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Surface an Near Surface Examination Method Magnetic Eddy Dye Particle Current penetrant DP MP EC Thermal Infrared

NDT methods Discontinuities surface anomalies surface connected anomalies Internal anomalies Structure molecular structure, crystalline structure and/or strain, lattice structure, strain, dislocation, vacancy, deformation grain structure, size, orientation and phase, sinter and porosity, impregnation, filler and/or reinforcement distribution, anisotropy, heterogeneity, segregation leaks (lack of seal or throughholes), poor fit, poor contact, loose parts, loose particles, foreign objects assembly errors, misalignment, poor spacing or ordering, deformation, malformation, missing parts

Visual

ACFM

Volumetric Examination Method / Subsurface Acoustic Phased Resonance Radiogr Ultrasoni Laser UT EMAT Arrays TOFD MFL aphy R cs UT LUT Technology UT PA ART

Integrity Examination Method Internal Rotary Acoustic Leak Test Inspection Emission LT System IRIS AE

Condition Monitoring Method Thermography Guided Vibration – Infrared Waves Analysis VA Testing IR LRUT

pitting, inclusions, roughness, scratches, gouges P cracks, porosity, pinholes, laps, P seams, folds, inclusions cracks, separations, hot tears, cold shuts, shrinkage, voids, lack of fusion, pores, cavities, U delaminations, disbonds

P P

P A

P U

P P A A A

P A

D

P

U

U

U

A

A

A

A

A

A

Microstructure

U

U

A

Matrix Structure

A

Small structural anomalies

A

Gross structural anomalies Dimension & Metrology

A

A

A

Displacement position

linear measurement, separation, gap size, discontinuity size, depth, location and orientation unevenness, nonuniformity, eccentricity, shape and contour, size and mass variations

P

P

Dimensional Variations

P Thickness, Density Stress and Dynamic response heat-treatment, annealing and cold-work effects, residual stress and strain, fatigue damage and life (residual) film, coating, layer, plating, wall and sheet thickness, density or thickness variations

A

U

A

A

Stress, Strain, Fatigue

Mechanical damage Chemical damage, Corrosion

P wear, spalling, erosion, friction P effects corrosion, stress corrosion, phase P transformation

A

U U A P A A A A

P

A

temperatures. heat leaks. timing of events. pattern recognition. signal classification. field distribution and pattern isotherms. frequency amplitude. heat flow. creep. strength. excessive motion.Dynamic performance crack initiation and propagation. heat contours. vibration characteristics. sonic and/or ultrasonic emissions distribution and diffusion of isotopes and tracers image enhancement and quantization. hot spots noise. definition (size and shape) and distribution analysis. plastic deformation. harmonic spectrum and/or analysis. vibration. any anomalous behavior potential. discontinuity mapping and display A Signature analysis Electromagnetic Field Themral Field Acoustic signature Radioactive signature Signal or Image analysis U = UNSATISFACTORY METHOD P = POSSIBLE A = ACCEPTED . densitometry. discontinuity identification. temperature distribution. damping. separation and correlation.