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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. 58, NO.

12, DECEMBER 2011

5385

Modulation for Three-Phase Transformerless Z-Source Inverter to Reduce Leakage Currents in Photovoltaic Systems
Fabricio Bradaschia, Student Member, IEEE, Marcelo C. Cavalcanti, Member, IEEE, Pedro E. P. Ferraz, Francisco A. S. Neves, Member, IEEE, Euzeli C. dos Santos, Jr., Member, IEEE, and João H. G. M. da Silva

Abstract—In this paper, a modified Z-source inverter (ZSI) with specific modulation techniques is proposed to reduce leakage currents in three-phase transformerless photovoltaic (PV) systems. The new topology only requires an additional fast-recovery diode when compared with the original structure. On the other hand, the pulsewidth modulation technique is entirely modified in order to reduce the leakage currents through the conduction path. Simulation results for the three-phase transformerless PV system operating in two cases, i.e., connected to a grid and connected to a grounded RL load, are presented. Experimental results of leakage currents in three-phase ZSIs connected to a RL load are obtained to validate the theoretical and simulation models. Index Terms—Energy conversion, photovoltaic (PV) power systems, pulsewidth-modulated power converters.

I. I NTRODUCTION HE distributed generation emerged as a way to integrate different power plants for increasing the reliability, reducing emissions, and providing additional power quality benefits. The photovoltaic (PV) modules are particularly attractive as a renewable source for distributed generation systems due to their relatively small size, noiseless operation, and simple installation and the possibility to put them close to the user. Many topologies for PV systems have a dc–dc converter with a high-frequency transformer that adjusts the inverter dc voltage and isolates the PV modules from the grid [1]–[3]. However, the conversion stages decrease the efficiency and make the system more complex [4], [5]. The transformerless centralized configuration with one-stage technology uses only one inverter and a large number of PV modules connected in series, called strings, to generate sufficient voltage to connect to the grid [6].
Manuscript received October 13, 2010; revised December 21, 2010; accepted February 4, 2011. Date of publication February 17, 2011; date of current version September 20, 2011. This work was supported in part by the “Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico-CNPq” and in part by the “Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior-CAPES” of Brazil. F. Bradaschia, M. C. Cavalcanti, P. E. P. Ferraz, and F. A. S. Neves are with the Department of Electrical Engineering, Federal University of Pernambuco, 50670-901 Recife-PE, Brazil (e-mail: fabricio.bradaschia@ ufpe.br; marcelo.cavalcanti@ufpe.br; pedroferraz@gmail.com; fneves@ ufpe.br). E. C. dos Santos Jr. and J. H. G. M. da Silva are with the Department of Electrical Engineering, Federal University of Campina Grande, 58109-900 Campina Grande-PB, Brazil (e-mail: euzeli@dee.ufcg.edu.br; joao.ufcg@gmail.com). Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TIE.2011.2116762

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In PV systems formed by series modules connected to a conventional two-level inverter, the occurrence of partial shades and the mismatching of modules lead to a reduction of the generated power and, consequently, a reduction of the maximum power point voltage to a level not sufficient to make the energy flow from the PV array to the grid [7], [8]. Such problem can be overcome by using a configuration in which the voltage boost requirement is obtained by a Z-source inverter (ZSI) [9], [10]. The ZSI for grid-connected three-phase PV systems has been proposed by some authors [11], and the research works have shown that the number of switching components and the volume of the system can be reduced, decreasing the total cost [12]. However, there is not any work that discusses the problems of three-phase transformerless PV systems with ZSIs. The main disadvantage of topologies without transformers is the connection of the PV array to the grid without galvanic isolation, causing fluctuations in the potential between the PV cells and the PV frame, which should be grounded to avoid risks of electric shock. These fluctuations inject leakage currents through the ground path due to the ground parasitic capacitance, increasing radiated electromagnetic emissions, grid current distortions, and losses in the system [13]. Therefore, three-phase inverters are not suitable for transformerless PV applications due to high leakage currents generated by the conventional pulsewidth modulation (PWM) [14]. Some works show alternatives of PWM to reduce the amplitude of the common-mode voltage (CMV) in neutral-point-clamped inverters [15], [16], although, in those cases, the objective is not to keep the CMV constant, because they are not applied to PV systems. In order to reduce leakage currents present in transformerless PV systems (grid connected or stand alone with grounded load), it is necessary to maintain the CMV constant in the inverter, i.e., not having switchings. Therefore, in this paper, the ZSI with an additional fast-recovery diode (named ZSI-D), using specific PWM techniques that maintain the CMV constant, is proposed to reduce leakage currents. The maximum amplitude of the output voltages can reach high levels due to the boost characteristic of the ZSI, and thus, less PV modules in series are needed to connect the system to the grid without a transformer. Furthermore, a proper switching pattern is chosen in order to assure a reduced number of commutations, leading to reduced switching losses in the inverter. This paper is organized as follows. In Section II, the threephase ZSI-D is presented for transformerless PV systems.

