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Socletv of PetroleumEndmtra

SPE 26453 Cement Resistiwty and Implications for Measurement of Formation Resistivity Through Casing
J.D, Klein, P.R. Marln, and A.E. Miller,* ARCO E&P Technology
q SPE Member

Copyright 1993. Society of Petroleum Engmoers, Inc. This papa{ wae prepared for presentation at the 68th Annual Technical Conference end Exhlbdlon of the Society of Pelroleum Engmeere held In Horrslon, Texes. 3-S October 1993. Thta paper was aalected for presentation by an SPE Program (%mmmee followlng rewaw of information contained m an af)strecl subm!lled by the author(e). Contents of the paper, aa preaentad, have nof osen reviewad by the Sociely of Petroteum Engineers and are eubject to correction by me author(s) The material, as presented, does not necessarily reflect any position of Ihe Society ot Petroleum Enginesra, ite officers, or mambere. Papers presentad at SPE msellnge ere subjact 10publlcaoon rewew by Edoorial Commineee 01the SocIeIy of Petroleum Engineere. Permieeionto copy is restricted to an abstract of not more lhan 300 words. Illuatrallons mey not be copied. The ebahecl should C4nleinconaplcuoueacknowledgment of where and by whom the paper ia presented. Write Librarian. SPE, P.O. Box 833838, Richardson, TX 75083.3836, U.S.A. Telex, 163245 SPEUT.

~CT Measurement of formation resistivity through casing is an emerging logging technology, with prototype logging tools currently under development, Modeling studies show that the presence of cement could reduce the sensitivity of the TCRTW (Through Casing Resistivity ToolT’J). Physically this tool has some similarity to a Iaterolog. Measurements vvmddbe seriously affected if the cement was much more resistive than the formation. We have carried out a laboratory study of cement resistivity with the funding from the Gas Research Institute. Our main objective was to provide hard data to use \n assessing the impact of cement resistivityon measurementsmade with the TCRTTM. Our results show that cement resistivity is generally low, varying from less than 1 to 8 Q-m at 120° F. Light-weight cements were generally the least resistive,with Class A, G and l-f cements more resistive. Resistivity was essentially independent of either confining or pore pressure. It was also independent of either current density or voltage. Cement resistivity appears to vary with temperature according to Arp’s equation, as would be expected for nonconductive material saturated with water. Thin sections and mercuty injection capillary pressure data show that porosity in cement is dominantly microporosity, with pore throat diameter less than 0.1 microns. In addition helium porosity is high, ranging from 3!5to 40%. The low obsewed resistivity is due to large amounts of water-filled microprosity. Referencesand illustrations at end of paper. 365

The results of this study signify that the presence of cement will not seriously degrade measurements of resistivity through casing in many environments. Our work concentrated on cements normally used on the North Slope of Alaska, as well as Class H cement, a common Gulf Coast cement. Potential applications of the TCRTTMinclude water flood monitoring at Prudhoe Bay and elsewhere, and detection of “missed pay” behind casing.

Recent technological advances irrcficatethe feasibility of measurement of formation resistivity through casing. Patents on the basic technology are held by Gard et al. (1989), Kaufman (1989), and Vail (1989a, 1989b, 1991a, 1991b, 1991c, 1993a, and 1993b). The concept has been demonstrated by successful measurement of formation resistlvityin a cased well (Vail etal,1993). Vail is CUrrently developing a prototype logging tool. The basic concepts for the measurement are described by Kaufman (1990). Early in the development of the technology it was recognized that a high resistivity cement annulus or high casing contact resistance could affect the measurement of formation resistivlty. The tool propxed by Vail operates similarly to a Iaterolog, and is therefore sensitive to the presence of large resistances between the casing and the formation. The effect of a cement annulus TMThrough Casing ResistivityToo! and TCRT are trademarks of ParaMagneticLogging, Inc.

