2 1a F1=F1a + F1b + F1c F F F1 F F2 F3 F2 F F1 F F F3 1x3x3 Reuse F3 F1: F.Fractional Frequency Reuse (4) • Subchannel reuse planning can improve the coverage across the cells/sectors based on network load and prevents interference • F1a.

Fractional Frequency Reuse (5) • . frequency Reuse 1 Area Reuse 3 Area Reuse Partition 3 All Resources Reuse Partition 2 Reuse Partition 1 time time DL subframe Preamble Center cell FFR = 1 Whole cell FFR = 3 G A P UL subframe Preamble Center cell FFR = 1 Whole cell FFR = 3 Page 77 Introduction to WiMAX Technology .

Fractional Frequency Reuse (6) Cell 3 Cell 3 Cell 3 • . Cell 2 Cell 2 Cell 2 Cell 1 Cell 1 Cell 1 Frequency Frequency Frequency Cell 1 Cell 2 Cell 3 Power Power Power Power Frequency Uniform Hard reuse 3 Fractional reuse 3 Soft reuse 3 3 2 1 3 2 1 3 2 1 3 2 1 Cell 3 Cell 2 Cell 1 Frequency Cell 3 Cell 2 Cell 1 Frequency Cell 3 Cell 2 Cell 1 Frequency 3 2 1 Reuse-3 Scheme Introduction to WiMAX Technology 3 2 1 FFR-A Scheme 3 2 1 FFR-B Scheme Page 78 .

DFS. Dynamic Frequency Selection • Feature used in license-exempt frequency band only • Automatically detects and avoids interference by moving to a different frequency location within the band • Prevents harmful interference into other users • Provides improved system performance • A mandatory feature Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 79 .

(in-band spurious) Filtering distortions (normally compensated by signal processing) Distortion due to DC offset compensation DC offset (canceled in analog and signal processing) A/D and D/A converter non-linearities Thermal noise Page 80 Introduction to WiMAX Technology . not correctable by adaptive equalizers Inter-modulation distortions. at inputs. at outputs or both Amplitude & group delay distortions Improper cable termination PA compression PA switching and settling time Antenna mismatch and low isolation Low signal combiner isolation Burst shaping error Recovered clock jitter IQ gain imbalance. IQ phase imbalance.RF/ Mixed Signal Impairments • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • RF-LO phase noise.

Digital Baseband Impairments • Improper channel estimation • IFFT. FFT • Equalizer • Incorrect coefficients • Viterbi decoder • BB-LO phase noise • Timing / Frequency Sync • Digital insertion loss • Latency • Processing circuit noise Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 81 .

pulling and flicker noise – Higher complexity. LO emission. Less stringent IF filtering – Good immunity from interfering signals and good selectivity performance – Image is not a serious problem • Heterodyne with not fixed wide IF (2nd LO by division of 1st LO) – Removes part of DC offset issues. saves die/board size and power consumption – Simple Frequency Plan – Spurious and higher order mixing products associated with the 2nd LO and the IF frequencies are also eliminated from the frequency plan – Isolation and dynamic rage trade-off – Sensitive to DC offset . sensitive to IQ paths asymmetry • Homodyne (Zero-IF) – Reduced parts count. flicker noise Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 82 . more spurious. IQ imbalance & power consumption – Spurious associated with the 2nd LO and IF frequencies: careful frequency plan required • Low IF – Removes part of DC offset issues and flicker noise – Higher complexity.Commonly Used Implementation Architectures & its Characteristics • Super-heterodyne (dual conversion) – Needs of channel IF filtering (external component) and two synthesizers. LO pulling. LO emission.

Common Path Related Impairments • Distance dependent decay of the signal power • Blockage due to obstructions • Large variation in received signal envelope – Due to constructive/destructive additions of multi-path signals • ISI due to time dispersion • ICI due to local clock inaccuracy & phase noise – More critical for TDD than the FDD system – If occurred. clock drift • Frequency dispersion due to motion • Noise • Interference from own & or intra-network equipment Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 83 . it is not correctable • Synchronization vs.

Other Impairments • Atmospheric absorption – water vapor and oxygen contribute to attenuation (not relevant for low freq WiMAX) • Multipath effects by terrain and environmental conditions –Obstacles reflect signals so that multiple copies with varying delays are received • Refraction – bending of radio waves as they propagate through the atmosphere Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 84 .

modulation and content – Total data PO =DataPWR of 1subcar +10Log(# of act data subcar) – Total pilot PO =pilotPWR of 1subcar +10Log(# of act pilot subcar) – Total symbol PO =10 Log(10^dataPWR/10 + 10^pilotPWR/10) Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 85 . determined by sum of power from all active subcarriers measured over certain number of symbols in time – Sub-carrier power varies depending on type of sub-carrier. MS & BS • Different device sizes may yield asymmetric performance at each end • PO.TX PO • Max PO. regulated by local regulatory agency • Asymmetric power level at SS.

DL/UL ratio. burst rate. spurious. spectral mask. Perform upfront trade offs – Adaptive distortion control • Increases cost • Increases control algorithm complications • Reduces processing resources • Inappropriate power level affects system performance. etc. real estate. interference to other equipment. training sequence etc. Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 86 .TX PO Constraints and Impairments • Requires vector power meter to measure specific symbol power (not feasible with traditional power meter due to TDD.) • MC system demands increased PA linearity for reliable high performance • PAPR = 10 Log(# of subcarriers). spectral flatness. additional requirements than SC – Creates extreme peaks and valleys – Normally not a serious occurrence issue due to data scrambling • PA linearity may improve at the expense of – Increased power back off – Larger device (resulting in increased cost. thermal rise and lower reliability). power. adaptive modulation.

IIP3. SFDR to improve performance – Demands more linearity at higher order modulation – Non-linear distortion can not be corrected by equalizer • Spurious may also originate at other areas of the circuit such as in non-linear mixer. spurious. DAC. filters. IIP5. ACLR. noise floor.) in order to protect other operators Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 87 . • Performance degradation affects at its own near-end / far-end Rx and other operators in the vicinity • Regulatory agency controls the Tx signal quality (Po.. spectrum. etc. LO phase noise.TX PO Impairments • PA non-linearity causes IMD that results in spectral regrowth – Select higher OIP3. IQs. BW. OIP5. P1dB. etc. Freq.

distortion control. selective mapping. signal clipping. larger device. etc • Destructive effects resulting from IMD3 & IMD5 1dB OIP3 Fundamental Output Power SFDR Δf Output Power Fundamental 3rd Intermod Rx Thres IMD3 IMD5 Floor Freq Noise NF Input Power SNR IMD3 Fundamental 3rd 5th Δf 2f1-f2 f1 f2 2f2-f1 3f2-2f1 kTB SFDR BDR P1dB IIP3 Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 88 . partial IFFT.TX Impairments • Tx impairments affect the performance of its own and other neighbors in the vicinity • Mitigation techniques includes power back-off.

Spectral Spreading Control • Commonly used mitigation techniques includes: – Operate at increased power back-off – Forcing counter distortion – Using larger PA devices – Signal clipping • Digital domain clipping also introduces spreading and minimizes the effective SNR • Passing the clipped signal through BPF prior to PA eliminates spreading – Selective mapping – Partial IFFT From OFDM modulator Simulated Transmitted signal Clip to specified Prefilter OBO BPF user FIR Clip to specified Output Power Amplifier OBO Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 89 .

TX spectral mask • Reference ETSI EN302 326-2 & EN320 544-1 • RBW is generally set to about 1% of the BW if not specified • ACLR: 44.2 dB at x1 CS. 49.2 dB at x2 CS (Channel Spacing) • The spectral mask basically specifies the accuracy of the out of band signal -5 -15 Attenuation (dBr) 4QAM 16QAM 64QAM -25 -35 -45 -55 0 Introduction to WiMAX Technology 1 Frequency/CS 2 Page 90 .

TX Spectrum. (1) • Frequency domain representation of one OFDM symbol • Modulation scheme & power adjustable per sub-channel Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 91 .

Lower frequency edge X MHz Introduction to WiMAX Technology Freq Page 92 . Upper frequency edge – FOL. BW of upper subcarrier – BOL. which is caused by the fact that the side lobes are closer dB together – Roll off relative to sub-carrier rate – Small frequency guard band • BW= ½ BOU + ½ BOL + (FOH – FOL) – BOU. (2) • Higher spectrum efficiency – Place unused sub-carriers at the beginning & end of OFDM symbol – Rectangular spectrum shape (almost like brick wall) – For larger number of subcarriers the spectrum goes down rapidly in the beginning. BW of lower subcarrier OFDM -80 Single Carrier – FOH.TX Spectrum.

+2/-4 dB over all active tones for spectral lines from -100 to -1 and +1 to +100. allows more data in the allowed BW • Tx spectral flatness to be within 2 dB over all active tones for spectral lines starting from -50 to -1 and +1 to +50. • Sharp almost brick wall like spectrum. To be within 0. (3) • Use vector spectrum analyzer to capture a non-traditional signal: TDD.Tx Spectrum. training sequence.1 dB for adjacent subcarriers Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 93 . DL/UL ratio. adaptive modulation. etc. burst rate.

TX Spectrum. (4) Preamble Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 94 .

160714 = 18. pilots = 240. 3/4 FEC then each active data subcarrier carries {(R/Nused) * (4/3) * M} load Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 95 . Nused of FFT. active data = 1440. M Modulation order. NFFT = 2048. subcarrier spacing = 11.75 MHz – If an input data rate R bps.160714 kHz – BWOccupied = (1440+240) * 11.TX BW • Tx BW is determined by total active data and pilot sub-carriers – For example. BWAllowed =20 M.

5 kHz for Tx only at 2.TX Frequency • MC system demands higher frequency stability & accuracy to deliver a consistently reliable performance –≤ 1 ppm is required for FDD & TTD operation over the life of product • This equates to 2.5 GHz • The subcarriers frequency is typically about 10 KHz –SS to BS synchronization tolerance to be ≤ 2 Hz –Timing accuracy of 5-25 us required for TDD system –Frequency inaccuracy increases the ICI Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 96 .

(1) • Thermal noise due to agitation of electrons • Present in all electronic devices and transmission media • It cannot be eliminated • Function of temperature (increases at higher temperature.Thermal Noise.68 dB from -33 C to +80 C) Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 97 . 1.

93 dBm/Hz into a 50 Ohms load (antenna) at room temperature • k = Boltzmann's constant = 1.Thermal Noise.3803 * 10-23 J/K • T = temperature. (2) • Amount of thermal noise to be found in a bandwidth of 1 Hz in any device or conductor is: N0 kT W/Hz • N0 = noise power density in watts per 1 Hz of bandwidth • N0 = -173. in Kelvin's (absolute temperature) • Noise is assumed to be independent of frequency Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 98 .

FEC power & modem design approach Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 99 . 1. RF filter & cable losses (adds dB for dB) – T room temp in Absolute term.38e-23 W/Hz/ºK – BW is the RX signal’s 3 dB bandwidth • BW is computed differently for MC system – Post processing SNR • NF varies with Freq band.Noise and Threshold • RX Threshold = kT +10 Log (BW) + NF + SNR – kT =10 Log(1. (273+20) ºK – NF increases due to rigid filter requirements for narrow FDD T-R spacing – NF increases due to higher insertion loss in narrow band filters – NF increases with temperature rise • SNR requirements vary with Mod level.38e-23 * 293 ºK) = -204 dBW/Hz = -174 dBm/Hz into a 50 ohm antenna – k Boltsmann’s constant.

dB = Signal / Noise • SINR. dB = SNR + 1 • SIR = S/(N-6) • SIR = SNR when S ≥ +6 dB T SIR T/I N SINR SNR 1e-6 BER with I+N 1e-6 BER Threshold with Noise 1dB Noise Floor + Interference Noise Floor 6 dB. objective for 1 dB threshold degradation I Introduction to WiMAX Technology Interference Level Page 100 . also known as noise floor in non-log terms • I. Interference to cause 1 dB threshold degradation at 1e-6 BER • I.Threshold & Interference • N = ktB * NF. dBm = N+I =N+(-6) S Thermal Static Fade Margin 64QAM¾ o o 4QAM-¾ 4QAM-½ BPSK-½ Unfaded RF RX Level • SNR.

0 ≤-29.0 ≤-28.0 Relative Cons Error for BS (dB) ≤-15.5 ≤-21.0 ≤-18.0 ≤-18.5 ≤-20.5 ≤-25.5 ≤-25.5 ≤-20.0 Page 101 .0 ≤-18.5 ≤-21.0 ≤-18.RX Constellation Error • Rx relative constellation error includes transmit constellation error.0 ≤-30. Rx constellation error plus the channel impairments • Provides Tx-Rx and channel condition prior to error correction • Tested under any of the normal operating conditions OFDM Burst Type BPSK-1/2 4QAM-1/2 4QAM-3/4 16QAM-1/2 16QAM-3/4 64QAM-2/3 64QAM-3/4 OFDMA Burst Type 4QAM-1/2 4QAM-3/4 16QAM-1/2 16QAM-3/4 64QAM-1/2 64QAM-2/3 64QAM-3/4 Introduction to WiMAX Technology Relative Cons Error for SS (dB) ≤-13.0 ≤-26.0 ≤-31.5 ≤-24.0 Relative Cons Error for BS (dB) ≤-13.0 ≤-30.5 ≤-24.0 Relative Cons Error for SS (dB) ≤-15.0 ≤-26.0 ≤-28.0 ≤-29.0 ≤-16.0 ≤-16.0 ≤-30.

RX Threshold • Rx to remain operational at signal up to -30 dBm for all modulations • No damage to equipment at signal up to -0 dBm – Requires higher IIP3 and IIP5 devices at RF front end • • • • • • Hi-RSL is more sensitive to higher modulation Rx must detect Rx signal up to -90 dBm min Rx dynamic range of 50 dB min PER to be better than 0.49% Image rejection to be 60 dB min Receive threshold is determined by the number of data subcarriers & frame length while excluding the pilots & preambles Page 102 Introduction to WiMAX Technology .

40 to -90 dBm for 16e). Receive Signal Strength Indicator • Measurement referenced at RF Rx input • Signal detection over a wide signal range (-10 to -90 dBm for 16d. Measurements to continue down to -123 dBm • Tolerance accuracy over environmental conditions (within 2 dB relative. adaptive power UL RSSI Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 103 .RSSI. 4 dB absolute) • Controlling parameter for other critical functions • Covers the full RF filter bandwidth • Performs fast estimation to determine available BW. mod & FEC allocations • RSSI determined by excluding pilots & preambles • Fixed power DL RSSI.

5 11.0 8. Modulation • Ratio of the RX signal power to noise power • Required minimum SNR for 1e-6 BER Modulation SNRReq BPSK-1/2 4QAM-3/4 4QAM-3/4 16QAM-1/2 3.0 Page 104 .0 • SNR requirements vary with Mod type.5 • Table shows typical SNR using CC & RS FEC types vs. Mod level – Further reduction with more powerful codes • A key quality metrics for RX signal 16QAM-3/4 64QAM-2/3 15. 64QAM-3/4 FEC power & modem design techniques – Minimum post processing requirement – Lower requirements with higher powered FEC – Lower requirements at lower modulation Introduction to WiMAX Technology 21.0 6.Typical SNR vs.5 19.

SNR • S/W performs fast background computation to determine channel conditions and fade margin • Useful to check the presence of steady interference at normal RSL For SC System • SNR value decreases (worse) with increased path impairments • Provides current channel status conditions to optimize transmission 16QAM Error Distance 'd' Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 105 .

TX-LO. Rx-BB.5 In-phase Amplitude 1 Multicarrier Introduction to WiMAX Technology Single carrier Page 106 .5 0 0.5 0 -0.Phase Noise Effect • Accumulated phase noise from all sources (Tx-BB. Rx-LO) • Phase noise effect appears different on OFDM system compares to a single carrier system RX Const 1 Scatter Plot 3 Quadrature Amplitude Quadrature Amplitude 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 0.5 -1 -2 0 2 In-phase Amplitude -1 -0.

ACI. PCINR. ICI. CW. ISI • Easy to avoid/reject (with null carriers) narrowband interference with subchannels – Less interfered part of the carrier can still be used Δf Interferer Rx Filter IMD3 Δf IMD5 Freq 2f1-f2 Introduction to WiMAX Technology f1 f2 3f2-2f1 2f2-f1 Page 107 . ECINR.5 GHz – Spurious signals are typically image frequencies caused by internal mixing of an oscillator or clock freq with the primary transmitter/receiver frequency • Difficult to trace due to change in level and mixing location • Others types such as CIR.Interference. (1) • Spurious – Caused by different combinations of signals in the Tx and Rx – Harmonics are integer multiple of the primary transmitter/receiver frequency • Predictable location and traceable back to primary frequency source • Typically harmonics are measured up to 5x the frequency or up to 17. SINR. CCI. CINR.

Rx spurious interference to be ≤-47 dBm in 1 MHz BW Power Rx Filter ACI Desired Signal Thermal Noise Out of channel interference CCI Frequency Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 108 . (2) • Tx.Interference.

CCI & ACI (Co & Adjacent Channel Interference) • Co-channel interference occurs when another transmission on the same carrier frequency affects the receiver 16QAM • Adjacent-channel interference occurs 30 when energy from a carrier spills over into adjacent channels 64QAM 25 • Standards specify a reference 1 & 3 dB degradation from interference 2x-Adjacent 20 within co-channel and from adjacent Channel channel bandwidth 15 – Using same BW and type of signal • Tests are performed with a same 10 order modulated signal and bandwidth Adj-Ch 5 -6 BER • Degradation referred to 1e • Interference tolerance to determine -25 from inversed T/I curve Level above sensitivity (dB) Sensitivity Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 109 .

0 -11.0 -11.0 -30.0 Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 110 .0 -4.5 -11.0 -4.0 16QAM-3/4 16.0 4QAM-3/4 9.0 -30.0 -23.0 16QAM-1/2 12.0 64QAM-3/4 22.0 64QAM-2/3 19.0 -30.0 -23.0 -30.0 -30.0 -11.0 4QAM-1/2 8.Interference • CCI and ACI requirements at 1/3 dB degradation CCI (dB) x1 ACI (dB) x2 ACI (dB) • Reference 1e-6 BER 3 dB deg Modulation 1 dB deg 3 dB deg BPSK-1/2 4.5 -11.

IMD3 band Rx Filter Δf Interferer IMD5 • Tolerable limit is specified by ETSI standard Introduction to WiMAX Technology Δf Freq 2f1-f2 f1 f2 3f2-2f1 2f2-f1 Page 111 .CW (Continuous Wave) Interference • Narrow out of band signal may affect the normal Rx AGC operation • It may exceed the device maximum overload tolerance • Affects RSSI detector accuracy • Mixing products may fall in.

Poor frequency estimation in the receiver is another contributing factor • ISI introduces an irreducible error floor which can not be removed by increasing transmit power Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 112 . poor synchronization. creating an ICI. unstable subcarriers clock. • Non-linear distortion and phase noise are the two largest contributing factors to a loss of orthogonality. LO Phase Noise and Clock Offset • ICI & ISI are normally caused by phase noise. the inter-carrier spacing is set to be equal to the inverse of the symbol duration. ICI. insufficient delay spread and Doppler shift • ICI & ISI become more sensitive at higher modulation • To avoid inter-carrier interference.ISI.

ISI & ICI • Signal arriving late from secondary path – Affects both ISI & ICI (i-2) (i-1) (i+0) (i+1) (i+2) OFDM symbol OFDM symbol OFDM symbol |Ca(t)| OFDM symbol OFDM symbol Magnitude of channel impulse response t OFDM symbol Fade in (ICI) OFDM symbol Fade out (ISI) Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 113 .

it is also dependent on the speed (Doppler shift) • Typical delay spread: 40 to 200 ns for indoors (50 ns in homes.ISI.. 1 to 20 us for outdoors • ISI becomes more serious as the bit rate increases (σ/Ts gets worse i. bigger).e. 100 ns in offices. frequency and environment – For mobile. Ts sample time • For OFDM ratio of σ /NTs to become smaller (better ISI) • Sensitive to LO phase noise (from all sources) • For MC system. ISI is less sensitive to narrowband interfering signal and frequency selective fading Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 114 . σ is delay spread. 300 ns in industrial environment). Inter Symbol Interference • Delay spread: defined as the RMS time difference between the arrival of the first and the last multipath signal seen by the receiver – The delay is affected by distance.

ICI. This phenomena is independent of clock stability F-2 F-1 F0 F1 F2 ICI Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 115 . If occurred. it is not correctable • LO phase noise and clock recovery error produces wider overlapping skirt at the lower part of the subcarriers in frequency domain. Inter Carrier Interference • OFDM systems becomes more susceptible to time-variations as symbol length increases – Increase the CP length and number of pilot tones to mitigate the ICI – Lower FFT size increases the subcarrier spacing that improves the ICI and more tolerant to Doppler shift • Time variations introduce ICI in frequency domain • Signal arriving from multipath causes ICI.

noise and interference) over which receiver performs adequately • Performance determined at a reference 1e-6 BER • Determined by aggregate AGC in the receiver chain BER 1e-2 1e-4 1e-6 1e-10 Overload Thres -RSSI Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 116 .Dynamic Range • Receive signal ratio between the maximum possible signal and the minimum signal that gives the desired signal level over noise at demodulator input • The range includes input power (signal.

SS is allotted a variable length time slot for their usage • Single RF filter and single RF-LO • Less stringent filter requirements • Less data throughput • Increased MAC control complexity (less hardware complexity) • Readily available lower cost parts due to higher usage in unlicensed band • Dynamic asymmetry ratio of DL/UL • Unlicensed operation is limited to using TDD format Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 117 .TDD. neither transmit/receive simultaneously • On DL. Time-Division Duplex • DL & UL timeshare the same RF channel – With a gap period at transition to accommodate Tx/Rx mode switching and PA settling time • BS or SS. SS is associated with a specific burst • On UL.

