You are on page 1of 32

Baluchistan University of Information Technology, Engineering and Management Sciences Quetta

BUITEMS

Quality & Excellence in Education

Lab report: Submitted to: Prepared by: Group # 4 No (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) Names

Rock Mechanics Mining Engineering Department of UET Lahore Students of Mining Engineering Department BUITEMS Quetta

CMS 5714 5749 5703 4444 10559 8911 9671 10837

Nouman Rahim Saqib Ajmair Khushal Zeb Fazal ullah Ijaz-ul-haq Kausar Sultan shah Naeem Abas M.Ejaz rasheed

Acknowledgment We are very grateful to UET Lahore for giving us the chance of performing practical lab work in such a friendly and learning environment. We would like to pay thanks to Engr. -------- and our organizer Engr.-------------- for their help and cooperation throughout the week. We would also like to thanks Engr.--------------, Engr. -------------, Engr. ----------------- and Engr.----------------- for giving us the great learning time and helping us in performing practical work at UET Lahore. We are very grateful and thankful from core of our hearts to all of them for so supporting and helpful to us with so polite and friendly attitude.

Preface In order to be competitive in the world of engineering, in order to get strong grip on theoretical knowledge, An Engineer should have practical exposure. Theoretical knowledge and practical experience are two different modes of knowledge. In order to see practical implementation of theoretical knowledge in laboratories is the best place. Performing practical work in disciplined organization like UET Lahore is a grate honor for us. UET is one of the most modern university in Pakistan which labs. Are, equipped with latest machinery. During at UET we gain a lot of knowledge about practical engineering work. We tried our best to gain as much knowledge as we can in a week. The way UET treated us is more than appreciation.

List of experiments

Experiment #01 Preparation of test specimen (core drilling, cutting and lapping) Experiment#02 Determination of the point load index: Is (50). Experiment#03 Determination of elastic constants (Es, Vs) Experiment#04 Determination of Schmidt Rebound Number Experiment#05 Determination of Tensile Strength of a given rock sample. Experiment#06 Determination of Uniaxial Compressive Strength (UCS) of a given rock sample. Experiment#07 Determination of Slake Durability index of a given rock sample. Experiment#08 Determination of Porosity, Density of a given sample Experiment#09 Determination of Sonic wave velocity through the rock sample

Experiment#01 Preparation of test specimen (core drilling, cutting and lapping) Scope: In preparation of test specimen we required standard/specific sample for valid result. Selection of sample: The sample which is collected from main position, represent the composition of rocks of that area. The sample must be in pure form. The samples which we used for performing are: 1. Lime stone 2. Stand stone 3. Dolomite The size of sample should be from 1 inch to 6 inch. (1) core drilling: It is done by the core drilling machine. Coring depend upon the speed of machine and on the types of bed formations. The sample which we collected through drilling machine is lime stone.

(2) Core cutting: In core cutting we cut the core according as required length, the cut should be square instead of inclined cut, this is done by cutter blade.

(3) Lapping / grinding: In lapping we make smooth surface of core then check the irregularities on the core sample. Which is removed by lapping machine or we make it by special sand.

Experiment#02 Determination of the point load index: Is (50).

Scope: Its purpose is to measure strength of rocks by applying a concentrated load, or by applying point load.

Apparatus: Point load index machine The apparatus should be coherent. The accuracy range should be +_ 0.7mm.

There are two types of loading; 1. Diametric loading 2. Axial loading The test which we performed is diametric loading. The apparatus should be, (1) Rigid (2) Coherent (3) Instrument attached for measuring length. Procedure: Place the sample in between Measure the diameter from the scale shown on the point load testing machine. Start the process of applying force on the sample .

Formules: Then D= distance b/w platens L/D= 1.4

FOR AXIL LOADING: L/D=1.1+-0.5 Calculation: Is (index) = P/D2 3.95/ (42mm)2 =0.00223 UCS=24 Is (50) F=correction factor F= (D/50)0.45

In Diametrical shape

Experiment#03
Determination of elastic constants (Es, Vs) Scope of the experiment:

It is used to measure the tensile strength of rock sample. It is indirect method for finding the tensile strength. Compressive strength is applied to the rock specimen and breaks it into two parts in tension. It is easy to conduct. It is found by any compressive machine. For direct values individual machine for finding tensile strength. Diametric load is applied on rock samples. Apparatus: Any compressive load machine and the grade to find the values of loads, varnier calipers and tape. Related theory= Tensile strength is the ability of a body to bear tensile force is called Tensile Strength. The body break in tension of the compressive stress less than 3 times than tensile stress. When compressive stress is applied then tension is produced at the edges which break the body. It is preferred in a rock disc of specified dimension. Type of rock: Disc of lime stone. Dimension of disk: The surface of disc should be flat. The diameter(D) of disc should not less than NX size (54mm) The thickness (t) will be t/D=0.5 t=D 0.5 Range of thickness= (0.2-0.75)