Sample Holders and Electrodes The sample holders are designed for either two.temperature. temperature. The following variables were included: 1) cored versus molded samples. The theoretical studies are hampered by a paucity of published data on cement resistivity. For some t~sts.000 Hz.I 2 CEMENT F? ESISTWITYAND lMPLiCATIONS FOR MEASUREMENT OF FORMATIONRESiSTIVITY THROUGHCASING SPE 26453 has been described theoretically by Morrison arid Schenkei (1992). and sleeve pressure can be applied to simulate overburden pressure.or fourtermlnal measurements. A number of additional measurements were carried out to isolate and identify any measurement or preparation artifacts that might affect the data. The present study was carried out to provide information on the resistivity of cement formulations that are commonly used by the oil industry to cement casing. (1990). sleeve (or overburden) pressure. BO~TOFtY E~T Electronic Equipment The measurement system used normally in the ARCO electrical laboratory is set up to automatically measure resistkity usjng either two or four electrodes ‘over the frequency range of 10 to 100. and so was ideally suited for the study. Most of our measurements were obtained with silver mesh current electrodes. and cement age. and had maximum current output of 100mA. Our main effort was to study the resistivity of cement. For the study of casing effects the current electrodes were constructed of casing steel. equipment has special purpose software for laboratory measurementson core samples. Generall~’. . the electrode cell is placed in an oven for temperature control. Figure 1 shows an equivalent electrical circuit that describes the measurements. we st~died casing contact impedance. Hence equipmentwas rented for low frequency measurements.the repeatabilityof the measurementfor multiple samples of the same batch of cement. This approach has the advantages 01 366 ANf’I PF?O~ I The study Included preliminary measurementsdesigned to benchmark the system repeatability. The first item was included to determine if coring of measurement plugs would cause microscopicfracturing of the cement that could lower the measured resistivity. and to seek any dependence on the following variables: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) pore pressure. as illustrated in Figure 1. we also used some general purpose geophysical equipment that operates over the frequency range of 0. In two-electrode measurements the functions of the current and the potential electrodes are . It was desked to obtain data at . and is the subject of an ongoing study at the University of Houston (Shen. The inner (potential electrodes) are composed of silver wire that encircie the core at positions of one-third and two-thh’ds along its length.000 Hz. The second item was considered important since the tool proposed by Vail operates at 1 to 2 Hz. Most of the experiments were carried out with 500 psi pore and 1. needed to study the effects of current density. the cement permeabllity was too low to measure.001 to 8.S. Gulf Coast. The system has automatic gain The low frequency setting and 16 bit resolution. 2) measurement frequency and current density. and 3) curing conditions (pressure.500 psi sleeve pressure. ~ During the study we also measured various cement physjcal properties. Finally. comkjned together. electrodes were constructed from carbon steel. These measurements documented the repeatability of the hardware. The specific cements studied and the test conditions pertain generally to the North Slope of Alaska and the U. Laboratory resistivity measurements can be carried out whh either two or four electrodes. The electrode cell is designed so that fiuid can be flowed through it to control pore pressure and for displacement experiments. This equipment was used for four-electrode measurements. and bias voltage. cement type and source. grain density. frequency. In addition to application of pore and sleeve pressure. 1992). and mix water). and mercury injection capillary pressure. The through-casing resistivity measurementscould also be affected hy large casing contact resistance. and finally the variability between cements for four different Class G manufacturers. including porosity. prepared as either shiny or rusty.te same frequency as the tool operates. Since data were required at lower frequency than could be obtained with this gear.. . A secondary objective of thjs study was to determine the effect of casing contact resistance using electrodes composed of carbon steel. Pressure is necessary to force the current and potential electrodes tight against the sampleto maintain good electrical contact. but the general conclusions should apply elsewhere. but the equipment used in the ARCO electrical rock properties laboratory operates at 10 Hz and above. including its dependence on current density. A good overview of the methodology is given by Worthington et al. .