. DL Burst #m RNG BW Contention P Burst #1 . DL Burst #m Frame n-1 Frame n Frame n+1 Frame n+2 DL Subframe (PHY PDU) TTG UL Subframe (PHY PDU) RTG TDD P FCH DL Burst #1 ...FDD and TDD Frame Structure UL Subframe (PHY PDU) Frequency RNG BW UL P Burst #1 .. P UL SS #1 UL UL Burst #k UL SS #k Time FCH: Frame Control Header P: Preamble Introduction to WiMAX Technology RNG: Contention Slot for Ranging Request BW: Contention Slot for BW Request TTG: Tx/Rx Transmission Gap RTG: Rx/Tx Transmission Gap Page 118 .. P UL Burst #k FDD Contention UL SS #1 UL SS #k DL Subframe (PHY PDU) P FCH DL Burst #1 ....

HFDD TDD FDD HFDD Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 119 .TDD & FDD.

no switch settling time required • Requires two frequency channels • Higher performance front end RF • Simpler MAC control operation Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 120 .FDD. Frequency-Division Duplex • DL & UL on separate RF frequency channels • BS & SS transmit/receive simultaneously • Static asymmetry • Half-duplex SSs supported –SS does not transmit/receive (lower cost) • Continuous operation.

TDD & FDD • TDD – Advantages • Asymmetric DL/UL ratio • FDD – Advantages • Better protection against interferences (separate DL/UL ratio) • Stronger synchronization of receiver • Lower cost of RF elements • More options with channels size • Simple AAS in MIMO implementation – Disadvantages • Vulnerable to interference • Network planning is easier – Disadvantages • Fixed DL/UL ratio • More expensive • Less options with channel sizes • Synchronization of receiver • Synchronization of network Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 121 .

IFFT/FFT. Sync. timing recovery.WiMAX • WiMAX architecture consists of two key items – PHY • BB & RF processor (Frequency source. error detection & correction etc. Mod. multiple interface access.) – MAC • Standard compliant LAN and end to end interface • Protocol control / process / manage and QoS toward LAN interface • Protocol control / process / manage and QoS toward end-toend system Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 122 .

privacy key and PHY management – All traffic goes through BS • Subscriber Station (SS): – Finds BS. generate bandwidth requests. maintenance ranging and power control • Mobile Station (MS): – In addition to the SS functions. make local scheduling decisions. QoS. acquire PHY synchronization. follows transmission/reception schedule from BS. power control. mobility management. obtain MAC parameters. frame size. handoff. handoff. performs initial ranging. power conversion and power management Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 123 . admission control. Ranging. clock synchronization.Base Station & Subscriber Station • Base Station (BS): – Controls the entire system. scheduling.

System Design Requirements • BW. Bandwidth • Bit rate • Subcarrier spacing • Tolerable delay spread • Doppler shift value • Bits per OFDM sym = Bits rate * (active data subcarriers) * FEC * Log2(Mod) • QoS Modulation (M) Channel Coding Inter leaving Modulation (M) S/P Modulation (M) Modulation (M) Mapping from size N/2 to N To Channel Source Data IFFT S/P CP Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 124 .

Key System Design Parameters • Channel bandwidth • Number of subcarriers • CP. cyclic prefix • Subcarrier spacing • Modulation • FEC • PO • Dynamic range • Threshold Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 125 .

OFDM Subcarriers • An OFDMA symbol consists of three types of subcarriers: – Pilot subcarriers – Data subcarriers – Null subcarriers Im Received symbol Received symbol • Subcarriers can be turned on/off dynamically based on channel conditions and to meet the required BW Real Transmitted symbol Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 126 .

certain numbers are dedicated to specific subchannels Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 127 .Pilot Sub-carrier • Pilot subcarriers contain signal values that are known to the receiver – Facilitate signal recovery and synchronization • Pilot subcarriers are used in the receiver for correcting the magnitude (important in QAM) and phase shift offsets of the received symbols (see signal constellation example on previous page) – Magnitude and phase of these subcarriers are known to receiver that helps to speed up channel estimation • Always BPSK-1/2 modulated & its transmission repeated • Higher power level (2.5 dB higher than the average power of the non-boosted data tones • Transmitted with embedded Pseudo random code • Inserted after the FEC stage so as not to destroy the fixed time and amplitude relationships that these signals must possess to be effective • 8 pilots for OFDM (Configurable number for each transmitter in OFDMA) • More pilots increases noise resiliance & processor loading while reducing the overall throughput • For OFDM. pilots are common to all UL-subchannels • For OFDMA.

Helps Rx to sync and perform additional channel estimation). Modulation remains the same within burst but changes from burst to burst. Preambles are 3 dB stronger than all other symbols in the DL frame. • Following DL Preamble is the FCH (single symbol of 88 bits. every 4th subcarrier with a phase relationship that minimize the PAPR. all subcarriers turned on. 2nd containing 100 subcarriers and called long. QPSK-1/2 for OFDMA). 100 subcarriers of QPSK. Allows RX to calculate frequency response of the channel and to fine tune the frequency errors). BPSK-1/2 for OFDM. This period is used for RX gain setting and course frequency correction. 8 us. occupies 1st two subcarriers in the 1st data symbol • Remainder of the data subcarriers carry the user data Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 128 . All have the same levels.Data Sub-carriers • Used to transport over head control and user data • Part of the DL/UL data subcarriers contain preamble symbols for training purposes – DL has two long preamble symbols of QPSK: Two training cycles at the start of each 8 us (1st containing 50 subcarriers and called short training sequence. Preamble has no pilot carriers. – UL always starts with preamble (called short preamble.

Null Sub-carriers • To avoid difficulties in DAC and ADC converter offsets. the sub-carrier falling at DC is not used – Relaxes anti-aliasing and filtering requirements – DC subcarrier power must be at least 15 dB lower than the average of all other subcarriers • Provides a frequency guard band before the Nyquist frequency and allows for a realistic roll off in the analog anti-aliasing reconstruction filters • Used for spectrum shaping and to fit the regulatory mask • Null subcarriers contain no power Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 129 . and to avoid DC offset and PA saturation.

Typical OFDMA Blockdiagram • Variable FFT & subcarriers size based on the BW • Constant subcarrier frequency spacing • Configurable over-sampling factor SCRM & FEC Interl eaver QAM Mod Pilot S/P IFFT P/S CP & Win DAC & FLTR RFTX FEC & DScrm D-Int QAM DMD FD EQL P/S FFT S/P CP Remove TMG & FreqSyn ADC & FLTR RFRX Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 130 .

Scrambler • Randomization prevents long sequences of 1‟s or 0‟s in the incoming data stream – Helps speed up and maintain clock recovery • DL & UL data is randomized by modulo-2 addition of every data bit with output of a pseudo random binary sequence generator • Randomization is performed on data bits only • A pseudo random binary sequence of 1+X14+X15 • Each frame starts with initialization sequence of 100101010000000 • Randomization is performed on each allocation (DL or UL) independently Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 131 .

bit error – Error multiplication at higher order modulation Probability Density Function Probability Density Receive symbol position Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 132 .FEC (1) • Probability of symbol location after passing through AWGN channel • When does error occur? – Expected symbol ends up in neighbor’s territory • Symbol vs.

202 • Signal compression at outer most • SER.7° 32QAM 5 26 34 50 74 106 146 194 250 16QAM 3 10 18 34 58 90 130 178 234 4QAM 1 2 10 26 50 82 122 170 226 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 Error Distance 'd' Page 133 . FER 128QAM 122 11 82 9 130 146 170 202 242 290 346 90 106 130 162 202 250 306 64QAM 50 7 58 74 98 130 170 218 274 Modulation BPSK QPSK 16QAM 64QAM Introduction to WiMAX Technology Error 90° 45° 16.0 1/4th constellation View 256QAM 15 170 13 178 194 218 250 290 338 394 226 234 250 274 306 346 394 450 – QPSK = 1.471 – 64QAM = 0. PER.9° 7. BER.414 – 16QAM = 0.283 – 256QAM = 0.FEC (2) • Hard decision declares error the moment it crosses the decision boundary • Soft decision further adds statistical values in error computation • Error distance decreases on higher modulation making it more susceptible to error – BPSK = 2.

bandwidth allocation. subchannelization. data integrity. AAS (adaptive antenna system) & MIMO calculations • If the last FEC block is not filled. coding rate.FEC (3) • Process computes and adds additional parity bits at the transmit which helps identify error location & possible correction by receiver • FEC implementation varies by Cap/BW/Modulation – Reed Solomon (RS) only – RS + Convolution – RS + Convolution + Interleaver • Detected error quality is used to control adaptive modulation. that block may be left shortened • Shortening in both UL and DL is controlled by the BS and is implicitly communicated in the UL-MAP and DL-MAP Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 134 . error performance.

n. Convolutional Turbo Coding (CTC) and low density parity coding (LDPC) is optional • The Reed Solomon encoding shall be derived from a systematic varied length RS code (k. t is the number of data bytes which can be corrected • Encoder supports shortened and punctured codes to accommodate variable block size • Reduces overall throughput according to the selected coding rate Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 135 . t) where n is the number of overall bytes after encoding. ≤1e-8) and Convolution coding (good for 1e-4 to 1e-7 BER) • Total of 7 different rate dependent combinations • Support of Block Turbo Coding (BTC). k is the number of data bytes before encoding.FEC (4) • Adds redundancy to data bits • Programmable concatenated Reed Solomon (good for low BER.

e.FEC (5) • Incoming data bytes are processed serially (byte by byte) over a fixed RS block length then adds the parity bytes at the end • Low rate coding may be punctured by deleting zeros to lower overhead (i. deleting 2 out of 6 bits of ½ to create a ¾ rate) Raw Data (lower speed) Block 2 Block 1 Block 0 After RS (higher speed) X X Parity Bytes X Data Bytes X X X Direction of Data Flow X Out + Data In 1 bit delay 1 bit delay 1 bit delay 1 bit delay 1 bit delay 1 bit delay + Y Out Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 136 ..

FEC (6) • Four FEC schemes defined in 802.16 • 802.16 defines concatenated coding schemes: inner code (random errors) and outer code (burst errors) • Code type 1 (used for large data block or high coding requirements): – No inner code – Outer codes: systematic Reed-Solomon (corrects errors: 16 to 0 bytes) – Two modes of operation: • Fixed codeword: number of information bytes same for every RS codeword • Shortened codeword: number of information bytes in the final RS block is reduced Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 137 .

bi • 24 bits output codeword ci (each symbol: combination of others symbol: c23 = b15+b0+b1) • Code type 3 (optional): – Outer code: almost same as RS code as in code type 1 and 2 – Inner code: (9.FEC (7) • Code type 2 (useful for low to moderate coding rates that provide good performance): – Outer code: almost same as RS code as in code type 1 – Inner code is a (24. 8) parity check code (code adds one parity bit to every eight bits) Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 138 . 16) block convolutional code (BCC) • 16 bits input block code.

FEC (8) • Code type 4 (used to extend the range of a BS or increase the data rate at the same range): – No inner code – Outer code: block turbo code (BTC): The idea is to encode the data twice – Option: bit interleaving k1 k2 n2 Introduction to WiMAX Technology n1 Information bits Checks Checks Checks on checks Page 139 .

Eb/No before and after the RS only FEC • Performance tradeoffs FEC Gain Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 140 .BER Curve • BER vs.

6) 3/4 64-QAM 108 (120. 108. 4) 2/3 4-QAM 36 (40. 8) 2/3 16-QAM 72 (80. 72. 6) 5/6 Introduction to WiMAX Technology Coded Blocks Overall (bytes) Coding 24 1/2 48 1/2 48 3/4 96 1/2 96 3/4 144 2/3 144 3/4 Page 141 . 96.Modulation & Coding Combination Summary • WiMAX supports 7 possible Mod / FEC rates to provide optimal data throughput • Other modulations and FEC types are optional Uncoded Modulation Blocks (bytes) RS Code CC Code BPSK 12 (12. 12. 36. 4) 5/6 64-QAM 96 (108. 2) 5/6 16-QAM 48 (64. 0) 1/2 4-QAM 24 (32. 24. 48.

26) RS code and the inner code is a (24.Preamble (added after the FEC) • It is important that the frame control section of the DL frame be encoded with fixed set of parameters known to the SS at initialization in order to ensure that all subscribers stations can read the information • The control portion of the frame is encoded with a Type 2 FEC where the outer code is a (46. 16) BCC SCRM & FEC Interl eaver QAM Mod Pilot S/P IFFT P/S CP & Win DAC & FLTR RFTX FEC & DScrm D-Int QAM DMD FD EQL P/S FFT S/P CP Remove TMG & FreqSyn ADC & FLTR RFRX Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 142 .

16QAM or 64QAM. 4 or 6 for QPSK.Interleaving • • • • Data interleaving is very affective against burst (clustered) typed errors Process increases latency through the system All encoded data bits shall be interleaved by a block interleaver Interleaver block size corresponds to the number of coded bits per specified allocations • The number of coded bits per carrier is 2. respectively Before Interleaving X No error block After Interleaving X X X X No error block Burst errored block X X X X Correctable block X Correctable block Correctable block Data Input Fill in b1 b4 b7 b10 Data Out b2 b5 b8 b11 b1 b4 b7 b10 b2 b5 b8 b11 b3 b6 b9 b12 b3 b6 b9 b12 Page 143 Introduction to WiMAX Technology .

Constellation Mapping • Serial data bits are mapped into selected modulated symbol • Supports Gray-mapped BPSK. 4/ 16/ 64-QAM modulation • Support of 256-QAM is optional • Normalized to achieve unity average power regardless of modulation scheme • Constellations must be normalized to achieve equal average power • Supports adaptive modulation and coding Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 144 .

. b5 b4 b3 6 bits b2 b1 b0 I = b0 b1 b2 1 Symbol Real Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 145 .Constellation Map and Spectral Efficiency Modulation BPSK QPSK 16QAM 64QAM Spectral Efficiency 1 2 4 6 Imaginay b0b1b2 b3b4b5 000 100 001 100 011 100 010 100 110 100 111 100 101 100 100 100 7 000 101 001 101 011 101 010 101 110 101 111 101 101 101 100 101 5 000 111 001 111 011 111 010 111 110 111 111 111 101 111 100 111 3 000 110 001 110 011 110 010 110 110 110 111 110 101 110 100 110 1 -7 000010 -5 -3 -1 -1 000 011 001 011 011 011 010 011 110 011 111 011 101 011 100 011 -3 000 001 001 001 011 001 010 001 110 001 111 001 101 001 100 001 -5 000 000 001 000 011 000 010 000 110 000 111 000 101 000 100 000 -7 1 3 5 7 001 010 011 010 010 010 110 010 111 010 101 010 100 010 Input Bits Input bits I-Out Q-Out (b0b1b2) (b3b4b5) 000 -7 000 -7 001 -5 001 -5 011 -3 011 -3 010 -1 010 -1 110 1 110 1 111 3 111 3 101 5 101 5 100 7 100 7 Q = b 3 b4 b 5 .

follows 2 adjustment rules –Constant constellation peak power and constant constellation mean power –Before Mod I & Q signals filtered by square root raised cosine pulse shaping filter: • S(t) = I(t)*cos (2πfct) * Q(t)sin(2 π fct) Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 146 .Constellation Mapping (2) • Digital modulation: how bits are mapped to symbols. Constellation can be selected per subscriber (quality of the RF channel) • In the DL: QPSK. 16-QAM and 64-QAM • Distance to origin: power that sends the signal.

the data bits are entered serially to the constellation mapper • Mapped to form symbol for selected modulation • Modulation with Gray coding • Normalized to achieve unity average power regardless of modulation scheme in order to facilitate timing recovery SCRM & FEC Interl eaver QAM Mod Pilot S/P IFFT P/S CP & Win DAC & FLTR RFTX FEC & DScrm D-Int QAM DMD FD EQL P/S FFT S/P CP Remove TMG & FreqSyn ADC & FLTR RFRX Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 147 .Constellation Mapping (3) • After bit interleaving.

Constellation Display • Multiple modulations captured in a single frame • Constant average power to stabilize Rx AGC loop gain Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 148 .

There are several carrier types – Data subcarriers: for data transmission & down stream synchronization – Pilot subcarriers: for various estimation purposes – Null subcarriers: no transmission at all.Constellation Map • The Frequency Domain description includes the basic structure of an OFDM symbol • An OFDM symbol is made up from subcarriers. for guard bands and DC carrier Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 149 . the number of which determines the FFT size used.

65025 vs.IFFT/FFT • A DSP process that uses N points IFFT of a signal X(k) • Parallel data streams are used as inputs to an IFFT • IFFT output contains N times data buckets – Each bucket contains sum of many samples of many sinusoids – Same frequency. different amplitude and phase – At center of the subcarrier there is no cross talks from other subcarriers and hence makes receiver to correctly recover data • IFFT does modulation and multiplexing in one step • Normal DFT would require (N-1)^2 operation whereas the FFT would require only N/2*Log2(N) operations (i. 1024 multiplications for 256 point FFT) Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 150 .e..

May use the same hardware for Tx & Rx in TDD mode • IFFT modulates and multiplexes the signal in one step • DSP algorithms replace a required bank of IQ Mod-DMD that would otherwise be Time Domain Frequency Domain required x x x 199 I Parallel to Serial Subcarrier Modulation Data IQ Vector x x x Zeros IFFT Q Output Base Band OFDM Signal Input Data 1 0 Guard Period Introduction to WiMAX Technology Symbol Start Page 151 .IFFT/FFT • The IFFT operation in OFDM partitions a wide band channel into multiple narrowband subchannels • The IFFT & FFT operations are almost identical. The IFFT can be made using an FFT by conjugating input and output of the FFT and dividing the output by the FFT size.

Guard Time • Signal from multiple reflected paths arrive at various delays • Delayed signal may corrupts the front part of the next symbol • The guard time acts as a buffer to allow time for multipath signals from previous symbol to die away before the information from the current symbol to get collected by receiver • It is like water splash when driving too close to a car in front • A simple gap is not acceptable for optimal signal recovery at Rx • Adding guard time lowers the symbol rate but does not affects the subcarrier spacing Environment Sig. ns Office/home NLoS 50 Open space office NLoS 100 Large open space office NLoS 150 Manufacturing area 200-300 Microcell 500 Large open space LoS 140 Large open space NLoS 250 Mobile city 2500 Mobile rural area 25000 Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 152 . Delay.

... x(N-2-v). x(N-1-v) Tb = FFT symbol duration Ts = OFDM symbol duration .. Guard Band ξmax Sampling start Time Domain MC Sample Level 1/Fs ~ ~ NFFT Time Tg NFFT*1/FS=Tb(=1/Δf) Ts=Tb+Tg Tg=G-Tb -1 NFFT Equaliazer Length SC Sym period Page 153 Introduction to WiMAX Technology ...x(N-1) DC Carrier Pilot Carrier (8) Tg Guard Band Low (28) Guard Band High (27) Frequency Domain CP vs.. . Cyclic Prefix Plot Data Carrier (192) CP x(0). x(1).CP.

Delayed Signal • Signal travels through various paths and ultimately arrives at different time • FFT symbol portion must contain integer number of cycles • Append tail part of the FFT symbol to its front part in order to make it a continuous signal – ICI & timing recovery issues if not appended • Guard interval length may or may not contain integer cycles Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 154 .

Tg/TOFDM Sym)) • Guard interval is discarded by the receiver – SNR Loss. however it does not affects the subcarrier spacing see by the receiver – Subcarrier spacing Δf = Fs / FFFT • Guard interval simplifies equalization at the Rx if guard interval time is greater than the maximum delay spread • Guard interval should be short (performance trade offs) • Guard interval should be chosen longer than the actual RMS delay spread. in dB = -10Log (1 .Tguard interval length / TOFDM symbol duration) Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 155 . 3x to 4x longer (≈ 0.1 of symbol length. SNR ≤ 1 dB = 10log(1.Guard Time Consideration • Guard interval reduces the signal energy available at receiver • Guard interval reduces the data rate throughput while increasing the noise bandwidth (spectrally inefficient) • Adding a guard interval lowers the symbol rate.

delay ≤ guard time. dB -15 -20 -25 -30 -35 -40 0 5 10 Frequency (MHz) 15 Quadrature Amplitude 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -2 0 2 In-phase Amplitude -2 0 2 In-phase Amplitude -2 0 2 In-phase Amplitude Page 156 Introduction to WiMAX Technology .Guard Time Effects • Insufficient guard time (CP) causes ISI & ICI • Higher order modulations & timing recovery circuits are more sensitive to ICI & ISI • 16QAM 256 points FFT receive constellation plots (a. b delay exceeds guard time by 3% of FFT internal. c. delay exceeds guard time by 10% of the FFT interval) a -10 RX Const 3 b Quadrature Amplitude 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 RX Const 3 c Quadrature Amplitude 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 RX Const 3 Magnitude-squared.

CP. 1/32). 1/8. Cyclic Prefix • Usage of CP is necessary to combat MP distortions • CP reduces the BW efficiency (a tradeoff between throughput performance vs. 1/16. but using the CP as guard interval can transform the linear convolution with the channel into circular convolution • • • • CP is added after the IFFT on a combined signal rather than for each sub-carrier Accommodates the decaying transient of the previous symbol Smooth initial transient to reach the current symbol Impact of CP is similar to the roll-off factor in raised cosine filtered SC systems Page 157 Introduction to WiMAX Technology . ¼ is the most robust in the multipath • Delayed replicas of the OFDM symbol always have an integer number of cycles within FFT interval • A copy of the last OFDM symbol is appended to the front of transmitted OFDM symbol • Actually the Tg can be realized by adding zeros. BW) • CP should be longer than the maximum expected RMS delay spread • Programmable (1/4.

DC = 0. slow fading – TC ≤ T. to determine antenna spacing Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 158 . • Coherence time. Tc = 0. Hz = v/λ. fast fading – Coherence time is a time period to correlate the channel’s value • Coherence distance. The rate of change of phase gives rise to Doppler frequency. fd Doppler shift – TC >> T.Doppler Shift • A measure of spectral broadening caused by the channel time variation • Motion of the mobile causes periodic phase shifts which change with time. compared to the maximal Doppler frequency of the fading channel. which varies with mobile speed and arrival angle of rays • fd.423/fd . where v velocity.179 λ. Inter-carrier spacing of the system must be chosen large. λ wavelength – Inter-carrier spacing must be at least 10 times higher than the maximum fd – Value increases if moving toward source and lower when moving away from each other • Symbol rate must be much higher than the Doppler shift.

antenna mismatch. signal combiners and multipath effects • MC systems are more tolerant to group delays • Equalizer is an effective tool to remove linear distortion Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 159 . It is also contributed from improper cable termination. that is the slope of the phase response • Prime contribution of the group delay comes from tighter band pass filter response in the baseband.Group Delay • It is defined as derivative of the phase response versus frequency. noncompensated sin(x)/x. IF & RF sections.

