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Acknowledgements I would like to take this time to express our greatest thanks to my Project supervisor, Mrs.

Ajita Selvapandi for her time to give her invaluable advice and help during the course of the project. I would like to thank my school for providing me with the equipment and other material, which helped me in my project. To all those who have helped in one way or another during the course of the project, Thank you.

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Table of Contents Title
Abstract
1 Introduction 1.1 Back ground 1.2 Specification 1.3 Statement of problem 1.4 Functional block diagram 6 1.41 Description of the block 7 1.42 Overall operation of the block 8 1.5 Objectives 9 1.6 Justification of the project 10 1.7 Scope and Limitation

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5 5 5

2 Theory of components and diagram 11 2.1 Light 11 2.2 Optical detectors 12 2.21 Design of sensory unit 19 2.3 Voltage comparator 21 2.4 Power supply 27 2.41 Transformer 30 2.42 Rectifier 34

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2.43 Filters and regulation 41 2.44 Voltage regulator 43 2.45 Design of power supply 45 2.5 48 2.51 Design of the output section 53 3 Complete circuit 55 Relays

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List of Figures Title 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 55 Functional block diagram Light spectrum Photo transistor Photo diode Photo conductor cell Photo valtic cell Photo multiplier Design of sensory unit Hex inverter Schmitt trigger Inverting Schmitt trigger design of control unit Transformer principle operation Half wave rectifier Positive half cycle Negative half cycle Bridge full wave rectifier Negative cycle Bridge output voltage Fixed positive linear voltage regulator Adjustable positive linear regulator Fixed negative linear regulator Stepdown transformer Rectification and filtering Voltage regulator Relay connection Design of output section Complete circuit diagram Page 6 11 12 14 17 17 18 19 23 25 27 31 35 36 37 38 39 39 43 44 45 45 47 48 50 53 4 .

suitable for many applications like the automatic switching of the lights in a shop-window or a room. Light activate switch is Simple and inexpensive circuit.0 INTRODUCTION The automatic light activated switch refers to a circuit that employs a photo detector that senses the amount of light intensity. remote controls etc. Suitable for alarm systems. When photo transistor detects light. The circuit uses a light dependent resistor that changes its value according to the amount of light it receives and three transistors which are used to 5 . It will automatically switch ON or OFF the lamps depending with the amount of light intensity. When photo transistor does not detect light. according to the ambient light level. A light activate switch circuit is an electronic circuit that using light to control the relay for open or close circuit home appliances.1. relay is working by starting those connected electric home appliance. production control. the relay is not working and immediately stopping those electric appliances.

1.1 BACKGROUND Whenever the sun goes down. many people are gripped with fear. Such security lights will be installed in residential areas for safety purposes. It will automatically switch ON or OFF the lamps depending with the amount of light intensity. Thus in the major busy towns and other small trading centers upcountry. The automatic light activated switch refers to a circuit that employs a photo detector that senses the amount of light intensity. The fear of being robbed even in the early hours of the night will make people leave their work stations early just to save their lives and property. Therefore vices and other incidents that occur at night are curbed completely from the society.amplify the signal from the LDR and operate a mains rated relay. the need for security lights is crucial. 6 .

3 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM Due to the rising cases of insecurity.2 SPECIFICATIONS Supply voltage Vcc is 12V DC Mains supply voltage is 240V to 250V. INPUT RELAY SECURITY LIGHT 240V A. INPUT 240V TO 12V STEP-DOWN TRANSFORM ER RECTIFIER FILTER REGULATO R 12V DC OUTPUT LDR SCHMITT7 TRIGGER . it is paramount that people take security measures to protect themselves from crime.C. 50Hz frequency Vref is 5V DC 1.C. One of these measures is installation of security lights of which this project is meant to achieve.1.4 FUNCTIONAL BLOCK DIAGRAM 240V A. 1.

It supplies power to the powering unit of the circuit and the security lights.Fig1: Functional block diagram of automatic light activated switch 1. 8 .41 DESCRIPTION OF THE BLOCKS AC input power from the mains supply is of about 220V to 240V. filter capacitor and regulator. It provides the necessary positive voltage Vcc to power the Schmitt trigger. voltage regulator and the relay. bridge rectifier. Powering unit It consists of a 240V to 12V step down transformer.

Control unit The control unit comprises of the Schmitt trigger and a PNP transistor. The photo resistor senses the light or darkness falling on it. 9 . The relay is an electronic circuit that opens and closes under the control of the Schmitt trigger. The Schmitt trigger is an electronic circuit whose output switches suddenly to either positive saturation or negative saturation depending on the input voltage. Output section It comprises of the relay and the security lights. The voltage divider that has two resistors will set the sensitivity of the sensory unit. If there is flow of current through the relay windings then its contacts close hence lights ON the security lamps and the lights will be OFF if there’s no current flow.Sensory unit It comprises of the voltage divider and photo resistor.

