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PBL Top Detection Techniques

Chapter 6

Chapter 6 PBL Top Detection Techniques

6.1. Introduction:
The PBL is the lowest layer of atmosphere that locates in troposphere. The PBL is close to the surface that characterized by turbulence, where the large-scale atmospheric flow controls the wind. PBL is the part of the troposphere that is directly influenced by the presence of earth’s surface. The boundary layer formed from sunrise to sunset is characterized by the formation of thermal plumes from solar heating. These plumes with them carry moisture. Solar heating is responsible for the transport of heat and aerosols. The ABL thickness is quite variable in time and space, ranging from hundreds of meters to few thousand meters. In this chapter an efficient method, the wavelet covariance transform is presented with some modifications to the transform is presented.

6.2. PBL Top determination methods:
6.2.1. Gradient Method: The gradient method is sometimes also referred to as inflection-point method. It is frequently used to indicate the PBL top height. The height at which the first derivative of the rangecorrected signal takes a minimum is defined as the PBL top height. The gradient of normalized range corrected signal is given as,

------------------------ (6.1)

The graph shown in figure (6.1) clearly indicates the PBL top observed on march.4th, 2009. This method fails because this method strongly suffers from noise.

Development of Analysis Software for LAMP System

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is implemented in the LAMP data analysis software for an automated finding of PBL top height .2) With Haar function = 1 for .PBL Top Detection Techniques Chapter 6 Figure 6.(6.1. The appearance of boundary layer top using gradient method 6.2. with modifications.2.3) =-1 for b≤ Z ≤ =0 else where Development of Analysis Software for LAMP System Page 38 .(6.≤Z≤ + -------------------------. Wavelet Covariance Transform: The wavelet covariance transform (WCT) technique.. -------------------------.

A threshold value for the wave from covariance transform is thus introduced that allows us to identify a significant gradient and to omit weak gradients.2).3. Equation (6. The step function is illustrated in figure (6. etc. Modifications to the WCT method: The PBL top height is frequently indicated by the first strong gradient above the ground. Figure 6.4) Development of Analysis Software for LAMP System Page 39 . The different proposed methods failed.b) is a measure of similarity of the range corrected backscatter signal and the Haar function. some of those because of clouds. 6.(6. and are the lower and upper limits of the profile.4) can be split up as follows: --------------. even under the conditions of clouds and multiple aerosol layers. To eliminate these effects. we were forced to introduce several modifications that allow us to determine the PBL height zi.2.PBL Top Detection Techniques Chapter 6 Where f(Z) is range corrected signal in equation (6. Representation of Haar transform The covariance transform (a.2) is the range corrected lidar backscatter signal. and some because of back ground noise in the night time..

(6. 4..5) Since the Haar function is 0 for and -1 for . 8…… And the position of the translation b has to be chosen in between two discrete data points to assure an equal number of data points in each integral. This leads to the discritized form of the WCT for f(z).6) For discrete lidar signal the dilation is defined as .8) can be re-built as. the equation can be modified as follows: ---------------. . ---------------.(6.8) The procedure was followed by taking n=2.(6. .(6. n=2. and. the equation (6.(6. 6. Development of Analysis Software for LAMP System Page 40 .PBL Top Detection Techniques Chapter 6 + + --------------.7) ----------------. -------------.9) For a single profile if we find the maximum value where it occurs in the corresponding range indicates the boundary layer. 1 for .

.9) Using this process.(6.3. Variation of Boundary layer from time to time using WCT. The figure 6. The advantages of this method with reduced noise effect on PBL make it more appropriate choice for analysis purpose. Development of Analysis Software for LAMP System Page 41 . 6.3 shows the variation of boundary layer with the range and time.PBL Top Detection Techniques Chapter 6 ---------------. Results and observations: The modified wavelet covariance transform will give better results compared to other existed methods for determining the boundary layer variations during night time. Figure 6. In this method choosing the dilation of b is an important parameter. if we consider all the profiles it will indicate the variation of boundary layer with the corresponding range and time.4.