2) resistivitywithin a single batch of cement. Thus two-electrode data am invalid at low frequency where the electrode response dominatss.000 and 10.26 Q-m (at 72° F). Twoelectrode measurements are valid provided electrode polarization associated with the electrode-sample contact resistance is rnlnimjzed. equivalent to a relative error of 0.0% for frequency between 1.30 Q-m at 72° F) was flowed into the sample to saturate the plug. and 3) resistlvity between cements of the same type from different vendors. as illustrated in Figure 1. including electrode cells. hleasurlng System Reproducibility The repeatability of four-electrode measurements using four identlcai test cells from the same manufacturer was determined using one Berea sandstone core plug. Hence two latex formulations were included here. and cured at 1500F and 3. and sleeve and pore pressures of 1. The measurement determines the reslstlvity of the volume of rock between the potential electrodes.000 Hz.50% for frequency less than 1. and either water or brine was flowed into the sample. MILLER 3 simplicity and provides data for the entire core plug. Reservoir-condition cements were loaded into a curing chamber. The cement plugs were 1.6 # SPE 264@ J. A varjety of different cement formulations and vendors have been used in this study. The cell resistivity was then measured versus frequency as a function of current density. the slurry was paddIed 25 strokes with a glass rod to eliminate any ak entrained in the slurry matrix. The sample was mounted in each test cell in turn.000 Hz and to within 1.000 Hz the mean was 6. The relative error increases rapidly at frequency greater than 10. The silver screen electrodes normally used were replaced by perforated carbon steel disks placed in contact with the cement.S. This is done by carrying out the measurements at high frequency and by increasing the electrode surface area. They were mounted in the 4-electrode cells.29 Q-m (at 72° F). 10. The cells were placed in an ah bath at 72 to 73°F.000 Hz.000 Hz. The electrode polarization observed with the two-electrode measurement provides an ideal means of studying the response of casing surface impedance. as illustrated in Figure 1. Section 5. current history. !!IJ!IY REME! EATAt31L Preliminary studies were carried out to establish repeatability for the measurement system and to obtain some initial cement data prior to the main investigation. Class G cement mixed with fresh water has been used at Prudhoe Bay below the permafrost. Ambient cements were submerged underwater and cured for seven days. with its impedance increasing rapidly with decreasing frequency.5 inch in diameter and 2. due primarily to the data obtained with Cell #2.000 psi for seven days.000 Hz. This set of measurements demonstrates that the measurement system. were also included in the study. which are common m the U. the resistivity and the repeatabilitytend to decrease for frequency above 10. with the same standard deviation. The slurries were transferred into standard brass compressive strength molds. Following slurry placement into the molds. above approximately 30. Latex cement is presently being used at f%udhoe Bay. MARTIN. and samples a smaller volume compared to two-electrode measurements. E. Each mold contained two cubes from which cylindrical core were drilled and faced to fit the Hassler Wton sleeve for resistivlty measurements. At very high frequency. Four-electrode measurements accurately determine resistivity at low frequency. These are systematic errors associated with the measurement system itself (electrode polarization and stray capacitance). as the electrode$ are mounted at the ends of the plug. The samples were 1. This cell has anomalous 367 . D. Four-electrode measurements entail separate current and potential electrodes. electrode polarization behaves as a capacitor.0 inches In length.000 Hz. As shown in Figure 2.49Y0. However. The potential electrodes contact the sample at two locations along its length. The mo!ds were lightly greased to facilitate ease of removing the cement cubes without damaging the cement samples. and the resistivity and phase angle were measured using the high frequency equipment from 11 to 100. and then brine composed of 2 percent-by-weight NaCl (Rw = 0.500 and 500 psi respectively were applied. P. Class G cement mixed with 18% NaCl by weight of water has been used above the permafrost. Gulf Coast. along with several other Arctic formulations. The study was designed to verify reproducibility of the following: 1] measurementsystem. repeats to within 0. and thus avoid the voltage drop across the current electrodes in the measurement. KLEIN. and surface condition of the electrodes. Class 1-fcements. Cement Sample Preparation Cements samples were prepared using API mix water requirements with the mixing procedures outlined in API SPEC.5 inch in diameter and 2. with standard deviation of 0. The mean reslstivity for the Berea sample measured in four different cells at 11 Hz was 6.0 inch in length. At 1.03 f2-m. both two and four-electrode data can be affected by stray capacitance of the hardware and connecting wires. R.A. The core plug reslstivltyat 720 F was monitored until stable with time. including the four Identical test cells. using circumferential wires.