Its then filtered by a filter capacitor and regulated by a 3 terminal voltage regulator. Schmitt trigger produces two voltages. The output of the 10 . The powering unit provides the necessary positive Vcc to power the Schmitt trigger. its resistance decreases and will increase with darkness.1. This then is inputted to the sensory unit that has a photo detector and voltage divider R1 and R2. The photo resistor senses either light or darkness and falling on it. upper threshold voltage VUT and lower threshold voltage VLT. This is stepped down by a transformer to 12V i. Resistor R2 is a preset resistor that is used to just turn OFF the security lights at dawn or turn them OFF at sunset by adjusting its movable arm. a low AC voltage that is rectified to DC by the bridge rectifier. voltage regulator and the relay. Resistors R1 and R2 set the sensitivity of the sensory circuit. At the control unit and output section.e.42 OVERALL OPERATION OF THE BLOCK The input section supplies power to the powering unit of the circuit and the security lights which is around 220-240V. When light falls on it.

1. Output of the Schmitt trigger is connected to the base of a PNP transistor driving it to cut off thereby cutting off current and making the relay contacts remain open. This makes the security lights remain OFF during the day. 1. The specific objectives will be. To construct the automatic light activated switch 11 . During the night. To design the various blocks an come up with a schematic diagram 2. Current therefore flows through the relay winding closing its contacts and allowing current to flow hence lighting ON the security lights.Schmitt trigger switches to positive saturation when its voltage at its input is greater than VUT and switches negatively when its voltage at its input is less than VLT. the Schmitt trigger switches to negative saturation driving transistor to near saturation.5 OBJECTIVES The broad objective is to design and construct an automatic light activated switch that controls the switching of on and off the security lights.

1.71 SCOPE The main aim of designing this project is to come up with a workable project employing a photo detector that will sense the amount of light intensity and automatically switch on or off the security lights.72 LIMITATIONS 1) Lack of some components used in the design 2) High cost of some of the components 3) Time allocated was minimal 12 .7 SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS 1. This can be achieved by installing such security measures as security lights in their homes which is what the project is meant to achieve.3. To test the working of the blocks at each input and output and the overall operation of the block 1. it is necessary that people take precautions of their own safety. 1.6 JUSTIFICATION OF THE PROJECT In order to curb the rising insecurity in our society.

λ =V F Any light source emits light over a limited range of wavelength. When the amount of energy is plotted 13 .0 THEORY OF COMPONENTS AND DESIGN 2. 6. Light is usually referred in terms of wavelength.2. The energy contained in a photon depends on the frequency of light and is expressed as ω = hf where ω = energy h = planks constant i.624 × 10-34 Joules/ second f = frequency As frequency increases so does the energy and vice versa.e.1 LIGHT The Quantum theory states that light consists of discrete packets of energy called photons.

the graph is the emission spectrum. Invisible light Invisible light Visible light Decreasing wavelength Green Blue Indigo Violet Infrared Red Orange Yellow Ultra Violet Fig 2: Light spectrum 2. a) Photo transistor The photo transistor consists of a normal bi-polar transistor that is packaged in a transparent casing to 14 .against a wavelength.2 OPTICAL DETECTORS Optical detectors are devices that convert optical energy or light into electrical energy. There are two types of conversions: Photo voltaic effect This is where optical energy is converted to electrical voltage Photoconductive effect This is where light is converted into an electrical voltage.

C o l l e c t o r B a s e E m i t t e r Symbol Ic Light VCE Fig 3a. only the leakage current (ICEO) flows in the collector-emitter junction. With no illumination. The base is an open circuit and a normal biasing is provided between the collector and the emitter as shown below. When the 15 .enable light reach the base of the transistor.

This increases the forward bias of collector.base/collector junction is illuminated. Symbol The magnitude of a photocurrent depends on the number of charge carriers generated. it’s in tens or hundreds of M Amps. 16 . In dark conditions. b) Photodiode A photo diode is a P-N junction silicon diode that is packaged with a transparent window that allows light to pass through. This amplified current makes the phototransistor very sensitive. it is near zero and under bright. the P-N junction diode is reverse biased whereby in this mode the value of reverse current will depend on the amount of illumination on the junction. Only a small reverse current will flow. Thus the collector current is the sum of the photo current and electron current from the emitter. holes – electrons pairs are generated and a minority photo current flows across the junction. In operation.

Ie (mA) Increasing illumination Vce (V) Fig 3b Below is a spectral Germanium diodes Response Silicon response for silicon and Germanium 17 .Below is a series of characteristics obtained from various levels of illumination.

light photons are absorbed semiconductor. Since the conductivity of the material increases as number of free electrons increases. the electrons acquire enough energy to break the bonds that hold them in a covalent structure.0 Fig 3c c) Photo conductive cell/ LDR/ photo resistor A Light Dependent Resistor also known as the Photoconductive cell consists of a semiconductor material above which a transparent window whose surface is exposed to light allows light to pass through. Light When allows the more current to flow within by the the semiconductor material. The higher the light intensity. the electrical resistance of the semiconductor decreases with increase in light intensity. This is by moving from valence band to the conduction band.λ 1. the more the free electrons in the conduction band. 18 .

