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Design and Implementation of High Frequency AC-LED Driver with Digital Dimming

Chao-Lung Kuo Tsorng-Juu Liang Kai-Hui Chen Jiann-Fuh Chen
Advanced Power Electronics Center, Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan Email:
Abstract – In this paper a two-stage high frequency AC-LED driver is designed and studied. The front-stage is a boost powerfactor correction (PFC) circuit and the rear-stage is a halfbridge series resonant inverter. The lighting characteristics of high frequency AC voltage driving LEDs, and the effect of LED to half-bridge resonant circuit are discussed. The proposed design uses the digital dimming control to reduce LED chromaticity shift, and connect the LEDs as a full-bridge rectifier to simplify the current sensing circuit. An 80-W high frequency AC-LED driver with universal voltage input (90~264 Vrms) is implemented to verify the design. Experimental results show that the variation of chromaticity coordinates (u’, v’) from brightness 100% to 20% is within 0.0023. Keywords:Digital dimming, High frequency AC-LED.

Ⅱ. HIGH FREQUENCY AC-LED DRIVER SYSTEM A high frequency AC-LED driving system is proposed, as shown in Fig. 2. The front-stage, a boost PFC circuit, achieves high power factor and low input current harmonic distortion. The rear-stage is a half-bridge series resonant inverter to drive LEDs. LEDs are full-bridge connected to form the high frequency AC-LED module. vo is the output voltage of the half-bridge series resonant inverter. The current sensing circuit of LEDs is simplified, because of the rectification characteristics of AC-LED module. io is a high frequency alternating current signal. By the full-bridge connection all LEDs current can be controlled by sensing id, rectified io. Because the V-I curve of LED is shown as an exponential function, the non-linearity characteristics is difficult to be analyzed. To simplify the analysis, an approximated linear relationship is taken in Fig. 3(a). The linear relationship only takes the DC characteristics of LED into consideration, and the capacitance effect caused by LED junction is neglected. The capacitance effect of LED must be considered for high frequency AC voltage driving LED. The modified approximate linear relationship includes two parts: LED on and LED off. When LED is on, the equivalent circuit is shown in Fig. 3(b). When LED is off, the equivalent circuit is shown in Fig. 3(c).[5].
iac iL1 L1 iS1 Cin S1 vDS1 D1 C1 Cbus
id,PFC D

I. INTRODUCTION Light emitting diodes (LEDs) nowadays draws high attraction for general illumination. Because of energy saving, environmental friendly, long life, vibration endurance, high color saturation, and fast response, LEDs are widely used in traffic light, vehicle light, flash light, and so on. LEDs are treated as next generation lighting source, but the challenges of LEDs are the efficacy, thermal mechanism, and the cost. [1~3] LED is driven by DC voltage conventionally. Thus, it needs to transfer AC utility source to DC voltage for LED. Recently, AC utility source directly driving LED is proposed as Fig.1(a).[4] The disadvantage of AC-LED is the conduction voltage of LEDs. The conduction angle causes current harmonic distortion and lowers the power factor, as shown in Fig. 1(b). In this paper, a two stage high frequency AC-LED driving system is proposed and designed. The system do not need the output rectify diode to achieve higher efficiency. Also, the conduction angle issue of utility AC-LED is improved. Finally, an 80-W high frequency AC-LED driver with universal input voltage (90~264 Vrms) is implemented to verify the feasibility.

D2 C 2 S2 vgs2 Vbus S3 vgs3 D3 C3 vDS3 DN2 DP2 vDS2 io Lr vLr Cr vCr vo DP1 DN1 id



BCM boost PFC

Half-bridge resonant inverter

LED module

Fig. 2 Circuit configuration of the proposed converter






Fig. 1 Equivalent circuit of AC LED and correlated waveforms

Fig. 3 V-I curve and equivalent circuit of LED (a) V-I curve (b) turn-on equivalent circuit (c) turn-on equivalent circuit