Thus the cement piug resistivity and the effluent resistivity increased very slowly with time. This compares to 6. Merged resistivity data for the three samples are plotted versus frequency in Figure 3. Data for the four samples are shown in Figure 4. ranging from 3. but not iong enough to achieve equilibrium.26 O-m. Comparing Samples 8 and 9 suggests that curing pressuredoes not significantly affect resistivity. Little difference in resistivity at 1200 F was observed for the three cement piugs. The slight mismatch between two sets of equipment is apparent in the data at the overlapping frequencies. ciearly show that samples prepared with 18?40 aCi range N in resistivity from 1. not reported here.000 psi. Two sampies were cured at ambient conditions of temperature and pressure. with the molded sampies having smailer resistivity than the plugged samples. Samples 1 through 3. Deionized water was flowed into each sample to replace any fluids lost during coI ing and mounting. but is perhaps due to surlace fracturing aiong with some drying of the plugs. Samples 8 through 11 in Tabie 1 were used to study the effects of differences in the method of preparation. two cored piugs were driiied from cubes prepared from the same batch of cement siurry. For lower frequncy. Other data. We conciude that coring the cement piugs may cause measured resistivities to be iarger. iSTiViTV infiuence of Cement Sampie Preparation During the initiai stages of the study there was concern that coring the cement plugs from the 2 inch cubes wouid cause fracturing at the surlace aiong the iength of the 368 plugs. Surface drying wouid tend to increase their resistivity. This is opposite to what was expected. Dependence on Measurement Frequency Cement resistivity was measured at the same frequency as proposed for the operation of the tooi. The variability between samples was small. For this study resistivity was measured using the high frequency gear and two electrodes. For comparison.for Sampies 12 through 15. The mix water of the sampies was aiso varied. Cement Batch Reproduclbtlity Three plugs were cut from one batch of Vendor 1 Class G cement prepared as shown In Table 1. and with four-electrode measurements. The variation in resistivity between the four vendors is approximately 40%. Because of the minimal dependence of cement resistivity on frequency. Injection was continued until sufficient effluent was obtained for determination of Rw.000 Hz (twoeiectrode measurements). within 6%. Tabie 1 reports the resufts.50 to 128 Hz). since surface fracturing might cause the measured resistivity to be iess than the actuai cement resistivity. When overlapping frequencies are compared. The cement was prepared with tap water and cured at ambient conditions for 7 days.1 K&m.with higher resistivitythan the other 189’oNaCi sampie.34*0. Two molded piugs were prepared. not smaiierthan the intrinsic cement resistivity. Class G Cement Reproducibility The finai set of preliminary measurements determined reproducibility between four different Ciass G cements. the iow frequency values average 6. This was done in order to ensure that representative data were obtained. The data cieariy show that the method of preparation does not have a major impact on resistivity.2 Cl-m. At issue is the possible frequency dependence of the cement resistivity. Resistivities of the three plugs were determined using both the high frequency gear (1O to 100. This would be of particular concern if the cement plugs were highly resistive. with tap water and 18% NaCl being used. Cylindrical samples were prepared by pouring the cement siurry into 1. with lower resistivity obtained with high saiinity. and for this cement type there does not appear to be any significant frequency dependence. A 2% by weight NaCi brine was flowed through each sampie to repiace iost fluids. One plug was obtained from each of the cements listed in Table 1 as Sampies 4 through 7. but not long enough to achieve equilibrium. In addition the two measuring systems repeat to within 1?40.4 to 5.4 CEMENT i3ESlSTlVlTY AND IMPLICATK3NSF(3RMEASUREMENT OF FORMATIONRESISTIWTYTHROUGHCASING SPE 26453 behavior at high frequency. Throughput was too S!OW attempt to equilibrate the pore to fluids. The saiinity of the mix water is important.33~0.000 Hz) and the low frequency equipment (0. was anomalous. Four-electrode resistivity was determined at 120° F with the high frequency gear from 11 to 100. cured at ambient conditions and mixed with IWO NaCi. Sample 11.7 to 2. which were not flowed through. perhaps due to greater capacitance. Data shown in Figures 3 and 4 show a weak frequency dependence for frequency above approximately 100 to 1. The cement resistivity observed at 10 Hz is neariy the same as that obsewed at 1 Hz.05 Q-m from 8 to 128 Hz. . We did not attempt to determine initiai resistivities by extrapolating to zero fiuid throughput.5 inch diameter molds.000 Hz. much of the remaining cement data were measured with the high frequency gear and are reporled at either 10 Hz (four-electrode measurements] or 20.47 to 5. and two were cured for seven days at 1500F and 3. The resistivities of the sampies varied from 2.000 Hz. The permeabilities of the core piugs were too iow to aiiow displacement experiments to be compieted.04 Q-m for the high frequency gear over the frequency range 10 to 100 Hz.

These studies determined the dependence of resistivity on pore pressure. if there was a significantfraction of free water or capillary water. .77)/(f.7 mA/cm2 The measurements were carried out on Samples 8 through 11. MARTIN. . with the exception of Class H samples with cenospheres. Fjgure 6 shows change m resistivity with change in temperature for Sample 32.A. which explains why they do not lower the cement resistivity. . Over time cement would then tend to equilibratewith the formation brine. Dlffuslon Effects An issue that has not yet been addressed is the degree to which ions are exchanged between the cement and adjacent formation water. Equation 1 The discrete points in Figure 6 are observed data. . two-electrode measurementsare affected by ihe voltage drop associated The electrical with the electrode-sample contact. GA~lNG EFFFCTS As described in an earlier section. and associated changes in the pore structure. Four-electrode data were obtained using ihe low frequency equipment over the range of current density from approximately 0. They were temporarily removed from the brine and their reslstivity measured at regular intervals over a period of several months.000 to 3. An experiment was carried out in order to identify possible ion exchange between cement and surroundingfluids. as expressed by Arpss Equation: R2 = RI (TI + 6. P. The dependence on temperature is consistent with a change in brine conductivity with temperature (°F). particular cement indicates that it is incompressible. Cement resistivity would then reflect the initial composhjon of the cement mix. or for pore pressure ranging from 1.77) . Since this was the same salinity as the mix water. Either the pore structure of these samples is changing or there is net movement of ions into the cement from the brfne. These data suggest that Ions diffuse out of the cement into the surrounding distilled water. Dependence on Pressure and Temperature We measured resistivity of four different plugs of Vendor 1 Class G cement prepared as shown in Table 1. sleeve pressure. Figure 6 shows a histogram of the results. due perhaps to high density additives that are non porous. and 27) were stored in 3% brine at 150° F and ambient pressure. then it would be expected that ion exchange would be low. Data for Samples 28 and 29 were not included in the figure. Light weight samples with resistivity less than 1 Q-m presumably contain a much higher amount of microporosity compared to the other samples.500 psi (with overburden pressure The insensitivity to pressure for this at 4. impedance of this contact is controlled by the interface between the metal of the electrode and the brine contained in the cement that contacts the electrode. although 369 . The effect of latex added to Class t-f cement was ambiguous. . as fisted in Tabtes 1 and 2. The Arctic and light weight formulations have the lowest resistivity. Samples 8 through 11. The results show that cement resistivlty varies less than 2% and is essentially independent of current density. including latex and fly ash forr ‘?tions.. . then ion exchange might take place via diffusion.007 to .000 psi (with pore pressure at 500 psi). Samptes 16 through 35. If the bulk of the water is bound water. On the other hand. with the exceptjon of the cenospheres as noted above. . * I J.veal.000 to 4. but expensive cements. The series of samples 30 through 35 show increasing resistivity with increasing cement density. The impedance I SPE 26453 Dependence on Current Density A final set of measurements determined if cement resistivity depended cm current density of the measurement.26. Latex did not cause any significant increase in reslstivity. The list included a number of different cements. Dependence on Cement Type We measured resistivity of a variety of different cement types.with slight diffeiences in reslstivit y obse.T2+ 6. The smooth line is from Equation 1. Figure 7 clearly shows that all of the cement types tested have resistivity less than 8 Q-m at 1200 ‘. Figure 8 shows that the plugs increased in reslstivitywith time over a 30 day period followed by a small decrease in resistivity. and temperature. Figure 5 shows the dependence on pressure for Sample 80 Essentially no variation in resistivity was noted for overburden pressun?ranging from 1. Cenospheres are hollow glass spheres filled with air. followed by a long term decrease in resistivity due possibly to dissolution of the cement. These results indicate that resistivity measured at one temperature can be corrected to what would be measured at another temperature. Two cement plugs were stored in a container of initially distilled water at 150° F and ambient pressure in order to detect net diffusion of ions out of the cement. KLEIN. .000 psi). E. MILLER 5 this has not been confirmed. showing resistivities corrected to 1200 F from measurement temperature using Equation 1. this experiment was an attempt to determine long term changes in the cement Itself that might be due to recrystallization of the matrix. plus effects of cement aging. Fjgure 8 shows a decrease In resistivity of these samples with time. . R. Three cement plugs (Samples 25. Cenospheres are used uncommonly to achieve very low density. D.