In certain semiconductors light energy falling on them is of the correct order of magnitude to release charge carriers which increase the flow of current produced by an applied voltage. The increase in current with increase in light intensity with the applied voltage remaining constant means that the resistance of semiconductors decreases with increase in light intensity. Resistance depends on the physical character of photoconductive layer.Electrical conduction occurs when free charge carriers are available when an electric field is applied. The figure below shows a symbol for an LDR. It may be as high as 10 × 1012 Ω. its resistance is known as dark resistance. Both have a very high resistivity at ambient temperature which gives a high value of resistance.74eV. 19 . When the cell is in darkness. The most commonly used photoconductive semiconductor materials are Cadmium Sulphide (CdS) with a band gap of 2.42eV and Cadmium Selenide (CdSe) with a band gap of 1. dimensions of the cell and its geometric configurations.

Symbol Light intensity Resistance Fig 3d d) Photovoltaic cell / Solar cell It’s a device that converts light energy to electrical energy by photovoltaic effect. Light P N V 20 . Photons of light produce electrons and holes in a PN junction diode.

They contain a photocathode anodes and dynodes. e) Photomultiplier These are devices constructed from vacuum tubes. This creates a pd/voltage. Holes move to the P region and electrons move to the N region resulting in accumulation of positive charge in the P region and accumulation of negative charge in the N region.Fig 3e A solar cell consists of a P.semiconductor region and N semiconductor region. Anode Cathode Focusing electrodes Dynodes Fig 3f 21 . The photons of light cause electrons to move from valence to conduction band creating a hole as a result.

more electrons are emitted and accelerated.Light photons strike the photocathode and electrons are produced as a result of the photoelectric effect. This constitutes amplification of light. Each dynode is held at a more positive voltage than the previous one. they are accelerated by the electrical field. On striking the dynode. These electrons are directed by the focusing electrodes towards the electron multiplier that consists of electrodes known as dynodes. As the electrons move towards the first dynode. 2.21 DESIGN OF THE SENSORY UNIT 22 . Extremely low levels of luminous intensity can be measured or detected by means of photomultiplier tubes which utilize many successive stages of secondary emission to boost up the output current from its initial very low value. This process goes on and the overall effect is that a large number of electrons accumulate at the anode compared with those at the photocathode.

R2 and LDR1. the voltage across it reduces according to the Voltage Divider Rule. light falls on LDR1 which makes its resistance to reduce. Since it is in a voltage divider network. The LDR senses the amount of light intensity falling upon it. During the day. The preset resistor R2 is used to just turn off the security lights at dawn or dusk by adjusting its movable arm. 23 . Resistors R1 andR2 set the sensitivity of the sensory unit.Vcc R1 47k R2 5 0 k T o LDR S c h m i t t t r i g g e r It comprises of the voltage divider R1.

the resistance of LDR1 as seen in the specifications above is 160. denoted by Vldr. the reverse happens. (NB: The Typical value is usually taken as the default value. (i) For LDR. the specifications are as follows: From equation (i).) Thus 24 .000kΩ. when there is light of 10 Lux.During the night.. The resistance 10 Lux Min Typical Max 80kΩ 160kΩ 240kΩ across LDR1 increases proportionate Dark Min 2MΩ to the darkness falling upon it. is given by: LDR 1 Vldr = LDR 1 + R1 + R2 …………………………. The voltage developed across LDR1 thus increases according to the Voltage Divider Rule The voltage across the LDR1. part number VT33N3.

The amplifier output is driven to one of its output voltage limits 25 .000. from the specifications above. An operational amplifier is used as a voltage comparator by operating with no feedback and by connecting two voltages to be compared to the inverting and non inverting inputs. producing a high output when one input is larger than the other and switching to a low output if the other input becomes larger. The output of the comparator will show which of the outputs is larger. Therefore it acts as a switching device.Vldr = 160. Hence the voltage across LDR1 when there is darkness is given by: Vldr = 2.000 160.3 VOLTAGE COMPARATORS A voltage comparator is a device used to compare two voltage levels.000.000 + R1 + R2 2.000 + R1 + R2 And when there is darkness. the minimum value of LDR1 resistance is 2MΩ.000 2.

