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Alt + K = key words;

Topic 2. Atomic Structure 1 particle-like behaviour of light, wave-like behaviour of electrons

Wolfson, 1st of 34.3 (account of photoelectric effect pg613-614) + 34.5 (Matter Waves)

2.1. Summary
Light can behave as if it is made up of particles (photons), with a definite energy and momentum, and like a wave, with a wavelength and frequency. Matter particles like electrons can behave like waves with a calculateable wavelength and frequency. Note: unlike for electrons, very heavy particles have a so small its negligible. Aim: explain photoelectric effect, use quantisation condition to determine photon energies, describe wave-particle duality, calculate wavelengths of matter waves given mass and velocity Important Formulae: o Energy of a photon Kinetic energy of a photoelectron Wavelength of a matter particle [p=particle momentum,

E = hf K = hf-

[h=Planks constant, f=frequency of light] o [= work function of the metal electrode] o

= h/p = h/mv m=particle mass, v=particle velocity]

2.2. Notes
The photoelectric effect: The

PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT is an observation that shows the particle-like behaviour of light:

Shining a light on an electrode creates a current (light is giving energy to the atoms in the metal atoms liberated and move around current produced) Current vs. light intensity = linear; current does NOT flow with low light frequency (dim blue light can create current but a bright red light wont) shouldnt be the case for frequency if light is a wave light cant be a wave (i.e. continuous stream of energy) light is made up of particles of energy!!* Photoelectric effect could be explained if each electron is released by a single particle of light (PHOTON) that carries a definite amount of energy (E) dependent only on frequency (f):

Light as a particle:

E=hf [h = Planks constant = 6.626x10-34 Js] Particles have momentum photons should have momentum: p = h/ [p = photon momentum; = light wavelength]

Comment [AN1]: Why cant y p=mv??

Explanation for photoelectric effect: . each photo carries an energy [E=hf] . each electron requires an energy [] to escape the metal (this energy is called


. energy of ejected electrons is given by conservation of energy [energy in = energy out] energy of photon = energy needed to kick electron out of metal + initial KE of electron as it exits metal

E = hf

K = mvmax2 = hf
if K is not +ve, photon does not have energy to liberate eno current flows, regardless of light intensity

Alt + K = key words;

Measuring K: apply voltage across the electrodes makes it harder for e- to travel between the electrodes eventually current stops flowing. Voltage at which current stops flowing is known as the



K = eVs

[e = electron charge = 1.60x10-19 C]

Note: unit of energy: ELECTRON VOLT = the energy gained by an e- when it accelerates from vely charge electrode to +vely charged one with a voltage difference of one volt; 1 eV = 1.60x10-19 J Technological applications of the photoelectric effect: (see slides) Matter particles and waves: matter is like light in that its atoms are made up of electrons, protons and neutrons. All these have wave-like and particle-like properties. Electrons will behave as if they are waves, the frequency and wavelength of an electron will depend on the energy and momentum respectively. Read Wolfson 34.5 pp 619-620 Evidence for wave-like behaviour of e-: electron diffraction (see pictures on slide 19). Wave-like behaviour enables electrons to be used for microscopy.