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Journal of Theoretical and Applied Information Technology

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REAL TIME RADAR IMAGING: AN IMPACT ON NAVIGATION IN WIRELESS COMMUNICATION AND ITS SYSTEMS
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PROF. NIRMALENDU BIKAS SINHA, 2 DR. R. BERA, 3 DR. M. MITRA.

Assistant Prof., Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering and Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering, C.E.M.K, K.T.P.P.Township,W.B, India-721171. 2 Prof., Department of E.C.E, SMIT, Sikkim,Majitar India - 737132. 3 Assistant Prof., Department of E.T.E,BESU, Howrah, W.B, India. E-mail: nbsinha@yahoo.co.in, ABSTRACT

We are proceeding towards a broadband age both for the communication as well as remote sensing. Recently, CALM standard has already been formulated by ITU with objectives of collision avoidance between car to car as well as car to roadside communication and safety by utilization of Sensor-friendly vehicle. Millimetre wave radar is mandatory in every car to locate accurate position. Lots of works can be thought of relating to the radar. In radar, a target is characterized by its radar cross section (RCS) function. This paper presents an overview of recent progress of radar for the image detection and characterization of targets. Radar Cross section measurement capability of full scale targets of interest is an utmost requirement for country like INDIA, considering the nature of threat it has from its neighboring countries. The full scale facility helps in identifying the radar signature of various operational configurations of different class of targets present in our country as well as with our neighbors. This will help in fine tuning and judging the survivability/ striking capability of our weapons. The system is tested to find out RCS of a simple as well as complex object and its imaging by hardware and software .The results are very much useful in quantifying the target different parameters. Finally, the paper addresses the current questions regarding the integration of radar in practical wireless systems and standards . Keywords: Wi-Fi, ITS, Radar cross section (RCS), DSSS (Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum), modelling.

1. INTRODUCTION
Scientists and Technologists involved in the development of radar and remote sensing systems all over the world are now trying to involve themselves in saving of manpower in the form of developing a new application of their ideas in ITS. Radar theory has been a vibrant scientific field for the last fifty years [1], [2], [3]. Over the years, radar systems have developed considerably, and contemporary advanced radars use an array of antennas that can synthesize beams and simultaneously scan the whole space [4]. Radar targets generally consist of many small elemental scatterers that are fused by the radar waveform and the processing at the receiver to result in echoes with fluctuating amplitude and phase. The range to, and the orientation of, the target determines the amount of energy reflected from these scatterers, and small changes in range or orientation can result in a large increase or decrease in the amount of

energy reflected from the target [5],[6]. In radar, a target is characterized by its radar cross section (RCS) function [3].A target’s RCS represents the amount of energy reflected from the target toward the receiver as a function of the target aspect with respect to the transmitter/receiver pair.The performance of radar systems is limited by target scintillations [5]. Both experimental measurements and modelling results demonstrate that scintillations of 20 dB or more in the reflected energy can occur by changing the target aspect by as little as one milli-radian. These RCS scintillations/ fluctuations are responsible for signal fading, which can cause large degradations in the radar detection and estimation performances. Therefore, RCS estimation and calibration for the Radar is a very important aspect for the accurate estimation of target information. Through analysis and numerical results, we demonstrate that radar greatly improves detection and estimation performance due to the reduction in target fades.