The output can only take up either one of two possible values. The 26 . Properties of operational amplifiers are. The Schmitt trigger is employed to convert an arbitrary input signal into a square wave output. 1) Infinite input impedance 2) Zero output impedance 3) Infinite voltage gain 4) Infinite bandwidth 5) Characteristics temperatures Uses of op amps • Scale changing • Analog computer operations • Instrumentation and Control systems • In phase and oscillator circuits that do not change with SCHMITT TRIGGER The Schmitt trigger is a regenerative comparator.when there is a very small difference between its input levels due to a very large open loop gain.

the circuit switches to give an output voltage of +Vout.circuit can either be obtained in either inverting or non inverting versions and may be made using either discrete components or an op amp. when the sinusoidal input voltage becomes more positive than the upper threshold V1. The output voltage will remain at this value until the input voltage falls below the lower 27 . The output voltage will be higher e. The difference between the two input voltages V1 and V2 at which switching takes place is known as the hysteresis of the circuit. V1 V2 R2 Vout R1 Vref Fig 4a: A 7414 hex inverter Schmitt trigger The output voltage can have only one of two possible values. when the input is greater than a positive going threshold voltage and will remain in this value until such time as the input voltage falls below the negative going threshold voltage.g. +3. From the voltage characteristics.3V for a TTL version.

The output voltage will now remain at –Vout until the input voltage exceeds the upper threshold voltage V1. + V2 Vin - 28 . Hysteresis provides some noise protection to a circuit. Transfer characteristics + V1 Vin - It shows how the output voltage changes from one value to another as the input voltage is increased to the upper threshold voltage V1. The larger the hysteresis. the greater the noise protection afforded.threshold voltage V2 and at this point the output voltage suddenly switches to -Vout.

It shows how the output voltage suddenly reverts to its original value when the input voltage is reduced below the lower threshold voltage V2. characteristics V2 V1 1 Shows Vin the complete transfer Inverting Schmitt Trigger Vin R1 Vout R2 Fig 4b: Inverting Schmitt trigger For an inverting Schmitt Trigger: When Vref is 0. we find that V + = V R1 + R2 0 1 R Therefore when the output is at its negative limit (V0 = -Vmax) 29 .

V + = V R1 + R2 ref 2 R + R1 + R2 R 1 ( −V ) max Then Lower threshold level is LTL = R +R 1 R 2 2 V REF + R +R 1 R 1 2 ( −V ) MAX Similarly. Vin must rise to. the lower and upper trigger levels are. we have 2 R Hysteresis = V max 1 R +R 1 2 For non inverting Schmitt trigger. UTL = R +R 1 R 2 2 V REF + R +R 1 R 1 2 (+V ) MAX Where +Vmax is the maximum positive output voltage -Vmax is the maximum negative output voltage The hysteresis of the Schmitt trigger is defined as the difference between the input trigger levels. when V0 = + Vmax. 30 . Hysteresis = Upper threshold level – Lower threshold level = ( +V ) − R (−V ) R +R R +R 1 1 MAX MAX 1 2 1 2 R If the maximum output voltages are equal.

Lower threshold level = LTL = − R1 ( +V MAX ) R 2 Upper threshold level = UTL = R1 ( −V MAX ) R 2 31 .

31 DESIGN OF THE CONTROL UNIT SCHMITT TRIGGER VCC Input From Sensory Unit + U3 LM7805 IN OUT COM U2 LM324 R4 10k Output to Base of PNP transistor VCC VREF R3 1k The 12V that has been regulated is now fed to the Schmitt trigger. Vut and lower threshold voltage. Vut and Vlt The output of the Schmitt Trigger switches to positive saturation whenever the voltage at its input is greater than the Upper Threshold Voltage VUT. it switches to negative saturation whenever the voltage 32 .2. The 3-terminal 5v voltage regulator U3 and resistors R3 and R4 set the upper threshold voltage. Vlt. The Schmitt trigger has 2 voltages associated with it. Similarly.

……………………………………… (i) And the lower Threshold voltage VLT is. ……………….. the negative 33 . The Upper Threshold Voltage VUT is given by. Vcc.at its input is less than the Lower Threshold Voltage VLT. (ii) Where • V(+) is the positive saturation at the output of the Schmitt trigger • • Vref is the reference voltage R3 and R4 set Vut and Vlt output of the Schmitt trigger • V(-) is the negative saturation voltage at the Since in this circuit the Schmitt trigger is connected only to one positive voltage.

(vii) After simplifying this becomes.……. V (-) is 0Volts. (v) Now since the negative saturation.saturation voltage V (-) is zero volts. then. …… (iii) The hysteresis voltage. is the voltage difference between the upper threshold voltage and lower threshold voltage. ……………………. …………………….  R3  3= (11)  R3 + R 4  ………………………………. the hysteresis voltage becomes. ……………………… (iv) Thus hysteresis voltage VH. 34 . (vi) Taking VH to be 3 volts and V (+) to be 11v to account for the drops across the transistors in the operational amplifier. Thus the lower threshold voltage Vlt is given as. becomes. VH .