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w} (Fig. Common-mode circuit of the three-phase PV transformerless ZSI-D. it is possible to associate the leakage voltages vP n and vN n with the CMV in the inverter vN n = −vCM vP n = vP N + vN n = vP N − vCM . V3 . it can be found that vN n = − vP n vuN + vvN + vwN 3 vuN + vvN + vwN . Vst . a leakage current could appear. it is sufficient to calculate only vN n . Vst . Fig. when fluctuations occur in the potential between PV cells and grounded PV frame. CMV IN THE M ODIFIED ZSI The space-vector PWM (SVPWM) is generally used to control the three-phase voltage-source inverter (VSI) switches. (3) where V ∗ is the reference (desired) amplitude of the output phase-to-neutral voltages. The diode D2 in the proposed ZSI-D allows the opening of the way of leakage currents during shoot-through states. proving the reduction of the leakage currents in the proposed system. filter inductances (Lf ) with their internal resistance (Rf ). Simulated and experimental results for the three-phase ZSI and ZSI-D are presented in Section V. Conclusions are presented in Section VI. VOL. Vst . This resonant circuit includes PV array stray capacitances (CPV ). 1. a three-phase ZSI-D to reduce leakage currents in transformerless PV systems is proposed and the simplified common-mode circuit is analyzed. The output reference → voltage vector (− ∗ ) is composed. Therefore. which is used to guarantee the complete isolation of both terminals of the PV array from the inverter switches during the shoot-through states. During the non-shoot-through states. Three-phase ZSI-D to reduce leakage currents in transformerless gridconnected PV systems. by the v active vectors that define the sector where it is located and both zero vectors. V4 . 2. DECEMBER 2011 Fig. uv uw vw uvw Vst . In Section IV. Vst . during which both the upper . V5 .5386 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS. In addition to the eight traditional switching states of a VSI. and Vst ). the αβ plane is divided in six sectors. practically eliminates the leakage currents. For three-wire balanced loads. v. 3). in order to reduce the switchings in the CMV. there is a galvanic connection between grid and PV cells. (7) (8) Therefore. and resistances between the ground connection of the PV frame and grid (Rg ). delimited by the active space vectors. where an impedance network consisting of two identical inductors and two identical capacitors is used to couple the PV array to the inverter switches. Substituting (1) and (2) in (3). have no effect on leakage currents. modified PWM techniques are proposed for the ZSI-D topology. and V6 ) and two zero (V0 and V7 ) voltage vectors (Fig. For the transformerless grid-connected system in Fig. It is possible to express the leakage voltage (voltage between positive (P ) or negative (N ) dc bus and grounded neutral (n) − vP n or vN n ) in terms of the inverter output voltages vN n = vkn − vkN vP n = vkn − vkP = vkn − (vkN − vP N ) (1) (2) The CMV for the three-phase inverter can be calculated as [17] vCM = vuN + vvN + vwN . The difference between the traditional ZSI [9] and the proposed one is the additional fastrecovery diode (D2 ). = vP N − 3 (4) (5) In Section III. [17]. 1 shows the ZSI-D. a resonant circuit is created if the PV frame is grounded [4]. [17]. 58. Fig.15). II. u v w the ZSI has seven shoot-through zero states (Vst . V2 . The modulation index is defined as m= 2V ∗ vP N (9) where k = {u. a proper PWM technique should be used in order to maintain this PV potential constant. during shoot-through states. As vP n is equal to vN n shifted by the constant value vP N . The eight possible combinations are composed of six active (V1 . NO. 12. In SVPWM. 3 (6) Thus. in average values. the CMV in ZSI and ZSI-D is discussed. which are concentrated in both P and N terminals. III. leakage currents can be attenuated through proper control of the CMV. 2. Without a transformer. T HREE -P HASE M ODIFIED ZSI FOR T RANSFORMERLESS PV S YSTEMS In this section. the following condition for the inverter voltages can be written: vun + vvn + vwn = 0. 1). and thus. 1. and it is shown in Fig. The maximum amplitude of the output phase-to√ neutral voltages (V ∗ ) is vP N / 3 in the linear region (m ≤ √ 2/ 3 = 1. The simplified common-mode circuit for the three-phase PV transformerless ZSI-D can be developed by using the steps discussed in [14]. switchings in the CMV. Isolating the PV array during the shoot-through states.