978-1-4244-5309-2/10/$26.00 ©2010 IEEE


Lr and Cr are resonant with Ron. and the relationship of vo is shown as equation (2). The time duration of this mode is shown in equation (1). next mode starts. The higher order 3714 . 4 Simplified equivalent circuit of the AC-LEDs. The operation of this mode is shown in Fig. the impedance of Roff is much greater than Coff. Switching frequency fs is higher than resonant frequency fr. Since mode Ⅴ~ Ⅷ are symmetrical to the first four modes. The two switches of the half-bridge inverter are driven by complementary signals with dead time.on. The operation of this mode is shown in Fig. 5. 7(b). Operating principles The simplified equivalent circuit of LED is shown in Fig. DP off and enters the next symmetrical mode. the simplified circuit of LED-on is shown in Fig. and its Fourier series is expressed as equation (3). Mode III:(t2 ~ t3) At t = t2. ZVS of S3 achieved. Coff is a high impedance. The resonant tank is shown in Fig. Resonant characteristics The output voltage vo can be separated into two parts. DP conducts. The resonant tank only formed by Lr. The operation of this mode is shown in Fig. the impedance of Con is much greater than Ron. In this mode. S3 are neglected. 6(b). The first part is the conduction voltage of LEDs.4. The operation of this mode is shown in Fig. and Ron for constant conduction voltage of LEDs. va(t) is a square wave voltage. 6(c). 6(d). Mode IV: (t3 ~ t4) In this mode. switch S2 and DP are on. Cr and Coff form the resonant tank. discharges C3 to zero and the anti-parallel diode is conducted. Δt = t1 − t0 = Lr ⋅ (Cr ⋅ Coff ) Cr + Coff ⋅ cos −1[1 − (Cr + Coff ) ⋅ VD . and Ron. vD. and the duty cycle of the two gate-driving signals is 50 %. io charges C2 and 2. switch S2 is on. consequently. During this mode. vo rises quickly to the conduction voltage VD. There are eight operating modes in one full switching cycle. Cr. When LED is off. The key waveforms of the inverter are shown in Fig. switch S3 is on and S2 is off. Some conditions are assumed as follows to simplify the analysis. OPERATING PRINCIPLES AND CIRCUIT ANALYSIS 1. only the first four operating modes are discussed. 7(a). 6(a). and the second part is the voltage vr.When vo drops to VD. Because of Coff << Cr.on.on Cr ⋅ Vbus ] Fig.Ⅲ. Mode I: (t0 ~ t1) At t = t0.on of S2. Lr.on. LEDs are not conducted.on. (a) (b) Fig. The simplified LED-off circuit is shown in Fig. 4(a). Cr. which is resonant by Lr. When LED is on. When vgs3 is high. The characteristics of S2 and S3 are the identical. 4(b). 6 The operating modes of the proposed converter Mode II: (t1 ~ t2) In this mode. 5 The key waveforms of the proposed converter (a) Mode I (b) Mode II (1) (c) Mode III (d) Mode IV Fig. S2 and S3 are off. During this mode. next mode starts. The mode ends when S2 is turned off. RDS. When vo rises to VD.

The dimming signal frequency is higher than human eyes can aware of the light fliker. which are 145 Vrms and 570 mA and almost no conduction angle between vo and io.harmonics effect is lowered and the resonant current is approximately to a sinusoidal wave by setting the switching frequency close to the resonant frequency.rated: 80 W. 10 shows the waveforms of output voltage vo and output current io. Po. and the dimming circuit is shown in Fig 8(b). 11 shows the rectified current id. L1: 0. This paper adopts digital dimming to adjust the light output of LEDs. Fig. 8(a).on + v r VI 2VI ∞ 1 − (−1)n + ⋅∑ ⋅ sin(nωt ) 2 π n =1 2n V vI = 2 ⋅ ( bus − VD . and the curve of the voltage gain is shown in Fig. vDS2.on + vI 2 ⋅ ⋅ | G ( jω ) | 2 π (5) (b) Fig.0023 which can comply with the standard of Energy star. a laboratory prototype driving system is implemented. Fig.555 mH.2 nF. including CIE1931(x. and vDS3 3715 . 9 The experimental waveforms of vgs2. Digital dimming There are two methods for LEDs dimming. CIE1976 (u’. Analog dimming can adjust the voltage gain by modulating the switching frequency to achieve. and Fig. Fig. Digital Fig. digital or analog dimming. chromaticity shift Δu’v’ and dominant wave length DW. (a) LED on (b) LED off (c) Fig. The variation of CIE1976 (u’. vo = V D . 13 shows one LED of the module light output versus dimming duty.12 shows the waveforms of digital dimming. (2) (3) (a) ref FB L6574 High side driver VCO Cf Control logic Low side driver Soft start Rc1 Rb1 Dimming signal Q1 Rb2 Rc2 Q2 vgs3S3 D3 C3 S2 vgs2 D2 C2 v ( jω ) 1 = G ( jω ) = o va ( jω ) 1 + jQ( f s + f r ) fr fs Lr Cr 1 . vgs3. 8 Digital dimming Ⅳ. 9 shows the switching signals of half bridge stage. The system specifications and parameters are. LED module: 1W LED 80 pics. 14 shows the system efficiency under dimming process. Dimming frequency:200 Hz. Fig. The voltage transfer function G(jω) can be obtained as equation (4). the output voltage of the half-bridge resonant inverter is shown as equation (5).625 mH. 7 Resonant network and voltage gain 3. Table 1 shows the light characteristics of LEDs. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS In order to verify the performance of the proposed converter. which is the current control signal. Cr: 8. 7(c). Fig. fr = where : Q = Rs 2π Lr Cr (4) vo = VD . Lr: 0. which can achieves ZVS.v’) is within 0. vac: 90~264 Vrms. So. y). Vbus: 400 V.v’). The strategy of dimming is shown in Fig. The disadvantages of analog dimming are the narrow dimming range and the chromaticity shift problem.on ) 2 va (t ) = dimming is using low-frequency pulse width modulation to adjust the light output of LEDs[6~7].