This data were obtained to quantify the amount of microporosity and to evaluate pore size distribution. Curves are shown for the sequence of currents shown in the figure. the increased vottages cause a decrease in the interface impedance and a reduction in the measured resistivities. Injection was carried out up to 30. This was done by repeated cycles of wetting and drying with a high salinity brine. As current tevel was increased. Water in the cement is thus either bound water or water held by capillarity. Interface impedance decreases as frequency increases and as the exposed area of the electrode increases. Application of a bias offset voltage will normally have the same effect. and thus lowers the interface impedance. The results are included in Table 1. then the Interface impedance will be negligible.S Helium porosity and grain density were determined on Samples 8 through 11. 6 CEMENT RESISTIVITYAND IMPLICATIONSFOR MEASUREMENT OF FORMATIONRESISTIVITYTHROUGHCASING SPE 26453 of metal electrode-brine interfaces has been studied in detail by electrochemlsts. l-fence a set of measurements were carried out using casing steel for electrodes. Latex additives have fittle or no effect on resistivity. then the interface impedance will be quite high. At high frequency the electrode impedance becomes very small. Alternately. Results similar to these were obtained by application of a strong offset voltage. The fightweight and Arctic formulations generally have reslstivities less than 1 Q-m. Although cement mix water salinity is a factor. Shiny Electrodes Figure 9 shows resistivity versus frequency for twoelectrode measurements made with shiny carbon steel electrodes. Electrode impedance is also a strong function of current density. and If the reaction can proceed easily. The cement porosity is thus totally dominated by microporosity. which is dominantly mlcroporosity. Class G. if the reactants are scarce or if the reaction requires high activation energy. The high measured porosities are present as microporosity. The resistivityof water-saturated cements at 1200F ranges from less than 1 to approximately 8 Q-m. we believe that the resistivity of the cement is determined by the resistivity of the water contained in the pore space at the time of 370 . Thus. The results for both shiny and rusty electrodes are shown in Figure 11. and H formulations have resistivities in the range of 4 to 8 Q-m. with the exception of the cenosphere additives. so that the low-current repeat data is essentially the same as the high current data. The initial data at low current show strong frequency effects related to extremely high surface impedance of the electrodes.000 psi air /mercury with a drainage cycle only. Data were obtained as a function of frequency and current density for both shiny and rusty electrodes. A.. Increased to a high value and then repeated with a low value at the end. Rusty Electrodes The next set of measurements were made using carbon steel electrodes that had been allowed to rust. as expected.261 md. since current must pass from the tool through the casing into the formation. The resistivity of cement is controlled by the high porosity. where current flows by rnovenlent of ions in solution. Figure 10 shows that the lusty electrodes have no influence on the measurement of resistivity. There appears to be a bimodal distribution. the sample was given extended equilibrium times during mercury injection. which started out low. as evidenced by the lack of dependence on either frequency or current density. Figure 12 shows the capillary pressure curve along with the pore throat radius. which cause anomalously large resistivity. It depends on a variety of factors. Casing present in the earth behaves as an electrode. The interface impedance also depends on the nature of electrochemical reactions by which current flows across the interface. Note that once the interface was subjected to high current it changes irreversibly. and the measurementIs dominated by the resistivity of the sample itself. again starting with freshly polished electrodes. To further study rusty electrodes we measured the etectrode cell filled with a conductive brine to reduce the sample resistivity. and must therefore be extremely conductive. T PHYSICAL PWERTIE. as is evident in the mercury injection capillary pressure data in Figure 12. In this case the frequency dependent capacitance of the electrode will dominate its response. Thus measurements made with a two-electrode cell and using casing steel as electrodes should provide a direct indication of casing effects. This data clearly show that rusty casing has extremely low sudace impedance. Increasing the current density puts energy into the system to activate charge transfer reactions. This data show that over 95% of the pore throats have radii less than 0. Due to the low permeability. Prior to mercury injection the plug was oven dried at 1050C. with little or no free water. The rusty electrode has no influence on the results. The polished electrode at low current density clearly displays strong electrode polarization. We attempted but failed to consttuct samples with the cement bonded to rusty electrodes. and largely reflect resistivity of the cement plug. a high impedance interface will display a strong dependence on current density and offset vottage as well as frequency. as illustrated in Figure 1. Thus if the reactants are present in high concentration. The air permeabilityof the sample was also determined to be 0.10 micron. and thus should not affect the operation of a through-casing resistivltydevice.