Output voltage space vectors of a three-phase inverter. 4 and considering vL1 = vL2 = vL and vC1 = vC2 = vC . Using a similar procedure. it is possible to calculate the leakage voltage vN n for all even active vectors (Veven = {V2 . it is necessary to find out the inductor voltage vL = vP N − vC = vP N − BB vP N = (1 − BB )vP N (11) vN n = −(vL + vD ). Equivalent circuit of the three-phase PV ZSI-D during the application of vector V1 . In active and zero states. Using (4) in the equivalent circuit in Fig. both diodes D1 and D2 are reverse biased and the impedance network becomes decoupled from the PV array. the leakage voltage vN n can be calculated as vN n = − (vP N + vL ) vP N − vL + vL + vL =− . V6 }) even vN n = − BB + 1 3 vP N (14) and lower switches of one or multiple phase legs are turned on [18].BRADASCHIA et al. τst is the shoot-through duty cycle. 5 shows the ZSI-D during the application of any shootthrough vector Vst . Using (4) in the equivalent circuit in Fig. TABLE I CORRESPONDING SPACE VECTORS FOR ALL COMBINATIONS OF THE ZSI S WITCHES BB = 1 − Tst /Tsw 1 − τst = 1 − 2Tst /Tsw 1 − 2τst (12) is the voltage gain of the capacitors in the impedance network. 1). where Fig. and vD1 = vD2 = vD . for these vectors. 7 vN n = −BB vP N . 3. and for the zero vectors V0 and V7 . V5 }). (15) (16) A. CMV for Shoot-Through Vectors Fig. the leakage voltage vN n can be calculated as vN n = − vL + vD + vL + vD + vL + vD 3 (17) (18) In order to calculate the leakage voltage vN n . representing the boost stage. (13) The voltage vN n in (13) has the same value for all odd active vectors (Vodd = {V1 . . one phase is connected to the impedance network through the upper switch and two phases through the lower switches. In shoot-through states. 3 3 (10) B. V4 . both diodes D1 and D2 are conducting and the ZSI-D delivers energy to the load. and Tst is the shoot-through time interval during a switching cycle Tsw [9]. CMV for Active and Zero Vectors Fig. Table I presents the space vectors associated to the 15 possibilities of the ZSI switches (Fig.: MODULATION FOR Z-SOURCE INVERTER TO REDUCE LEAKAGE CURRENTS IN PV SYSTEMS 5387 Fig. the capacitors charge the inductors. respectively 0 vN n = (BB − 1)vP N . Therefore odd vN n = BB − 2 3 vP N . V3 . 4. 4 shows the ZSI-D during the application of vector V1 . since. totalizing 15 possible combinations. At the same time. vC1 = vC2 = vC . 5 and considering vL1 = vL2 = vL .

