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CONTENTS

1.Over view of power systems 2.Types of substations 3. Substation / Switchyard Equipment:  Transformer           Switch Gears Circuit Breaker Isolators/ Disconnectors Instrument Transformer Surge Arrestors (Gapped Type , Gap less type) Lightning masts Post Insulators and supporting structures Wave Traps Reactive Power compensating device Conductors / Auxiliary Items

4.CONCLUSION

 Generation must be synchronized with load o Electricity is used as it is produced o Many generators connected to share load o Grid distributes power to many loads All generators in AC grid must be synchronized Large electric grids o Minimize effects of load & generation change o Increase reliability by generation backup o Allow shifting load to more economical units Power systems are Alternating Current (AC) o Connected generators must be synchronized o System frequency must be controlled o Power flow governed by phase angle    .Over view of power systems: Power geneartion. distribution together constitutes the power system All the generators. transmission lines and distribution systems connected together in a region/ area form a Grid. transmission.

which has a large influence on the security of the supply. Gap less type)  Lightning masts  Post Insulators and supporting structures  Wave Traps  Reactive Power compensating device  Conductors / Auxiliary Items . EHV/MV. HV/MV) substation Types of substations  AIR INSULATED (CONVENTIONAL)  GAS INSULATED SWITCHGEAR (GIS)  HIGH VOLTAGE POWER ELECTRONIC SUB-STATION (HVDC) Substation / Switchyard Equipment  Transformer  Switch Gears  Circuit Breaker  Isolators/ Disconnectors  Instrument Transformer (Current Transformers. which has effect on Quality of power. Voltage Transformer / Capacitor Voltage Transformers)  Surge Arrestors (Gapped Type . TYPES OF SUBSTATIONS:     The three functions of transmission network fulfilled through different types of substations Substations attached to power stations(In door / out door type) Interconnecting substations Step-down (EHV/HV.   Step-up and/or Step-down the voltage levels depending upon the Network Node Switching ON/OFF Reactive Power Control devices.What is a Substations ? It is a switching station which has the following credits :  Main link between Generating plant and Transmission system.

An autotransformer (a transformer with only one winding) is used instead.OFAF. it is desirable to change the voltage by a small amount (for instance.)  Tap Changer On Load Tap Changer Off Circuit Tap Changer TRANSFORMER:  A transformer is a device that transfers electrical energy from one circuit to another through inductively coupled electrical conductorsThis changing magnetic field induces a changing voltage in the second circuit (the secondary). when the consumer is far away from the generator and it is needed to raise the voltage to compensate for voltage drops). etc.8 Km away from the RSTPS switchyard. Sometimes. This effect is called mutual induction. AUTO TRANSFORMERS Five Auto Transformers with on Load Tap Changers are provided to interconnect the 400 Kv system of NTPC and 220/132 Kv system of AP Tranco. In such situations.Transformer  Generator Transformer  Inter Connecting Transformer Auto Transformer Two / Three winding transformer  Single phase / three phase type  Cooling Arrangement (ONAN. Diagrams of step-up and step-down autotransformers: . Malyalapally sub station situated 1. it would be expensive to wind a transformer with two windings of approximately equal number of turns.

STEP UP TRANSFORMER STEP DOWN TRANSFORMER VC NC  VSE N SE 1. 400/132 Kv 200 MVA (TELK make) 400/220 Kv 250 MVA (TELK make) 2 Nos 2 Nos . 2.

minimum oil. SF6 is the arc quenching media for all the 400 KV and 220 KV breakers installed in the switchyard.F. CIRCUIT BREAKER It is an automatic device capable of making and breaking an Electrical Circuit under normal and abnormal conditions such as short circuits. SF6. Cooling towers and lighting requirements of station & colony. Current Transformers also isolate measuring and protective devices from high system voltage. of Tie Transformers are provided for feeding power to station auxiliaries like Cooling water & Raw water pumps. ABB and NGEF make breakers and Hydraulic operating system is provided in BHEL make breakers. TIE TRANSFORMER Four nos. terminal point for receiving & transmitting the high frequency signals for carrier protection and communication. protection and synchronizing circuits. cheaper. Pneumatic operating system is provided in AEG.    Interrupting (Bulk oil. CVT has a H. Vacuum) Live / Dead tank Operating mechanism • Pneumatic medium . Core 1&2 are used for busbar protection. 400/220 Kv 315 MVA (Crompton Greevs Ltd. CAPACITIVE VOLTAGE TRANSFORMER (CVT) CVTs step-down the system voltage to sufficiently low value (110 V) for measuring. CTs in the switchyard consist of five secondary cores. make) 3-PHASE TRANSFORMER: The majority of the power generation/distribution systems in the world are 3-phase systems.3. more efficient). CURRENT TRANSFORMER (CT) Current Transformers are provided to step down the current to low values suitable for measuring protection and control instruments. Coal Handling & water treatment Plants. 4 & 5 are for main 1&2 protection and core 3 is for measuring instruments. Ash & Fuel Handling pumps. Air blast. 132KV breakers provided in 132 KV lines are of Minimum oil type operating on spring charge mechanism. The transformers for such circuits can be constructed either as a 3-phase bank of independent identical transformers (can be replaced independently) or as a single transformer wound on a single 3-legged core (lighter.

