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Real estate is "Property consisting of land and the buildings on it, along with its natural resources such as crops

, minerals, or water; immovable property of this nature; an interest vested in this; (also) an item of real property; (more generally) buildings or housing in general. Also: the business of real estate; the profession of buying, selling, or renting land, buildings, or housing."[1] It is a legal term used in jurisdictions such as the United States, United Kingdom, Canada, and Australia.[2]

In the laws of the United States of America, the 'real' in 'real estate' means relating to a thing (res/'rei', thing, from O.Fr. 'reel', from L.L. 'realis' 'actual', from Latin. 'res', 'matter, thing'), [3] as distinguished from a person. Thus the law broadly distinguishes between 'real' property (land and anything affixed to it) and 'personal' property or chattels (everything else, e.g., clothing, furniture, money). The conceptual difference was between 'immovable property', which would transfer title along with the land, and 'movable property', which a person could lawfully take and would retain title to on disposal of the land. The oldest document using a term recognizable as 'real estate' in historical records is dated 1605.[4] This use of 'real' also reflects the ancient feudal customs in relation to land and the ownership (and owners) thereof, introduced into England over 500 years earlier, by William the Conqueror in 1066. Some people have claimed that the word 'real' in this sense is descended (like French 'royal' and Spanish 'real') from the Latin word for 'king'. In the feudal system (which has left many traces in the common law) the king was the owner of all land, and everyone who occupied land paid him rent directly or indirectly (through lords who in turn paid the king), in cash, goods, or services (including military service). Property tax, paid to the state, can be seen as a relic of that system, as too is the term fee simple. Some say this derivation is a misconception;[5] but that is countered by evidence that the earliest meaning of 'real' in English included "Of, relating to, or characteristic of a monarch, royalty, or (by extension) the nobility, esp. with regard to power, wealth, or dignity; (also) befitting a monarch."[6] Additionally, there is evidence that the earliest meaning of 'real' in English included "Having an objective existence; actually existing physically as a thing, substantial; not imaginary."[7] which supports the statement in the first paragraph of this section on the Etymology of the term 'real estate' that 'real' = 'relating to a thing…as distinguished from a person'. However, it needs to be borne in mind that the time between the Norman Conquest and the earliest recorded documentary appearance of 'real estate' allowed for both meanings of the word 'real' to gain common currency in verbal and written use in England, as individual words; and for the term 'real estate' to gain common currency in verbal and written use with the word 'real' in it having the same meanings, or, one, or even more, different meanings, to when it was used on its own; but of which there is no specific, historical documentary evidence.[8]

. as Christianity believes. upon the day appointed by the statute. and of its supposed blessing by the Pope. and that 'real estate' originally meant all of the earth and all objects and life on and in it. for use by the king of the subject land and his servants and assigns for the purposes of travel and transportation.' Such rights of passage and repassage were known as the 'King's Highways'. by inference and synthesis. Welsh Law prior to 1535. from. etc. and the English 'law of real estate' became the official real estate law of England and Wales. in his capacity as the 'King of Kings'. It is evidence from the period of the Crusades in Europe that pilgrims. 'All that the king has is the right of passage and repassage for himself and his subjects. depending on the gender of the monarch. the 'Queen's Highways'. namely. because. the reason for these several possible meanings of 'real' in relation to 'real estate' may have been that not all of England and Wales became 'real estate' in the 'royal' sense by reason only of the Norman Conquest. This meant that the laws of the Roman Catholic Church and of the former Welsh kings were eradicated from use throughout England and Wales.On that basis. the passage and enforcement of the Act of Supremacy 1534 and Laws in Wales Acts 1535-1542 by Henry VIII of England. because those clauses infringed the human rights of the people that spoke them.[11][12][13] though there is evidence that it was much earlier than both. including rights of passage and repassage over other lands. and thereafter. not just narrow strips of it. and that the 'king' in 'King's Highways' meant the Son of God. which again suggests that they originated in the days of the Roman Empire after Christianity became its official religion and originally meant all of that land. Another etymological consequence of those radical measures by Henry VIII was that the expression 'real estate' became an official English expression. to facilitate use of minority languages in the courts of England and Wales as the populations of those nations had by then become multi-cultural. as nowadays. of that continent. subject to the rule. In other words. who were not the king. he can walk on water. . The clauses concerning language were repealed by Elizabeth II in 1993. Two main classes of that allodial land are distinguishable. English Real Estate Law recognises rights of way. including such parts of those other lands between the high and low water marks of tidal waters adjoinging them. strongly suggests that the concept of 'the King's Highways' in law may have originated in the days of the Roman Empire after Christianity became its official religion. and that of the parts of Wales where the custom known as 'dadunnedd' under Welsh Law applied. The Domesday Book provides evidence that some holdings of land in England and Wales remained in the hands of people. if not all. because the Laws in Wales Acts 15351542 included clauses requiring that. they were allodial land. and that it meant all of the earth above sea level apart from the rivers and lakes on it. adherents. no law or language other than those of England shall be used in the courts of England and Wales. servants and soldiers of the Roman Catholic Church had similar rights throughout over most. on land beyond the limits of the subject land. and of parts of the Middle East and North Africa. and have a history in England stretching back to at least the year 859 of the modern era[10] and at least the C14th in Wales.[14] Such antiquity and the origins and purposes of the Law of Hywel Dda. that of the Roman Catholic Church. and the history of Probate in England and Wales.[9] or. as that is what Christianity believes to be his inheritance. the Domesday Book.