Brodrick.Table 1 The light characteristics of LEDs under various dimming condition Fig. Fletcher. Ludowise. 2005. John Wiley & Sons. Rudaz. [4]M. 2004.S. June 2007. vol. Xu. department of energy catalyzing science into the marketplace. dimming signal and io at 20 % (a) and 50 % dimming(b) 60 50 40 lm 30 20 10 0 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Duty cycle of dimming signal In this paper. Zukauskas.00% 90. C. June 2007. Anderson.” IEEE Proc. Wu. Holcomb. a two-stage high frequency AC-LED driver with digital dimming is implemented to verify the feasibility. v’) from 100% brightness to 20% brightness is within 0.” IEEE proc. 12 Waveforms of vgs3. [6] C.” IEEE proc. L. “AC light emitting diode and AC LED drive methods and apparatus./Apr. F. CONCLUSIONS Fig. [5] C. REFERENCE [1] J. and T. X. pp.00% 88.00% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Duty cycle of dimming signal Fig.0023. 11 Waveform of id (a) (b) Fig. M. The front-stage is a boost PFC circuit to improve power factor and reduce the input current harmonic distortion of the system. 1-7. 20070273299. “Fast transition current-type burstmode dimming control for the LED back-light driving system of LCD TV. 4192-4195. Finally. no 2. Chen. vol.7% at 220 Vrms input in full-load condition.. and S. [2] M. 3. C. PAT. “Solid state lighting: toward superior illumination. [3] D. Steigerwald. R. PESC’ 08. 14 System efficiency at 220 Vrms input under various duty cycle of dimming signal 3716 . Inc.00% 84. a laboratory prototype circuit with (90~264 Vrms) input and 80 1W-LEDs output is implemented to verify the design of the proposed system. vol 8. 2002. Introduction to solid state physics. no 2.00% 80. pp.” IEEE Journal on selected topics in quantum electronics. J. Collins. Martin. J. M. With digital dimming. 13 Light output of one LED of the module at 220 Vrms input under various duty cycle of dimming signal 92. “Next-generation lighting initiative at the U.N. O. “High dimming ratio LED driver with fast transient boost converter. the variation of chromaticity coordinate (u’.” U. D. 1691-1703. J. No. “Illumination with solid state lighting technology. Y. Shur and A. ACKOWLEDGEMENT The authors gratefully acknowledge financial support from LED Lighting And Research Center of National Cheng Kung University and Advanced Optoelectronic Technology Center of National Cheng Kung University Ⅵ. [7] X. Wu. PESC’ 06. S.S. The rear-stage is a half-bridge series resonant inverter which provides the high frequency sinusoidal signal to drive LEDs.00% 82. Wu. Mar. C. M. pp. 10 The experimental waveforms of vo and io= Ⅴ. P. June 2008. The experimental results show that the half-bridge stage can achieve ZVS operation and nearly no conduction angle between the forward voltage and current of LEDs. Fig. Oct.00% Efficiency 86. A. S.” IEEE Journal of Display Technology. 93. Kittel. Miskin. Bhat. The efficiency is 90.