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target geometry. amount of excess power in dB compared to one sq. target size. the return energy varies with the transmitted wavelengths. This will enable the personnel at the radar terminal take a more definite decision regarding the target. aircraft. fast computational speed. and on time if there is relative motion between the target and the radar. The plot has been reproduced by using the MATLAB. The user will prefer this imaging radar as it will give a definite image of the target in its PPI indicator. frustum. www. target aspect (i. imaging radar is a possibility today.2. The radar cross section of a target (σ) may be defined as Power reflected towards source/unit solid angle σ = --------------------------------------------------Incident power flux / 4π The RCS of an isotropic reflector is equal to its geometric area projected to the radar. Conventional Radar Vs Imaging Radar: With the advancement of technology towards wideband receivers. RCS dependency on the aspect angle 539 . Radar cross section plays an important role in the radar equation given by PR = (PTGT/4πRT2)(1/LMTLT)(σ/4πR2)(1/LMRLR)(GRλ2/4π LP) Where.e. cylinder or complex. Depending upon their structural complexity. viewing aspect (i.RCS depends upon frequency. ship etc. Also the complex target RCS may be thought to be made up of individual scattering points distributed on the target surface. Radar target can be divided into two broad classes (a) Artificial like aircraft and (b) natural like terrain. When the angle is varied. Radar cross-section depends on the radar range if observations are made in the near zone of the target. The aspect angle is then changed from 0 to 180 degrees and the composite RCS of the two is measured. orientation and reflectivity. targets are also classified as simple – sphere.2009 JATIT.707m ● ● Figure1. missile. flat-plate. 2 SIMULATION ON VARIATION OF RCS: 2.) isotropic scatterers are aligned and placed among the radar line of sight (zero aspect angle) at a far field range R as shown in figure1. Consider two unities (1 meter sq.org 1. direction of scattering) and the incident and observed polarization. Knowledge of the constructive and destructive interference between the individual scatterers can be very critical when radar is used to extract the RCS of a complex target.Journal of Theoretical and Applied Information Technology © 2005 . It includes the radar cross section (RCS) of the target. Also a FFT of the plotted data has been added so as to get a feel of the nature of radiation receive.1.cylinder-flatplate. the RCS is modified by the phase that corresponds to the electrical spacing between the two scatterers. availability of data acquisition system. σ is expressed in dBsm i. Radar Cross Section (RCS): The range equation of the radar gives the maximum range at which the target may be detected with a given probability. which is nothing but a measure of the proportion of the incident energy scattered back to the radar. ● 1m ● . shape of the object.scatter depolarization and effect Faraday rotation if any. m of reference object. Of course. GR= gain of the receiving antenna GT= gain of the transmitting antenna RT= distance between transmitter and receiver R = distance between receiver and target LT = loss factor of the transmitting channel LR = loss factor of the receiver channel LMT = material loss factor in the propagating medium due to dissipation between the target and transmitter LMR = material loss factor in the propagating medium due to dissipation between the target and the receiver LP = polarization loss factor due to improper polarization match between transmitter and receiver(if the radar is not monostatic) .jatit. The composite radar cross-section consists of superposition of the two individual radar cross-sections. 1.e.1. This is true because the aspect angle may be continuously changing while detection in actual scenario. All rights reserved. RCS Dependency on the Aspect Angle: Radar cross-section fluctuates as a function of radar aspect angle. direction of illumination).e. The spacing between these two is 1 m.