The isolators provided in the switchyard are of central break type. which is to be isolated from all other live parts. . Motorized operation for opening & closing of Isolator is provided. The operation of Isolators can be done from control room (remote) or local. however Isolators can also be opened & closed manually in the even of nonavailability of motorized operation.   above • Hydraulic • Spring • Combination of above Interrupter (single break / multi break) With or without Closing Resistor / Pre Insertion Resistor (PIR) Grading Capacitor (Voltage distribution across breaker) – 400kV & ISOLATORS Isolator is an off load device provided in conjunction with circuit breaker to disconnect the equipment or the section.

EARTH SWITCH Earth switch is mounted on the isolator base on the line side or breaker side depending upon the position of the isolator.4”. where all incoming and outgoing feeders are connected in a schematic way to enable smooth operation and Maintenance of equipment without any interruption to the system. The earth switch usually comprises of a vertical break switch arm with the contact. Two-breaker scheme is provided for 500 MW generator feeders. Surge Arresters provide leakage path to the ground whenever the system voltage rises above the specified value. BUSBAR Busbar is an Aluminium tube of 4” IPS having wall thickness of 0. which measures the leakage currents and a counter to record the number of surges taken place. . Earth switch is required to discharge the trapped charges on the line or equipment (under shut own) to earth for maintaining safety. SURGE / LIGHTING ARRESTERS Surge Arresters are provided to ground the over voltage surges caused by switching and lighting surges. Earth switch can be operated only from local either by electrical operation or manually. They are equipped with surge monitors. which engages with the isolator contact on the line side. At RSTPS one and half breaker scheme is provided for 200 MW generator feeders and 400 KV outgoing lines.

This keeps carrier signal confined to the protected line section and does not allow the carrier signals to flow into the neighboring sections. stub protection. the length of these lines being about 267 km. check synchronization. controls initiated and operations are integrated. RELAY PANELS Relay panels are of cubicle type. Annunciation relays and energy meters are mounted on the rear side of the panel. Shunt reactors are provided on both the ends of Nagarjuna Sagar lines 1 & 2. Shunt reactors also limit the short circuit fault levels. Main 1 protection. Control room consists of the following equipment. The relative position of each equipment is shown in the mimic single line diagram that is painted on front side of the control panels. O/V protection and their auxiliary & trip relays as group 1 and Main 2 protection. Auto reclosure. The close/open position of the breakers / isolators / earth switches is indicated through lamps or semaphore indicators. Breaker monitoring and protective relays such as LBB. the receiving end voltage raises. Trip circuit monitoring. The controlling knobs are provided on front panel for opening & closing of breakers and isolators. voltage.) and annunciation windows are provided on the top of front panel for monitoring of the equipment. due to ferranti effect. there is adequate space for inspection of interior wiring. MVAR. current etc. The indicating instruments (MW. CONTROL PANELS Corridor type flat control panels are provided in U shape with doors at both the end panels. . All the protective relay units related to one bay are divided into two groups viz. flat independent boxes with a door at backside. Between the front and rear panels. SWITCH YARD CONTROL ROOM EQUIPMENT The control room is the place where the conditions of the system are monitored. SHUNT REACTORS Long lines when lightly loaded.WAVE TRAP Wave Trap is a parallel resonant circuit tuned to the carrier frequency connected in series with the line conductor at each end of the protected transmission line section. Therefore. Wave trap offers high impedance path for high frequency signals and low impedance path for power frequency current. Shunt Reactors produce lagging MVAR there by control the receiving end voltages during lightly loaded conditions.

U/v protection and their auxiliary & trip relays as group 2 relays. Fault locator and disturbance recorder of the corresponding bay mounted on front side of the third panel. A separate glass door is provided front side of all the panels to cover the relays from dust. . Group 1 & group 2 relays are mounted on front side of two separate panels side by side.