leading to high voltage stress across the switches. Considering the common-mode circuit of the ZSI (equal to Fig. it can be found that vP N st . 6. being called in [18] as simple boost control. differently from the ZSID. Proposed Modulation Techniques to Reduce Leakage Currents in ZSI-D The objective of the proposed PWM techniques is to reduce the high-frequency components of the CMV. and it has been used by many authors to control the switches in ZSI. 3). a maximum boost control was proposed by using all the time intervals of the zero vectors to apply shoot through in ZSI. In [19]. The MCB is based on carrier PWM control. but in this paper. However. using MCB. In order to calculate the leakage voltage vN n . 2 with a direct connection instead of the diode D2 ) and the CMV in Fig. Nevertheless. the shoot-through time interval is kept constant (constant boost factor) and a simple sinusoidal PWM with reduced modulation index is applied. A control method proposed in [18] achieves the maximum possible voltage gain without introducing low-frequency ripples in the impedance network. the voltages for the shoot-through states Vst in ZSI are equal to the voltages of the zero vector V7 . Table II summarizes those voltages in the ZSI-D topology. In the MCB. It can be seen that. 6. in order to reduce . the MCB is presented by using space-vector-based PWM control for better understanding of the CMV in ZSI. DECEMBER 2011 Fig. With the same approach for the ZSI-D topology. 58. the CMV will change eight times in each switching period. as shown in Fig. vD = 2 2 Substituting (19) and (20) in (18). Equivalent circuit of the three-phase PV ZSI-D during the application of any shoot-through vector Vst . This maximum constant boost (MCB) technique can reduce the inductance and capacitance requirements of the ZSI. 5. the CMV (vCM ) and the leakage voltages (vP n and vN n ) can be found in traditional ZSI topology. and Vst to synthesize the boost and the output reference voltages in ZSI. V7 . for all space vectors. there are five modulation curves: three output reference voltage signals and two shoot-through envelope signals. vN n = − 2 (19) (20) (21) Using the values of vN n in (7) and (8). the MCB uses the vectors uvw V0 . it is possible to determine the CMV (vCM ) and the leakage voltage vP n . and the CMV assumes four different values. due to the capacitive nature of the equivalent circuit and its existent circulating path. 6. In the same paper. 12. in sector I (Fig. In simple boost control. V2 . it is necessary to find out the inductor voltage and the diode voltage vL = vC = BB vP N (1 − 2BB )vP N vP N − 2vC = . NO. Switching pattern and CMV in ZSI controlled by the MCB in sector I (Fig. this control results in low-frequency ripples in inductor currents and capacitor voltages. respectively. M ODULATION T ECHNIQUES FOR THE T RADITIONAL ZSI AND THE P ROPOSED ZSI-D A. TABLE II COMMON-MODE AND LEAKAGE VOLTAGES FOR THE SPACE VECTORS IN THE ZSI-D TOPOLOGY Fig. 3). Conventional Modulation Techniques for ZSI The ZSI was proposed in [9] with the objective of obtaining a buck–boost converter by using only one stage of conversion. VOL. The ZSI topology presents the same voltages of the ZSI-D topology for active and zero vectors. B. V1 . the first modulation technique was proposed for the ZSI. For example. IV.5388 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS. high spikes in the leakage currents are expected when a change occurs in the CMV.