65V ……………………………………… 2. (ix) (x) And VLT = 3. 35 . then R4 becomes 27k Ω ..……………… (viii) Thus taking R3 to be 10k Ω .62V ……………………………………. regulated or unregulated which varies according to different circuits to provide the necessary dc operating voltages and currents.7 R3 ……………………. they result into. • To be able to supply the rated maximum current to be supplied to the circuit without the supply voltage falling outside the specified limits.R 4 = 2. Substituting the values of R3 and R4 into equations (i) and (iii) for VUT and VLT. The main requirements of a power supply are: • To provide the rated voltages for the circuit to be supplied with a specified tolerance.4 THE POWER SUPPLY The essence of having a power supply is to have a voltage that will be able to power the circuit according to the requirements of either filtered or unfiltered. VUT = 6.

rectifier circuit. 2. smoothening capacitors and voltage stabilizer. Transformer principle of operation I1 Pry wdgs N1 turns Sec wdgs N2 turns I2 V1 V2 Ferro magnetic core Fig 5 When the secondary is an open circuit and an alternating voltage V1 is applied to the primary winding.• To maintain the supply voltage constant within specified limits as the load changes or the mains supply input voltage varies or the ambient temperature changes. Io 36 . a small current called the no load current.41 TRANSFORMERS A transformer is a device that uses mutual induction to change values of alternating currents and voltages. The power supply consists of a step down transformer.

EMF equation of a transformer 37 . primary and secondary ampere turns are equal.flows which sets up a magnetic flux in the core. E=-N of flux Therefore E1 / N1 = E2 / N2 If there are no losses for an ideal transformer. The alternating flux links with both primary and secondary coils and induces in them Emfs E1 and E2 respectively by mutual induction. For an ideal transformer. E1 = V1 and E2 = V2 = dφ dt volts where dφ dt = rate of change V V 1 2 = N N 1 2 E E 1 2 = I I 2 1 Where: V V 1 2 Is the voltage ratio N Is the transformation ratio N 1 2 If N2 is less than N1 then V2 is less than V1 thus the device is a step down transformer and vice versa for a step up transformer.

E1 = 4. the time for one cycle for the alternating flux is periodic time T where T = 1/F The flux rises sinusoidally from zero to maximum value in a quarter cycle. Change of flux = Φ m / T = 4F Φ m wb/s This is the average induced EMF in each turn.The magnetic flux Φ set up in the core of a transformer when alternating voltage is applied to its primary winding is also alternating and sinusoidal.11 Rms value = form factor × average value = 1. If Φ m is the magnetic flux value and f the frequency of the supply.11 × 4F Φ m = 4. Form factor = Rms value Average value = 1.44 F Φ m N2 volts Dividing the two equations: E1 / E2 = N1 / N2 Transformer efficiency 38 .44 F Φ mN1 volts E2 = 4.44 F Φ m volts EMF induced in the primary winding E1 and E2.

−V 2 Regulation = E 2 × 100 E 2 Transformer losses 1. Iron losses a) Hysteresis losses 39 .e.η = output power ×100 input power Transformer regulation Secondary voltage drops with the loading of the transformer. Copper losses It occurs because the winding have a resistance causing a power loss in them which can be accounted for by a resistor in series with each winding. 2. this voltage drop increases. As the power factor decreases. This is called regulation of the transformer i. This is the change in secondary terminal voltage between no load and full load at a given power factor.

C. Alternating magnetic flux induces Emf causing eddy currents.C. 40 . Center tapped full wave rectification 3. Eddy currents can be reduced by increasing the resistivity of the core material or laminating the core to increase eddy current path resistance and reduce the value of eddy currents.This is the heating of the core due to internal molecular structure reversals that occur as the magnetic flux alternates. Bridge rectification. A rectifier could be a half wave or a full wave rectifier. input voltage to a pulsating D. 2. Half wave rectification 2. Modes of rectification There are three typical methods of rectification: 1.42 RECTIFIERS A rectifier converts the A. voltage. b) Eddy current losses This is the heating of the core due to EMFs being induced in the transformer windings and core.

The current produces an output voltage across RL that’s the same shape as the input voltage.a) Half wave rectifier Half wave rectified voltage OPERATION + + V i n I Fig 6a RL Fig 6b When Vin goes positive. V i n + + RL 41 . the diode is forward biased and conducts current through the load resistor.

b) Full wave rectifier A full wave rectifier allows only unidirectional current through the load during the entire 360 degrees of the input cycle.biased. input voltage will appear across the load. The input voltage is coupled through the transformer to the centre tapped secondary. Half of the total secondary voltages appear between the centre tap and each end of the secondary winding Positive half cycle 42 .C. This results to an output voltage with a frequency twice the input frequency that pulsates every half cycle of the input. Thus only positive half cycles of the A.Fig 6c When Vin goes negative during the second half cycle. diode is reverse. No current flows so RL voltage is 0V. 1) Centre tapped full wave rectifier It use two diodes connected to the secondary of a centre tapped transformer.