Ts = (1/subcarrier frequency spacing) + Tg • Tb: Useful symbol time. 1/16. 1/32) Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 160 . N/Fs • Tg or CP (to improve the impulse response) guard time –Generally kept under 1 dB (pick about 4x the delay spread) –Increased roll off time reduces the spread tolerance • G = Tg/Ts. four programmable intervals (1/4.OFDM Symbol • Chosen NFFT = 2^n • Carrier filler for unused carriers • Total OFDM Symbol time. 1/8.

There is no band limits in frequency domain • Applied window must not influence the signal in its effective period. In other words pulse-shaping affects on the CP T Tguard Sym-1 Prefix Twin TFFT Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 161 TFFT Current Symbol Effective TX-time Postfix Twin Sym+1 Time .Windowing • Makes amplitude go down smoothly to zero at symbol boundaries (minimizes interference to others) • Tx signal without windowing will have wide bandwidth due to the side lobes of the IFFT being a Sinc function • Tx signal is band limited in time domain by using windowing technique (raised cosine function).

estimation and tracking time-varying channels) are transmitted via preamble or pilot carriers • UL pilots are not boosted Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 162 .5 dB for relative step) for the first 30 dB range.1 dB • Preamble bursts are 3 dB (4.TX PO • BS to provide 10 dB min settable attenuation in 1 dB min step size with better than 1.5 dB for relative steps) measurement accuracy • SS to provide 30 dB (40 dB for 16e) min settable transmit attenuation in 1 dB min step size – 50 dB min settable attenuation for devices with sub-channelization – The measurement accuracy for 1 dB step size must be within 1.5 dB (within 0.6 dB for 16e) higher than the FCH & DL data • Training symbol (for sync.. 3 dB for larger step size • Preamble level between adjacent sub-carriers must be within 0.5 dB (within 0.

3% for 16QAM.5% for 64QAM with equalizer. TX Performance Requirements • PO +38.BS. linear distortion removed • Symbol timing accuracy – ≤ 0. 6% for 16QAM without equalizer – 10% for QPSK.25 of a sym 0.125 of a sym • Tx burst timing step accuracy 1e-6 • SNDR ≤ -31 dBc • Tx spectral mask regulated per local regulatory agency Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 163 . 1.5 dBm/MHz max or per local regulatory requirements • Tx output noise spectral density of -80 dBm/MHz max when Tx is not transmitting • Ramp up & down time of ≤ 8 sym • Mod accuracy – 12% for QPSK.02 pk-pk of nominal sym relative to previous sym over 2s duration – Tx Sym clock accuracy to be within • Tx burst timing step size 0.

TX Waveform Accuracy • The accuracy of the modulated waveform is affected internally by – Root raised cosine filter length and coefficients accuracy – D/A converter accuracy – Modulator imbalances – Synthesizer phase noise – PA nonlinearities Q Error Vector Magnitude Actual Error • Externally affected by – Cable mismatch – Antenna mismatch – Interference – Terrain – Environmental Ideal Phase Error Carrier Leakage Magnitude error I Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 164 .

0 ≤-16.0 ≤-30.5 ≤-20.5 ≤-20. min TX Performance • Provides TX Mod accuracy and PA linearity conditions • Tx relative constellation error is to measure with ideal receiver with carrier recovery loop BW of 1% of the symbol rate • Measurement method determines the magnitude error of each constellation point at the sampling instances and RMS averages them together across multiple symbols.0 ≤-18.0 ≤-26.5 ≤-24.0 ≤-31.0 ≤-18.0 Relative Cons Error for BS (dB) ≤-15.0 Relative Cons Error for BS (dB) ≤-13.0 ≤-30.5 ≤-21.0 ≤-26.0 ≤-29.0 ≤-18.5 ≤-25.0 Relative Cons Error for SS (dB) ≤-15. and packets • Provides signal quality prior to channel impairments at the sampling instances OFDM Burst Type BPSK-1/2 4QAM-1/2 4QAM-3/4 16QAM-1/2 16QAM-3/4 64QAM-2/3 64QAM-3/4 OFDMA Burst Type 4QAM-1/2 4QAM-3/4 16QAM-1/2 16QAM-3/4 64QAM-1/2 64QAM-2/3 64QAM-3/4 Relative Cons Error for SS (dB) ≤-13.5 ≤-21.0 ≤-18.5 ≤-25.0 ≤-28.5 ≤-24.0 ≤-28.0 ≤-30.BS.0 ≤-29.0 Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 165 . frame.0 ≤-16.

SS/MS.5 dBm/MHz or per regulatory requirements • BER at 1e-6 & carrier symbol rate of R in Mbps – -90dBm+10Log(R) for QPSK – -83dBm+10Log(R) for 16QAM – -74dBm+10Log(R) for 64QPSK • Transmission time from Tx to Rx. +13 dB for 64QAM • 2nd ACI at 1e-6 BER & 1 dB degradation – -30 dB for QPSK. -23 dB for 64QAM Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 166 . 20 us for FDD & HD-FD • ACI at 1e-6 BER & 1 dB degradation – -1 dB for QPSK. -30 dB for 16QAM. min TX Perf • ≤ +39. +6 dB for 16QAM. 2 us for TDD.

min TX Perf-2 • • • • • • • • • • • 40 dB min dynamic range Tx PO of +15 dBm min for QPSK Tx PO adjustment in 0.5 of a symbol with step accuracy of 0.02 of the symbol duration in over 2 s period Symbol clock to be locked on BS TX burst timing accuracy.5% (64QAM) with equalizer distortion removed Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 167 .5 dB step Tx pk-pk jitter. -80 dBm/MHz when not transmitting Modulation accuracy: 10% (QPSK). 3% (16QAM) 1.25 of symbol TX RF frequency accuracy.SS/MS. self correction for burst step up to 0. 1 ppm Spectral mask per local regulatory requirements Ramp up and down time ≤ 8 symbols Noise density. ≤ 0.

SS/MS, min TX Perf-3 (Flatness)

• DC subcarrier to be suppressed by 15 dB min relative to the total average power from all data and pilot subcarriers
• The outer subcarriers need to be within +2/-4 dB from average power transmitted from all active subcarriers
–The inner subcarriers must be within 2 dB 0.4 dB –The adjacent subcarriers must be within

Introduction to WiMAX Technology

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Po, Attenuation & Accuracy
• Preamble power level may change from burst to burst • Preamble aids in synchronizing the RX, perform channel estimation & Equalization processes • Preamble spectral flatness is specified across all sub-carriers – Po within 0.1 dB of adjacent subcarriers for both DL/UL – Preamble applies to every second or 4th channel (computational adjacent) – 2 dB ave over all active tones from -50 to -1 & +1 to +50, +2/-4 dB ave over all active tones from -100 to -50 and +50 to 100 for both DL/UL – Preamble symbol contains no pilot – 3 dB higher power than all other data subcarriers in the DL subframe – Requires extremely sharp notch filters for reliable measurement. • Requires 10 dB min range for BS. 30 dB min range for OFDM SS. 50 dB min range for OFDMA SS. • 1 dB step with 1.5 dB min relative accuracy for 30 dB, Larger steps with 3 dB min relative accuracy for over 30-50 dB for MS/SS • Power control to support 30 dB/s signal fluctuations
Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 169

BS performance

• TX center freq tolerance
–BS 1 ppm, SS must be locked to BS, SS to be within ppm of BS 1

• Tx symbol clock frequency tolerance
• Rx freq & timing requirement

• Time accuracy
–5 to 25 us for TDD –N/A for FDD –GPS option (more expensive and difficult to access open sky if in the basement)
Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 170

MS Performance Parameters
• RSL power determined from per subcarrier level
• RSL per unboosted subcarrier = RSSI-10Log(8)10Log(number of preamble subcarriers)

• Fast feedback channel from MS to up date the time critical information such as CINR, MIMO, AAS, spatial multiplexing, etc.

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RX Constellation Error
• Relative constellation error
• Intended to ensure that RX SNR does not degrade more than 0.5 dB due to TX SNR. Measured by an ideal receiver with carrier recovery loop bandwidth of 1% of the symbol rate

• EVM value includes PA nonlinearities, untracked phase noise, inband amplitude OFDM Relative Cons Relative Cons ripple and DAC inaccuracies
• Results are independent of the FEC
Q Error Vector Magnitude Actual
Error

Ideal Phase Error Carrier Leakage

Magnitude error I

Burst Type BPSK-1/2 4QAM-1/2 4QAM-3/4 16QAM-1/2 16QAM-3/4 64QAM-2/3 64QAM-3/4 OFDMA Burst Type 4QAM-1/2 4QAM-3/4 16QAM-1/2 16QAM-3/4 64QAM-1/2 64QAM-2/3 64QAM-3/4

Error for SS (dB) ≤-13.0 ≤-16.0 ≤-18.5 ≤-21.5 ≤-25.0 ≤-29.0 ≤-30.0 Relative Cons Error for SS (dB) ≤-15.0 ≤-18.5 ≤-20.5 ≤-24.0 ≤-26.0 ≤-28.0 ≤-30.0

Error for BS (dB) ≤-13.0 ≤-16.0 ≤-18.5 ≤-21.5 ≤-25.0 ≤-29.0 ≤-31.0 Relative Cons Error for BS (dB) ≤-15.0 ≤-18.5 ≤-20.5 ≤-24.0 ≤-26.0 ≤-28.0 ≤-30.0
Page 172

Introduction to WiMAX Technology

Adaptive Frequency Domain Equalizer
• A perfectly normal signal becomes distorted after going through multipath channel
• Same frequency but different amplitude & phased signals are received • Equalizer estimates the error amplitude • Multiply the subcarrier by inverse phase and magnitude of the estimated channel • Time domain equalization in a time dispersive channel becomes prohibitively expensive for a SC system as data rate increases. For MC, each subchannel can be modeled as flat fading channel requiring simple (N-short) Frequency Domain EQ. FDE is an attractive alternative to mitigate complexity.

• OFDM moves the IFFT operation to Tx to load balance complexity between Tx 1/|a| e-jφ and Rx Single Single Multipath
Distorted Phase & Magnitude

• An adaptive process for varied conditions • Removes only the linear distortions
Quadrature Amplitude

Transmitted Subcarrier

Channel

Received Subcarrier
Scatter Plot

TX Const 1
1.5 1

|a|ejφ
1
Quadrature Amplitude

Scatter Plot

0.5

Quadrature Amplitude

0.5

0.5 0 -0.5 -1

0

0

-0.5

-0.5

P/S

QAM DMD

FD EQL

FFT

S/P

CP Remove

FLTR ADC

-1

-1 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 In-phase Amplitude 1
-1 0 In-phase Amplitude 1

-1

-0.5 0 0.5 In-phase Amplitude

1

Introduction to WiMAX Technology

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OFDM, Rx Threshold

• OFDM receive signal is made up of a sum of attenuated, phase shifted and time delayed versions of the transmitted signal
• Rx Thresh=-114 -10Log(R) +10Log(FS * NUsed/NFFT) +NF + SNR + LImp
–Add 10Log(Nsubchannel used/32) for OFDMA, when using less subchannels in the BS Rx –NF = SNRIn / SNRO, for front end cascaded Rx chain

–R, number of repetitions for the modulation/FEC rate
–FS, sampling frequency in MHz
Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 174

Packet vs. Frame • Packet address stays with user data up till the final destination • Link address of the frame changes at each physical device Packet Network (destination) Address User Data Link Address (Destination-source addresses change along the path) Control Info Frame Data Payload Pad CRC Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 175 .

# of non-errored frames Frame received / # of frames transmitted BER 1e-6 1e-7 1e-8 1e-10 1e-12 Introduction to WiMAX Technology FER1 5.12e-6 5.12e-4 5.12e-5 5.FER. for 2 bits error per frame – For example.31e-11 1. for 1 bit error per frame • FER2 = BER2 *(1-BER)^FR*8-1 *(FR*8)*(FR*8 -1)/2.31e-9 1. a quality metrics for data applications • Performance dependent on the frame length & BER • Receiving equipment discards the entire packet upon receiving error(s) and requests retransmission – Lower data throughput vs.31e-19 Page 176 .31e-7 1. FER1&2 for frame rate of 64 bytes • FERActual = 1 .31e-15 1. Frame Error Rate • Error rate.12e-8 5.12e-10 FER2 1. BER – Further reduction in data throughput due to retransmission • FER1 = BER * (1-BER)^FR*8-1 * (FR*8).

0 Page 177 .0 10. dB Introduction to WiMAX Technology Rx Threshold vs.5 14.RX Requirements • Minimum threshold requirements based on 7 dB NF & 1e-6 BER • Residual bit error rate to be ≤1e-10 Bandwidth (MHz) 1.5 1.75 3 3.0 20.5 5 6 7 10 12 14 20 Rx SNR.0 5.0 8. dBm BPSK QPSK QPSK 16QAM 16QAM 64QAM 64QAM 1/2 1/2 3/4 1/2 3/4 2/3 3/4 -94 -91 -89 -84 -82 -78 -76 -93 -90 -87 -83 -81 -77 -75 -91 -88 -86 -81 -79 -75 -73 -90 -87 -85 -80 -78 -74 -72 -89 -86 -84 -79 -77 -72 -71 -88 -85 -83 -78 -76 -72 -70 -87 -84 -82 -77 -75 -71 -69 -86 -83 -81 -76 -74 -69 -68 -85 -82 -80 -75 -73 -69 -67 -84 -81 -79 -74 -72 -68 -66 -83 -80 -78 -73 -71 -66 -65 3. Modulation & Coding rate.0 18.

SS/MS Power Restraint • BS configures each SS/MS PO such that the Rx power arriving at the BS to remain constant and consistent with all others regardless of the distance • Receiver front end must be able to tolerate high incoming signal level demanding linearity with higher IIP3 devices –For direct conversion system. IIP3 demand further increases due to lack of sharp IF filtering and limited AGC range Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 178 .

Fade Mitigation • Narrow band system –Time diversity –Freq diversity –Diversity type interactions • Wide band system –Equalization Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 179 .

robustness in real time) • QoS based on latency. ISI (by increasing symbol time) • Immunity to delay spread and resilient to MPF • Equalization is simplified or eliminated altogether • Suitable for high data rate transmission • Highly flexible in term of link adaptation • Low complexity multiple access (OFDMA) • Mod/code change on frame to frame and SS to SS depending on robustness (trade-off cap vs. jitter & reliable throughput • Channel impairments and timing problems are both solved with simple phase and channel estimators Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 180 . Benefit Summary. (1) • High spectral efficiency • Simple implementation by FFT.OFDM. modulate by switching between time and frequency domain • Lower Rx complexity as Tx combat the channel effect to some extends • Resilient to ICI.

FDD or half FDD • NLOS • Simple equalization. SC is B^2 * Tg • Frequency diversity capable • Graceful degradation due to delay spread (ideal for AMC) • Easier time-frequency synchronization • No inter-carrier guard band • Multi-access using OFDMA • Resistance to frequencyselective fading Page 181 Introduction to WiMAX Technology . EQ complexity B*Log(BTg) vs.OFDM. Benefit Summary. (2) • Interoperability • Higher subchannel count smaller guard band • Robust against narrow band interference • Suitable for coherent demodulation • TDD.

timing & frequency offsets – Tight specifications for local oscillators – Doppler limitation • High peak to average ratio (PAPR) – Approximately 10 Log (N).OFDM. in dB – Large signal peaks require higher power amplifiers – Amplifier cost grows nonlinearly with required power – Need very linear amplifiers with large dynamic range Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 182 . Disadvantages • Synchronization – Requires more complex algorithms for time / frequency sync • Additional circuit for FFT and IFFT is needed • Greater complexity • More expensive Tx & Rx • Reduced efficiency due to guard interval • Sensitive to phase noise.

sub-channel spacing becomes closer that makes the symbol time longer yielding better performance in NLOS channel Active Subcarriers: 200 Subcarrier Spacing: 90 kHz 8 BPSK pilots Fixed location BPSK.5 MHz 1.OFDM Snapshot • 8 BPSK pilots at fixed location • 192 data subcarriers. 55 null subcarriers and 1 DC subcarrier • OFDM Symbol = (1+Cyclic Prefix)/Δf – Δf (Sub-carrier spacing) is proportional to Channel BW/FFT size • Sub-channel spacing varies according to the BW – For narrow BW. 64QAM Guardband DC 20 MHz BW 14 MHz o o o 2.6 kHz 8 BPSK pilots Fixed location Introduction to WiMAX Technology . 16QAM. QPSK.25 MHz BW Page 183 Active Subcarriers: 200 Subcarrier Spacing: 5.

BPSK is used during preamble.OFDMA • Combination of FDMA and OFDM. • FFT size is scalable from 128 to 2048 • Fill unused channels with null subcarriers to bring up to next 2N • Increase the FFT as the BW increases such that subcarriers spacing remains 10.94 kHz (depends on configurable over-sampling rate) • Keeps constant symbol duration and have minimal impact on higher layers • Sub-carrier spacing can support delay spread up to 20 us.5 GHz • 4QAM. 125 kmph at frequency 3.16QAM & 64QAM are used for data. pilot & when modulating subcarriers in the ranging channel Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 184 . No guard band between subcarriers.

161 kHz 1.161 kHz Fixed & variable location 20 MHz FFT: 1024 82-120 pilots Active Carriers: 840 Subcar. Pilot & Null) vary with the BW • Number of OFDM symbols remain constant regardless of BW in a specific frame FFT: 2048 rate 166-240 QPSK Pilots Active Carriers: 1680 QPSK.25 MHz Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 185 . Spacing: ≈11.161 kHz 10 MHz FFT: 512 42-60 pilots Active Carriers: 420 Subcarrier Spacing: ≈11.OFDMA.161 kHz 5 MHz DC FFT: 128 10-16 pilots Active Carriers: 84 Subcarrier Spacing: ≈11. 64QAM Subcarrier Spacing: ≈11. 16QAM. Example • Sub-carrier separation remains constant regardless of the BW • FFT and Subcarriers (Data.

OFDMA • In OFDM. frequency Subchannels. only one MS is transmitted in one time slot • In OFDMA. several MSs can be transmitted in the same time slot over several sub-channels • Time-frequency allocations are done dynamically to improve performance at the expense of complexity OFDM OFDMA Subcarriers. frequency User 1 User 2 User 3 User 4 Time Page 186 FFT symbol Introduction to WiMAX Technology Time .

0 2.714 11. us PS=4/Fs 10/TS Symbol per 10 ms frame Introduction to WiMAX Technology 12.7 Available guard time settings Tg = Guard time.160714 Tb = 1/Δf 64 89. us Ts=Tb+Tg TTG+TRG.429 22.2 0. us FFT size # of used data subcarriers # of pilot subcarriers # of null/guard subcarriers Subcarrier spacing.6 95.6 (exact) Δf*(Ndata+Npilot) 3.8 92.5-28 1. MHz Sample time.175 0. kHz Useful symbol time. us Tg OFDMA symbol time.350 0.250 0. BW Parameter System bandwidth.4 18.857 Ts=1/Fs 0. MHz Fixed Mode Mobile Mode BW 3.25 2. MHz Sampling frequency.625 11.857 5.044 N 256 128 256 512 1024 2048 NData 192 72 180 360 720 1440 NPilot 8 12 30 60 120 240 NNull/Guard 56 44 46 92 184 368 Δf=Fs/N 15. This is mitigated by using FFT size vs.4 0.9 2.800 87 Tb/8 11.000 1.4 112.687 9. us Useful symbol BW.5 5 10 20 Fs=8/7*BW 4.3 4.175 108 Page 187 .429 2.50% 8 72 1.700 0.000 137 Tb/4 22.700 104 Tb/32 2.088 0.8 1.400 98 Tb/16 5.125 0.OFDMA Symbol Parameters • Adds additional multiple access features in the frequency domain • BW is divided into slots for the user in the time and the frequency domain • OFDMA carriers for different users are very close together (10kHz) & that the order of the physical carriers may change from Symbol to Symbol • Difficult to design variable subcarriers spacing.2 100.

10. 512. 1/16.16-2005 OFDMA Physical Layer Parameters Modulation Error correction code Overall coding rate Cyclic Prefix Subchannels QPSK. 2048 Introduction to WiMAX Technology 188 Page 188 . ¼ 1. 2/3 1/32. ¾. 2. 1/8. CTC ½. 32 Bandwidth FFT 1. BTC. 8. 5. 64-QAM CC.25. 1024. 16-QAM. 4.16. 256.5.IEEE 802. 20 128. 2.

Pilots in the UL are never transmitted without data subcarriers • SSs use PN CDMA technique to access the BS in the contention region • Pilot and null subcarriers are not shown Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 189 .OFDMA Frame Structure for TDD. Example • No UL preamble at start of UL subframe but an increased number of pilots.

Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 190 . but there are increased number of pilots.OFDMA Frame • A frame is one complete set of DL & UL transmission. sampling freq. meaning the time between two preambles of the DL signal • Frame consists of DL & UL subframe with flexible boundaries • PS (physical slot) is a unit of time defined as 4 modulationSymbol length • FS. = FFT-size * channel-spacing • UL has no preamble except for system using AAS. Data is transmitted in bursts that are as long as the UL sub-frame zone allows and wrapped to further sub-channel as required.

ranging and data burst Subcarrier (frequency) k..... .. UL-MAP. Example OFDM symbol number (time) Time . k+17 k+20 k+23 UL-MAP (conti'd) UL burst #2 Preamble DL-MAP UL burst #4 DL burst #4 UL-MAP UL-MAP UL burst #5 DL burst #5 Fast Feedback Ranging DL subframe TTG UL subframe RTG S+L Introduction to WiMAX Technology Preamble Page 191 • Pilot and null subcarriers are not shown DL burst #1 DL burst #3 UL burst #3 DL-MAP S S+1 S+2 FCH FCH DL burst #2 UL burst #1 ..OFDM Frame Structure.k+1 k+2 k+3 k+4 k+7 k+9 k+11 k+13 . fast feedback. k+31 k+33 • Adaptive & variable length duration for DLMAP.

which are adjacent or non-adjacent and whose order may change within a burst from symbol to symbol. Group of subcarriers forms subchannel – Dynamically allocating time-frequency resources to DL/UL subframe – At certain moment subchannel is utilized by one transmitter only – Basic OFDMA time-frequency unit utilized for communication is determined through subchannel-OFDMA symbol combination – WiMAX uses the term slot for minimum data allocation unit and a slot contains 48 data subcarriers Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 192 . Subchannelization is a sophisticated form of frequency division multiple access where multiple subcarriers are grouped into subchannels to enhance system performance. (The number of subchannels varies from 32 to 96. i. depending on the zone type) • Subchannel is the basis of OFDMA Multiple Access Method – Frequency space is divided into subchannels.e. (1) • A subchannel describes the smallest logical allocation unit in the frequency domain.OFDMA Subchannels. It contains one or more physical carriers.

– Grouping of contiguous symbols that use a specific type of subchannel assignment – All zones except for AMC use the distributed allocation of subcarriers for subchannelization – OFDMA PHY specifies 7 different zones: FUSC. OFUSC. It uses a certain number of subchannels (frequency) and a certain number of symbols (time). OPUSC.Zone and Burst • Zone (contains bursts) – A zone is one complete logical part of a frame. and there are different zone types that may use all subchannels of the OFDMA frequency range (full usage of subchannels = FUSC) or only parts of them (partial usage of subchannels = PUSC). There are DL and UL zones. AMC. Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 193 . PUSC. TUSC1 and TUSC2 • Burst (contains slots) – A burst is an area within a zone which is assigned to one dedicated user.

Slot
• Slot
– A slot is the minimum possible data allocation unit within OFDMA, defined in time and frequency (number of contiguous symbols times number of subcarriers). It always contains one subchannel and can contain one to three symbols (depending on the zone type). A DL-PUSC slot is two symbols wide, a UL-PUSC slot three symbols wide. • Minislot

– A unit of UL BW allocation equivalent to n physical slots, where n=2^m, m is an integer ranging from 0 through 7

Introduction to WiMAX Technology

Page 194

OFDMA Subchannels Terms

OFDMA Symbol Number
k+0 k+1 k+2 k+3 k+4 k+5 k+6 k+7 k+8 k+9 k+10 k+11 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 k+12 k+13

Time
k+14

Slot

Subchannel offset

Introduction to WiMAX Technology

Subchannel Logical Number

Sym offset Subcarriers

# of OFDMA symbols

Slot

Data Region

Segment

Permutation zone
Page 195

Mandatory and Optional Zones
• In OFDMA PHY, the mapping from data bit to physical subcarriers is achieved in two steps: – The 1st step is to map the data to one or more time slots and one or more logical subchannels – The 2nd step is called permutation, in which the logical subchannels are mapped to physical subcarriers • Multiple permutation zones marked by Zone Switch IEs (AAS_DL_IE, AAS_UL_IE, STC_DL_Zone_IE) • Switching from Non-STC to STC, and Non-AAS zones is defined by the IEs
DL Subframe
PUSC (DL_PermBase X) FUSC (DL_PermBase Y) FUSC (DL_PermBase Z) PUSC (1 zone contains FCH & DL-MAP) Optional FUSC

UL Subframe
Optional PUSC

Preamble

TUSC1

TUSC2

PUSC

AMC

st

Must appear in every frame Zone switch IEs in DL-MAP
Introduction to WiMAX Technology

May appear in frame
Page 196

AMC

OFDMA Subchannels, (2)
• • • • Like an OFDM, OFDMA symbol contains subcarriers Subchannel means splitting a normal channel BW into more than one Subchannel contains a group of subcarriers User is assigned one or more subchannel – 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 or 32 subchannels for UL. Two of the UL subchannels are used for ranging and BW request – Link budget improvement in UL for fixed WiMAX, 12 dB when used 1/16th of BW • Power concentration on few subcarriers • Reduces over head control algorithm complexity • Subcarriers of a subchannel can be contiguous or distributed over the BW – Randomly distributed type provides frequency diversity in frequency-selective fading channels and inter-cell interference averaging. • Well suited for mobile applications – Adjacent type is useful for frequency non-selective and slowly fading channels, and for implementing ACM. Typically used for fixed or low mobility applications. • Channel estimation is easier as the subcarriers are adjacent • Well suited for fixed and low mobility applications
Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 197

OFDMA Subchannels, (3)
• Basic principle is to trade off mobility for throughput
• Subchannels are dynamically allocated to users for UL & DL data based on CINR

• Subcarriers are randomly assigned to subchannel and changed every symbol time
• Different subchannel allocation methods to
– Optimize the frequency band for stationary or mobile usage
– High or low interference from neighboring sectors, cells – Optimize diversity and beamforming techniques performance

• 16e system uses subchannels in both directions whereas 16d applies in the UL only
Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 198

Subchannels, Power Concentration
• Increases the Tx power & improve asymmetric link budget on cost prohibitive CPE • OFDMA example: 5 MHz BW, 480 active subcarriers, 200 mW CPE PO, subchannelization assigns 120 subcarriers to CPE • PSD = PWR/BW = 200mW/5M =40 uW/Hz for all subcarriers • PSD = PWR/BW = 200mW/1.25M =160 uW/Hz for 120 subcarriers, yielding 6 dB gain, 10Log(480/120)
– – – – – 1/2 of tones yield 3 dB power gain 1/4 of tones yield 6 dB power gain 1/8 of tones yield 9 dB power gain 1/16 of tones yield 12 dB power gain 1/32 of tones yield 15 dB power gain

DL Bandwidth
All-ch Po

UL All Sub-channels
4x sub-ch Po

UL 1/4 Active Subchannels
Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 199

OFDMA Subcarriers Mapping into Subchannel
Distributed allocation
Subchannel1 DC subcarrier Subchannel 3 Subchannel N

Subchannel2

guard band

guard band DC subcarrier Subchannel N-1 Subchannel N

Adjacent Allocation
Subchannel1

Subchannel2

guard band
Introduction to WiMAX Technology 200

guard band
Page 200

Subchannelization • Very effective under stressful channel conditions Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 201 .

Subchannelization • Narrowband interference rejection • Easy to avoid/reject narrowband dominant interference • Less interfered part of the carrier can still be used User Subcarriers Allocation Interference Subcarriers Before User Subcarriers Allocation After Null Subcarriers Interference Subcarriers Total Frequency Band Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 202 .

FUSC.25 5 10 20 FFT Size 128 512 1024 2048 AMC Subchannels (downlin/Uplink) (downlink/Uplink) 2/2 8/8 16/16 32/32 PUSC Subchannels (downlin/Uplink) (downlink/Uplink) 3/4 15/17 30/35 60/92 FUSC Subchannels (downlink only) 2 8 16 32 Page 203 Introduction to WiMAX Technology . Full Usage of Subcarriers • DL FUSC – Fixed & Variable pilot tones are added for each OFDMA symbol independently • One set of common pilot subcarriers and always at the same location – Remaining subcarriers are divided into subchannels that are used exclusively for data – User are allocated slots for DL data transfer • One slot is a single subchannel with 48 subcarriers by one OFDMA symbol (48 tone-symbols) – Provides full frequency diversity and inter-cell interference averaging by spreading the subcarriers over the entire band BW (MHz) 1.

Partial Usage of Subcarriers • DL & UL PUSC – The set of used subcarriers is partitioned into subchannels • Groups the sub-carriers into tiles to enable fractional frequency reuse scheme (FFRS) – Pilot subcarrier are allocated from within each subchannel • Each subchannel contains its own set of pilot subcarriers – User are allocated slots for DL/UL data transfer • For DL. One tile with three symbols contains 4 pilots subcarriers and 8 data subcarriers • One subchannel symbol consists of 48 tones minimum – Provides frequency diversity function (minimizes interference between Inter-cell as well as between adjacent sectors) Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 204 . one slot is a single subchannel by three OFDMA symbols – One subchannel contains 6 tiles. One cluster contains 12 data subcarriers and two plot subcarriers • For UL.PUSC. One tile contains 4 subcarriers. one slot is a single subchannel by two OFDMA symbols – DL-PUSC slot uses a cluster structure. One subchannel contains two cluster.

of data subcarrier DL O-AMC No. of subcarrier No. of data subcarrier DL PUSC No. of subcarrier No. of subcarrier No. of data subcarrier Ul O-AMC No. of subcarrier No.25 MHz BW 105 96 85 72 108 96 108 96 97 5 MHz BW 426 384 421 360 432 384 432 384 408 272 433 432 384 10 MHz BW 851 768 841 720 864 768 864 768 840 840 865 864 768 20 MHz BW 1702 1536 1681 1440 1728 1536 1728 1536 1681 OFDMA Permutation DL FUSC No.OFDMA Permutation 1. of data subcarrier UL O-PUSC No. of subcarrier No. of data subcarrier UL PUSC No. of subcarrier No. of data subcarrier DL O-FUSC No. of subcarrier No. of data subcarrier 109 108 96 1729 1728 1536 Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 205 .

2 Tx Antennas User 1.PUSC. Matrix B Unallocated User 2 Matrix B. 2 Antennas Unallocated OFDMA Symbol Number OFDMA Symbol Number Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 206 . Matrix A. 1 Tx Antenna User 3 Matrix A User 2 Matrix A User 3. Matrix A User 1 None. Example • PUSC with STC DL-PUSC Subframe with STC Zone (2 Antennas UL-PUSC Subframe with STC Zone Subchannel Logical Number Subchannel Logical Number User 1 Matrix B User 2 Matrix B User 1.

extended realtime. 6 Mbps per UL 1 Mobility Handoff Service coverage Roaming QoS offering Uplink/Downlink ratio Introduction to WiMAX Technology Up to 120 km/h Under 150 ms Macro (1km). non real-time. Micro (400m). real time. Pico (100m) Seamless roaming with cellular and WLAN Unsolicited grant service. best-effort Software adjustable Page 207 . 1 Mbps per UL Maximum sector throughput (10MHz band) Frequency reuse 18 Mbps per DL.OFDMA Highlights • 16e intended for mobile broadband connection for pedestrians and automobiles in 1-3 mile radius range Maximum subscriber throughput 3 Mbps per DL.

07 19.78 1. 4x ½ CTC.58 3.17 23.11 14.11 18.14 10.67 14.01 26.35 4.34 9.01 19.51 31.17 6.52 Page 208 .85 6.75 6. 2x ½ CTC. 1x 3/4 CTC 16QAM ½ CTC ¾ CTC 64QAM ½ CTC 2/3 CTC 3/4 CTC 5/6 CTC Introduction to WiMAX Technology DL rate Mbps 0.57 1.50 12.42 DL rate Mbps 1.18 2.14 2.68 UL rate Mbps 0.06 9.58 3.50 9.17 4.28 11.79 1.70 7.26 15.85 9.34 28.50 12.38 0.34 9.28 3.82 21.43 4. 6x ½ CTC.84 UL rate Mbps 0.OFDMA Data Rates Mod Code rate 5MHz 5MHz 10MHz 10MHz DL rate Mbps 4QAM ½ CTC.41 14.06 1.57 6.53 0.

RSSI & error rate • Enables dynamic subcarrier allocation – Efficient use of air resources for mobile applications • Enables spatial diversity by using antenna diversity at the Base station and possible at the Subscriber Unit • Gives frequency diversity by spreading the carriers all over the used spectrum • Gives time diversity by optional interleaving of carrier groups in time Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 209 .OFDMA Advantages-Summary. 16QAM & 64QAM • Performs adaptive FEC based on CINR. (1) • Enables adaptive modulation for every user using QPSK.

this is allowed by the gain added when less subcarriers are allocated. therefore gaining in overall cell capacity • The power gain can be translated to distance – Doubles the distance for each 6 dB gain in LOS conditions • Enabling the usage of indoor Omni Directional antennas for the users • MAC complexity is the same as for TDMA systems Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 210 .OFDMA Advantages-Summary. (2) • Using the cell capacity to the outmost by adaptively using the highest modulation a user can use.

long ranges with multipath conditions like for DVB-T. Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 211 .OFDMA Advantages-Summary. DAB etc. (3) • Allocating carrier by OFDMA/TDMA strategy • Minimal delay per OFDMA symbol of 300us • Using small burst per user of about 100 symbols for better statistical multiplexing and smaller jitter • User symbol is several times longer than for TDMA systems • Using the FEC to overcome error in disturbed frequencies • Adaptive modulation and coding • OFDM is a proven technology for transporting high data rates for NLOS.

• Highly sensitive to timing jitter and frequency offsets • Doppler limitation • Susceptible to phase noise as each subcarrier is Mod by phase noise of the LO • Loss due to guard band. Higher N means higher peak. requiring linear & expensive PA. • PAPR. Some uses advanced coding techniques to minimize its effect. OFDM composite signal exhibits significant peaks and valleys (when all carriers add in phase) with depths of more than 50 dB but the probability of its occurring is low due to scrambling and higher number of N. typically set ≤ 1 dB • Reduced channel spacing at higher N increases chance of ICI • Sync: requires more complex algorithms for time/frequency sync Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 212 . dB = 10Log(N). Increases ADC/DAC complexity.Drawbacks of OFDMA • OFDMA signal due to its extreme amplitude variation does not behave well in non-linear channel.

• Demands fast settling response from PA 256QAM 64QAM SNR = 22 dB 16QAM SNR = 16 dB Average SNR 64QAM 16QAM 4QAM BPSK Not used due to low SNR 4QAM SNR = 9 dB BPSK SNR = 6 dB Page 213 Subcarriers Introduction to WiMAX Technology . QoS. BER & RSL information – Basic idea is to transmit as mush data as possible and throttle down when channel is not good • AMC for OFDMA: each user is allocated a group of subcarriers.AMC. Care needs to be paid in selecting Mod-coding based on varying SINR across subcarriers • DL burst goes to one or more SS using the same mod & coding. The UL burst comes from individual users with individual devices. each having different SINR. The SS are told when to transmit. Adaptive Modulation & Coding. ECC. (1) • • • • Uses adjacent sub-carriers for each subchannel for use with beam forming Modulation. symbol mapping and power – Rx feeds back the current SINR. power and or Coding change on a burst by burst basis per link Channel response remains flat over narrow subcarrier A closed loop control process – TX controls the Capacity.

Adaptive Modulation & Coding. (2) • Down Link – Modulation • BPSK. ¾. 2/3. ¾. QPSK. 64QAM • BPSK optional for OFDMA-PHY • Up Link – Modulation • BPSK. 5/6. 16QAM • 64QAM optional • 256QAM optional • Adaptive power back-off per Modulation – Coding • Adaptive power back-off per Modulation – Coding • Mandatory: concatenated convolutional codes at rate ½. ¾. ¾. QoS and power back-off management Page 214 • Mandatory: concatenated convolutional codes at rate ½. 2/3. Repetition codes at rate ½. QoS and power back-off management Introduction to WiMAX Technology . 1/3. 5/6 & LDPC – Capacity.AMC. 1/6 & LDPC – Capacity. 5/6 • Optional: convolutional turbo codes at rate ½. QPSK. 2/3. 2/3. 5/6 • Optional: convolutional turbo codes at rate ½. 16QAM.

(3) • A closed loop controlled process • Affects on incoming data queuing. FEC. PER Channel Estimation Page 215 . Mod and PO in the transmit direction • Dynamically adapts the transmitting signal based on channel status (RSL. Adaptive Modulation & Coding. SINR. CINR & PER) from the far end receiver – Assigns adjacent subcarriers to specific SS/MS • Improved performance in OFDMA subchannelization Transmitter Bits In Receiver 4 ECC Encoder Select Code Symbol Mapper Select Constellation PO Power Control Channel SINR Bits Out Demod Decoder Queue Adaptive Modulation and Coding Controller Introduction to WiMAX Technology Feedback Channel RSL.AMC.

9 Number of OFDM symbol in 5 ms frame 69 48 Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 216 .25 5 10 20 Subcarrier frequency spacing (kHz). 1/4 Oversample rate Fs/BW Depends on bandwidth: 7/6 for 256 OFDM.5% 1/32.5-28 1. 28/25 for OFDMA 8/7 for multiples of 1. 1/8. 2 MHz or 2.625 10.75 MHz. Tfft=1/ΔF 64 91. Tg 8 11.PHY Parameters • Table assumes 5 ms frame rate and a Tg 12.75 MHz Channel bandwidth (MHz) 3. 28/25 8/7 for OFDM.4 Guard time assuing 12.5% (us).ΔF 15.4 OFDM symbol duration (us).94 Useful FFT symbol time (us). 1/16.5% (1/8) of Tb Fixed Mobile WiMAX Scalable Parameter WiMAX OFDMA-PHY OFDM-PHY FFT size 256 128 512 1024 2048 Number of used data subcarriers 192 72 360 720 1440 Number of pilot subcarriers 8 12 60 120 240 Number of null/guardband subcarriers 56 44 92 184 368 Cyclic prefix or guard time (Tg/Tb) 12. T=Tfft+Tg 72 102.

5 256 8/7 DL 946 1882 2822 3763 5645 5645 7526 8467 9408 UL 326 653 979 1306 1958 1958 2611 2938 3264 Mobile WiMAX Scalable OFDMA 1. BW Parameter Channel Bandwidth (MHz) FFT size Oversampling Rate Mod & Code Rate BPSK.PHY Estimated Data Rate vs. 2/3 64QAM. 1/2 QPSK. 5/6 Fixed WiMAX OFDM 3.25 5 10 128 512 1024 28/25 28/25 28/25 PHY-Layer Data Rate (kbps) DL UL DL UL DL UL Not applicable 504 154 2520 653 5040 1344 756 230 3780 979 7560 2016 1008 307 5040 1306 10080 2688 1512 461 7560 1958 15120 4032 1512 461 7560 1958 15120 4032 2016 614 10080 2611 20160 5376 2268 691 11340 2938 22680 6048 2520 768 12600 3264 25200 6720 8. 3/4 64QAM. 1/4 64QAM. 3/4 64QAM. 1/2 QPSK. 3/4 16QAM. 1/2 16QAM.75 1024 28/25 DL 4464 6696 8928 13392 13392 17856 20088 22320 UL 1120 1680 2240 3360 3360 4480 5040 5600 Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 217 .

(1) • Presence of one or more undesirable signals that degrades a normal performance • Potential source could be from its own internal.Interference. network and frequency planning • Sharing dual pole antenna & crossed pole interference – Low antenna XPD • • • • • • Co-located antennas. external equipment or both • Non-optimized path. return loss & simple Frequency Domain Equalizer Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 218 . low discrimination antenna & sector spill over Most interference detection tests are traffic affecting Maintenance activity may introduce interference EMI and interference from co-located equipment ATPC helps minimizing the interference affect OFDMA spreads the energy of an impulse noise over an OFDMA burst that results in smaller increased noise rather than losing symbols • Triple transient signal interference due to poor termination.

CINR & PER Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 219 . CINR & PER – Change polarization and check RSSI & BER – Change operating frequency within the band and check RSSI. CINR & PER – Mute remote TX and check RSSI.Interference. (2) • Ways to check interference – Easier to test prior to commissioning – Scan RX frequency & power facing toward remote with spectrum analyzer – Difficult to detect intermittent types of interference – TX fade test with built-in attenuator – Capturing and plotting RSSI & CINR over time – Mute remote adjacent/opposite polarity TX and check RSSI & PER – Mute remote opposite polarity TX and check RSSI.

Freq offset – Interference level not to cause more than 1 dB degradation at 1e-6 BER – Using same bandwidth and type of signal – MEA maximum number of exposure allowed • The terms 1e-3 BER threshold.T/I . 3 dB degradation. (3) • Acceptable interference level = 1e-6 Threshold . ratio of the RX threshold and interference vs. C/I & MEA are more relevant to analog radios • Determining threshold degradation at specific interference level – 10Log[1+10(I-N)/10] • I interference level in dB • N noise level in dB Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 220 .Interference.MEA – T/I.

objective for 1 dB threshold degradation I Introduction to WiMAX Technology Interference Level Page 221 .Noise & Interference Relationship S Thermal Static Fade Margin Unfaded RF RX Level T 1dB 1e-6 BER with I+N 1e-6 BER Threshold with Noise SIR T/I N SNR SINRReq Noise Floor + Interference Noise Floor 6 dB.

Physical CINR • A quick and accurate CINR estimation information is required from the SS in order for BS to select an appropriate modulation coding scheme for that SS • I+N conditions over a symbol or channel vary rapidly therefore it is important to estimate both average and instantaneous CINR • SS/MS measures the CINR from DL preambles and reports back to BS in REP-RSP message • C/N. Carrier to thermal noise plus interference ratio – Interference level that causes 1 dB degradation – During non-boosted data subcarriers • PCINR: – PCINR = (3/8 *Cpmbl) / (3/8 * Ipmbl + N) = Cpmbl / (Ipmbl + 8/3 * N) • Cpmbl & Ipmbl power measured during preamble. Carrier to thermal noise ratio • C/(N+I). CINR estimation based on the pilot sub-carriers Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 222 . 3/8 to scale down due to preamble • ECINR.PCINR.