June 29. W. logging through metal casing: Final report to ParaMagnetic Logging. UCB Eng-7724funded by the Gas Research Institute. SPE 26453 J. 55.. Patent 5.. and Schenkel. Worthington. M. August 27.440. B. D. Vail Ill. 1989. Vail Ill. Kaufman. T. F. reflecting a high compressive strength.. L. Vail Ill. even after curing. Patent 5. W.. patent 4.668.043..83:. Peveraro. as did Jake Rathmeli of AEPT. J. Conductivity determination in a formation having a cased well: U.794. Richard Jones and Kim Jacobs of AEPT prepared the cement samples and advised us on cement properties. under Contract No. KLEIN. Evans. patent 4. Methods and apparatus for measurement of electronic properties of geological formations through borehole casing: U. A. A. W..882. Methods of operation of apparatus measudng formation resistivity from within a cased well having one measurement and two compensation steps: U. Vail.. and will not constitute a problem for the operation of the Through-Casing ResistivityToolTM” Lacquered casing was not tested. W. J. November 21.S.. MARTIN.669.S. Method and apparatus for measuring the electrical resistivity of geological formations through metal drill pipe or casing: U.542. J. B. Electronic measurement apparatus movable in a cased borehole and compensating for casing resistance differences: U. F. ii. Vail Ill. Universityof Houston. 1990. Methods and apparatus for measurement of the resistivity of geological formations from within cased wells kr presence of acoustic and magnetic energy sources: U.. Patent 5. v. 1989a.820.. R. Department of ElectricalEngineering. Vavra also of AEPT supervised the mercury injection capillary pressure experiment. Patent 5. August 27.187. and Klein. J. 1991b. B. Methods and apparatus for measurement of the resistivity of geological formations from within cased boreholes: U.186. Vail Ill. Numerical analysis of d.075. Laboratory studies show that rusty casing has exceptionally low Impedance. 29-38. W... patent 4. C. S. A. S. O. D. 64-67. April 11. 1992. Klein.796. c. . C. F. R.989..S. Well Logging Laboratory.518.. A.. p. Diftuslon experiments suggest movement of ions between cement and adjacent brines. E. E.. Vail Ill. 371 . MILLER 7 measurement... D. 1993.The mechanics of electrical resistivity measurement on rock samples: The Log Analyst. but could pose problems for the operation of the tool. Alberty. 1989b. W. The results described here show that cement resistivity will not Interfere with operation of through casing reslstivity devices under most conditions. E. 1991a. J. 1990.A. C. Patent 5. B. B. This is cflfficult to demonstrate due to the low cement permeability. W. Resistivlty does not depend on current density..S. and Klein. 1991.043. G. June 13-16. Woodhouse. Because cement has high porosity. P. R.. 1993b... P.223.S. W..626. Shen. J. Formation resistivity measurements through metal casing: CWLS/SPWLA Joint Formation Evaluation Symposium. Cement reslstivlty is essentially independent of overburden and pore pressure. Kingman. Methods and apparatus for measurement of electronic properties of geological formations through borehole casing: U. 1989. SCA Guidelines for sample preparation and porosity measurement of electrical resistivity samtXes: Part Ill . S. 1991c. Cement resistivity appears to vary with temperature according to Arp’s Equation. patent 4. Mark Alberty of British Petroleum provided input on cement type and overall design of the study. Inc. Momii. but is weakly dependent on measurement frequency. M. This conclusion may not apply to the Arctic formulations wtdch tend to remain deformable.. February 16. D.. Kaufman. L.R. p. B. Measuring reslstivity changes from within a first cased well to monitor fluids hjected into oil bearing geological formations from a second cased well while passing electrical current between the two cased wells: U. The electrical field in a borehole with a casing: Geophysics. B. Walis.S. 31.. Morrison. A. and White. B. v.. J. December 24. 1993a. Vail Ill. we expect it will usually have lower resistivitythan any water-bearing formation that h contacts and with which it has reached ionic equilibrium.. Jack Ostrander assisted with the electrical properties measurements ~ B~s Gard.S.