D1 is forward biased and D2 is reverse biased and during the negative half cycle. 43 the output voltage . Because the output current during both the positive and negative portions of the input cycle is in the same direction through the load.+ + + D1 + RL I Fig 6d Negative half cycle - D2 + + + D1 + + RL - I D2 - Fig 6e During the positive half cycle. D1 is reverse biased and D2 is forward biased.

A voltage is developed across the load 44 . diodes D1 and D2 are forward biased and conduct current in the direction shown above. Positive cycle D 3 Vin D 1 D 2 D 4 RL I Fig 7a During the positive half cycle.C. 2) Bridge full wave rectifier It uses four diodes. voltage.developed across the load resistor is a full wave rectified D.

Negative cycle D 3 Vin D 1 D 2 D 4 RL I Fig 7b During the negative half cycle. a full wave rectified output voltage appears across RL.resistor similar to the one at the output. As a result. D3 and D4 are reverse biased. D3 and D4 are forward biased and conduct current through the load resistor in the same direction as the positive half cycle and D1 and D2 are reverse biased. 7 v ) RL 45 . Bridge output voltage + + - D 3 D 1( 0 . 7 v ) Vpri - Vsec D 2 D 4 ( 0 .

VP = VP (sec) If diode drops are now considered i. The secondary voltage appears across the load resistor (neglecting voltage diode drops).Fig 7c During the positive half cycle of the total secondary voltage D1 and D2 are forward biased.1. 46 .e. D1 and D2 are shorts and therefore D3 and D4 have a peak inverse voltage equal to the peak secondary voltage as the output voltage is ideally equal to the secondary voltage.4V Peak inverse voltage Assuming diodes D1 and D2 are forward biased and D3 and D4 reverse biased. two diodes are always in series with RL the output voltage is VP (out) = VP (sec) . Same is true when D3 and D4 are forward biased during negative half cycle.

43 FILTERS AND REGULATORS A filter is a capacitor connected from the rectifier output to ground.I. = VP (out) + 0.I. voltage. 2. It eliminates the fluctuations in the rectified voltage and produces a relatively smooth D.7V of input peak. For a half wave rectifier a capacitor input is used.C.V. magnetization of transformer occurs • Ripple voltage is twice the supply frequency making it easier to reduce the percentage ripples to the desired level.P. When the input begins to decrease below 47 .V.C. During the first quarter cycle of the input.7V Advantages of full wave over half wave • Its more efficient • Little D. = VP (out) If diode drops are included. P. diode is forward biased allowing capacitor to charge to 0.

Less effective filtering More effective filtering 48 . capacitor discharges through the load resistor at time constant determined by RLC. When filtered. A full wave is easier to filter because of the shorter time between peaks. During the other part of the cycle. diode becomes forward biased and input voltage exceeds capacitor voltage by approximately 0.its peak. Capacitor discharges less during shorter intervals between full wave pulses. full wave rectification has smaller ripples than half wave for same RL and capacitor values.7V. During the next cycle. capacitor retains its charge and the diode becomes reverse biased because cathode is more positive than the anode.

Half wave Full wave Fig 8 Ripple factor (r) This is the indication of effectiveness of the filter r= Vr V ( pp) dc Where Vr voltage (pp) is the peak to peak ripple voltage Vdc is the average DC value of filters output 49 .Half wave Full wave Comparison of ripple voltages for half wave and full wave rectified voltages with the same filter capacitor and load with same Vin with both having the same capacitor discharge rate.

The lower the ripple factor the better the filter. It can be lowered by increasing the value of filter capacitor or load resistance. For full wave rectifier with capacitor input filter;
(1) ( frlc ) ×

Vr

(pp)

=

Vp (rect)

Where Vp (rect) is the unfiltered peak rectified voltage Surge current in the capacitor input filter is prevented by connecting a surge- limiting resistor that has smaller value than RL. Diodes should also have a forward surge current rating that can withstand momentary surge of current. 2.44 VOLTAGE REGULATORS A voltage regulator provides a constant D.C. output voltage that’s independent of the input voltage, output load current and temperature. The input voltage comes from the filtered output of the rectifier derived from an A.C. voltage.

Fixed positive linear voltage regulators

50

+

C1

+

P o s i t i v e i n p u t

78XX
IN OUT COM

P o s i t i v e o u t p u t
C2

Fig 9a The input capacitor is used to prevent unwanted oscillations when the regulator is some distance fro the power supply filter. The output acts as a line filter to improve transient response. The input voltage must be at least 2V above the output voltage so as to maintain regulation. The circuit has internal thermal overload protection and short circuit current limiting features. Thermal overload occurs when internal power dissipation becomes excessive and temperature of the device exceeds a certain value thus a heat sink is used.