Media Access Control Overview (1) • Designed for Point-to-Multipoint based on collision sense multiple access with collision avoidance (CSMA/CA – listen before transmit) • Targeted for Metropolitan Area Network applications • Connection-oriented MAC – Connection ID (CID)..) Balances between stability of contentionless and efficiency of contention-based operation Data control plane (traffic scheduling to provide QoS) with speed up to 268 Mbps each way Supports multiple 802. Service Flows(SF) • Supports difficult user environments – High bandwidth. hundreds of users per channel – Continuous and burst traffic • • • • – Very efficient use of spectrum Protocol-Independent core (ATM.MAC. IP.16 PHYs Page 223 Introduction to WiMAX Technology ... Ethernet.

voice. the convergence sub-layer supports MSDU header suppression to reduce the higher layer overhead on all packets. Ethernet. MAC includes convergence sub-layer that can interface with a variety of higher layer protocols such as ATM. • Supports very high peak bit rates while delivering QoS similar to ATM and DOCSIS (data over cable service interface specifications). MAC layer takes packets from upper layer. large MSDUs may be fragmented into smaller MPDUs and sent across multiple frame) Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 224 . IP and other unknown future protocols.MAC. These packets are called MAC service data units (MSDUs) and organizes into MAC protocol data units (MPDUs) for transmission over the air. Beside providing a mapping to and from the higher layer. Media Access Control Overview. (2) • Interfaces between higher transport layers and PHY. TDM. For Rx it performs reverse process. • Uses variable length MPDU and offers a lot of flexibility to a lower layer for their efficient transmission (multiple MPDUs of the same or different length may be aggregated into a single burst to save PHY overhead. Conversely.

rt-VBR. Ethernet. UCD. with granularity within classes – QoS per user and per connection basis • Protocol-independent engine – Convergence layers to ATM. DCD downlink channel description (PHY characteristics. IPv6. AES. data encryption standards) Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 225 . IP. nrt-VBR. Ethernet. Data. ATM. BE (lowest). UL-MAP. 3DES. highest). • Extensive & strong security types encryption/decryption (DES. DCD. – FCH frame control header. ert-VBR.. DL-MAP..MAC. etc. • Flexible QoS offerings – CBR (unsolicited grant service. RC4. VLAN. (1) • Management messages: FCH. DL & UL broadband services • Supports multi-services simultaneously with full QoS – Efficient transport IPv4. DL-frame prefix (24 bits) • OFDM MAC is designed for efficient use of spectrum • Very high bit rate. .

MAC. but: • Addresses license-exempt interference • Scales well • Alternative approach to non-line-of-sight Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 226 . Automatic Repeat Query – Done at MAC layer rather than at TCP layer 4 (yields less outage) – Adds error detection ability in data stream – Bad packets are retransmitted – Detecting errors using CRC-32 codes – Not efficient in broadcast systems – Not used in voice services • OFDM/OFDMA support • Dynamic Frequency Selection – For license-exempt applications • Adaptive antenna system support • Mesh mode – Optional topology for license-exempt operation – Subscriber to subscriber communications – Complex topology and messaging. (2) • ARQ.

(3) • Packet classification – IP and Ethernet – DSCP / TOS (any bit) – Source / destination MAC and / or IP – Source / destination Port ranges • Packet convergence sublayer support for: – IPv4 and IPv6 – Packet IPv4 & IPv6 over 802. CCM-mode 128 bit AES key) Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 227 .x) • PKMv2 (privacy key management) support for – EAP based authorization – Cryptographic suites (for data encryption.MAC.3 (Ethernet) • Dynamic service flow creation – BS/MS initiated • PHS (packet header suppression) & ROHC (robust header compression Rel 4.

MAC Operation Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 228 .

. very efficient use of spectrum • Broadband services – Very high bit rates. ATM.. Ethernet.. IPv6. IPv4. ..g.. downlink and uplink – A range of QoS requirements – Ethernet.MAC Requirements • Provide Network Access • Address the Wireless environment – e. IP.. • Supports for both TDD and FDD in PHY Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 229 . • Likelihood of terminal being shared – Base station may be heavily loaded • Security • Protocol-Independent Engine – Convergence layers to ATM.

Diversity Selection Offset Estimation Timing Sync Introduction to WiMAX Technology Channel and Fine Frequency Offset Estimation Rate Length OFDM Service+Data Page 230 .Physical Layer Convergence Procedure (PLCP Packet Structure 802.16 due to varied IFFT size 8+8 = 16 us.2 = 4 us GI Signal GI Data 1 GI Data 2 Coarse Freq Signal Detect.2 = 8 us T1 T2 0.8+3.8 + 2x3.2 = 4 us 0.8+3.11) • PLCP Preamble – Short training symbol t1 to t10 – Long training symbol (T1 & T2) • PLCP Signal field • PLCP Data • The training length period varies for 802.8+3. Preamble 10x0.8 = 8 us t1 t2 t3 t4 t5 t6 t7 t8 t9 t10 GI2 2x0.2 = 4 us 0. AGC.

. Defines allocated data regions for UL-MAP • Defines UL BW-request. CQICH . Ranging. (1) • Connection orienteded – For each direction. regions • Defines allocated data regions for SS/MS DL/UL reception/transmission • Defines multiple permutation zones (if present) – UL-MAP and DL-MAP are both transmitted in the beginning of each downlink subframe (FDD and TDD) Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 231 .MAC Management Messages.. connection identified with a 16 bit CID – Each CID is associated with a Service Flow ID (SFID) that determines the QoS parameter for that CID • Admission control plane (ensures that new flows do not degrade the quality of established flows) • Channel access: – UL-MAP • Defines uplink channel access • Defines uplink data burst profiles – DL-MAP • Defines downlink data burst profiles • QPSK-1/2.

FCH transmission is repeated for robustness. – UL-MAP: describes the UL allocations. – Preamble: Provides fixed known pattern to aid in Rx timing recover – FCH: The FCH specifies the burst profile and length of one or more bursts that follows the FCH. start time. – Configurable fixed duration frames Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 232 . UCD (UL Ch descriptor) identifier. (2) • From BS: Preamble>FCH>DL-MAP>UL-MAP>DCD>UCD>Data> Data.MAC Management Messages. Consists of UL Ch ID.. BPSK ½ rate and occupies 1st two subcarriers – FCH: In mobile WiMAX. PHY sync info. BS identifier. repetitions coding of 4 and occupies 1st two subchannels – DL-MAP: describes the DL allocations. DL_Frame Prefix (24 bits) – FCH: In fixed WiMAX. DCD identifier that is used in the allocation. FCH is transmitted at the lowest mod and highest coding rate. QPSK ½ rate. PHY specific UL-MAP elements that define allocations..

QoS • Advanced QoS features: – Weighted fair queuing – Traffic shaping – Congestion management – Random early detection – Hierarchical QoS Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 233 .

DL BW Calculation. Example input chan size (MHz) Calculates frame O/H Calculates DL map O/H Calculates MAC hdr O/H input cyclic prefix (¼ to 1/32) Calculates frame BW Calculates UL map O/H Calculates MAC subhdr O/H input mod and coding distribution Calculates preamble O/H Calculates useful frame BW Calculates MAC CRC O/H Calculates useful Channel BW Calculates FCH O/H input avg user pk (B) Calculates useful MAC BW input frame length (2 to 20 ms) Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 234 .

Example input chan size (MHz) Calculates frame O/H Calculates contention O/H input avg user pk (B) input cyclic prefix (¼ to 1/32) Calculates frame BW input burst sizee Calculates MAC hdr O/H input mod and coding distribution Calculates ranging O/H Calculates Subchannel O/H Calculates MAC subhdr O/H Calculates useful Channel BW input subchannel size Calculates Preamble O/H Calculates MAC CRC O/H input frame length (2 to 20 ms) Calculates MAU Calculates useful frame BW Calculates useful MAC BW Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 235 .UL BW Calculation.

Allocating Network BW. Example Calculate user Channel BW Calc remaining Channel BW Calc BE MS% remaining BW Allocate CBR BW Calculate VBR MS BW Allocate VBR MR BW Calc remaining Channel BW Calculate BE MS BW Allocate BE MS BW Allocate VBR MR BW Calc VBR MS % remaining BW No remaining BW done Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 236 .

Power Saving Modes • Three types of subscriber power management support –Normal operation –Sleep mode –Idle with paging support Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 237 .

One time sleep window typically used for multicast or management • Idle – Increased power saving than sleep mode – MS to receive broadcast DL transmission from BS without registering itself with the network – No handover action – BS conserves PHY and MAC resources Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 238 . Optional • Sleep – MS with active connection temporarily disrupt connection for a predetermined time followed by a listen window – Sleep and listen windows are negotiated between the BS and the MS • Duration depends on the saving class – Class I. Used for BE or non-real time traffic – Class II.PHY Operating Modes. fixed length sleep window and used for UGS service – Class III. sleep window increases exponentially from minimum to maximum.

509 certification – RSA authorization – HMAC message integrity protection • PKM version 2 supports Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 239 .Security • Private Key Management (PKM) for MAC layer security – 56 bit DES-CBC. 128 bit AES-CCM encryption – X.

depending on its capability & desire • MBS associated QoS & encryption using a globally defined traffic encryption key • A separate zone within the MAC frame with its own MAP information for MBS traffic • Method for delivering MBS traffic to idle mode SS • Support for macro diversity to enhance the delivery performance of MBS traffic • Certain CIDs are reserved for multicast groups and for broadcast messages Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 240 .MBS. Multicast and Broadcast Services • Multicast polling is done when there is insufficient bandwidth to poll each MS/SS individually • Signaling mechanisms for MS to request and establish MBS • SS access to MBS over a single or multi BS.

Packing. PHS.Advanced Features • • • • H-ARQ. MISO. PKMv1 Hitless Handoff Antennas: SIMO. MIMO MIMO Matrix-C (4x4) – Four data streams are transmitted in parallel from four antennas per symbol yielding four times the baseline data rate – Multiple separately encoding (horizontal) streams are transmitted over multiple antennas • Adaptive MIMO mode switching Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 241 .

MIMO • Multiple Inputs to the TX antenna(s) and Multiple Outputs of RX antenna(s) TX RF MAC PHY RF RF RF PHY MAC Rx RF RF PHY BS RF RF TX PHY SS RF Rx Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 242 .

robustness. beam forming with multiple antennas. Approximate gain increase of 10Log(# of antenna array elements) • Space time coding (transmit diversity technique by taking pair of symbols. time reverse each pair for transmission on a second antenna) – Space-time diversity coding (up to NxCap but no increase in peak data rate) • MIMO (spatial division multiplexing). – Spatial multiplexing increases peak data rate by up to Nx with Nx antennas Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 243 .MIMO • MIMO techniques improves system performance. throughput and coverage • It takes advantage of multi-path and reflected signals that occur in NLOS environments – BW of each subcarrier is small that enables the low cost DSP (PHY layer technology) to practically calculate the MIMO coefficient • MIMO needs a better SNR than SISO • Reduces interference and improves fade margin by using multiple adaptive antennas in TX/RX diversity.

Transmitter Signal Strength Transmitter Select Antenna Knowledge of the channel Receiver Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 244 .Switched SISO • Receiver performs a quick AGC and level check on arriving packet and switches to a stronger signal based on the signal level • Transmitter keeps knowledge of the channel performance and switches to the better TX.

MIMO Matrix A (STC) • MIMO Matrix-A uses two or more antennas at transmitter (2x1) and one or more at far end receiver (1x2) • Space time coding (transmit diversity) is a method which yields diversity gain without channel knowledge in the transmitter by coding across antennas (space) and across time – Applies well known Alamouti code in the downlink direction – Provide reliability improvement via diversity with transmitting two redundantly encoded data streams (time reversing each pair of symbols for transmission on second antenna) during the same symbol and enables to utilize spatial (or polarization) diversity gain – Overall data transfer rate remains the same as the baseline data but holds the throughput under difficult conditions – Increases signal strength (3 dB higher SNR at stable conditions and about 10 dB at faded conditions compared to non-STC) by coherently combining multiple signals – The Tx streams must originate at the same frequency and phase • High order modulations are more sensitive to multi-path and other impairments – One remedy is an aggressive use spatial / frequency / time diversity – Space time coding (STC) is a well proven way to improve system performance – Performance equivalent to maximum ratio combining with two RX antennas Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 245 .

(1) • There are two transmit antennas at the BS side and one reception antenna at the SS side (MISO system) • Each TX antenna has its own OFDM chain – Distinct pilot subcarrier location for each antenna – Common location for data subcarrier but its content in a different order – This technique requires Multiple Inputs Single Output channel estimation • Decoding is very similar to maximum ratio combining • STC achieves near optimal diversity gain in slow fading (coherence time is ≥ 10 times the channel estimate update period) environment Antenna 1 Frequency Pilot Subcarrier Data Subcarrier DC Subcarrier Introduction to WiMAX Technology Antenna 2 Time Page 246 .STC.

STC. (2) • Cheaper to implement in BS than the SS • Applies cyclic shift into one Tx path (typical delay of 50 to 200 ns) • Two forms: with coding and without coding TX A Data C B A TX B Modified Signal Rx C‟ A B C B A Page 247 Introduction to WiMAX Technology .

S0*] Rx Decoder Log Likelyhood Ratio Subchannel detection Diversity Combining FFT Filter RF/ADC Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 248 . (3) • First channel uses: antenna 1 transmits S0 and antenna 2 transmits S1 • Second channel uses: antenna 1 transmits -S1* and antenna 2 transmits S0* Tx-1 IFFT Filter DAC/RF Tx-2 IFFT Filter DAC/RF Subch.STC. Mod IFFT Input Packing [S0. -S1*] TX Diversity Coding [S1.

STC. Space Time Coding • DL Tx diversity that can add up 3 to 10 dB link margin in faded NLOS environments • Up to N times the capacity/frequency but no increase in peak data rate • Provides large coverage regardless of channel condition • Adds robustness to time fluctuations and decreases frequency selectivity • Applies new coefficients to the computation equations upon receiving signal offset by half wavelength • BS continuously optimizes algorithm by obtaining performance data results from the MS Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 249 .

doubling the capacity and providing unmatched spectral efficiency when channel conditions are poor • Up to N-times the peak data rate increase with N-times antennas • Good signal quality is required and the correlation has to be low enough • Huge capacity increase is expected for pico and nano cell • Improves robustness to multipath fading using space diversity • BS continuously optimizes algorithm by obtaining performance data from MS Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 250 .MIMO Matrix B (SDM) • Two independent data streams are transmitted over two antennas in the same time-frequency slots • An independent data stream is mapped to each transmit antenna and sends only once (unlike STC which sends the data twice) • Requires two receive antennas at the MS with proper signal equalization and decoding • Enables spatial multiplexing in down link.

MIMO Matrix B (SDM) • SDM: Space Division Multiplexing (2x2) increases the capacity by transmitting multiple data streams in parallel on different antennas while reducing the signal quality – No increase in cell range because users near the cell edge typically have low SNR Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 251 .

MRC. especially in dynamic and frequency selective channel by averaging symbol error probability in an additive white noise channel • Adds spatial diversity gain at the receiver to further increase the link budget Transmitter + Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 252 . Maximal Ratio Combining • Both BS and MS receivers are equipped with two receive antennas performing Maximal Ratio Combining (MRC) technique for both DL & UL • Increases SNR and robustness.

but also on the capacity and QoS requirements • Certain MIMO techniques apply pre-coded transmission and use fast feedback slot (6-bit payload) for coefficient update – 1 subchannel x 6 Tiles x 8 Data-subcarriers = 48 QPSK modulated subcarriers – Mapping of the MIMO coefficients to the 6-bits payload done by a codebook and a sequence of signal phase Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 253 .Adaptive MIMO Mode Switching • Matrix A adds robustness and coverage. while Matrix B increases capacity. but decreases the robustness • Smart adaptation algorithms are required for making decisions when to use Matrix A and when to use Matrix B • Switching and algorithms decisions are made based on CINR and antenna correlation.

Adaptive MIMO Switching Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 254 .

each with one Tx antenna.Collaborative Spatial Multiplexing • Two MS transmitters. BS can receive signals simultaneously from two MSs in the same time-frequency slot • Achieves multiplexing gain (capacity increase) through collaboration of MSs • Does not increase the peak UL data rate of the modem. but can double the cumulative uplink data rate in a sector • This technique is also called space division multiple access (SDMA) and requires multiple antennas at the base station Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 255 . may transmit at the same time and on the subchannels • In the UL.

Beam Forming (SDM) Antenna array focuses energy in selective area or null steering in interferer – The narrowness of the beam is directly proportional to number of antennas and their gain – Achieve additional robustness and capacity – Higher peak rate at cell’s edge – Robustness against inter-cell interference • Multiple antennas are required at the BS side – Emission patterns are controlled with phase and amplitude • Especially beneficial in larger cell with higher antennas • Increases link budget and decreases interferences Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 256 .

Two Types of Beamforming • Beamforming with phase array antenna – applies to LOS & SC – applies to TX or RX – Requires regular scanning mechanism like omnidirection beacon – Interference rejection at RX is equally important as increased wanted signal – RX signal strength depends on phase alignment of the incoming signal • Beamforming with MIMO SDM Desired Transmitter Gain=A+jB Delay Multipath Gain=C+jD Algorithm + Co-Channel Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 257 .

Interference Mitigation with Beam Forming Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 258 .

AAS. Adaptive Antenna System • AAS optional feature improves system capacity by spatially overlay coverage area by adding additional independent antennas systems • Increases SNR gains toward SS while placing nulls on interfering transmitter • Increases or decreases antenna gains toward affected direction • Enables transmission of DL and UL burst using directed beams to intended one or more SSs • Increases expense • Implemented by using multi-element phase array BS antennas Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 259 .

expected delay.ARQ (16d).) • ARQ block cannot be fragmented • Monitors Rx packets and requests retransmission if found in error(s) • Protocol overhead and processing resource burden • Not used in VoIP applications • Ineffective in broadcast system • Configurable enable/disable function • Latency impact Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 260 . etc. Automatic Repeat Query • Provides a rapid retransmission • Implemented at below the MAC layer – Process hides the errors from TCP stack and simulates TCP error correction at lower layer • Allows selective repeat (stop. go back to n) • ARQ block size negotiated at connection setup (depends upon the type of service. wait.

HARQ. – Transmitter sends a coded block. If transmission cannot be recovered by the decoder then: 1. Hybrid ARQ (16e) • ARQ discards the previously transmitted data while HARQ combines the previous and retransmitted data to gain time diversity • Uses dedicated ACK channel and PHY functions to implement a stop & wait protocol • Makes use of the faster responding physical layer • Complement to FEC • HARQ combines ARQ with FEC such as convolutional or turbo codes. coded data blocks are stored at the receiver. both coded data blocks are combined and fed to decoder. When additional coded data block is received: 1. 2. retransmission is initiated. hence increases the coverage • Typically increases the ideal BLER (block error rate) operating point by about a factor of 10 • Latency impact Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 261 . adds incremental redundancy and hence improves probability of recovering the data • Greatly increases the data rate when SNR is very low. 2.

per subscriber station – Trade-off capacity vs. robustness in real time • Roughly doubles the capacity for the same cell area • Burst profile for DL broadcast channel is well known and robust – Other burst profiles can be configured on the fly – SS looks for its MAC header to receive rest of the data – SS capabilities are recognized at registration Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 262 .Adaptive Burst Profiles • Burst profiles are transmitted in decreasing robustness – Modulation and or FEC • Dynamically throttle up or down according to the link conditions – Burst by burst.

Frame Diagram in Time Domain Frame n-1 DL Subframe DL-PHY PDU G A P Frame n UL Subframe CR CBR UL-PHY PDU from SS#1 Frame n+1 UL-PHY PDU from SS#n one UL burst per UL PHY PDU G A P Preamble FCH DL Burst #1 Broadcast Message DL Burst #n Preamble UL Burst DLFP 1 ODFM Sym with BPSK-1/2 DL-MAP. UL-MAP DCD. UCD MAC PDUs MAC PDU MAC PDU MAC MSDU Header PAD MAC MSDU Header Introduction to WiMAX Technology CRC CRC Page 263 .

used for voice services without scheduling or for flat channels • Band AMC region: adjacent sub-carriers – Time and frequency scheduling possible • Broadcast region: frequency-diverse sub-channels in simulcast mode – Borrows concept of single frequency network (SFN) from DVB/DAB etc.. Frame DL Subframe UL Subframe PUSC (Cell ID Y) Preamble FCH & PUSC PUSC FUSC DL-MAP (Cell ID Y) (Cell ID Z) (Cell ID Z) AMC (signaling) AMC Frame DL Subframe UL Subframe Preamble CQI/ACK Normal Region Band AMC Region Broadcast Region Normal Region Band AMC Region NAMG Page 264 NNG Introduction to WiMAX Technology NAMG NBR Guard NNG .Frame Partitioning • Normal region: frequency-diverse sub-channels – Time scheduling possible but no frequency-specific scheduling • i.e.

Frame structure (1) • Frame consists of DL & UL sub-frames – Asymmetric traffic distribution between DL and UL is always expected • DL subframe consists of only one DL PHY PDU and followed by one or more UL sub-frames • UL subframe consists of: – Contention slot for initial ranging – Contention slot for BW requesting – UL PHY PDUs from different SS – Each UL PHY PDU consists of UL preamble and UL burst Frame n-1 Frame n Frame n+1 Frame n+1 DL PHY PDU Contention slot A Contention slot B For BW requests UL PHY burst 1 UL PHY burst n TDM signal in For initial DL ranging Adaptive Introduction to WiMAX Technology TDMA burst from different SSs (each with its own preamble) Page 265 .

5 ms typical) • TTG transmit/receive transition gap between DL & UL • RTG receive/transmit transition gap after UL before DL • Transition gap duration is a function of channel BW and OFDM symbol time – This is also used for Tx/Rx mode selection and PA to settle gracefully at both ends • Header suppression.Frame Structure (2) • DL: One transmitter and multiple receivers (multiplexed TDM) • UL: Several transmitters and one receiver (TDMA) – In UL. UL system design is more difficult than the DL – The SSs are accurately synchronized such that their transmission do not overlap each other as they arrive at the BS • 7 different frame durations (2.5 to 20 ms. all transmitters have unique time and frequency offset. packing and fragmentation techniques are applied in the frame structure for efficient use of spectrum Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 266 . thus.

DL/UL Sub-frame Sample Trace Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 267 .

Sample OFDM symbol number (time) k S S+1 S+2 k+1 k+3 k+5 k+7 k+9 k+11 k+13 k+15 k+17 k+20 k+23 k+26 FCH Time k+30 k+31 k+33 UL-MAP (conti'd) FCH DL-MAP Preamble RTG Page 268 DL burst #2 UL burst #1 UL burst #2 DL burst #1 Subcarrier (frequency) Preamble DL burst #3 UL burst #3 DL-MAP UL burst #4 DL burst #4 UL-MAP UL-MAP UL burst #5 DL burst #5 Fast Feedback Ranging DL subframe TTG UL subframe S+L Introduction to WiMAX Technology .TDD frame structure.