2.2 RCS Dependency on Frequency RCS also depends on the frequency.3. As we know that physical area for flat plate is wholly depends upon length & breath but. Frequency=8 GHZ) Frequency is 8GHz. and the illuminating wavelength.2009 JATIT. RCS value also depends on wavelength (λ). scatterrer spacing is .5 12 12. Frequency=9 GHZ).3m 10 0 1 0. 10 0 RCS in dBsm -10 -20 -30 -40 -50 8 8. it requires more frequency variations to produce significant RCS fluctuations. All rights reserved.6 0. It provides an indication of the limitations and utility for particular classes of radar waveforms.3) 540 .5 9 9. scatterrer spacing is . Whereas Directivity is the ratio of the power scattered back in the radar's direction to the power that would have been backscattered had the scattering been uniform in all directions (i. scatterrer spacing is .(λ). 3. R ≥ 2d2/λ When relative distance between target & radar is less than the dimension of target size is termed as near field & far field is known for range greater than projected dimension of target size. Measurements of radar targets can be classified in terms of the relative distance(R) of the target as a function of its cross-range dimension(d). RCS in dBsm -5 -10 -15 -20 -25 -30 -35 -40 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 aspect angle in degrees Figure 2.org Frequency is 8GHz. www.5 Frequency in GHz 10 10. variation of aspect angle with RCS (Scatspacing =0. Alternatively when the scatter centers are relatively close. Reflectivity and Directivity. Radar ambiguity diagram.8 Ambiguity function 0.3.3m Figure 6. and gives the radar designer general guidelines for the selection of suitable waveforms for various applications. isotropically).spacing =0.5 Figure 5.2 0 2 1 0 -1 Doppler in Hz -2 -4 -2 Delay in seconds 2 0 4 RCS in dBsm -10 -20 -30 -40 -50 -60 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 aspect angle in degrees Figure 3.It is quite interesting to note that RCS doesn’t equal to geometrical area. Variation of RCS with Frequency (Scat.jatit. The following Rayleigh criterion is useful for determining the relative range(R) required between a radar and target for far-field conditions to occur.5 11 11. Reflectivity is the percent of intercepted power reradiated (scattered) by the target.Journal of Theoretical and Applied Information Technology © 2005 . also in case of sphere it is different from the well-known physical area.3 Ambiguity Diagram: The radar ambiguity diagram represents the response of the matched filter to the signal for which it is matched as well as to Doppler frequency shifted (mismatched) signals. Frequency=8 GHZ) 10 5 0 Frequency is 9GHz.25.e. When the RCS in dBsm -5 -10 -15 -20 -25 0 20 40 60 aspect angle in degrees 80 100 120 140 160 180 Figure 4.4 0. SIMULATION ON RCS OF DIFFERENT STANDARD TARGETS: A target’s RCS is most easily visualized as the product of the projected cross section. Variation of aspect angle with RCS (scatspacing =0. Variation of aspect angle with RCS (scatspacing =0. A little frequency change causes serious RCS fluctuations when the scatter spacing is large.25m 10 5 0 2.

. For minimum dimension projected radius of target ( min): = 10 x λ) / 2π .5GHz 2...585 0. we have calculated the radius or length..0GHz 100 60 30 20 15 12 10 159.4978 0.06 3.5 866 707 612.e..2 95. From the Table 2 it is quite interesting to note that the RCS values of various Scatterers are decreasing exponentially as the radius of the sphere.0 1011..96 43.17 34.org target is in the near field.. 2.5 λ σ=8πa4/ λ2 Square Trihed ral Length & Width > 3. (iii) Table 2: Target Dimension for Selection of Standard Targets.65λ cm σ (RCS) (in sq.156 5. In this tabulation we have kept the range of target fixed (2 kms) and corresponding to this we have calculated the RCS of various standard scatterers..85 23.77 31. 3. If scatterers required for sphere is 3. m) Sphere (σ = πr2 ) Flat Plate Area > 12 λ2 σ=4π a4 / λ 2 Cylin der σ=2 π r2 h / λ Square Dihedra l Length & Width > 3. assumption has been taken for keeping low error of optical dimension. width.19 at 500 MHz. (ii) Roughness (Rh) = λ / 200..3000 0..0GHz 2. and ii) λ < < Target Diameter (d).96 53. far-field conditions hold and the data required for accurate simulation and analysis should be far-field data.1 71..73m at 1.. RCS value) for sphere is 365 cm which is really difficult to construct for performing the experiment..2 319.5 λ σ=12π a4/λ2 100 60 30 20 15 12 10 363 219 108.671 1.89 19.. www. For low frequency radar in the RF frequency range of 300-3000 MHz.. it is difficult to make the standard targets such as sphere and cylinder for lower frequency (i. All rights reserved. cylinder for experiment at higher frequency.. 1..095 at 1 GHz.jatit.92 1581 1224.1 Condition for far-field RCS measurement: There are two necessary & sufficient conditions for Far-Field RCS Measurement: i) Wavelength (λ) < < Range (R).40 50.Journal of Theoretical and Applied Information Technology © 2005 .405 2373 1069 2104 933 627 335 233 3550 1465 314....914 0.65 m at 300 MHz.941 41.39 15.10 15.5GHz 3. From the Table 2.2009 JATIT. the wavelength gets reduced and hence we can construct the sphere. When the wavelength has comparable dimension as of target dimension then it gets suffered by these regular variations are due to two mechanisms..4 78. 300 & 500 MHz) but for higher frequency we can construct the scatterers. As frequency increases. But we can make the corner reflector and flat plate for performing the experiment...5 547.... However.626 0.5 500 0.1016 0.0736 0. one a specular reflection from the surface of the sphere and the other a creeping wave that skirts the shadowed side. it is clear that the radius which we are using for theoretical calculations is between the limit of MIN and MAX and to evaluate the RCS.0584 0... λ cm r= 3. the radius required for good result (i.8 139.0102 In above theoretical calculation. height for different standard targets.49 47.79 65491 21394 5150.e. (i) For maximum dimension projected radius of target max = {√ (MaxRange x λ)}/ 2. the illuminating wave fronts are sufficiently curved that the returns from the individual scatterer which comprise a target recombine with different phase relationships than when the target is in the far field. 0.. It is interesting to note that at 300 MHz frequency.50 131 63 98237 32092 7725 1517 479 196 94 Table-1: Minimum dimension required for keeping low optics approximation: Frequency λ ( cm) min max Rh ( cm) ( cm) ( cm) 300 MHz 500 MHz 1 GHz 1.1498 0..5 541 .