Adjustable Positive linear voltage regulator

51

+

P o s i t i v e i n p u t

LM317
IN OUT COM

P o s i t i v e o u t p u t
R1 + C3

C1

A d j u s t m e n t
+ R2 C2

Fig 9b Capacitors are used for decoupling and they do not affect the D.C. operation. Fixed resistor R1 and variable resistor R2 provide output voltage adjustment. It acts as a floating regulator because its adjustments not connected to ground but floats to whatever voltage is across R2. This allows the output voltage to be much higher than that of a fixed regulator.

Fixed negative linear voltage regulators It’s a 7900 series 3-teminal I.C regulator that provides a fixed negative output voltage.
79XX
IN OUT COM

+

N e g a t i v e i n p u t

N e g a t i v e o u t p u t
+ C3

C1

52

45 DESIGN OF THE POWER SUPPLY STEP DOWN TRANSFORMER F1 100mA T1 2 4 0 V A . T o O u t p u t f u l l w a v e b r i d g e r e c t i f i e From the mains supply 240V AC input is obtained. A step down transformer rated at 12V. This voltage is stepped down to 12V by a step down transformer rated at least one ampere. Since a regulator is used in the power supply. 300mA is readily available in the market thus the reason for opting for it. 53 . C . 50Hz. it is paramount that at least 3V is available from the supply voltage apart from the regulator voltage. I n p u t 1 5 V A .Fig 9c 2. This voltage is referred to as drop out voltage and is the voltage across the input and output terminals of the voltage regulator that enables it to operate effectively and maintain a constant output voltage. C .

Vpeak = √2 Vrms = √2 (12V) = 17V At the primary side. a peak voltage of 17V is obtained from the rectified voltage as shown below. a fuse has been connected to prevent short circuits and blowing of components.By using a step down transformer with an output of 12V after filtering. 100mA to accommodate the Ip= 50mA. For an ideal transformer. 25V . VpIp = VsIs 240Ip = 12×1 Therefore Ip = 12/240 = 50mA Therefore the fuse should be rated at 250V. RECTIFICATION AND FILTERING F r o m S t e p d o w n T r a n s f o r m e r D1 D4 D2 V o u t D3 54 + C1 1000uF.

These diodes were chosen because of the following characteristics. Forward current.4V = 15.6V 55 .The 12Vrms voltage is rectified by a full wave bridge rectifier formed by diodes D1 through D4. The diodes Part Number is 1N4007. the better the filtering thus less ripples. ii. 25V was chosen because the higher the value of capacitance.7V) = 17V .1. i.7V The filter capacitor C1 rated 1000µF. Capacitor C1will therefore charge to Vpeak of Vsec. iii. Vbr = 1000V Forward voltage. From Vpeak = √2Vrms = √2 (12V) = 17V Due to diode drops when the load is connected Vout = Vpeak – 2 diode drops (each 0. Vf = 0. If = 1A Reverse breakdown voltage.

6V) is now regulated to 12V by a voltage regulator LM7812. The set of contacts of the armature and relay frame close completing a circuit across its terminals. its rated voltage was chosen to be 25V so as to accommodate Vpeak without blowing. 2.16V Vout (15.5 RELAYS A relay is a device consisting of a coil wound on soft iron core.Since the filter capacitor C1 charges to 17V. This regulator was chosen because it requires fewer external components and has an internal overload protection. When 56 . a magnetic field is set up which attracts the iron arm of the armature of the core of the magnet. VOLTAGE REGULATION F r o m f i l t e r c a p a c i t o r U1 LM7812 IN OUT Vcc COM C2 + 10uF. It is an electrically operated switch. When current flows through the coil of the relay.

Current flowing through the relay coil creates a magnetic field that suddenly collapses when the current is switched off. It allows the induced voltage to drive a brief current through the coil and diode so the magnetic field dies away quickly rather than instantly. This prevents the induced voltage from becoming high enough to cause damage to transistors and ICs. These high voltage spikes can destroy transistors and ICs in the circuit. The sudden collapse of the magnetic field causes or induces a brief high voltage across the relay coil. Relays allow one circuit to switch a second circuit which can be completely separate from the first.the magnet is de-energized. The coil current can be on or off so relays have to switch and they are double throw or change over switches. 57 . To prevent damage a protection diode is connected across the relay coil. the return spring returns the armature to the open position and the contacts open breaking the circuit across the terminals.

3.12V P r o t e c t i o n d i o d e N O N o r m a l l y R e l a y c o i l C O M o p e n I n p u t N O R e l a y T r a n s i s t o r 0V c o n t a c t s Fig 10: Relay connections Factors to consider while choosing a relay 1. Coil resistance – the circuit must be able to supply the current required by the relay coil. Switch contact arrangement (SPDT. Voltage and current switch ratings 5. Coil voltage i.e. the relays coil voltage rating and resistance must coil.C. while transistors can only switch D.C. 58 suit the circuit powering the relay . 4.C 2) Relays can switch high voltages while transistors can’t. and D. Physical size and pin arrangement 2. DPDT) Advantages of relays 1) Relays can switch A.