OFDMA Frame Structure • DL-MAP and UL-MAP indicate the current frame structure • BS periodically broadcasts Downlink Channel Descriptor (DCD) and Uplink • Channel Descriptor (UCD) messages to indicate burst profiles (modulation and • FEC schemes) Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 269 .

MAC Data Frame Format. bit serial FCS error detection coverage FCS generation span PRE 7 SFD 1 DA 6 SA 6 Length/Type 4 Data 46 to 1500 Pad FCS 4 Field length in bytes PRE = Preamble SFD = Start of frame delimiter DA = Destination address SA = Source address FCS = Frame check sequence Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 270 .3 • Flexible frame structure allows terminals to be dynamically assigned UL & DL burst profiles according to their link conditions Transmission order: left to right. Basic 802.

MAC • WiMAX system can be deployed as TDD. FDD or half-duplex FDD • A short gap between each DL & UL • SS to remain synchronized to BS • Each UL preceded by preamble (called short) that allows BS to sync with each individual SS • DL starts with preamble followed by FC header then one or more DL bursts of data – All symbols in the FCH and DL data bursts are transmitted with equal power to simplify the Tx & Rx design • Mod-Coding remains the same within a burst but may change from burst to burst • Preamble bursts are 3 dB higher than the FCH & DL data • Burst generally starts with BPSK or QPSK then moves up depending on the performance 1 Frame (2.5 to 20 ms) B4 TTG P B1 P H B1 B2 B3 P B2 P B3 P B4 RTG Downlink subframe (basestation) Introduction to WiMAX Technology Uplink subframe (subscriber) Page 271 .

Potential of increasing overhead when too many users with small packet like VoIP. Multiple users are allocated data regions within frame and it is relayed by DLMAP & UL-MAP. • MAP contains burst profile for each user such as modulation. coding and usable carriers. compress or use broadcast MAP.TDD Frame (1) • DL subframe starts with preamble that helps SS to do time and frequency synchronization and initial channel estimation • FCH provides frame configuration information such as MAP message length. Possible mitigation by use of multiple sub-MAP messages at higher rate (if there is good SNR). modulation. coding. It is usually sent in BPSK-½ coding and repeated. pilot & when modulating sub-carriers in the ranging channels Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 272 . • BPSK is used for preamble.

variable packets or fragmented packets from higher layers • UL sub-frame has a channel quality information that is used by scheduler (change the modulation & coding).TDD frame (2) • Support multiple users on a same frame • Varied size. type of data for several users • Variable frame size (2-20 ms but typically 5 ms). • Repeat pilots in lower modulation to improve recovery • Supports Convolution. RS and optionally turbo LDPC coding Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 273 .

Frame Format (3) TDM portion Tx/Rx Transition Gap (TDD only) Schedule G A P Broadcast TDM TDM TDM G control DIUC a DIUC b DIUC c A DIUC = 0 4QAM 16QAM 64QAM P 4QAM TDMA portion G A P TDD For FDD Preamble Preamble Preamble TDMA DIUC d TDMA DIUC e TDMA DIUC f Preamble TDMA DIUC g Preamble Burst start points DL-MAP UL-MAP PHY-Cntl MAC-Cntl Page 274 Introduction to WiMAX Technology .

Example GMH Other Packet Fixed Packet Fixed Packet Fixed .. SH Sized MSDU Sized MSDU Sized MSDU MAC PDU frame carrying several fixed length MSDUs packed together Other FSH MSDU Fragment SH MAC PDU frame carrying a single fragment MSDU CRC GMH CRC GMH Variable Sized Variable Sized MSDU Other FSH PSH ..Various MAC PDU.. CRC MSDU or Fragments SH MAC PDU frame carrying several variable length MSDUs packed together payload Other ARQ Feedback FSH SH MAC PDU frame carrying ARQ payload Variable Sized Other PSH ARQ Feedback PSH MSDU or Fragment SH MAC PDU frame carrying ARQ and MSDU payload . CRC GMH GMH CRC MAC Management Message GMH CRC MAC management Frame CRC: Cyclic redundancy check GMH: Generic MAC Header FSH: Fragmentation Subheader PSH: Packing Subheader PDU: Packet Data Unit SH: Subheader Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 275 . .. .

DL Subframe (1) • The first DL burst contains – DL map (DL MAP) • DL MAP always refers to current frame – UL map (UL MAP) • UL MAP may be broadcasted one frame ahead – DL channel descriptor (DCD) – UL channel descriptor (UCD) • DL bursts are broadcasted in order of decreasing robustness BPSK> QPSK> 16QAM> 64QAM • A SS listens to all bursts it is capable of decoding • A SS does not know which DL burst (s) contain(s) information sent to it Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 276 .

UL-MAP DCD. Frame control header • DIUC: downlink interval usage code • TTG/RTG. this gap is an integer number of PS (physical slot = 4 modulation symbols) durations and starts on a PS boundary • A portion of the DL subframe can be designated as zone for STC and AAS applications DL PHY PDU Contention slot A Contention slot B UL PHY burst 1 UL PHY burst n Preamble FCH DL burst 1 DL burst n DL-MAP. UCD Introduction to WiMAX Technology MAC PDUs Page 277 .TDD Downlink Sub-frame (2) • DL subframe starts with – Preamble – FCH.

DL Map Message (3) • DL-MAP message defines usage of DL and contains carrier-specific data –DL allocation can be of broadcast. multicast and unicast • DL-MAP is the first message in each frame • Decoding is very time-critical –Typically done in hardware • Entries denote instant when the burst profile change Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 278 .

Typical Uplink Sub-frame (1) • Initial maintenance opportunities – Ranging (a procedure for MS to gain access to the BS) – To determine network delay and to request power or profile changes – Collisions may occur in this interval • Request opportunities – SSs request bandwith in response to polling from BS – Collisions may occur in this interval as well • Data grants period – SSs transmit data bursts in the intervals granted by the BS – Transition gaps between data intervals for synchronization purposes – Any of these burst classes may be present in any given frame • in any order and any quantity (limited by the number of available PSs) within the frame • at the discretion of the BS UL scheduler as indicated by UL-MAP Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 279 .

UL Subframe Structure (2) • The SSs transmit in their assigned allocation using the burst profile specified by the UIUC (UL interval usage code) in the UL-MAP entry granting them bandwidth • UL subframe starts with – Contention slot for initial ranging requests – Contention slot for bandwidth request messages Tx/Rx transition gap (TTG) Preamble Initial maintenance opprtunities (UIUC = 2) Request contention opportunities (UIUC = 1) SS transition gap Preamble SS 1 scheduled data (UIUC = i) Rx/Tx transition gap (RTG) SS N scheduled data (UIUC = j) Preamble Access burst Introduction to WiMAX Technology collision Gap Access burst Bandwidth collision request Bandwidth request Page 280 .

all data from a single SS is concatenated into a single PHY burst Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 281 .UL Transmission • UL is considered to be invited transmission and is more complicated than the DL • Transmissions in initial ranging slots – Ranging Requests (RNG-REQ) – Contention resolved using truncated binary exponential back-off algorithm • Transmissions in contention slots – Bandwidth requests – Contention resolved using truncated binary exponential back-off algorithm • Each of these contention slots is further divided into minislots • Bursts defined by UIUCs (UL interval usage code) by BS and the SS adapts and adjusts accordingly • Transmissions allocated by the UL-MAP message • All transmissions have synchronization preamble • Ideally.

specified by the BS • Each UL burst begins with an uplink preamble Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 282 .UL Physical Layer • The UL transmission convergence sub-layer is identical to the DL one. The UL PMD (physical media device) layer coding and modulation are as follows: – Three classes of bursts transmitted during the UL sub-frame: • Burst transmitted in contention opportunities reserved for initial maintenance • Burst transmitted in contention opportunities provided by multicast and broadcast polls • Bursts transmitted in intervals specifically allocated to individual SS • All UL transmissions are made according to the UL burst profiles.

UL Channel Descriptor • Defines uplink burst profiles • Sends regularly • All UL burst profiles are acquired • Burst profiles can be changed on the fly • Establishes association between UIUC (UL interval usage code) and actual PHY parameters Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 283 .

m is an integer ranging from 0 through 7) –unit of UL bandwidth allocation –2m physical slots • in 10-66GHz PHY physical slot is 4 modulation symbols long • Time expressed as arrival time at BS Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 284 . where n = 2^m.UL-MAP Message • UL-MAP message defines usage of the UL • Contains the “grants” • Grants addressed to the SS • Time given in mini-slots (A unit of UL BW allocation equivalent to n physical slots.

UL Contention Resolution • Based on a truncated binary exponential backoff – The initial/maximal backoff window is controlled by the BS • The SS shall randomly select a number within its backoff window – This random value indicates the number of contention transmission opportunities that the SS shall defer before transmitting • For bandwidth requests. it shall stop the contention resolution process One Request IE Transmission Opportunity #1 Transmission Opportunity #2 Transmission Opportunity #3 Preamble (2 minislots) Introduction to WiMAX Technology BW Req Message (3 minislots) SSTG (3 minislots) Page 285 . if the SS receives a Unicast Request IE or Data Grant Burst Type IE at any time while deferring for this CID.

QPSK – Transmitted at 3 dB higher level than all others to make Rx to easily recover information – Preamble followed by FCH then one or more data Symbols • All symbols in FCH and DL data burst are transmitted with equal power – Same modulation is kept within the burst but it may change from burst to burst – Data initially starts out with low level modulation then gradually increases depending on RSL and CINR – Generally inserts a few short mid-preamble in extremely long DL burst Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 286 . QPSK – Symbol 2 contains 100 subcarriers (every even subcarriers with no data or pilot subcarriers resulting in wider adjacent channel spacing ).Downlink Preamble • DL subframe starts with two OFDM symbols containing preamble (called long) – Symbol 1 contains 50 subcarriers (every fourth subcarrier with no data or pilot subcarriers resulting in wider adjacent channel spacing ).

BPSK/ QPSK/16QAM/64QAM DL Subframe variable number of OFDM symbols UL Subframe variable number of OFDM symbols Frame #1 Introduction to WiMAX Technology Frame #2 Frame #n Page 287 . BPSK/ QPSK/16QAM/64QAM 200 carriers.OFDM Frame Structure Diagram • Variable number of subcarriers for OFDMA Can contain DL MAP (if FCH is too small. DL BURST is used) Long preamble 2 symbols Preamble 1 symbol Preamble 1 symbol FCH DL DL 1 symbol Burst #1 Burst #2 BPSK DL G Preamble Burst #n A 1 symbol P 100 CXR BPSK Ranging CDMA BW UL UL Burst #1 Burst #2 UL Burst #n 50 CXR BPSK 100 CXR BPSK 200 carriers.

Downlink/Uplink Preamble • UL subframe starts with short single OFDM Symbol that synchronizes the BS to the SS – Preamble (called short) consists of 100 even number subcarriers – Uses QPSK-1/2 modulation – Same power as data sub-carriers – Symbol contains no data or pilot subcarriers • Following DL preamble is a FCH (single OFDM Symbol of BPSK. depending on the modulation & coding types Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 288 . Each symbol in the DL burst contains 12 to 108 bytes of payload data. DL burst contains one or more Symbols. 88 bits of overhead data that describes critical system decoding information such as BS ID and DL burst profile).

2 = 4 us 0.Preamble Plot Preamble Data 8+8 = 16 us.8+3. Offset Estimation Diversity Selection Timing Sync Introduction to WiMAX Technology Channel and Fine Frequency Offset Estimation Rate Length OFDM Service+Data Page 289 .8 + 2x3.2 = 4 us 0.2 = 4 us GI Signal GI Data 1 GI Data 2 Coarse Freq Signal Detect. AGC.8+3.8 = 8 us t1 t2 t3 t4 t5 t6 t7 t8 t9 t10 GI2 2x0.2 = 8 us T1 T2 0. Preamble 10x0.8+3.

Training Symbol Structure • Flexible usage in OFDMA and MIMO OFDM Packet (time domain) Preamble User Data { 1 OFDM symbol Preamble-based { 3 OFDM symbol Pilot-Based 2D TimeFrequency Interpolation 1D Frequency Interpolation 1D Time Interpolation Time Time Training Symbol Frequency Frequency Data Symbol Page 290 Introduction to WiMAX Technology .

Slots within 1 ms frame) • DL frames can be TDD (the subframe contains preamble for synchronization and equalization. frame control section and TDM portion organized into bursts transmitted in decreasing order of burst profile robustness) Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 291 .DL Physical Layer. (1) • Available bandwidth in DL direction: physical slots • Available bandwidth in UL direction: mini-slots (mini slot length = 2^m physical slots where m is an integer ranging from 0 through 7) • Number of physical slots with each frame is a function of symbol rate (20 Mbps: 5000 PHY. and data) and FDD (preamble. frame control section to see where bursts begin.

DL & UL Physical Layers. (2) • Physical layer allows for flexible spectrum usage and support. both TDD and FDD • Burst transmission format is framed to support adaptive burst profiling (modulation and coding schemes can be adjusted individually to each SS) • The UL physical layer is based on a combination of: –TDMA (time division multiple access) –DAMA (demand multiple access) Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 292 .

(3) • UL channel is divided into a number of time slots – Its various number is controlled by the MAC layer in the BS • DL channel is a TDM (information for each subscriber is multiplexed onto a single stream of data) • The downlink physical layer includes a transmission convergence sub-layer which helps the receiver to identify the beginning of a MAC frame. 16-QAM or 64-QAM) Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 293 .DL & UL Physical Layers. FEC encoding and modulation (QPSK. • The PHY layer performs randomization.

(4) • The UL PHY layer is based upon TDMA burst transmission • Each burst is designed to carry variable length MAC frames • PMD layer performs randomization. UL and DL transmissions share the same frequency but are separated in time • In FDD case. FEC encoding and modulation • Frame duration: 2.DL & UL Physical Layers. both transmissions occur at the same time but the channels are on separated frequencies Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 294 .5 to 20 ms • Each frame contains a DL sub-frame and an UL sub-frame • In the TDD case.

Protocol Architecture • IEEE 802. Privacy sublayer OSI physical layer Authentication. DFS. Transmission and physical. ARQ. Privacy (encyption) OFDM.16 Protocol Architecture has 4 layers: Convergence. Fragmentation.3 twisted pair optical fiber Token Ring coaxial cable DQDB MAC Transmission.1Q Internet Protocol Application Transport Internet Transmission Control Protocol TCP User Data Protocol UDP 4 3 OSI data layer MAC Packing. which can be mapped into two lowest OSI layers: physical and data link Bridged LAN Digital telephony ATM Digital audio/ IP Back haul video multicast Virtual point to point Frame ralay TCP/IP model TCP/IP protocols NFS HTTP FTP SMTP Name Server XDR OSI Reference Model Layers 7 6 RPC 5 Session Transport Network Data Link Physical Application Presentation MAC Convergence sublayer ATM Ethernet. Key Exchange. power control. MAC. Tx. QoS Internet Potocol IP Ethernt IEEE 802. ranging. 802. Rx 2 1 Network Physical Layer Medium Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 295 .

Privacy sublayer – Bandwidth request and allocation – Automatic repeat Query (ARQ) PHY Physical Layer (PHY) Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 296 . VLANs. priorities – Assigns service flow ID (SFID) and connection identifier – Maps data to a CID MAC MAC Convergence sublayer (CS) • CPS: Provides the core MAC functionality – Fragmentation and reassembly of large MAC SDUs – Packing and unpacking of several small MAC SDUs – QoS control and scheduling MAC Common Part Sublayer (CPS) MAC Transmission.Protocol Structure • CS: All functions that are specific to a higher layer protocol – Receives and adapts higher layer PDUs to MAC CPS – Classifies SDUs based on MAC address.

H-ARQ. Handover Introduction to WiMAX Technology MAC Transmission. below 11GHz.Security & PHY Sub-layer • Provides authentication. Privacy sublayer PHY Physical Layer (PHY) Page 297 . Fast feedback. 11-66 GHz – MC. ARQ. NLOS. secured key exchange. encryption support ARQ scheme • Supports two protocols: – Encapsulation protocol for data encryption • Defines cryptographic suites such as pairings of data encryption and authentication algorithms • The rules for applying those algorithms to a MAC payload MAC MAC Convergence sublayer (CS) MAC Common Part Sublayer (CPS) – Privacy key management protocol • Describes how the BS distributes to SS • PHY Sub-Layer – Single carrier. AAS & MIMO – S-OFDMA. NLOS.

SS uses the allocated space to send a BW request 3. BS allocates the requested space for the SS (if available) 4. BS allocates sufficient space for the SS in the uplink subframe 2.Unicast Polling 1. SS uses allocated space to send data BS SS Poll(UL-MAP) Alloc(UL-MAP) Request Data Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 298 .

ATM Convergence Sub-layer • Supports for: –VP (Virtual Path) switched connections –VC (Virtual Channel) switched connections • Support for end-to-end signaling of dynamically created connections • SVCs • Soft PVCs • ATM header suppression • Full QoS support Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 299 .

Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 300 .Packet Convergence Sub-layers • Initial support for Ethernet. IPv4 and IPv6 • Payload header suppression –Generic plus IP specific • Full QoS support • Possible future support for: –PPP –MPLS –etc.

MAC Addressing • SS has 48-bit IEEE MAC address • BS has 48-bit Base Station ID –Not a MAC address –24-bit operator indicator • 16-bit Connection ID (CID) –Used in MAC PDUs (packet data units) Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 301 .

MAC PDU Transmission • MAC communicates using MAC protocol data units (MPDUs) that are carried by the PHY • MAC PDUs (packet data units) are transmitted in PHY bursts • A single PHY burst can contain multiple Concatenated MAC PDUs • The PHY burst can contain multiple FEC blocks • MAC PDUs may span FEC block boundaries • The TC (transmission conversion) layer between the MAC and the PHY allows for capturing the start of next MAC PDU in case of erroneous FEC blocks – The TC PDU format allows resynchronization to the next MAC PDU if the previous block had irrecoverable errors – Without the TC layer. a receiving SS or BS would potentially lose the entire remainder of a burst when an irrecoverable bit error occurred – Performs conversion of variable length MAC PDUs into fixed length FEC blocks (plus possibly a shortened block at the end) of each burst Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 302 .

MAC PDU Transmission MAC Message Fragmentation MAC PDUs PHY Burst PDU 1 PDU 1 PDU 2 SDU 1 Packing PDU 3 PDU 4 SDU 2 PDU 5 Concatenation P FEC 1 MAC PDUs FEC 2 Preamble FEC 3 Shortened FEC block Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 303 .

MAC PDU Format • There are types of MAC header (generic or BW request) – Both generic and BW request MAC headers are fixed length and 6 bytes long • One or more MAC sub-headers may be part of the payload • The presence of sub-headers is indicated by a type field in the Generic MAC header • Size varies from 6 byte to 2047 bytes • Flexibility creates transmission inefficiency msb 6 bytes 0 to 2041 bytes 4 bytes Generic MAC Header Introduction to WiMAX Technology Payload (optional) CRC (optional) Page 304 .

which may be inserted before each MAC SDU packed into the payload Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 305 . Generic MAC Header • The GMH is used for transmit data or MAC messages and may optionally have one or more appended sub-headers – Fragmented Sub-header (2 bytes.GMH. optionally 1 byte) – Packing (3 bytes. optionally 2 bytes) – Grant Management (2 bytes) – Mesh Sub-header (2 bytes) – Fast-Feedback-Allocation (1 byte) – Extended Sub-header (variable length) – The subheader can occur only once per MAC PDU except for the Packing subheader.

BWH. Bandwidth Header • The BWH is used by the SS to request more bandwidth on UL –ARQ Fast –Feedback and Grant Management subheaders are used to communicate ARQ and bandwidth allocation states between the BS and SS –Fragmentation and Packing sub-headers are used to utilize the bandwidth allocation efficiently Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 306 .

The classifier (located at the sending entity) uniquely maps the packets to its associated PHS Rule. Payload Header Useful portion PHSF Payload PHSI Introduction to WiMAX Technology Useful portion Payload Page 307 .PHSF. which references the PHSF (payload header suppression field). The receiving entity uses the CID and the PHSI to restore the PHSF. each MAC SDU is prefixed with a PHSI (payload header suppression index). Payload Header Suppression Format • If PLHS is enabled at MAC connection.

Header Suppression for VoIP over WiMAX • The protocols used in addition to WiMAX are RTP. UDP and IPv6 Application Layer Voice Payload RTP UDP IPv6 MAC PHY Introduction to WiMAX Technology Voice Payload Voice Payload Voice Payload Voice Payload Voice Payload Page 308 .

Header Suppression for VoIP over WiMAX. 2 • Header sizes of each of these layers: – between 12 to 72 bytes for RTP – 8 bytes for UDP – 40 bytes for IPv6 • the total length of RTP/UDP/IPv6 header is between 60 and 120 bytes • PHS suppresses repetitive (redundant) parts due to the higher layers in the payload header of the MAC SDU • The receiving entity restores the suppressed parts • Its is the responsibility of the higher-layer service entity to generate a PHS Rule Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 309 .

an 8-bit field which references the Payload Header Suppression Field (PHSF) that has been used for header suppression – The PHS rule has also a Payload Header suppression Mask (PHSM) option to allow the choice of bytes of PHSF that can not be suppressed A B 0 X D 0 X B‟ C 1 C‟ D 0 X E 1 E‟ =verify =assign Packet Transmission PHSF PHSM Payload PHSI 1 byte MAC header Sender PHSM PHSF 1 A‟ B Air Interface PHSM Receiver PHSF Payload 1 A‟ A‟ 1 C‟ C‟ 0 X D‟ 1 E‟ E‟ A-E=curent in A‟-E‟=cached X=don‟t care PHSS=5 Packet Header Reconstruction (using PHSI and CID) Payload Page 310 Introduction to WiMAX Technology . 3 • A Payload Header Suppression Index (PHSI).Header Suppression for VoIP over WiMAX.