In order to reduce the number of switchings in the active to shoot-through transition. One possible . One possible technique [called odd PWM (OPWM)] consists in using only odd active and one-leg shoot-through space vectors to compose the output reference voltages and to boost the PV voltage. as can be seen in Fig. 3 and 5}. 3 2 2 wn (23) (24) → Considering the output reference voltage vector (− ∗ ) as a v sum of each odd active vector weighted by its duty cycle τ .e. the αβ plane is divided in three sectors. another for The switching pattern and the CMV in the ZSI-D for the OPWM technique (sector I in Fig. As can be seen in Table II. by all three v odd active vectors. 7. it is possible to determine one equation for the α axis. V3 . Therefore. leakage currents in the ZSI-D topology. 8. Nevertheless. i. 7. but the leakage currents do not have a path to circulate in the common-mode circuit (Fig. Therefore. it is possible to find the modulation index inequality of OPWM m≤ 2 2 (1 − τst ) = 3 3 1− Tst Tsw .5vvn − 0. and Vst are used. and j = {1. due to the boost factor.5τ3 |V3 | − 0. delimited by odd active space vectors. The proposed PWM presents four switchings for each active vector change. This value is 57. this technique guarantees the same CMV during the application of the odd active space vectors. 2) due to the reverse-biased diodes D1 and D2 in the proposed ZSID topology. and τj is its associated duty cycle. We define the output reference voltages as ⎧ ∗ ∗ ⎨ vun = V cos(wt) ∗ ∗ vvn = V cos wt − 2π 3 ⎩ ∗ vwn = V ∗ cos wt + 2π . the output reference voltages should be transformed to the αβ axis ∗ vα where Tj is the application time of odd active vector Vj . The output reference → voltage vector (− ∗ ) is composed. the maximum amplitude can be increased.5τ5 |V5 | √ √ ∗ (25) vβ = 23 τ3 |V3 | − 23 τ5 |V5 | ⎩ 1 = τ1 + τ 3 + τ 5 . Solving the system of equations in (25) with |V1 | = |V3 | = |V5 | = 2vP N /3. the duty cycles of the odd active vectors should have their values reduced. the oneleg shoot-through vector is changed every 120◦ . τj is its associated duty cycle. Considering the following practical restriction for the duty cycles: 0 ≤ τj ≤ 1 (27) Fig. which is equal to vP N /3 in the linear region (m ≤ 2/3 = 0. including the boost characteristic. During the shoot-through state. and V5 and the shoot-through vectors u v w Vst .7% of the maximum amplitude that can be obtained with SVPWM. only the active vectors V1 . the one-leg shoot-through vector is chosen. Vst .. avoiding the zero vectors V0 and V7 . A v possible solution is to reduce equal amounts from each active duty cycle. there is a change in the CMV. Furthermore. in average values.667). In the OPWM.BRADASCHIA et al.5vwn ) 3 √ √ 3 ∗ 3 ∗ 2 ∗ vvn − v vβ = . with the proper use of the shoot-through duty cycle τst . the combination of the ZSI-D topology with the OPWM technique practically eliminates leakage currents in transformerless PV systems. a third of τst is subtracted from each active duty cycle τ1 . keeping leakage currents reduced. without modifying the an→ gular position of the output reference voltage vector − ∗ . Considering the restriction in (27) for modified duty cycles τj . it is possible to determine the duty cycles of the odd active vectors ⎧ v∗ T1 ⎪ τ1 = Tsw = 1 + vPα 3 ⎪ N √ ∗ ⎨ ∗ 3vβ vα T3 (26) τ3 = Tsw = 1 − 2vP N + 2vP N 3 √ ∗ ⎪ ⎪ ∗ 3vβ ⎩ vα T5 τ5 = Tsw = 1 − 2vP N − 2vP N 3 where Tj is the application time of odd active vector Vj . leading to ⎧ ⎪ τ1 = T1 = τ1 − τst ⎪ Tsw 3 ⎨ τ = ⎪ 3 ⎪ ⎩τ = 5 T1 Tsw T1 Tsw = τ3 − = τ5 − τst 3 τst 3 (28) (22) In order to determine the time intervals of each odd active space vector. τ3 . 7) are shown in Fig. 3 it is possible to determine the maximum amplitude of the output phase-to-neutral voltages. and τ5 . (29) 2 ∗ ∗ ∗ = (vun − 0. Output voltage space vectors for the OPWM in the three-phase ZSI-D. and a third equation for the sum of the three duty cycles ⎧ ∗ ⎨ vα = τ1 |V1 | − 0. to assure equal current stress in each inverter output leg during the shoot-through state. In order to include the shoot-through duty cycle τst in the switching period.: MODULATION FOR Z-SOURCE INVERTER TO REDUCE LEAKAGE CURRENTS IN PV SYSTEMS 5389 the β axis.