3) Relays use more power due to the current flowing through their coil. so a low power transistor may be needed to switch the current for the relays coil. 4) Relays require more current than many ICs can provide. 59 . 2) Relays cannot switch rapidly (except reed relays) but transistors can switch many times per second.3) Relays are a better choice for switching large currents (>5A) 4) Relays can switch many contacts at once. It is also called a make contact. Relay switches A relay will switch one or more poles. each of whose contacts can be thrown by energizing the coil in one of these ways. Normally open contacts Normally open contacts connect the circuit when the relay is activated and the circuit is disconnected when the relay is inactive. Disadvantages of relays 1) Relays are bulkier than transistors for switching small currents.

Types of switch contacts Normally closed timed open This type is normally closed when the coil is unpowered or de-energized. It’s also called transfer contact. The direction of the contacts motion either to close or to open is identical to a regular normally closed contact but there is a delay in the opening direction. It’s also called a break contact. 60 .Normally closed contacts Normally closed contacts disconnect the circuit when the relay is activated and the circuit is connected when the relay is inactive. Change over contacts It’s a double throw contact controlling two circuits. Because the delay occurs in direction of the coil energization. the contact is called normally closed on delay. The contact is opened with the application of power to the relay coil but only after the coil has been continuously powered for the specified period of time. one normally open contact and normally closed contact with a common terminal.

The direction of the contacts motion is identical to a regular normally open contact but there is a delay in closing direction. its also called normally open on delay. Because the delay occurs in the direction of coil deenergization. However unlike the normally closed timed open contact. Normally open timed open contact 61 . the timing action occurs upon deenergization rather than upon energization. the contacts are also called normally closed off delay. Because the delay occurs in the direction of coil energization.Normally closed timed open This type of contact is normally closed when the coil is unpowered and opened by the application of power to the relay coil. Normally open timed closed contact This type of contact is normally open when the coil is unpowered. The contact is closed by the application of power to the relay coil but only after the coil has been continuously been powered for a specified amount of time.

This contact is normally open when the coil is unpowered and closed by the application of power to the relay coil. The output of the Schmitt 62 . 2. the timing action occurs upon deenergization.51 DESIGN OF THE OUTPUT SECTION From mains supply 240V A. the voltage developed across LDR1 is fed to the input of the Schmitt Trigger. supply to security lights RLY1 D5 1N4007 From output of Schmitt trigger Q1 BD712 Now. the contact is also called normally open off delay. the output of the Schmitt Trigger switches to positive saturation. the resistance of LDR1 decreases leading to the voltage across it reducing. Unlike the normally open timed closed contact. During the day. Because the delay occurs in the direction of the coil de-energization.C. The moment the voltage across LDR1 reduces to a value below the Lower Threshold Voltage VLT.

RLY1 contacts remain open. This makes the relay. no current flows through it and in effect the relay winding. no power flows to the security lights and they remain off during the day. Thus. During the night. Any moment this voltage increases to a value greater than the Upper Threshold Voltage VUT. the Schmitt Trigger switches to negative saturation.Trigger is connected to the base of the PNP transistor. with the contacts open. This drives it to cut-off. The mains power supply to the security lights is connected through the relay contacts which act as a switch. the voltage across LDR1 increases due to the increase in its resistance. This allows current to flow to the security lights and they light up. With transistor Q1 into cut-off. Transistor Q1 is driven into nearsaturation and current flows through the relay winding making it close its contacts. Q1. 63 .

C. INP UT V cc R 14 7 k R2 50k Vc c RL Y1 2 40V A.0 COMPLETE CIRCUIT DIAGRAM SHOWING TEST POINTS 2 40V TO ST EPD O WN 1 2A V . OU T PUT T O S ECU RI TY L IGHT V cc 1N 400 7 D 5 U 2+ L M 3 2 4Q 1 E R4 B D71 2 LD R1 10 k L M 7 8 0 5 R 31 k V c c I NO U T C O MU 3 D 64 . 3 0 1 0 N m 4 A 0 0 7 T R A N S F O R M UE 1R D 1 D 2 LM 7 812 B I NO U T COM C V cc T1 D4 D3 C 1 1 0 0 0 uC F2 1 0 u F 25 V 16 V + + 240 V A.3.C . 4 .

it works well to the level. It gave me an opportunity to explore the various sensors and different automation technique differently used in the electronic product environment. which was mentioned in the proposal. After all the efforts. 65 . I learnt a lot about the Light activate switch system of the electric appliances using intelligent sensors. Due to time constraint the project has been completed with Prototype model.Conclusion In this project. But. Light activate switch system has been developed to meet the specification defined in the proposal.