1πr2 = 1/10 x projection of sphere. and a frustum of different dimensions in front of X band radar and compute the RCS value in each case. σ = 4πr2 = 4 x projection of sphere. 2πr/λ <1 and the RCS is proportional to λ-4 2) The Mie Region: Here 2πr/λ=1 and the RCS oscillates 3) Optical Region: In this region λ is very small compared to the dimensions of the sphere and fluctuation in Mie region converges to a constant optical cross-section Πr2 for all shorter wavelengths. 0. an ellipsoid. So to implement RCS computation of a complex object we start with a MATLAB simulator of some fundamental single shapes. In Mie or resonance region. a cylinder.jatit. To implement RCS of sphere we consider normalized exact back scattered RCS for a perfectly conducting sphere in Mie series is given by σ/ πr2 =(j/kr) Σ(-1)n(2n+1)[KrJn-1(kr)-nJn(kr)/KrHn(1) (1) (1) . Radar cross section σ = 0.1 RCS of a Sphere: The scattering properties of a sphere illustrate the nature of RCS’s dependence on wavelength (or frequency).... Mie and Optical Regions: We have in Raleigh region for (Circumference/Wavelength) = 2π/λ= 1/3.(iv) 1 (kr)-nHn (kr)-Jn(kr)/Hn (kr)] Where r is the radius of the sphere. RCS is maximum for circumference wavelength 2πa/λ = 1 for which σ = 4πr2 =4 x projection of sphere.RCS of metallic sphere of radius r in the optical region for Circumference/Wavelength) = 2π/λ =10 is given by σ = πr2 projection of sphere which is valid for 2π/λ >= 10.365m for 3GHz respectively. It has been found that for RCS. 3. It has been found that for most bodies of revolution. we have radar cross-section (σ) = 0. The Raleigh Region: The radar targets usually don’t fall into the Raleigh region except particles like precipitation. 2.2009 JATIT. Often a complex object can be subdivided into small scattering centers having different fundamental shapes like cylinder. 3.7 In Mie or resonance region.. In figure 7 three regions are identified first is Raleigh region (small sphere). For. most of the targets are found. The RCS is estimated to be given by σ= R1R2 Where. 2πa/λ = 0. sphere. For this region Radar designer typically use spheres of known cross section to experimentally calibrate radar system. www. In this case a fixed frequency of 10 GHz is used and objects are rotated from 0-180 degrees in 500 angle increments. where k= 2π/λ v = volume of the scatterers F= dimension loss factor which depends on the gross shape of the body. The Mie Region: In between Raleigh region and optical region. in this σ =9πr2 (Kr) ^4 r<< λ Second is the Mie region. RCS of Simple Targets: The RCS of simple targets can be calculated from EM theory. K=wavelength in Jn is the spherical Bessel of the first kind of order n & Hn (1) is the Hankel function of order n & given by Hn (1) (kr) =Jn (kr) +jYn (kr) Yn is the spherical Bessel function of the second kind of order of n. The above approach is less accurate if the scatterer becomes more flat since a flat surface has zero volume but a non zero cross-section. Also cares have been taken for smoothness of the surface. The RCS behavior is monotonic in this region. In this region are oscillatory in nature. All rights reserved.org GHz. The Optical Region: In this region.1 π r2 =1/10 x projection of sphere. Third is optical region (large sphere). For this. the RCS along the axis of symmetry is given by: σ = (4/π) k4v2F2.54m at 2GHz and 0. In a Raleigh region. In the simulator program.Journal of Theoretical and Applied Information Technology © 2005 . 542 . we successively place a sphere. there is a region where the body geometry is a critical factor. there are three distinct regions of behavior for a sphere of radius r: 1) The Raleigh Region: In this region. In this case σ = πr2 r>>λ The back scattered RCS for a perfectly conducting sphere is constant in the optical region. no simple computation of RCS is possible. R1 and R2 are the principle radius of curvature at the surface normal. flat plate etc. Features in Raleigh.