4 • Number of suppressed bytes per header: –IPv6: 37 bytes –UDP: 4 bytes –RTP: 4 bytes. • The RTP/UDP/IPv6 Header drops from 60 bytes to 15 bytes (45 Header bytes or less are suppressed) Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 311 .Header Suppression for VoIP over WiMAX.

Last fragment.Fragmentation • Partitioning a MAC SDU into fragments then transporting in multiple MAC PDUs • Longer packet increases probability of losing a packet and hence initiate retransmission • Allows better packing of MAC SDUs into the available OFDM freq-time resources by using all data subcarriers in each OFDM symbol • Each connection can be in only a single fragmentation state at any time • Contents of the fragmentation sub-header: – 2-bit Fragmentation Control (FC) • Unfragmented. Continuing fragment – 3-bit Fragmentation Sequence Number (FSN) • Required to detect missing continuing fragments • Continuous counter across SDUs • Fragmentation is an optional feature that improves the link efficiency Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 312 . First fragment.

(1) • A process of combining multiple MAC SDUs (or fragments thereof) into a single MAC SDU • Allows better packing of MAC SDUs into the available OFDM frequency-time resources by using all data subcarriers in each OFDM symbol – Can. in certain situations.Packing. save up to 10% of system bandwidth • On connections with variable length MAC SDUs – Packed PDU contains a sub-header for each packed SDU (or fragment thereof) • On connections with fixed length MAC SDUs – no packing sub-header needed • Packing and fragmentation can be combined Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 313 .

fixed length MAC SDU length = n Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 314 ..Packing Fixed-Length SDUs... (2) k MAC SDUs MAC Header LEN = n*k+j fixed length fixed length fixed length MAC SDU MAC SDU MAC SDU length = n length = n length = n .

(3) • 2 Byte packing sub-header before each SDU – Length of the SDU: 11 bits – Fragmentation control (FC): 2 bits – Fragmentation sequence number (FS): 3 bits k MAC SDUs MAC Header LEN = j Type = 00001Xb PSH Length = a+2 PSH Length = b+2 variable length MAC SDU length = a variable length MAC SDU length = b . PSH Length = c+2 variable length MAC SDU length = c Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 315 ....Packing Variable Length SDU.

MAC SDU length=f continuing frragment of MAC SDU length=g PSH FC = 10. FSN=x+s+2 Length=1+2 Packing with Fragmentation PSH FC=D0. FSN=x+5 Length = q+1 Continuing fragment of . FSN=x+s+1 Length=b+2 Last fragment of MAC SDU length = a MAC Header LEN = y2 Type = 00010xb FSH FC = 11. . FSN = x+y Length = e+1 Introduction to WiMAX Technology MAC Header LEN = y1 Type = 00001Xb PSH FC = 01. FSN = n+1 unfragmente d MAC SDU length = 0 r MAC SDUs unfragmente d MAC SDU U length=f unfragmente d MAC SDU length=f Unfragmente d MAC SDU length=k r MAC SDUs PSH FC = 00. FSH = x+y+1 Length = d+2 unfragmente d MAC SDU length = c first fragment of MAC SDU length = d' Page 316 .MAC Header LEN=y5 Type=00001xb PSH FC=01. FSN = n+2 Length = c+1 s-I+1 MAC SPUs MAC Header LEN=y45 Type = 00010Xb FSH FC=11. FSH = x+y1 Length = f+1 PSH FC = 00. FSN=x+s+3 Length=1+2 PSH FC=00. . FSN=x+s+2 length=k+2 Last fragment of MAC SDU length=h MAC Header LEN = y3 Type = 00010xb FSH FC=11. FSN =x' Length = a+2 Continuing fragment of MAC SDU legth =e PSH FC=D0.

...OFDMA. k+17 k+20 k+23 . Time k+31 k+33 FCH DL burst #2 UL-MAP Ranging Subchannels UL burst #1 FCH Subchannel Logical Number UL burst #2 DL burst #3 Preamble DL burst #4 UL burst #3 Preamble RTG Page 317 DL-MAP DL burst #1 DL burst #5 UL burst #4 S+N DL TTG Introduction to WiMAX Technology UL burst #5 UL UL-MAP DL-MAP . .. Typical TDD Time Frame • Pilot. null and DC subcarriers are not shown OFDMA Symbol Number k+0 k+1 k+2 k+3 k+4 k+7 k+9 k+11 k+13 S+0 S+1 S+2 ...

25) • A frame duration of 5 ms is typically used as the compromise between transport efficiency and latency • Must be able to compensate at most 20 dB/s for 40 dB range – Actual power control algorithm is left to vendors – 0. 16QAM and 64QAM are mandatory and the 256QAM is optional • The mapping of bits to symbols are identical to those in the DL • Systems shall use Nyquist square-root raised cosine pulse shaping (role off factor 0.Chain Transmission • Randomization and FEC coding in UL are identical to the corresponding in the DL • The type of modulation and the power adjustment rules are set by the BS • QPSK.25 dB resolution Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 318 .

except when told to transmit • Each burst may contain data for several terminals • SS must recognize the PDUs with known CIDs • DL-Map message signals DL usage Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 319 . or at a more robust one.Down Link Transmission • Two kinds of bursts: TDM and TDMA • All bursts are identified by a DIUC – Downlink Interval Usage Code • TDMA bursts have resync preamble – allows for more flexible scheduling • Each terminal listens to all bursts at its operational IUC.

Downlink Channel Descriptor • Used for advertising DL burst profiles • Burst profile of DL broadcast channel is well known • All others are acquired • Burst profiles can be changed on the fly without interrupting the service –Not intended as “super-adaptive” modulation • Establishes association between DIUC and actual PHY parameters Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 320 .

Burst Profiles • Each burst profile has mandatory exit threshold and minimum entry threshold • SS allowed to request a less robust DIUC (DL interval usage code) once above the minimum entry level • SS must request fall back to more robust DIUC once at mandatory exit threshold • Requests to change DIUC done with DBPC-REQ (DL burst profile change Req.) or RNG-REQ (range Req.) messages Burst Profile Z Overlap Burst Profile Y Overlap Burst Profile Page 321 Introduction to WiMAX Technology C / (N+I) 0 .

8 bits • Quantized in 2 dB increment in range from -48 to -110 dBm – CINR mean value. 3 bits – measurement report Types. 4 bits – RSSI mean value. 3 bits – Beam bits mask. 8 bits • Quantized in 1 dB increment in range from 10 to 53 dB Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 322 . 8bits – Feedback request number. 8 bits – Frame number. 2 bits – Resolution parameter. 4 bits – reserved.UL-AAS Beam Response Message • Message contains a total of 48 bits – Management message type.

Admission Control. modulation level and so on) for each subscriber – BS determines the BW requirements of the individual subscriber based on the service classes of the connections and on the status of the traffic queues at the BS and SS Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 323 . Scheduling and Link Adaptation • Admission Control – Ensure that new flows do not degrade the quality of established flows • Scheduling – BS schedules usage of the air link among the subscribers per specific QoS – Packet schedulers at the BS and subscribers gives transmission opportunities to multiple connection queues • Link Adaptation – BS determines the contents of the DL and UL portions of each frame – BS determines the appropriate burst profile (code rate.

1 1 0.The QoS Object Model PDU SFID [Sevice Class] [CID] Payload N 1 Service Flow SFID Direction [CID] [Provisioned QoS ParamSet] [AdmittedQoSParamSet] [ActiveQoSParamSet] N 0. 1 Connection Connection ID QoS Parameter Set Service Class Sevice Class Name QoS Parameter Set Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 324 .

all queues in BS –Uplink scheduling module • Queues are distributed among SSs • Queue states and QoS requirements are obtained through BW requests –Algorithms not defined in standard Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 325 .QoS Mechanisms • Classification –Mapping from MAC SDU fields (e.. destination IP address or TOS field) to CID and SFID • Scheduling –Downlink scheduling module • Simple.g.

Applications Control Plane Conn_req Conn_rsp Control Plane AC Connection Classifiers BE CIDs nrtPS CIDs rtPS CIDs ertPS CIDs UGS CISs UL Scheduling BW request UL Map Ctrl/mng channels UGS Non UGS BS Priority Scheduler SS UL Data packets (data channels) Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 326 .QoS Control .

FTP HTTP UL BW Request Generator Slot Allocation CID#8 CID#9 CID#10 (BE) UL BW Grant Processor Data Traffic UL BW Grant Generator CID#10 E-mail UL-MAP TDM/ Voice VoIP MPEG TFTP. FTP HTTP E-mail Packet Classifier CID#6 (UGS) CID#7 (ert-PS) CID#8 (rt-PS) CID#9 (nrt-PS) TDM/ Voice VoIP MPEG TFTP. FTP HTTP DL-MAP Generator DL-MAP CID#3 CID#4 CID#5 CID#5 E-mail Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 327 . FTP HTTP E-mail Packet Construction CID#1 CID#2 CID#3 CID#4 DL Traffic Processor Data Traffic DL Traffic Processor CID#1 CID#2 Packet Classifier TDM/ Voice VoIP MPEG TFTP.QOS Mechanism Subscriber Station MAC CS New Connection Connection Request Base Station Connection Request Connection Response Implicit Request Piggyback Request Unicast Polling Contention Based Polling MAC CPS Connection Request Generator MAC CPS MAC CS Packet Re-Construction Admission Control CID#6 CID#7 TDM/ Voice VoIP MPEG TFTP.

VoIP services with silent suppression • Real-time Polling Service (rtPS) – for rt-VBR-like SFs on periodic basis such as MPEG video • Non-real-time Polling Service (nrtPS) – for nrt SFs with better than best effort services such as bandwidth-intensive file transfer (FTP) • Best Effort (BE) – for best-effort traffic with no minimum service level required Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 328 .5-Types of Scheduling Services • Unsolicited Grant Service (UGS) – for constant bit-rate (CBR) or CBR-like service flows (SFs) such as T1/E1 • Extended real-time Polling Service (ertPS) – for real time variable bit rate in an unsolicited manner and has less request/grant overhead than the rtPS.

which eliminates overhead and latency of SS requests • No unicast request opportunity provided • May include a grant Management (GM) sub-header containing – Slip indicator: indicates that there is a backlog in the buffer due to clock skew or loss of maps – Poll-me bit: indicates that the terminal needs to be polled (allows for not polling terminals with UGS-only services) Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 329 .UGS. Unsolicited Grant Service • Supports services that generate fixed size data packets on periodic basis – T1/E1 services or voice over IP without silence suppression • No need for explicit BW requests – Low overhead • Offers fixed size grants on a real time periodic basis.

using grant management sub-header or other means Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 330 . extended-real-time Polling System (for 16e) • An extended real-time polling service (ertPS) combines UGS & rtPS – Supports VoIP with silence suppression • Periodic unsolicited grants similar to UGS for data transmission or for requesting additional BW • Unlike UGS.ertPS. allocations are not fixed and may change over time (on/off UGS) • Default size is based on maximum sustained traffic rate • MS may request a change in allocation size.

real-time Polling System • Supports real time flows with variable size data packets on periodic basis such as MPEG video • Provides periodic request opportunities – SS specifies the frame size in the BW request in response – Unicast request opportunities which meets the flow’s real time needs and allows SS to specify the size of desired grant • Prohibited from using any contention requests • More overhead. but more flexible and provides optimum data transport efficiency than UGS • Terminal polled frequently enough to meet the delay requirements of the SFs • Bandwidth requested with BW request messages (a special MAC PDU header) • May use Grant Management sub-header – new request can be piggybacked with each transmitted PDU (protocol data unit) Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 331 .rtPS.

g..nrtPS. non-real-time Polling System • Works like rt-polling except that polls are issued less frequently • Combines periodic and contention request opportunities • Base station issues unicast polls on the order of a second or less • SS may also use contention request opportunities • Can be used for delay tolerant traffic – No delay or jitter guarantees • Intended for non-real-time service flows with better than best effort service – e. bandwidth extensive file transfer • May use Grant Management sub-header – New request can be piggybacked with each transmitted PDU Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 332 .

HTTP.g. SMTP. – No QoS guaranteed • Leftover or unused allocation may be used by SSs • SS/MS allowed to use contention request opportunities • BS may allocate unicast opportunities – Depending on policy – No guarantees • May use Grant Management sub-header – New request can be piggybacked with each transmitted PDU Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 333 . Best Effort • For best-effort traffic in the UL – Generic Data – e.. etc.BE.

QoS Convergence Sublayer Downlink Data Translator Queques without Latency Downlink Determine UL/DL subframe 1st Phase Proportionating Uplink Assign slots for queques Second Phase Proportionating Two-Phase Proportionating UGS ertPS Translator rtPS nrtPS BE Assign slots to SSs Write in DL-MAP Assign slots to SSs Write in UL-MAP Uplink Frame Bandwidth Requests Two-Phase Proportionating PHY Layer Downlink Frame Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 334 .

example • Priority + EDF + WFQ + RR .combined model UGS CISs ertPS CIDs rtPS CIDs Fixed Bandwidth Fixed Bandwidth with Silent Detect Priority Scheduler Earliest Deadline First (EDF) nrtPS CIDs Weighted Fair Queuing (WFQ) or WRR UL Map BE CIDs Round Robin Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 335 .Service Flows and QoS.

Maximum sustained rate Traffic priority Page 336 . T1/E1 Fixed data rate QoS Specifications Maximum sustained rate Maximum latency tolerance Jitter tolerance ertPS Extended Real Time Packet Service Voice with activity detection (VoIP) Variable data rate Maximum sustained rate Minimum reserved rate Maximum latency tolerance Jitter tolerance.QoS Summary QoS Category UGS Unsolicited Grant Service Applications VoIP. etc. Web Browsing. Traffic priority nrtPS Non-Real Time Packet Service BE Best Effort Service Introduction to WiMAX Technology File Transfer Protocol (FTP) Minimum reserved rate Maximum sustained rate Traffic priority General data transfer.. Traffic priority rtPS Real Time Packet Service Screaming Audio and MPEG Video Minimum reserved rate Maximum sustained rate Maximum latency tolerance Committed burst size..

otherwise all forms of polling are allowed All forms of polling allowed Page 337 BW stealing Polling ertPS rtPS nrtPS Allowed Allowed Allowed Allowed for GPSS (Grant per SS) Allowed for GPSS Allowed for GPSS BE Introduction to WiMAX Technology Allowed Allowed for GPSS .Scheduling Types Scheduling Type UGS Piggy Back Request Not Allowed Not Allowed PM bit is used to request unicast poll for bandwidth needs of nonUGS connections Scheduling only allows unicast polling Scheduling only allows unicast polling Scheduling may restrict a service flow to unicast polling via the transmission/request policy.

i. periodical aggregate requests • Bandwidth Requests are always per Connection • Grants are either per connection (GPC) or per Subscriber Station (GPSS) – Grants (given as durations) are carried in the UL-MAP messages – SS needs to convert the time to amount of data using information about the UIUC Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 338 .Request / Grant Scheme • Self Correcting – No acknowledgement – All errors are handled in the same way.e..

as indicated by MAC header – Piggybacked request (for non-UGS services only) • Presented in GM sub-header and always incremental • Up to 32 kb per request for CID – Poll-Me bit (for UGS services only) • Used by the SS to request a bandwidth poll for non-UGS services Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 339 . negotiated at connection setup – BW request messages • Uses the special BW request header • Requests up to 32 kb with a single message • Incremental or aggregate.BW Requests • Comes from the Connection • Several kind of requests: – Implicit requests (UGS) – No actual messages.

Flow 1 Flow Queque in DL Flow 2 Flow 3 Flow 4 Flow 5 Flow 1 Flow 2 Flow 3 Flow 4 Flow 5 Flow 1 Flow 5 UL Subframe Flow 4 Flow 2 Flow 3 Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 340 .BW Allocation and Burst Placement • .

Bandwidth Request and Allocation. (1) • SSs may request BW in 3 ways: –Uses ”contention request opportunities” interval upon being polled by the BS (multicast or broadcast poll) • Contention is resolved by using back off resolution –Sends a standalone MAC message called ”BW request” in an already granted slot • Due to the predictable signaling delay of the polling scheme. contention-free mode is suitable for real time applications –Piggybacks a BW request message on a data packet Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 341 .

available resources • Grants are realized through the UL-MAP Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 342 . An additional scheduler is employed at the SS which determines the service order for its connections in the granted slot • More scalable and efficient than the GPC – Grant Per Connection (GPC) • BS scheduler treats each connection separately and BW is expilicitly granted to each connection • SS transmits according to the order specified by the BS • Decision based on requested BW and QoS requirements vs.Bandwidth Request and Allocation. (2) • BS grants/allocates bandwidth in one of two modes: – Grant Per Subscriber Station (GPSS) • BS scheduler treats all the connections from a single SS as one unit and grants BW to the SS.

Bandwidth Request and Allocation. (3) • DL-MAP and UL-MAP indicate the current frame structure • BS periodically broadcasts DL Channel Descriptor (DCD) and UL Channel Descriptor (UCD) messages to indicate burst profiles (modulation and FEC schemes) Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 343 .

GPC • Bandwidth Grant per Subscriber Station (GPSS) – Base station grants bandwidth to the subscriber station – Subscriber station may re-distribute bandwidth among its connections. off-loading base station’s work – Allows more sophisticated real time reaction to QoS needs – Low overhead but requires intelligent subscriber station – Mandatory for P802.16 10-66 GHz PHY • Bandwidth Grant per Connection (GPC) – Base station grants bandwidth to a connection – Mostly suitable for a few users per subscriber station – Higher overhead. but allows simpler subscriber station Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 344 . maintaining QoS and service level agreements – Suitable for many connections per terminal.GPSS vs.

SS may use BW in a way unforeseen by the BS Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 345 .Maintaining QoS in GPSS • Semi-distributed approach • BS sees the requests for each connection. grants bandwidth (BW) to the SSs (maintaining QoS and fairness) • SS scheduler maintains QoS among its connections and is responsible to share the BW among the connections (maintaining QoS and fairness) • Algorithm in BS and SS can be very different. based on this.

SS Initialization Steps • Scans for DL channel and establish synchronization with the BS • Obtains transmit parameters (from UCD message) • Performs ranging • Negotiates basic capabilities • Authorizes SS and performs key exchange • Performs registration • Establishes IP connectivity • Establishes time of day • Transfers operational parameters • Set up connections Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 346 .

Ranging. (1) • Procedure for MS to gain access to the BS • Four types of ranging can be defined – Initial Ranging for Network entry – Periodic Ranging for synchronization – Bandwidth requests – HO ranging • Single Ranging channel (multiple sub-channels) using 1 to 8 subcarriers defined by the system specified in the UCD • Ranging process accomplished through PN codes assigned spreading for specific Ranging types – Also known as CDMA-like (a maximum of 256 sets of 144-bit wide pseudo-noise code) ranging for OFDMA Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 347 .

Ranging. (2) • For UL transmissions. times are measured at BS • At start up. calculates required advance and power adjustment • BS send adjustment in RNG-RSP • SS adjusts advance and power. SS sends a RNG-REQ message in the contention slot reserved for this purpose – SS looks for initial ranging opportunities (UL-MAP) information present in every frame • BS measures arrival time and signal power. sends new RNG-REQ • Loop between BS & SS is continued until power and timing is ok Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 348 .

Channel Acquisition • SS scans for suitable BS DL signal • SS Sync to this signal and searches the first DL burst of the DL PHY PDU –Reads the DL channel descriptor (DCD) –Reads the UL channel descriptor (UCD) –Learn the modulation and coding schemes used on the carrier Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 349 .

Negotiation of Capabilities • BS sends – Power adjust information – Timing adjust information – CID for the basic management connection – CID for the primary management • SS reports its PHY capabilities on the primary management connection – Modulation – Coding scheme – Half-duplex or full-duplex operation (FDD) • BS may deny the use of any capability reported by the subscriber station Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 350 .

SS Authentication • SS must pass authentication • SS contains an X.509 digital certificate and the certificate of the manufacturer • SS sends these certificates to BS • BS examines certificates and authenticates (or deny) the SS • If authentication is successful. the BS sends the authorization key • The AK is used both by SS and BS for securing further information flow (subsequent key derivation) Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 351 .

Registration • Registration is a form of capability negotiation • SS sends a list of capabilities and parts of the configuration file to the BS in the REG-REQ message • BS replies with the REG-RSP message –Tells which capabilities are supported/allowed • SS acknowledges the REG-RSP with REG-ACK message Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 352 .

the SS registers with network • Response from BS contains CID for a secondary management connection –Secondary management connection is secured • SS and BS determines –Capabilities related to connection set up –Parameters required for MAC operation –IP version used Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 353 .SS registration • After successful authentication.

MAC Management Connections • Upon entering the network. ToD) Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 354 . more delay tolerant MAC management messages – Authentication and connection setup • Secondary management connection (higher layer) – Exchange of delay tolerant IP-based messages (DHCP. TFTP. the SS is assigned three management connections in each direction • Basic management connection – Exchange of short. time-critical MAC. SNMP. radio link control management messages with minimal delay – Used to quickly adapt to wireless environment • Primary management connection – Exchange of longer.

IP Connectivity and Configuration File Download • IP connectivity established via DHCP or static IP server • SS establishes the time of the day via the Internet Time Protocol • DHCP server provides the address of the TFTP server • Configuration file downloaded via TFTP • Contains provisioned information –Operational parameters Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 355 .

Connection(s) set up • Secondary management connection is also used for setting up one or more transport connections • Transport connections carry the actual user traffic • Service flows defines unidirectional transport of packets between the subscriber station and BS –service flows are characterized by a certain set of QoS parameters –Service flows are established using a three-way handshaking establishment procedure Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 356 .

Initial Connection Setup • BS passes Service Flow Encodings to the SS in multiple DSA-REQ (dynamic service addition Req) messages • SS replies with DSA-RSP messages • Service Flow Encodings contain either –Full definition of service attributes (omitting defaultable items if desired) –Service class name • ASCII string which is known at the BS and which indirectly specifies a set of QoS Parameters Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 357 .

removable user identity module RUIM) – X. Universal SIM.509 certification with RSA PKCS – Strong authentication of SSs (prevents theft of service) – Prevents cloning • Data encryption – Currently 56-bit DES in CBC mode – IV based on frame number – Easily exportable • Message authentication – Key MAC management messages authenticated with one way hashing (HMAC with SHA-1) • Designed to allow new/multiple encryption algorithms • Protocol descends from BPI+ (DOCSIS) Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 358 .Privacy and Encryption • Secures over-the-air transmissions • Authentication (SIM.