Piano tap water has resistivityof 66 Q-m at 68 OF.5-2Yo) 372 -I .94 20 kHz 17 18 19 ClassA Vendor5 ClassH Vendor 5 150 3.34 Vendor1 Class G Vendor 1 Class G Vendor 1 Class G V’J:Klrl&l Vendor 1 Class G Vendor 5 5.28 @72°F 10Hz ambient I tap water I 0.000 150 3.000 150 3.28 2.000 ambient ambient ambient 10HZ 0.37 @72°F 1 Lightweight Vendor 5 Polyvinyl Class H plus Styrene resin Class G + 8’Yegel BJ Coldset 3 23 Permafrost E 24 I Arctic Set 3 I 3.58 n-m 1 Hz 6.6 11 T ) 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 ClassG Vendor1 ClassG Vendor1 Class G 3. Sample 19 is Class H plus latex (polyvinyl afcohol 1.18 Q=36.88 $=38. and 120°F unless otherwise noted.000 150 3.23@72°F 10HZ 0.35 20 kHz 5.000 ambient 150 3.4 11 :i6 4.000 150 2%NaCl 2%NaCl 2%NaCl 2% NaCl 2%NaCl 2%NaCl 2% NaCl 2?4 NaCl 1 4.63 20 kHz 5.ample lumber ven~:~l ~:~dso&l I Vendor 1 Class G and Resistivity Flow Water de ionized de ionized de ionized Resistivity Frequency 6.37 Q=40. v ) ClassG Vendor3 ClassG Vendor4 ClassG Vendor 1 3.28 Cement Curing -r&P 1500F 3.33 @72°F 10Hz 10.000 150 20 21 22 3.000 150 1 6.000 150 tapwater tapwater tapwater ta:) water tap water tap water tap water tap water 7.0 . 1.:l~:$w $o~e~ter :o:e~ter 3.000 psi 150 Mix Water tap water tap water tap water tap water tap water tap water tap water tap water tap water 18% NaCl 18% Nacl tap water molded t.79@72°F 10Hz 12.3 11 .85 20 kHz 4.000 ambient ambient ambient ambient ambient 4.000 150 3.000 150 5.9 @ 72°F 10Hz 1.27 4.7 1 gd=2.55 4=37.7 1 gd=2.500 psi sleeve pressure.$&72°F 11.000 150 3.36@72°F I1o Hz I z i Resistlvitydata at 500 psi pore pressure. The symbols $ and gd refer to porosity and grain density respectively.4 1 gd=2. CEMENT RESISTIVITY AND IMPLICATIONS OF FORMATION RESISTIVITY FOR MEASUREMENT THROUGH CASING SPE 26453 TABLE 1 Sample Preparation .27 4.90 @72°F 10Hz 0.17 I i Vendor1 ClassG Vendor 2 3.1 1 gd=2.

95 (MO 1. p73 I . KLEIN.80 4. MARTIN.28 2.50 S&m 2. D. M. A. 150° F and 2. Cements prepared with 30/0 NaCI mix water.R. E.LLER 9 TABLE 2 Class H Cements Reslstkity for Different Additives and Weights Sample Number 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 none 1% polymer 35% silica flour cenospheres cenospheres gel gel or sodium metasilicate none dispersant hematite hematite 2.16 2. * SPE 26453 J.98 3..000 psi sleeve pressure.93 Ioppg 12 14 15 16 17 18 20 30. P.000 Hz. and measured at 20.43 .50 33.55 1..

374 .10 CEMENTRIXNSTIVITY AND IMPLICATIONSFORMEASUREMENT OF FORMATION RESISTIVITY THR0LN2J-1 CASING SOURCE TWO ELECTRODE VOLTAGE -r Ze ‘core plug ELECTRODE IMPEDANCE L-1’J e z w v 4 FOURE~EOTR()~E VOLTAGE TWO ELECTRODE RESPONSE FOUR ELECTRODE \ RESPONSE J FREQUENCY Figure 1. For twoelectrode measurements the current and potential electrodes are combined. Diagrams showing equivalent circuit and associated plot of reslstlvity versus frequency for two. . and the measurement includes frequency-dependent voltage due to electrode surface impedance. This problem is avoided with fourelectrode measurements.and four-electrode measurements.

and between the. Resistivity versus frequency for three different core plugs from the same batch of Class G Cement. KLEIN. showing repeatability between plugs. D.R. P.A. 375 . MILLER. MILLER 11 A Cell#l Celi#2 Cell#3 Celi#4 160 1OQOO 10’00 FREQUENCY (HZ) 100000 A --9_ !5 1’0 Figure 2. Flesistivity versus frequency for one Berea core plug mounted in four identical core holders showing measurement repeatability.* SPE 26453 J. high and low frequency sets of equipment. 7 5 00 FREQUENCY (HZ) Figure 3. E. The arrows at the top of the figure show the overlap in frequency for the two sets of equipment.