Figure10....8 0...... (v) One widely accepted approximation for the ellipsoid back scattered RCS is given by σ= πa2b2c2/(a2(sin2θ)(cos2φ)+b2(sin2θ)*(sin2φ)+c2(cos2θ ))2 …. This should be expected under the condition a=b=c.2 0 0 5 10 15 [2X3... the trihedral has three. Variation of aspect angle with RCS for Elliptic cylinder......6 1... (vi) reduces to σ= πa2b4c2 / (a2 (sin2θ) +c2 (cos2θ)) 2 ...... 543 . RCS for Corner Reflector: It's a structure that is used as a radar target..org 3. but care must be used to be sure that the surfaces join at exactly at 90 degrees..4..... The ellipsoid is independent of φ. Variation of aspect angle with RCS for ellipsoid. often in calibrating test equipment such as in an anechoic chamber. The ellipsoid becomes a sphere. because they have very high radar-crosssection (RSC) for a small size. 3... www. Corner reflectors are easy to make from sheet metal such as aluminum.3.... All rights reserved....(vi) When a=b the ellipsoid becomes roll symmetric. There are two main types of corner reflector: Dihedral and Trihedral.8 MIE OPTICAL 1.4 RCS/[3. Variation of aspect angle with RCS for circular cylinder.... Corer reflectors are used for many reasons.. Figure8... σ= πc2…. (vii) and for the case when a=b=c.14 x(r)2] 1. The dihedral has two surfaces that are on orthogonal planes. (viii) Eqn (viii) defines the back scattered RCS of a sphere... The eqn....4 0. Variation of sphere 2Πr/λ with σ/Πr2 3.2 1 0.... Implementation RCS of Cylinder: 2 RAYLEIGH 1.. the high RCS is maintained over a wide incidence angle and an exact solution is known for their RCS.Journal of Theoretical and Applied Information Technology © 2005 .jatit.6 0..14X r]/wavelength Figure9.2009 JATIT... Figure 7.....2 Implementation RCS of Ellipsoid: To implement RCS of ellipsoid we consider the general equation of the ellipsoid (x/a) 2 + (y/b) 2 + (z/c) 2 = 1 ..