due to changes in the group of the active vectors. v In this technique. 1) with values equal to 220 nF. V3 .7 Ω. and Vst is used from −180 to −60◦ . the combination of the ZSI-D topology with the EPWM technique also practically eliminates leakage currents in transformerless PV systems. A. the rms value of the leakage currents remains low when compared with the leakage current in ZSI with MCB. and V6 are used in sectors II. Switching pattern and CMV in the ZSI-D controlled by OPWM in sector I. Those changes are responsible for six spikes in the leakage currents per fundamental cycle. completing an output fundamental cycle. 9) and the vectors V2 . depending → of the position of the output reference voltage vector − ∗ [14]. III. The Z-source input voltage and the dc-link capacitor have values equal to vP N = 300 V and CP N = 2200 μF. The PV frame and the neutral point of the grid (or load) are grounded. and Vst are used.5 mH and Rf = 0. the vectors V1 . Another possible technique [called even PWM (EPWM)] consists in using only even active space vectors and the oneleg shoot-through space vector to compose the output reference voltages and to boost the PV voltage. only the active vectors V2 . A third possibility [called odd-even PWM (OEPWM)] consists in using a combination of OPWM and EPWM. As can be seen in Table II.5 mH and C = 1000 μF. 9. Using this pattern. and V (light gray sectors in Fig. The minimum VSI dc-link voltage necessary to connect the PV array to the grid is approximately 350 V (considering the output filter and the current controller saturation limits). which was not possible in the traditional VSI topology. and VI (dark gray sectors in Fig. Fig. the tips of odd and even limiting triangles delimit the output voltage synthesis area in a form of a six-point star. are connected to a 110-Vrms (line-to-neutral voltages)/60-Hz three-phase grid. V. creating a closed path to leakage currents. With this technique.94 and BB = 1. The PV array has two ground parasitic capacitors concentrated in points P and N (Fig. The transformerless PV ZSI and ZSI-D topologies are simulated in MATLAB/Simulink simulation platform. The Z-source impedance has the following values: L = 2. and the ground resistance is equal to 10.77).5% higher than the amplitude of the output voltages in OPWM and EPWM. which is 15.97) in order to have sufficient output voltage to deliver the energy from the PV array to the three-phase grid. respectively. A shoot-through duty cycle equal to 0. The three-phase grid currents are . DECEMBER 2011 Fig. IV. some simulations and experiments of the ZSI and ZSI-D topologies are carried out. seen in Fig. VOL.33 is chosen (voltage boost equal to 2. V4 . S IMULATED AND E XPERIMENTAL R ESULTS FOR ZSI AND ZSI-D In order to validate the theoretical models. Fig. and V5 are used in sectors I.5390 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS. Therefore. Vst . subtle changes in CMV occur every 60◦ of the output fundamental cycle. u v combination is as follows: Vst is used from −60◦ to 60◦ . Vst is ◦ ◦ w ◦ used from 60 to 180 . and the output filter has the following characteristics: Lf = 5. The switching frequency was fixed in 10 kHz.6 Ω. 12. this technique also guarantees the same CMV during the application of the active space vectors and the same behavior during the shoot-through state. 58. 9) to synthesize the output reference voltage vector. Output voltage space vectors for OEPWM in the three-phase ZSI-D. Grid-Connected Transformerless PV ZSI and ZSI-D The transformerless PV ZSI and ZSI-D topologies. Two types of a transformerless PV system are analyzed: connected to grid and connected to a RL load. corresponding to approximately 1334 spikes in the leakage currents per fundamental cycle (for Tsw = 100 μs and the 60-Hz grid). in which the CMV changes eight times per switching period. as can be seen in Fig. and V6 and the shoot-through vectors u v w Vst . 1 without and with diode D2 . 8. when both reversed-biased diodes D1 and D2 block the path for leakage currents. 9. the maximum amplitude √ (without boost) √ the of phase-to-neutral voltages is 2VP N /(3 3) (m ≤ 4/(3 3) = 0. It is important to note that switchings in CMV occur only during a transition to or from a shoot-through state. Nevertheless. respectively. V4 . NO. In OEPWM. 10 shows the variables of ZSI topology modulated by SVPWM with MCB control. Therefore.

6. The CMV vCM . . when compared with the leakage currents in the ZSI topology. 11 shows the variables of the ZSI-D topology modulated by OPWM.11 mA. as seen in Fig. Fig. Transformerless PV ZSI and ZSI-D Connected to a RL Load The transformerless PV ZSI and ZSI-D topologies. and the dc link capacitor are equal to the grid-connected simulation. 11(b). shown in Fig. the ground resistance. 11(c)] flowing through each phase of the grid. (a) Grid currents. which reach almost 7.: MODULATION FOR Z-SOURCE INVERTER TO REDUCE LEAKAGE CURRENTS IN PV SYSTEMS 5391 Fig. 10(c)] flowing through each phase of the grid. seen in Fig. shown in Fig. 10.BRADASCHIA et al. (c) Leakage current ileak . due to high leakage currents [Fig. due to low leakage currents [Fig. presents only two different values. present lower ripples than the ones in the ZSI. seen in Fig. Simulation of grid-connected PV transformerless ZSI modulated by SVPWM with MCB control. The three-phase grid currents.5 Ω and Lload = 7 mH. This proves the effectiveness of the proposed topology and PWM techniques in reducing leakage currents in grid-connected transformerless PV systems. 10(b). 11. respectively. (d) Leakage current (detail). are connected to a RL load with Rload = 64. 1 without and with diode D2 .5 A of peak value and 4. (c) Leakage current ileak .06 A of rms value. 11(d) and reach peak values equal to 5 mA and rms values equal to 3. The ground parasitic capacitors of PV array. B. (b) CMV vCM . and they present high ripples. The leakage currents in the ZSI-D topology can be seen in detail in Fig. The CMV vCM . Fig. 11(a). Simulation of grid-connected PV transformerless ZSI-D modulated by OPWM. Note that the leakage currents in the ZSI-D topology are practically zero. presents four different values. shown in Fig. (b) CMV vCM . (a) Grid currents. 10(a). as seen in Table II and Fig. 8.