Measurements:

If Tb be the tensile strength then Tb=2 P/Pie*Dt Where Tb= Tensile strength P=Breaking load D= Diameter t= Thickness Calculations: P=3480kgf =3840*9.81N =34138.8N Tb=2P/pie*D t =2*34138.6/3.143*42.7*28.83 =17.68

For thickness of disc: S. No 1 2 3 4 Thickness (t) T1 T2 T3 T4 Thickness (mm) 28.80 28.85 28.83 28.80 28.85 Avg. thickness

For diameter of disc: S. No 1 2 Diameter(D) d1 d2 Diameter (mm) 42.7 42.7 42.7 Avg. diameter

Recommendation: Diameter should not less the normal size. Smooth surface and should be well prepared. Thickness of sample should be 0.5 time of the diameter and gradually increasing the load with constant increasing. Break rate should be uniform and will perform in 20 second.

Photo during experiment performance

Experiment #04 Determination of porosity and density of a given rock sample Scope of the experiment:

Porosity is a measure of the void (i.e., "empty") spaces in a material, and is a fraction of the
volume of voids over the total volume, between 01, or as a percentage between 0100percent. The term is used in multiple fields including pharmaceutics, ceramics, metallurgy, materials, manufacturing, earth sciences and construction. Specific gravity is the ratio of the density (mass of a unit volume) of a substance to the density (mass of the same unit volume) of a reference substance. Density The mass density or density of a material is defined as its mass per unit volume.

Apparatus: Varnier calipers, balances, oven (105 centigrade -24hr), vacuumed desiccators

Procedure:
Rock should be intake and well prepared. First find the length and diameter of the core. For one hour it is kept in water after that is weighted we will get the wet weight of the sample. Then place it in oven at 105celcious up to 24hr.after that it is weighted and we will get the dry weight of the sample.
Weight of dry sample=

Volume=mass/density Volume of water=Vw=mw/dw R=D/2=51.96/2=25.98 Now Vt =pie*r2*l =3.14*(25.98)2*73.975 =80483.293 Density of wet sample = dw= Wwet/Vt =377g Density of dry sample = Wwet = =368.5g Vw= (W wet W dry)/ dw

Vw=

(377-368.5)/0.00468

=1816.2313

Water content in percentage: (Water content in wet sample water content in dry sample)*100/Water content in dry sample Water content= = (377-368.5)/368.5*100 2.30665

Volume of water will be the volume of porosity n = Vw/Vt =1816.239/80483.292 =0.0225 Specific gravity= rho dry / rho W (1-n)

S.no

Length of specimen (L)

Diameter of specimen(d)

Thickness of specimen(t)

75

52.25

28.80

2 3 4 5

74.15 72.25 73.70 74.10

51.80 51.85 * *

28.85 28.80 28.85 *

6 *

74.65 Avg=73.975

* Avg=51.96

* Avg=28.825

Experiment #05

Determination of slake durability Index Scope of the experiments: To study the weathering effects on rock sample.
Weathering is a process of breaking up rock materials under the influence of air and water. It designs the Earth's surface by shaping it through different physical and chemical processes. Each of these processes has a different effect on rocks and their minerals, and different rocks react differently to weathering, depending on their structure. The three types of weathering processes are mechanical (or physical), chemical and biological weathering

Apparatus: Electric motor (20rpm) and the sample is magmatite. Precaution: No perforation should be closed due to particles of samples. The perforated drum will be submersed in water up to 20cm.The weight of rock sample from 45g 50g.The 10 pieces of rock sample be prepared having a diameter of 2inches.The sample should not be sharpen edges. The edges should be making round. The size of rock sample should not greater then 3mm. Procedure: The perforated drums should be clean from particles of rock samples and weighted the empty drum then putt the dry rock samples and again weighted. After that submerged into water up to 20cm. Start the electric motor with speed of 20 rpm up to 10 minutes. Then weighted the drum contain the wet samples of rock. After that again weighted the wet drum without the rock samples. Place the wet sample in oven up to 106celcious till 24 hr.

A= initial mass of drum + rock pieces B= mass after first rotation C= mass after 2nd rotation D=mass of dry & clean empty drum

FORMULA: Durability index= Mass retain after the cycle/initial mass of rock sample Id1 = [(B-D)/ (A-D)]*100 In our experiment A=250+250.2+D B=252+251.5+D C=249+250.5+D D=2kg=2000g A=250+252+2000=2502 B=252+251.5+2000=2503.5 C=249.5+250.5+2000=24099.5 D=2000g For Id1 = [(B-D)/ (A-D)]*100

Id1= (2503-2000) / (2502-2000)*100=100.192 For Id2= [(C-D)/ (A-D)]*100

Id2= (2499.5-2000)/ (2502-2000)*100=99.5

Apparatus of experiment

Experiment # 06 Determination of UCS by Schmidt Hammer Rebound Number. Related theory: UCS means uniaxial compressive strength which can be finding by direct method and by an indirect method. Direct method: it is an expensive method and time consuming, also a lot of preparation needs i.e. coring, sampling etc. Indirect method: it is easy and better then directs method because it does not need the core preparation or sampling. It is not expensive, no need of a lot of time consuming but not to accurate. Working principle: Weight of hammer and the force which will be applied should be constant. It mechanism is spring loaded and energy is stored when it reached to constant point then it is released and then transfer to the rock mass, after that it will rebound to hammer where the value is noted. At different orientation the hammer will give different values due to gravitational effects. There are three types of hammer 1. L-Type 2. M-Type 3. N-Type But here we used the L-Type Hammer.