where. for any design requirement. along their principal axes: 3. www. Here the equations for maximum cross-section of both types of corner reflector. a is the side of square face.2. Such measurements are useful in characterizing the actual radar signatures of operational systems in static as well as dynamic flight scenarios.5 GHZ.2009 JATIT. Dihedral Corner Reflector: σ =8Πa2b2/λ2. two isotropic scatters are placed in front of radar with different scat-spacing and combined scatters are rotated to have RCS values with aspect. 5. Variation of aspect angle with RCS for cylinder and flat plate with fixed frequency 9. All rights reserved.4. 3.jatit. 3. If we cut them into triangles or arcs (like the photo at the top of the page).org 4. IMPLEMENTATION OF COMPLEX OBJECT: In this software program. EXPERIMENTAL SET UP FOR RADAR SYSTEM: RCS measurement.5. Note that for the trihedral case. Where a and b is the length and width of the flat plate.4. RCS for Truncated cone (Frustum): 0 -10 RCS(dbsm) -20 -30 -40 -50 -60 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 aspect-angle(degrees) 140 160 180 RCS) 60 40 20 0 -20 -40 -60 -200 0 200 400 600 800 freq(Hz) 1000 1200 1400 1600 Figure 13. focus on the necessity to verify the anticipated performance and evaluation of design approaches [7]. Trihedral Corner Reflector: σ =12Πa4/λ2. Currently. the formula is accurate for reflectors with square sides. RCS range is a parameter for engineering and scientific studies as well as testing the performances of various design approaches or simply constructing a database for a collection of targets or target conditions. Variation of frequency with RCS for cylinder and sphere.Journal of Theoretical and Applied Information Technology © 2005 .1.861m) . Back scattered RCS for frustum (λ=. The frequency of radar can also be swept to study the RCS variation of the objects with frequency. the constant "12" will be reduced. 20 10 RCS(dBsm) 0 -10 -20 -30 -40 -50 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 aspect angle(degrees) Figure 12. a large number of indoor and outdoor ranges are in operating 544 Figure 11.

www.100 and 300ns. the designers of some instrumentation systems allow the radar operator to make the optimization decision by providing the option to select the pulse with or system bandwidth.g. etc. The transmitted as well as the received signal are compared on CRO. This methodology needs to be designed carefully for optimum power utilization.jatit. Generally. Block diagram of Experimental setup for RCS measurement. A RADAR system for RCS measurement is fabricated in the laboratory. 545 .2009 JATIT. The timer also supplies that receiver with a delayed pulse command that alerts the receiver to the arrival of an echo pulse. TX Spread spectrum Generator BALANCE MIXER Attn CLK RF GENERATOR CRO RX Figure 14. The system is configured in such a way that the transmitter power output is optimized with improved receiver sensitivity and selection of operating wavelengths. This delay obviously depends on the range to the target. Therefore the overall system design is essentially a reconciliation of design conflicts. a brief introduction of spread spectrum technique is discussed in the following section. Common options are pulse widths of 30. Recognizing that no signal pulse width may serve all users or all test conditions. All rights reserved. spread spectrum based radar instrumentation is adopted. Before highlighting the instrumentation. a Pulse Doppler Radar is configured with an ISAR technique to process images for RCS measurements.org throughout the world in different size and measurement methodologies. The attraction of outdoor ranges for RCS measurements is that they can be designed to measure larger targets over wide frequency ranges. a pseudo random sequence is modulated with an RF signal and transmitted. the range decides the transmitter power output based on operating wavelengths. For a given target RCS and receiver sensitivity. To achieve the benefits of narrow as well as wider pulses and to avoid multi-path signals. Flying) through the field of view of the range instrumentation. but not so narrow that it excludes the echo from some parts of the target. This new technology of RCS measurements is challenging and opens avenues for futuristic technology trends. The transmitter generate the RF signal to be radiated and the receiver detects the echo signals and coverts them to other signals that can be recorded as a permanent record. Outdoor range are described as static with the target supported on low RCS pylon or column and dynamic with the target moving (e. the range gate pulse should be as narrow as possible. Experimental Setup for RCS measurement. rang resolution. The receiver sensitizing command is a pulse called the range gate and it must lag the transmitter trigger by approximately the time it takes a signal to propagate out to the target and back to the receiver. The maximizing of receiver sensitivity on the other hand demands the use of long pulses.The purpose of the pulsed waveform is to exclude as much as possible all signals except those reflected by the target. The generation of each pulse is controlled by a system timer that delivers a trigger signal to the transmitter at uniform time intervals. The quality and complexity of test range instrumentation vary considerably from one installation to another. The drawback of an outdoor range is that it is difficult to conduct measurements in a secure environment. Every kilometer distance amounts to 30dB in link budget. optimum selection of the parameters is very essential. Figure 15. otherwise the receiver would respond continuously to all echo returns in addition to the target echo. receiver sensitivity and target RCS.Journal of Theoretical and Applied Information Technology © 2005 . The radar range is an important parameter which depends mainly on transmitter power output. Therefore. To minimize background echoes from all other sources except the test target. The signal out of the transmitter is a train of rectangular pulses of modulated at RF frequency.