Security Associations • A set of privacy information –Shared by a BS and one or more of its client SSs share in order to support secured communications –Includes traffic encryption keys and CBC IVs • Security Association Establishment –Primary SA established during initial registration –Other SAs may be provisioned or dynamically created within the BS Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 359 .

509 certificate binding the SS’s public key to its other identifying information – Trust relation assumed between equipment manufacturer and network operator – Possibility to accommodate “root authority” if required • Authorization Key Update Protocol – The SS is responsible for maintaining valid keys – Two active AKs with overlapping lifetimes at all times – Re-athorization process done periodically – AK lifetime (7 days) & grace timer (1 hr) Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 360 .SS Authorization • Authentication and Authorization – SS manufacturer’s X.

Traffic Encryption Key Management • Two-level key exchange protocol – Key Encryption Key (symmetric) established with RSA – Traffic Encryption Keys (TEK) exchanged with symmetric algorithm negotiated at SA establishment (currently only 3-DES supported) – Two sets of overlapping keying material maintained – No explicit key acknowledgements – Key synchronization maintained by 2-bit key sequence number in the MAC PDU header • Traffic Encryption Key Exchange Protocol – Defined by the TEK FSM transition Matrix Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 361 .

decryption (both keys) • Key sequence number carried in MAC header • Only MAC PDU payload (including sub-headers) is encrypted • Management messages are unencrypted Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 362 .g. decryption (both keys) • AT: encryption (newer key). e. AES • Two simultaneous keys with overlapping and offset lifetimes allow for uninterrupted services – Rules for key usage • AP: encryption (older key).Data Encryption • DES in CBC mode with IV derived from the frame number • Hooks defined for other stronger algorithms.

0.255. any address starting with 127 is a loopback. consists of 128 bit wide address Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 363 . a host with binary all 1’s is broadcast over the specific network.255.IP addressing • Unique address that identifies the network and host • IPv4 consists of 32 bit wide address – 4 decimal numbers separated by period – A valid address ranges 0. Network address 0 points to its own network) – Netmask allows to separate network/host part from address • Performs bit wide AND function • IPv6.0.0 to 255. classless.255 – Class A. A host with 0 points to itself. B. C. restricted address (0 broadcast.

OFDM and SOFDMA Digital Domain Subcarrier Allocation + Pilot Insertion Channel Encoder + Rate Matching Interleaver Analog Domain IFFT DAC Antenna 1 Symbol Mapper Space Time Encoder Subcarrier Allocation + Pilot Insertion Frequency Domain IFFT DAC Antenna 2 Time Domain Page 364 Introduction to WiMAX Technology . Example • With redundant circuit implementation for STC transmitter • PHY to support three different modes: SC.PHY Sub-block Diagram.

PHY • TDD and FDD • Adaptive modulation and coding (CC with puncture & RS) – subscriber by subscriber. 1/8. burst by burst. uplink and downlink – Optional Turbo-coding to increase coverage/capacity at the expense of latency and complexity • Point to multipoint • Support for adaptive antennas and space-time coding • Slot allocation and framing • Dynamic frequency selection to detect and avoid interference • 256 sub-carriers (192+28+27+8+1) for OFDM • Configurable CP length of 1/4. 1/16 or 1/32 depending on expected delay • Optional signaling support for Adaptive antenna • Optional transmit diversity support (Space time block codes) Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 365 .

72. 6) 3/4 64-QAM 108 (120. 12. M Modulation order. 48. 4) 2/3 4-QAM 36 (40. 4) 5/6 64-QAM 96 (108. 0) 1/2 4-QAM 24 (32. 96. 6) 5/6 Introduction to WiMAX Technology Coded Blocks Overall (bytes) Coding 24 1/2 48 1/2 48 3/4 96 1/2 96 3/4 144 2/3 144 3/4 Page 366 . 8) 2/3 16-QAM 72 (80. ½ FEC. 2) 5/6 16-QAM 48 (64. then each data subcarrier would carry {(R/Nused)* (2/1)*M} bit rate Uncoded Modulation Blocks (bytes) RS Code CC Code BPSK 12 (12. 36.PHY Coding Rates • If R bps is the input data rate. 108. 24. Nused of FFT.

Latency • Traffic delays through equipment due to processing and propagation • Increased delay results in annoying voice echo • Voice over IP applications • Video conferencing • Simulcast applications • Time out issues for some data applications • Issues to reliably controlling remote devices in real time • Dynamically adjustment for certain protocols • Limited alignment performed by BS prior to mobile handover • Latency decreases as the symbol rate increases • Latency increases for longer frame size • Higher latency with interleaver • Round trip total latency must be ≤100ms? (should be ≤ 20 ms round trip for VoIP without echo canceller) • Latency accumulates linearly with increased number of tandem back haul hops Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 367 .

Handoff (HO) Operator „X‟ backbone network Gateway Backhaul connection A B Operator „Y‟ backbone network Sector sw C Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 368 .

mandatory – Micro-Diversity handover (MDHO) .optional – Fast BS switching (FBSS) .Handoff (HO) Schemes • Mobile WiMAX performs mobile communication but no mesh mode – Hard handover (HHO) .optional BS1 RSL BS2 RSL With Hysteresis Rx Threshold Noise Floor No hysteresis Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 369 .

Hard Handoff (HHO) • Handover allows MSs to handover between neighboring BSs while moving across the corresponding coverage areas – This may also be triggered by BS to do an optimal traffic load balancing • BS periodically broadcasts the neighbor advertisement message (MOB_NBR-ADV). handover process is carried out in two steps • Handover preparation: MS or BS may initiate the handover by using the MOB_MSHO-REQ / MOB_BSHO-REQ. Once the handover decision is made. Then MS negotiates basic capabilities. the serving BS replies with MOB_BSHO-RSP message containing recommended BSs after negotiation with candidate BSs • Handover execution: MS sends MOB_HO-IND message to the serving BS and cuts all communication with serving BS. performs authentication and finally registers with the target BS Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 370 . MS then switches the link and executes ranging with target BS.

e.Micro-diversity Handoff (MDHO) • Multiple BS serve the MS within the same frame.. Multiple BS transmit the same packet to the MS within the same frame so that MS can perform the diversity combining • MS scans the neighbouring BS and maintain a set of BSs that are involved on MDHO . requires synchronization and scheduling above BS layer Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 371 . i. MS transmission is received by multiple BSs such that selection diversity of the received information could be performed – When the long-term CINR of a serving BS in diversity set is less than a threshold. the MS shall send the MOB-MSHO-REQ to delete this BS and update the diversity set • Allows for true soft-handover (make before break) • Highly complex. two or more BSs provide synchronized transmission of data to MS such that diversity combining can be performed at the MS – For UL MDHO.the diversity set • MDHO begins when an MS decides to transmit or receive unicast messages and traffic from multiple BSs in the same time interval • MS communicates with all BSs in the diversity set for UL and DL unicast messages and traffic – For DL MDHO.

Micro-diversity Handoff (MDHO) UL & DL Comm including Traffic Diversity Set Active BS Active BS Area of Neighboring BSs Neighbor BS MS Active BS Anchor BS Neighbor BS Only RSL measurement No Traffic Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 372 .

synchronized. communicates with for all UL and DL traffic including management messages • MS continuously monitors the signal strength of the active BS and select one to be the anchor BS • A FBSS handover begins with a decision by a MS to switch to another Anchor BS using the MOB_MSHO-REQ message • The anchor BS can be changed from frame by frame.Fast BS Switching (FBSS) • A state where the MS may rapidly switch from one BS to another • Multiple BS are ready to serve the MS • The Diversity Set is maintained as for MDHO • MS communicates with single BS within given OFDMA frame • An Anchor BS is defined within the Diversity Set that MS is registered. This means every frame can be sent via different BS in Diversity Set • Required synchronization among group of BS using a common timing source • Allows for version of soft-handover (communication is never interrupted) Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 373 .

Fast BS Switching (FBSS) UL & DL Comm including Traffic Diversity Set Active BS Active BS Area of Neighboring BSs Neighbor BS Active BS MS Neighbor BS Anchor BS Data are transmitted & received but not processed in BS or MS Introduction to WiMAX Technology Only RSL measurement No Traffic Page 374 .

are beneficial for applications that require low-latency such as VoIP Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 375 . while complex to implement and administer. • Soft HOs.Handoff Summary • BS informs neighbouring BSs via MAC Messages • Handover initiated by MS & BS • Process optimized for FBSS (fast BS switching) & MDHO (macro diversity handoff) • MS sync with other BSs to estimate associated channel conditions • Handover process allows a MS to switch to another BS in order to improve its QoS • All quality of service and services access are maintained during handovers • Hard HOs use a break before make approach and are typically sufficient for data services.

Idle Mode / Paging • Allows the MS to traverse a cellular environment and become periodically available for DL broadcast without UL transmission • For MS: save power and operation resources • For BS: provide a simple and timely method for alerting the MS to pending MS-directed DL traffic Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 376 .

SS • SS network entry process Power ON Negotiate Basic Capabilities Scan for DL Channel SS Authorization and key Exchanage Synchronize with DL of Serving BS Register with Network Get Time of Day Transfer Operational Parameters Obtain UL Parameters Obtain IP Address Ranging Establish Provisioned Parameters Network Entry Complete Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 377 .Network Entry Process.

The process involves a registration request from the SS. A connection request from an SS to the BS elicits a connection response from the BS to the SS • The BS and SS are now ready to exchange data with each other Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 378 .Network Initialization. the SS can request for a connection. BS • BS starts by sending beacon • SS first listens for a beacon and then sends a ranging request in the ranging period • BS then sends a ranging response. the BS assigns the SS two connection-IDs called the primary CID and the basic CID. followed by a registration response from the BS • After registration. The primary CID is used for further exchange of management messages while the basic CID is used for further periodic ranging exchanges • Registration process is required prior to any connection formation. In the ranging response.

until a valid channel is found. modulation. DL channel descriptor (DCD) containing BS ID.e.BS Scanning • BS starts with a known channel. Scan all possible channels. coding.. Obtain UCD information containing back off. MAC acquires channel control parameters for DL i. PHY Sync is the first step. modulation. coding and message length Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 379 . interval.

The BS does not have any other task to perform in this period Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 380 . rtPS and nrtPS) and sends packets one by one until the DL period finishes – The packets are sent in order of their priority i.e. registration or connection responses – BS inspects its four different queues (one each for UGS. UCD and the DCD – BS sends any pending ranging.. rtPS and nrtPS – The incoming packets from the link layer are added to the queues according to the flow type • Uplink Period – BS receives the packets sent to it by the SS and passes it on to the upper link layer. ertPS. UGS followed by ertPS.BS MAC Layer Sequence of Steps • Downlink Period – BS prepares the UL-MAP and allocates the slots to different SSs by keeping in mind the scheduling policy – BS sends a beacon which contains the UL-MAP along with the preamble.

• Uplink Period – SS checks if any of the ranging. registration and or connection requests are still pending – SS reads the UL-MAP and identifies the slots assigned to it – SS starts sending the packets in the slots assigned to it in the order of the priority of the packets. This is done by inspecting the four different queues (one for UGS. ertPS.SS MAC Layer Sequence of Steps • Downlink Period – SS receives packets sent to it by the BS. These packets are sent in the UL frame whenever the SS is allocated a slot. rtPS and nrtPS) Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 381 . Since the packets are broadcasted it checks for the destination in the packet header – Incoming packets from the link layer are added to the queues according to the flow type.

UGS flows are given the highest priority • For nrtPS flows: left over slots are divided equally among the SSs which have bandwidth requirement for nrtPS kind of traffic Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 382 .UL-MAP Preparation • BS accesses the queues of all the SSs for four different flows and hence gets to know about the requirements of all the SSs – Accessing the queues of the SSs provides information on current piggybacking and the BW requirements • BS starts filling the UL-MAP as per the bandwidth requirements of the SS • For UGS. ertPS & rtPS flows: the slots are assigned equal to the number of slots required if the total UL slots are not over.

Network Reference Model. Typical R2 BS R8 MS R1 BS R8 BS R8 BS R6 ASN R6 Gateway R4 Internet or any IP Network Internet or any IP Network R2 R6 ASN Gateway R6 Home NSP CSN Visiting NSP CSN R5 Private IP Service Tunneling ASN R3 R o a m i n g Another ASN NAP Introduction to WiMAX Technology NSP Page 383 .

Multi-operator Roaming Framework Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 384 .

intra-ASN path and inter-ASN tunnels – R7: ASNGW-DP & ASNGW-EP • An optional protocol for coordinating between two groups identified in R6 – R8: BS-BS • Control Introduction to WiMAX Technology plane protocol between BSs to ensure fast and seamless HO Page 385 . service authorization. IP host configuration and mobility management – R3: ASN-CSN • QoS policy enforcement.WiMAX Reference Point • Logical reference interfaces between WiMAX network equipment – R1: MS-ASN • Implements the air-interface specifications and management plane protocol – R2: MS-CSN • Authentication. mobility management – R4: ASN-ASN • Roaming between ASNs – R5: CSN-CSN • Roaming between CSNs – R6: BS-ASNGW • Mobility tunnel management.

user. paging within ASN and support for mobile IP with foreignagent functionality • May include redundancy and load-balancing among several ASN-GWs • Relay functionality for establishing IP connectivity between the MS and the CSN • Admission control functions • Cache SS profiles and encryption keys • Establishes mobility tunnels with BS and other resources Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 386 .ASN. location management. Access Service Network • Gate way equipment between the BS and the Internet • AAA proxy: transfer of device. QoS policy enforcement and applications per specific subscriber basis • Provides Mobility related functions such as handover. and service credential to selected NSP AAA and temporary storage of user profiles • Provides fast a& efficient radio resource management.

Connectivity Service Network • IP address allocation to the MS for user sessions • AAA proxy or server for user. device and services authentication. and messaging • Inter-ASN mobility management and mobile IP home agent functionality Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 387 . location-based services. VPN. authorization and accounting • Policy and QoS management based on the SLA/contract with the user • Subscriber billing and inter-operator settlement • Inter-CSN tunneling to support roaming between NSPs • Connectivity infrastructure and policy control for such services as Internet access.CSN. ASPs. peer-to-peer. law enforcement. IP multimedia services. access to other IP networks.

including support for credential reuse and consistent use of authorization and accounting through the use of RADIUS in the ASN and the CSN • Accommodation of mobile IPv4 and IPv6 security associations management • Support for policy provisioning at the ASN or the CSN by allowing for transfer of policy related information from the AAA to the ASN or CSN Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 388 . user. removable user identity module. universal SIM. subscriber identity module (SIM) cards. and mutual authentication between MS/SS and the NSP. including shared secrets.Authentication • Support for device.509 certificate as long as they are suitable for EAP methods satisfying RFC 4017 • Support for global roaming between home and visited NSPs in mobile scenario. and X. universal integrated circuit card. based on PKMv2 • Support for authentication mechanisms. using variety of credentials.

16/Conformance-0X • PICS • Test Suite Structure & Test Purposes • Radio Conformance Tests – Two levels of mobile certifications (Wave 1 & wave 2) • Wave 1 includes basic PHY and MAC functions • Wave 2 includes MIMO operation Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 389 . TDD & FDD – Test Protocols: IEEE Standards 802.16c – Published in Jan’03 – Specifies particular combinations of options – Used as basis of compliance testing • MAC Profile: ATM and Packet • PHY Profile: 1.Validation & Interoperability • IEEE P802.25-20. 25 & 28 MHz.

Interoperability Conformance • PHY Tests – Emission. spectral mask. DynFF Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 390 . peak. SINR and Rx threshold – Frequency error. power control and accuracy – Interference tolerance at CCI & ACI – Relative constellation errors (RCE) vs. RSSI. CINR. crest factor. SNR. average & min EVM – Error rates. PCINR. symbol & sub-carriers – Spectral flatness.

Spectrum ✓ ✓ Release 1 PHY Profile Introduction to WiMAX Technology Comments Required in Wave 1 for Band Class 3 Required in Wave 1 for Band Class 3 Required in Wave 1 for Band Class 3 Page 391 . Release 1 Mobile PHY Profile and Certification Function Wave 1 Wave 2 PUSC ✓ ✓ PUSC w/ All Subchannels ✓ ✓ DL Subcarriers Allocation FUSC ✓ ✓ AMC 2x3 ✓ PUSC ✓ ✓ UL Subcarriers Allocation AMC 2x3 ✓ Initial Ranging ✓ ✓ Handoff Ranging ✓ ✓ Ranging & Bandwidth Request Periodic Ranging ✓ ✓ Bandwidth Request ✓ ✓ 6-bits ✓ ✓ Fast-Feedback Repetition ✓ ✓ Randomization ✓ ✓ Convolutional Coding (CC) ✓ ✓ Channel Coding Convolutional Turbo Coding (CTC) ✓ ✓ Interleaving ✓ ✓ Preamble ID ✓ ✓ BS Configuration DCD.IOT. UCD ✓ ✓ Packing ✓ ✓ Fragmentation ✓ PHS ✓ MAC PDU Manipulation IPv4 ✓ IPv6/IPv4 with ROHC ✓ BS Initiated ✓ ✓ Service Flow Initiation SS Initiated ✓ ✓ Chase Combining ✓ ✓ H-ARQ BS-BS Time/Freq Synchronization N/A N/A BS-BS Frequency Synchronization N/A N/A Synchronization MSS Synchronization ✓ ✓ Closed-loop Power Control ✓ ✓ Power Control Open-loop Power Control ✓ ✓ Power. Frequency error ✓ ✓ Transmitter Measurements Trasmit constellation error.

Required in Wave 1 for Band Class 3 Required in Wave 1 for Band Class 3 Page 392 Introduction to WiMAX Technology .) Release 1 PHY Profile Receiver Measurement Function Wave 1 Wave 2 Physical CINR Using Preamble ✓ ✓ Physical CINR Using Pilots ✓ ✓ Effective CINR Using Pilots ✓ RSSI Measurements ✓ ✓ Ping Support ✓ ✓ Ack/Nack Support ✓ ✓ AWGN ✓ ✓ RF Amplitude ✓ ✓ DL 4-QAM ✓ ✓ DL 16-QAM ✓ ✓ DL 64-QAM ✓ ✓ UL 4-QAM ✓ ✓ UL 16-QAM ✓ ✓ UL 64-QAM (Optional) ✓ ✓ Normal MAP ✓ ✓ Compressed MAP ✓ ✓ Sub DL-UL-MAP ✓ ✓ UGS ✓ ✓ erPS ✓ ✓ rtPS ✓ ✓ nrtPS ✓ ✓ Best Effort ✓ ✓ 2nd Order Matrix A/B ✓ Collaborative Spacial Multiplexing ✓ Fast Feedback on DL ✓ Mode Selection Feedback w/ 6-bits ✓ MIMO DL-UL Chase ✓ PUSC w/ Dedicated Pilots ✓ AMC 2x3 w/ Dedicated Pilots ✓ UL Sounding 1 (Type A) ✓ UL Sounding 2 ✓ CINR Measurement (group Indication) ✓ MIMO Computation Feedback Cycle ✓ Comments Required in Wave 1 for Band Class 3 Impairments Modulation MAP Support Data Delivery Methods MIMO (IO-MIMO for BS) AAS/BS (IO-BF for BS) Required in Wave 1 for Band Class 3 Required in Wave 1 for Band Class 3 Required in Wave 1 for Band Class 3 Required in Wave 1 for Band Class 3 Required in Wave 1 for Band Class 3 Required in Wave 1 for Band Class 3 Required in Wave 1 for Band Class 3 Required in Wave 1 for Band Class 3 Required in Wave 1 for Band Class 3 PUSC.IOT. Release 1 Mobile PHY Profile and Certification (conti.

3 Frame format –Protocol –Scheduling –Admission control –QoS –MIMO –Link adaptation Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 393 .Interoperability MAC Conformance • MAC Test: –802.

provisioning and admission control – Over the air and end to end security – Mobility management – Device management – UL and DL data exchange – Authorization and tunneling for specialized IP services – Application layer end to end signaling – Power management. data and management plane interfaces between two RNSNs • RNSNAP: Control. data and management plane between the RANs and operator‟s core network • CN2: control . compression and data reliability • CN1: Control. management and service planes to ASP networks • RNSN: Control. data and management plane interfaces between an AP and an RNSN • Mobility Management: Provisioning. Others • SS Access Point and MSS Access Point: – SS/MS connectivity.IOT. multi-sector handover and end to end mobility management Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 394 .

System Synchronization • For TDD system. system-wide synchronization is essential when using tFRAME1 TDD BS-1 DL-TX UL-RX DL-TX UL-RX DL-TX UL-RX time tFRAME2 DL-TX BS-2 Introduction to WiMAX Technology UL-RX DL-TX UL-RX DL-TX time Page 395 . the Tx and Rx time frames among BSs/SSs must be synchronized to avoid interference and the SS transmission do not overlap each others as they arrive to BS • Timing and frequency offset can influence the performance – Mitigated by reserved pilots & increased CP duration • Frequency offset can influence orthogonality of sub-carriers • Loss of orthogonality can lead to inter-carrier interference • Loss of synchronization causes hits during handover • Tracking and estimating the position of the frame is necessary for reliable data delivery • Timing sync through GPS (cost effective solution but difficult to access open sky if in the basement) • For interference mitigation.

MS/SS operation and to minimize interference affect in MIMO configuration • GPS timing to aid in synchronizing the network • IEEE 1588 timing over IP/Ethernet backhaul – Synchronization distributed from IEEE1588 master clock in the network – Less accurate than the GPS • WiMAX network is entirely IP and there is no option of recovering timing signal as there is with TDM application Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 396 . timing and synchronization is essential for reliable MS handover. interleaving and frame structure lead to jitter and wander accumulation • Clock accuracy.Network Synchronization • For TDD system. the Tx and Rx time frames among BSs/SSs must be synchronized to avoid interference • Long FEC coding.

Q&A • Thank you for your attention! • Your feedback and comments are greatly appreciated Introduction to WiMAX Technology Page 397 .