Observation and calculation: C.F= specified standard value/ Avg of 10 reading On different location noted the rebound nor. Average the number And then plotted the values on chart

Noted: In this experiment we used three different surfaces Core Floor Steel base S.no Core Floor Steel base 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

15 19 16 16 23 24 20 20 22 17 13 29 28 31 36 24 * * * * 32 33 36 37 36 36 38 39 28 *

Experiment # 07 To determine UCS of given rock sample. Scope: This is test is intended to measure the UCS of rock sample of regular geometry. It is used for classification and characterization of intact rock. Related theory: Compressive strength is the capacity of a material or structure to withstand axially directed pushing forces. When the limit of compressive strength is reached, materials are crushed. When a specimen of material is loaded in such a way that it extends it is said to be in tension. On the other hand if the material compresses and shortens it is said to be in compression. On an atomic level, the molecules or atoms are forced apart when in tension whereas in compression they are forced together. Since atoms in solids always try to find an equilibrium position, and distance between other atoms, forces arise throughout the entire material which oppose either tension or compression. The phenomena prevailing on an atomic level are therefore similar. On a macroscopic scale, these aspects are also reflected in the fact that the properties of most common materials in tension and compression are quite similar. Apparatus: UTM, varnier caliper, prepared rock sample Procedure: The range of length to diameter ratio (L/D) should be 2.5-3.0, not greater than 3. Diameter should be the normal size of core which is 54mm.the specimen should be flat and edges should be sharp rock specimen is placed in UTM then applying the load by compressing the sample.

Observation and calculation:


Rock Sample Avg diameter (cm) Avg length (cm) Specimen 2 area(m ) Breaking load(kg) Breaking load(Nm) UCS (Mpa)

D1=4.74 D2=4.71 Dolerite D3=4.72 Avg=4.725

L1=13.775 L2=13.735 L3=13.760 Avg=13.75 A=0.001752 20200 198162 113.1

Experiment#09 Determination of sonic waves velocity for a given sample rock core Related theory: Sonic wave: Sound waves are called sonic waves, which moves faster in solid than gases. The velocity of sound waves is directly proportional to the compression and compression is proportional to the strength. Procedure: We take different samples of rocks and first find their length which is distance, measured by varnier calipers and then find the velocity. For primary wave velocity Vp= d/tp Tp= primary wave time For secondary Vs=d/ts Sample no. Length (cm) L1=11.16 L2=11.15 L3=11.15 Avg=11.153 L1=9.215 L2=9.100 L3=9.120 Time (sec) T1=18.6 T2=18.7 T3=18.5 Avg=18.6 T1=18.4 T2=18.6 T3=18.5 Velocity Vp=d/tp

1.667

Lime stone

2.020

Sand

stone

Avg=9.145 L1=13.885 L2=13.890 L3=13.865 Avg=13.880

Avg=18.5 T1=19.0 T2=19.5 T3=19.5 Avg=19.3

0.719

Dolerite

Mine ventilation

List of experiments: Experiment# 01

Determination of inlet by using Traversing pitot tube Experiment#02 To measure the velocity of air by using vane anenometer Experiment#03 Calibration of anenometer Experiment#04 To measure the relative humidity of air using sling psychomotor. Experiment#5 Determination of the effect of miss alignment of pitot static tube an air stream (velocity pressure variation with an angle of yaw) Experiment#06 To determine the effect of miss alignment of a pitot static tube an air stream (static pressure variation with an angle of yaw). Experiment#07

Experiment#01 To determine the inlet by using the traversing pitot static tube Applications

It is used to determine the direction of air. It is used to measure a velocity. The accuracy should be + minus 1. EQUIPMENT: 1. Mine ventilation educators 2. Manometer Related Theory:

Experiment # 2

Objective: To measure velocity of air by using vane anenometer . Apparatus: The apparatus is vane anemometer. It consists of a dial which gives distance. It has 3-scale, the total distance of the first one is 100ft, second one is 1000ft and the third one is 10000ft. and stopwatch which to calcoate the specific time for measuring the velocity of air.
S.NO START TIME (Sec) END TIME (SEC) DISTANCE (ft) VELOCITY V=d/t m/sec

48.4

400

5.847

70

455

6.5