In hardware experiment a pseudo random sequence is generated.2009 JATIT. Figure18.org Figure 16. In order to maintain the input signal levels to protect the mixer a 10dB attenuator is placed between sequence generator and the mixer.5 GHz RF frequency. double balance mixer and two 15dB standard gain horn antennas as shown in fig. setting on RCS sequence generator used for generating PN sequence Figure. Tx & Rx waveforms on CRO.jatit. BPSK signals could be modulated and demodulated using Pseudo random sequence. www. CONCLUSION The concept of RCS measurement for different standard target is developed at laboratory using DSSS RADAR and the results are found to be encouraging. view of the set up from Tx/Rx Side. Measured Beam pattern of 1 ft 2 Flat Plate 6. The simulation results for different standard targets and the hardware experiment results are supporting each other to calibrate the RCS values of unknown objects. The output of the sequence generator is BPSK modulator with the help of double balanced mixer at 2. The same was repeated with commercially available Wi-Fi B adapter [8]. The set up consists of a sequence generator RF generator. All rights reserved.Journal of Theoretical and Applied Information Technology © 2005 . clock . Target returns from Sphere and Flat Plate and an available copper cladded PCB laminate are observed with the BPSK modulated signal. Figure 17. Delay depicted on CRO Figure18 & 19 exhibit the returns with and without the target. The concepts are supported with Simulations for different standard targets.15 & fig 16. This delay is due to the propagation delay between the Tx and Rx antennas. Figure 19. 17 shows the sequence generator is set with a feedback pattern and preset condition at 6 MHz clock for maximal sequence. Fig 19 highlights the delay between Tx signal and Rx signal. The transmitted signal is also displayed to compare the signals. 546 . Figure 20.