and. Therefore. events that had happened in England and Wales . Until then. But the term 'highways' is the lawful name of such strips of land in Britain. Though frequently used in official documents. the word 'highway' became common currency wherever English was spoken in those parts of the world. and. such as in the British territories that became independent of Britain in the United States of America due to the American Revolutionary War and Peace of Paris (1783). roads and streets were formed by the inhabitants under the provisions of the Highways Acts 1555 and 1562. the 'thing' being the lawful entitlement 'title' of the king and his subjects to the use and enjoyment of those rights of passage and repassage. caused by attempting to reinstate the status of the Roman Catholic Church in England and Wales because she became a Roman Catholic in order to marry Philip of Spain. open space was common. roads and streets. with only one exception.So. 1783. and Great Britain no longer has any need to retain any currency for the 'relating to a thing. and only to ensure currency of the 'highway' sense in the territories outside Great Britain. where settlement occurred. such as property deeds and court records in England for many centuries in common law. on the separate common law of those two nations. who sought to rectify the confusion that her sister. cattle droves and gold miners in North America. distinguished from a person' sense in Britain except as an academic interest in the history of the land law of Britain. by declaring them highways before they were awarded independence. such as the routes of pony-express riders. According to the Wikipedia article on allodial land. Great Britain retained such rights of passage and repassage for the Sovereign Head of Great Britain and its subjects for the purposes of travel and transportation in. the law of highways in England and Wales had relied solely upon the common law of England (and before 1535. the land designated in law over which such travel and transportation rights of passage and repassage for a king and his subjects existed could be a candidate for the 'real' in 'real estate' meaning 'relating to a thing. the second daughter of Henry VIII. there is no longer any allodial land in England and Wales. but. over and across land comprising its former territory overseas when those lands became independent of Great Britain. hence Henry VIII's need to eradicate the common law of Wales on 1535). such as its former colonies in the United States of America. wagon trains. Mary I of England. distinguished from a person'. any immigrant allowed access to those parts of the world via their borders became regarded as subjects of the Crown of Great Britain for the duration of such visa granted by the border authority. the first statutory law of highways was the Highways Act 1555 by Elizabeth I of England. it follows that all of England and Wales is now 'real estate' in the 'royal' sense. The earliest legal document containing a word that is recognizably 'highway' was the one in the year 859[15] mentioned above. Vast tracts of land became regarded as highways in these new territories where wide. and thus entitled to the use and enjoyment of those highways. The reign of Elizabeth I is particularly noteworthy as the start of the growth and development of the British Empire beyond the shores of Great Britain. namely the Statute of Bridges. The need for departure from the 'royal' sense of 'real estate' in the United States of America sprang from the British Crown's abandonment of any claims to its territories in the United States of America by the Treaty of Paris. and.