Cement resistivity is essentially independent of these two parameters. Flesistivity versus frequency for Class G cements from four different vendors. 5.5 3 J 2. Plots of resistivity showing the effects of changing pore pressure and sleeve pressure. showing the variability between cements.000 psi) .12 CEMENTRESISTIVITYAND IMPLICATIONSFORMEASUREMENT OF FORMATIONRESISTIVITY THROUGHCASING Sample 4 Sample 5 Sample 6 Sample 7 10 100 10000 FREQUENCY (HZ) 1000 100000 Figure 4.5 Figure 5.5 C30go ?4 3. -1 F ovERmRDm PRESSURE (pore pressure fixed at 500 mi) PORE PRESSLJRE (overburden pressure fixed at 4.

10 9 8 7 Ufj Lu 1 / LIGHTWEIGHT & ARCTIC CEMENTS CLASSES A. E. 377 . Equation 1. R. AND H . Histogram of resistivity for different cement types.q I SPE 26453 J. but all data are reported at 1200 F. Cement resistivity appears to be controlled by the temperature of the contained brine. D. The line is resistivity as predicted by Arp’s equation. MILLER 13 00 120 140 160 180 TEMPERATURE (DEG F) 200 Figure & Plot of resistivity versus temperature for cement sample 32. G. 55 ~4 3 2 1 0 h. MILLER. KLEIN. 012345678 D I RESISTIVITY (OHM-M) 1 9 10 Figure 7. Data for Class H cement with cenospheres are not shown. Measurement conditions vary.A. P.

4 3 2 1 SAMPLES IN n # 1 9 #< + PLUG 31 o~ o 20 40 60 80 TIME (DAYS) 100 o~ o 1 I 1 1 { 20 40 60 80 TIME (DAYS) 100 Figure 8.498 UA -A-s. demonstrating the exchange of ions between cement and external brine.14 CEMENTRESISTIVITYAND 9MPLlCAT10NS FOR MEASUREMENT (3FFORMATIONRESISTIVITY THROUGEI ASING C SPE 26453 7A 6: 5. Electrode effects observed at low current ‘level disappear irreversibly at high current levels. A + 1. W CURREl JT O 9. I I I l--nII 1 b I I 11111 1 I 111111 I 1 I I Il(r 1000 100 10 FREQUENCY (HZ) De~endence of two-electrode cement resistivity on frequency and cu~rent for oolished steel electrodes. Plots of resistivity versus time showing change in resistivity as sample equilibrates with surrounding fluids.35 mA 7.84 UA repeat HIGH CURRENT 1 c Figure 9. 378 .97 mA 10.49 UA 50 UA --m-. 4.

A. 379 .J. D.R.1 f I 11[11 1 1 0... KLEIN. The complete absence of electrode response indicates casing will have no effect on the operation of the Through-Casing-Resistivity-Tool.rusty electrodes 1 ~ polished electrodes - a 0.1 1 ) 100 111( 1( 0 FREQUENCY (HZ) Figure 10. MILLER.—lllnln 1 I 1 I Ill I i I 111111 I 1 I I 0. E. 3 3 $ g z ~ tg 0 w =m.1 I I I 1111 10 1 i 111111 1 I I IIln 1( o 100 FREQUENCY (HZ) Figure 11. MILLER 16 10 --a= Q I 1 8. P.. Two-electrode data obtained with polished and rusty steel electrodes measured with 2?40 NaCl brine instead of a cement plug. Dependence of two-electrode cement resistivity on frequency and current level for rusty steel electrodes. Rusty electrodes have extremely low electrical impedance.2 mA m -m-m m q 1 .53 UA 505 UA 10. .

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 WETTING PHASE SATURATION (%) !5 ~ Q. Capillary pressure data for cement sample 10 showing that nearly all of the porosity is present as microporosity with pore throat radii less than 0. . ?5 100 Figure 12.01 10000 1000 100 w E 3 : IX cl 1 10 Pore Radius (microns) n > 10 1 o.16 CEMENTRESISTIVITYAND IMPLICATKJNS FORMEASUREMENT OF FORMATION RESISTIVITY THROUGHCASING ‘PE 26453 : & 100000 q E! ..1 microns.