[5] N.N. Valenzuela. [13] K. Indianapolis. Yuan.Kandar and R. Tokyo. Radar Array Processing. [12] E. 2008. 2002 [20] Mody. Tech degrees in RadioPhysics and Electronics from Calcutta University. on Information Theory. Proc. RCS Imaging. Calcutta.L. Macmillan Technical Publishing 1999. 2004. ‘Receiver Implementation for the MIMO-OFDM System. M. [10] B. 71-78. vol. and T. and G. L. D.sinha. [2] W. Litva. Kolaghat.L. Terry. 1st ed.11. [15] Application Note 1140: http:// www. Chapter 6 on smart antenna . [22] Jeffrey H . and G. Raleigh. Stuber. He has published large number of papers in different national and international Conference and journals. and Wireless 4G communication.L. Fishler. John Wiley & Sons. V. John Wiley & Sons. Space –time Codes and MIMO systems. L. signal detection. nov 25.jatit. he has been associated with the College of Engineering and Management. Stuber. New York: Springer Verlag. Software Radio. R. San Antonio.D degree in Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering. Estimation. Stuber.. REFERENCES: [1] P. 185-195. Nirmalendu Bikas Sinha received the B. Published in International journal Progress In Electromagnetic Research M. Introduction to Radar Systems. 1. [17] Geier. M. ‘Space Time Coding’. Digital Radar.’ IEEE Global Commun. [18]Mody. pp. J. 204–221.2009 JATIT. [9] M. 2003.Sc (Honours in Physics). April 2004. Radar Conf. 2004. [6] H. A. 2. Shepherd. [21] OFDM and MC-CDMA by L. Since 2003. Vucetic & J. 3rd ed. NC... BIOGRAPHY: Prof.al. and G. Taiwan.Reed . Siebert. No. Scitech publishing. Hanzo et. 1956. 1998. 2006. Cimini. His current research Interests are in the area of signal processing for high-speed digital communications. 2007. Singapore. Sam Shanmugam. 547 . J. [3] M. NY.’ nG Japan. ‘Probability and Information Theory with Application to Radar’.India. IEEE Press. ‘Synchronization for MIMO-OFDM.1999 and 2001. John Wiley & Sons.. Wireless LANs : Implementing Interoperable Networks. published by Artech House. and Modulation Theory.N. 1953.” IEEE Trans.’ IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference. All rights reserved. [7] Knott EF.Journal of Theoretical and Applied Information Technology © 2005 . B.Microwave /Millimeter wave based Broadband Wireless Mobile Communication . Blum. Skolnik. ‘Digital and analog Communication Systems’. ‘Synchronization for MIMO-OFDM. Haykin. published by Artech House. 2002. multiuser communications. OFDM Wireless LANs : A Theoretical and Practical Guide.org 7. “A radar detection philosophy. Skolnik. He is currently working towards the Ph. [14] ‘Understanding & Enhancing Sensitivity in Receivers for wireless Applications’.A modern approach to radio engineering . A. [11] ‘ NTT DoCoMo Successfully Completes 4G Mobile communications Experiment including 100 Mbps transmission. 1988.B. Jankiraman. Japan. Chizhik. 2002. pp. [4] S.maximic. ‘Radar Principles’. R.semiconductor Devices.’ IEEE Global Communication Confarence. Conference . MA. Technical Brief SWRA030: Texas Instruments. InfoCom Research Inc. J. November 2001. of the IEEE. He is currently serving as a reviewer for Wireless communication and RADAR system in different international journals. [23] M. published by John Wiley &Sons Inc. West Bengal. Levanon. 2002. 1st ed.bera. M. III. Woodward. A. D. Vol. Sep.Professor is with the department of Electronics & Communication Engineering & Electronics & Instrumentation Engineering. Haimovich. ‘Radar Cross Section ‘. “Introduction to RADAR Systems”. Trees. J. published by Pearson Education. 1968.N. www. I. 1993. MIMO. 2003. Detection. McGraw-Hill. Tech. Vol 1. Remote Sensing.com/an1140 [16] Heiskala. A. IN : Sams Publishing. second edition. India where he is currently an Asst.in1996. 2004 [8] “Measurement of Target parameters using the DSS Radar” by N. and J. “MIMO radar: an idea whose time has come”. Texas.2002. vol. TATA McGraw-Hill Publication. Taiwan. respectively. [19] Mody.

D. India. www. Rabindranath Bera is a professor and Dean (R&D). Radiometric remote sensing.Tech. D . His research areas are in the field of Microwave & Microelectronics. All rights reserved.Journal of Theoretical and Applied Information Technology © 2005 . He is a member of IETE (I) and Institution of Engineers (I). Calcutta University. M.degrees from Calcutta University. 548 . RCS Imaging.2009 JATIT. He has published large number of papers in different national and international journals. HOD in Sikkim Manipal University and Ex-reader of Calcutta University.org Dr.Tech and Ph. Shibpur.Tech & Ph. Wireless 4G Communication. Field of Interests are in the area of Digital Radar. He has published large number of papers in different national and international Conference and journals. Monojit Mitra is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Electronics & Telecommunication Engineering of Bengal Engineering & Science University.Tech.degrees from Institute of Radio-Physics and Electronics. He has handled sponsored research projects of DOE and DRDO. He obtained his B.jatit. M. especially in the fabrication of high frequency solid state devices like IMPATT. Dr. B.