to be descended from Rhodri Mawr. the 'king of kings'. 'cynig'. The connection between king and church throughout history since Christianity became the official religion of the Roman Empire is the reason for those consequences. etc. was solved in England and. even by force. Whilst Christianity believes that God can be and is everywhere at once throughout the universe. the first king of Wales. returns to reclaim God's kingdom on earth and rule over it. as Christianity believes. Wales. hence the emergence of kings ('king' from Old English 'cyning'. in the form of the resurrected Son of God. the British colonies and the rest of the world. which are worthy of note in the context of the meaning. it is not physically possible for a king to be everywhere at once on all parts of his kingdom and throughout the rest of the world to superintend all of the 'real estate' in the 'royal' sense. or have been attributed to be. on behalf of God. the Middle East and North Africa (see The Holy Blood and The Holy Grail). even in late Medieval times. subsequently. direct descendents of the Son of God from his visit to earth in human form at the time of the Roman Empire in Europe. of all of the property and rights of passage and repassage entrusted to him until. to this day. So. The Roman solution to this dilemma had been typically organisational: partitioning its empire into divisions and appointing suitably qualified and trusted persons for the purpose of superintending those divisions and the development of settlements. 'cynn' meaning 'race'. under a pyramidal hierarchy of governance reaching up to the emperor himself. Scotland.since the Fall of the Roman Empire had consequences in the United States of America both before and after its former British territories acquired independence from Britain. roads. by the king of England chartering and commissioning civilian and military personnel. hence the 'royal blood line' which Henry VIII claimed to have. the first of the Tudor dynasty. called esquires. Old Welsh 'cynog'. or as much of it as fell to them by election or by inheritance. and nations in the history of world civilization. the English Channel Islands. Old Saxon 'kuning')[16] to superintend and govern so much of the former Roman Empire as they were able to acquire by agreement or by conquest. similar to many other empires.[17] which he regarded as giving him divine authority to set up the Church of England and confiscate all the property of the Roman Catholic Church in both England and Wales. appointed under sworn oath to . specifically for the task. states. democratic. This challenged the remaining occupants of the abandoned divisions when the Roman organisation model collapsed on the demise of its Empire. The dilemma that a king could not be everywhere at once on his kingdom and all the earth to superintend the 'real estate' interests he had a duty of God to assert and protect. which the Pope did not prevent. by direct lineage via the claim of his father. be they monarchical. under the pyramidal organisational umbrella of the Roman Catholic Church headed by the Pope. bridges. within them. but in the United States of America in particular. protection and assertion of the 'real estate' of Great Britain throughout the world. Henry VII. regal minds were still centred on the emergence of kings on and after the demise of the Roman Empire to govern the territories they acquired and what were those kings' claims to kingship. via Hywel Dda. republican or communist. which suggests that he thought too. Ireland. Some believe there is evidence that these kings may have claimed.

Trade. giving the addressees that had not been so chartered and commissioned the appearance of also having been professionary qualified by the British Crown. any misuse of any title can be deemed to be supporting evidence of fraud. education. including. and the tradition continues to this day." may be put before the names to whom they belong.' written after the names of respective property holders.. at about the same time as the Parish Tithe Maps and Schedules were being published." were expressly excluded from the census. commitment. was undermined. the long-standing merit of the title. even the Palace administration began addressing letters using the subnominal title or its abbreviated form regardless of whether the addressees had been so chartered and commissioned. training." or "Gentleman" must not be entered in this column. morality and loyalty of the person entitled to use it had been examined and found suitable by the Crown to assert and protect its real estate interests at home or abroad. every living person who abode or slept in each house. whereas the enumerators books for the 1841 population census of the United Kingdom. with regard to the "Names" column. to give them the appearance of being qualified by the British Crown. "Rt. the Parish Tithe Maps and Schedules of England and Wales produced under the Tithe Commutation Act 1836 included many entries with the abbreviated postnomial title 'Esq. "Lady". if the object of its being so used is proven to have been wilfully intended to deceive for the purposes of fraud. because the title had no protection under common or statutory law from being used by persons who were not royally entitled to use it. or Of Independent Means". experience. The etymological origins of the title Esquire[18] and its cognate Squire[19] attest to its antiquity. "Rank. In time. Nevertheless. "Insert without distinction or omission.The words "Lord". physical and mental health. or any such term as "Esq." and with regard to the column headed "Profession. contained instructions to enumerators. people who were not awardered the title by the Crown Head of Great Britain. Employment. "Hon. or authorised to award the title by the Crown of the Great Britain.. Consequently. including foreign nationals relative to Britain.assert and protect the works and highways interests of the English crown on those territories. of which references 3 and 10 are of particular interest in the above regard . assumed the title unto themselves and awarded it to others who were also not so royally entitled. and."." Effectively this meant the terms "Esquire" and "Esq. even their children. Hon. During the massive expansion of British territory into the British Empire that began in the late C16th. there had to be a consequential increase in the number of thus qualified people to assert and protect the 'real estate' comprising the new territory. "Sir". Elizabeth II of England. of certifying that the background.under the Queen of Great Britain and its Territories. The Wikipedia article on Esquire contains references to use of that title in the United States of America by persons qualified to practice law in the United States of America. For example.