12(c)] flowing through each phase of the load. (c) Leakage current ileak . 13(a). Fig. The CMV vCM and the leakage current ileak are shown in Fig. 12 shows a simulation result for the ZSI topology modulated by SVPWM with MCB control. due to high leakage currents [Fig. Fig. The three-phase load currents. The three-phase load currents are shown in Fig. (b) CMV vCM . as seen in Table II and Fig. A shoot-through duty cycle equal to 0. 12(b). are shown in detail in order to see the CMV’s two different levels and their influence in the leakage current. The three-phase load currents are shown in Fig.3 is chosen (voltage boost equal to 2. 12.75). 13(b) and (c). 14(c)] flowing through each phase of the load. and there is not an output filter between inverter and load. all controlled by a floating-point digital signal processor. The leakage current presents peak values equal to 700 mA (similar to simulation). shown in Fig. 14(b). 58. presents only two different values. (a) Load currents. respectively. 13. 8. The CMV vCM . Experimental result of the PV transformerless ZSI modulated by SVPWM with MCB control connected to a RL load. shown in Fig. 14. (a) Load currents. 14 shows a simulation result for the ZSI-D topology modulated by OPWM. NO. are shown in detail in order to see the CMV’s four different levels and their influence in the leakage current. Fig. DECEMBER 2011 Fig. one or two 1700-V/60-A fast-recovery diodes. The . Fig. 14(b) and (c). 12. 14(a). (c) Leakage current ileak . The CMV vCM . 15 shows the experimental results for the ZSI-D topology with the same parameters of simulation in Fig. and the Z-source impedance has the following values: L = 2 mH and C = 1100 μF. (b) CMV vCM .5392 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS. and vleak is the voltage of the RC leakage circuit formed by ground parasitic capacitor and ground resistance. Simulation of the PV transformerless ZSI modulated by SVPWM with MCB control connected to a RL load. Fig. VOL. presents four different values. seen in Fig. 12(a). Leakage voltage vleak . as seen in Fig.50 and BB = 1. respectively. respectively. present lower ripples than the ones in ZSI. Both CMV and leakage current in Fig. The switching frequency was fixed in 10 kHz. and they present high ripples. The Z-source input voltage is fixed in 100 V. 12(b) and (c). and six single IGBT drivers. The experimental setup is formed by three 1200-V/50-A insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) modules. 6. 13 shows experimental results for ZSI topology with the same parameters of simulation in Fig. 12. due to low leakage currents [Fig. Both CMV and leakage current in Fig.

due to higher voltage ripples in the switches. when compared with leakage currents in the ZSI topology (both simulation and experimental). Fig. It is possible to note in Fig. as shown in Fig. 14(d) and can reach peak values equal to 1 mA and rms values equal to 673. (b) CMV vCM . 14. three-phase load currents are shown in Fig. As expected. This proves the effectiveness of the proposed topology and the PWM techniques in reducing leakage currents also in transformerless PV systems connected to grounded loads. the leakage currents do not present undesired spikes and they are practically equal to zero. 15. In order to evaluate the overall efficiency of the proposed topology modulated by the OPWM technique. 15(a) and also do not present high ripples. the overall efficiency of the converter decreases. Similar to the simulation.BRADASCHIA et al. (d) Leakage current (detail). respectively. In both cases and for all the voltage boost range. . (a) Load currents.56 mA of rms value. which reach 700 mA of peak value and 343.47 μA. 16 that the efficiency has a similar behavior in gridconnected and stand-alone applications. Simulation of the PV transformerless ZSI-D modulated by OPWM connected to a RL load. respectively. when the voltage boost increases.: MODULATION FOR Z-SOURCE INVERTER TO REDUCE LEAKAGE CURRENTS IN PV SYSTEMS 5393 Fig.9 inductive. (c) Leakage current ileak . The leakage currents in the ZSI-D topology can be seen in detail in Fig. 16. (b) CMV vCM . the ZSI-D output active power and output power factor have the following constant values: 2390 W and 0. Experimental result of the PV transformerless ZSI-D modulated by OPWM connected to a RL load. Note that leakage currents in the ZSI-D topology (both simulation and experimental) are practically zero. the losses are estimated in grid-connected and stand-alone (connected to a RL load) applications. (a) Load currents. (c) Leakage current ileak . 15(b) and (c). Leakage voltage vleak . The CMV vCM and the leakage current ileak are shown in Fig.

