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Alt + K = key words;



Topic 2. Atomic Structure 1 particle-like behaviour of light, wave-like behaviour of electrons
Wolfson, 1st ½ of §34.3 (account of photoelectric effect – pg613-614) + §34.5 (Matter Waves)

2.1. Summary
• • Light can behave as if it is made up of particles (photons), with a definite energy and momentum, and like a wave, with a wavelength and frequency. Matter particles like electrons can behave like waves with a calculateable wavelength and frequency. Note: unlike for electrons, very heavy particles have a λ so small it’s negligible. Aim: explain photoelectric effect, use quantisation condition to determine photon energies, describe wave-particle duality, calculate wavelengths of matter waves given mass and velocity Important Formulae: o Energy of a photon Kinetic energy of a photoelectron Wavelength of a matter particle [p=particle momentum,

• •

E = hf K = hf-ϕ

[h=Plank’s constant, f=frequency of light] o [ϕ= work function of the metal electrode] o

λ = h/p = h/mv m=particle mass, v=particle velocity]

2.2. Notes
The photoelectric effect: The

PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT is an observation that shows the particle-like behaviour of light:
• • Shining a light on an electrode creates a current (light is giving energy to the atoms in the metal → atoms liberated and move around → current produced) Current vs. light intensity = linear; current does NOT flow with low light frequency (dim blue light can create current but a bright red light won’t) – shouldn’t be the case for frequency if light is a wave ∴ light can’t be a wave (i.e. continuous stream of energy) → light is made up of particles of energy!!* Photoelectric effect could be explained if each electron is released by a single particle of light (PHOTON) that carries a definite amount of energy (E) dependent only on frequency (f)†: •

Light as a particle: •

E=hf [h = Plank’s constant = 6.626x10-34 Js] Particles have momentum ∴ photons should have momentum: p = h/λ [p = photon momentum; λ = light wavelength]

Comment [AN1]: Why can’t y p=mv??

Explanation for photoelectric effect: . each photo carries an energy [E=hf] . each electron requires an energy [ϕ] to escape the metal (this energy is called


. energy of ejected electrons is given by conservation of energy [energy in = energy out] ∴ energy of photon = energy needed to kick electron out of metal + initial KE of electron as it exits metal

E = hf



∴ K = ½ mvmax2 = hf – ϕ
if K is not +ve, photon does not have energy to liberate eno current flows, regardless of light intensity

* †‐%20Handouts.pdf 

All these have wave-like and particle-like properties.when it accelerates from –vely charge electrode to +vely charged one with a voltage difference of one volt. “Electrons will behave as if they are waves. . .to travel between the electrodes eventually current stops flowing. protons and neutrons. the frequency and wavelength of an electron will depend on the energy and momentum respectively.60x10-19 J Technological applications of the photoelectric effect: (see slides) Matter – particles and waves: matter is like light in that its atoms are made up of electrons. Measuring K: apply voltage across the electrodes → makes it harder for e. Wave-like behaviour enables electrons to be used for microscopy. Voltage at which current stops flowing is known as the STOPPING VOLTAGE [Vs]: K = eVs [e = electron charge = 1.60x10-19 C] Note: unit of energy: ELECTRON VOLT = the energy gained by an e. . Read Wolfson 34.5 pp 619-620” Evidence for wave-like behaviour of e-: electron diffraction (see pictures on slide 19). 1 eV = 1.Alt + K = key words.