where he is currently a Professor of Electrical Engineering. pp. Shen. Ind. Ind. “Improved Z-source inverter with reduced Z-source capacitor voltage stress and soft-start capability. 6. 2. and evaluation of PV inverters and dynamic MPPT performance under real varying operating conditions. “Eliminating ground current in a transformerless photovoltaic application. Gubía. Tolbert. Ind. 15. 184–191.. pp. no. Sanchis. Photovolt. [15] J. From August 2008 to August 2009. Carrasco. Jul. pp. L. Marroyo. pp. renewable energy systems.” IEEE Trans. Cavalcanti (M’07) was born in Recife. J. Teodorescu. K. Malvar. 529–536. M. and M. 57. Teodorescu. “Constant boost control of the Z-source inverter to minimize current ripple and voltage stress. pp. vol. no. A. Conf. vol.: Res. 2005. Z. 53. A. pp.” Prog. His research interests are renewable systems and power quality. NO. Electron. 1292–1306. and F. Photovolt. Brazil. [18] M. Appl. Z. vol. Oliveira. 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He received the B. G. degree in electrical engineering from the Federal University of Minas Gerais. where he is currently an Associate Professor of electrical engineering.D.D. Ferraz was born in Recife. he has been with the Department of Electrical Engineering. during 1999 and at Alcala University.. degrees in electrical engineering from the Federal University of Campina Grande. Recife. Brazil. Texas A&M University. in 2011. respectively. From December 2010 to March 2011. Recife. power quality. M. da Silva was born in Rio de Janeiro. (S’04–M’08) received the B. Francisco A. João H. and the Brazilian Association of Power Electronics (SOBRAEP). M. from February 2008 to January 2009. Brazil. Since March 2009. in 1983. and Ph. 2005. His research interests are Z-source converters. S. Federal University of Pernambuco. dos Santos Jr. Neves (M’00) was born in Campina Grande.Sc. Madrid. he was Professor with the Federal Center of Technological Education of Paraíba. Brazil. in 1984 and 1992. as a Visiting Scholar. He received the B. From August 2006 to March 2009. Since 1993. Campina Grande. Brazil.S.S. in 2004. Brazil. he was a Visiting Professor at the University of Siegen. Belo Horizonte. and power quality.S. Siegen. He was a Visiting Scholar at the Georgia Institute of Technology. Euzeli C.S. in 2009. sponsored by Deutscher Akademischer Austausch Dienst (DAAD)/Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES). and M. degree. and grid synchronization methods. where he is currently working toward the M. where he is currently a Professor of Electrical Engineering.: MODULATION FOR Z-SOURCE INVERTER TO REDUCE LEAKAGE CURRENTS IN PV SYSTEMS 5395 Pedro E. dos Santos is a Member of the IEEE Power Electronics Society. renewable energy systems. Joao Pessoa. in 1963. Spain. renewable energy systems. Brazil. Atlanta. Federal University of Campina Grande. degrees in electrical engineering from the Federal University of Pernambuco.S. degree in electrical engineering from the Federal University of Campina Grande. From 2006 to 2007.S. Germany. and 2007. He received the B. he was with the Electric Machines and Power Electronics Laboratory.. His research interests include power electronics. degree in electrical engineering from the Federal University of Pernambuco. the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society.S.BRADASCHIA et al. P. Brazil. College Station. respectively. Dr. in 1999. in 1988. degree in electrical engineering. and the Ph. where he is currently working toward the M. . His research interests include power electronics and electrical drives. Campina Grande. Brazil. he has been with the Department of Electrical Engineering.