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Reactive Acrylic Adhesives
Dennis J. Damico
Lord Corporation, Erie, Pennsylvania, U.S.A.

I. INTRODUCTION ‘‘Curing acrylic adhesives’’ can be defined as reactive, cross-linked, high strength structural adhesives that cure by way of free radical initiation. They typically contain methacrylate monomers that are generally toughened with elastomeric polymers as part of the formulation. Curing acrylic adhesives are distinctly different from anaerobics, cyanoacrylates, and acrylic solution adhesives and emulsions. These related chemistries use different formulating materials, cure via different curing mechanisms, and often possess minimal high performance properties over long periods of time, or when exposed to aggressive environments. Curing acrylic adhesives were first developed in Germany in the late 1960s as an outgrowth of poly(methyl methacrylate) chemistry. Early formulations were simply low molecular weight solutions of poly(methyl methacrylate) dissolved in methyl methacrylate monomer. These simple systems could be cured by way of peroxide initiation and found utility in bonding aluminum windows and doors. Since that time, a considerable amount of research has occurred resulting in the emergence of the very sophisticated adhesive systems that are on the market today. A considerable amount of the most recent work in developing what are now being referred to as ‘‘high performance acrylic adhesives’’ has been conducted in the United States. This chapter will cover acrylic chemistry, the various types of acrylic adhesives that have come into existence over the years, advantages and limitations of these systems, properties of adhesives, lap shear strength, what makes these systems unique among other types of adhesives, and examples of performance.

II.

HARDENING (CURE KINETICS) addition polymerization reactions. These chain reactions are of free radicals that result in the adhesive curing by way of a growth. This cure chemistry is significantly more rapid than condensation type) found in epoxy and urethane adhesives. profile of condensation (epoxy and urethane) versus addition

Acrylic adhesives cure by initiated by the formation very rapid polymer chain a typical cure curve (i.e., A comparison of the cure

Copyright © 2003 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

namely epoxies and urethanes. Due to the availability of a large number of formulating tools and choice of polymerization initiators. This allows the user to position and re-position parts for longer periods of time after the adhesive is mixed. (acrylic) polymerization is shown in Fig. III. In some cases. 1. the adhesive is fully cured) and finished goods are suitable for shipment. Even at as low as 44 C some acrylic formulations will begin to cure and harden in as little as a few weeks if maintained at these temperatures. with some as long as a year. This can be a significant advantage for some manufacturing methods. Consequently. Once cure is initiated with acrylics. it tends to proceed at an increasingly accelerated pace until full cure is reached. it has also been possible for formulators to develop systems that have a whole spectrum of cure rates. shelf stability with some systems can be a problem at relatively low temperatures. The rapid setting (cure) feature of acrylics allows the user to more clearly determine when parts are securely bonded (i.Figure 1 Cure profile of condensation versus addition polymerization. 19 L)] can worsen this problem. STORAGE Like most adhesive types. One difference with acrylic adhesives is the fact that they do often contain large amounts of highly reactive substances (monomers) that are used to achieve some of the unique properties associated with this family of products. Typically suppliers of acrylic adhesives list shelf lives of at least three months. again. The fact that this rapid setting is possible at room temperature is also a unique feature of acrylic adhesives. This rapid achievement of final properties is in contrast to urethanes and epoxies which tend to more gradually build properties to full cure. certain monomers may have a tendency to autopolymerize (cure without the use of externally added accelerators or hardeners). Copyright © 2003 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC . acrylic adhesives do not have an indefinite shelf life after manufacture. The time to reposition parts is relatively longer for acrylics when considered as a percentage of the overall cure time than is typically possible with other types of adhesives. As can be seen from the cure curve only little polymerization is noticeable in the early stage of the reaction after the adhesive is mixed. The free radical reaction or addition polymerization used in acrylic adhesives offers the user certain advantages over other types of adhesives.e. Large containers [above 5 gallons (ca. This allows manufacturing and design engineers to custom-fit specifically designed adhesives to a variety of different production schedules.

specifically those containing methyl methacrylate as a component. however. Following accelerator application. Users of these products should. each offering certain advantages over previous ‘‘generations. which is unique to these materials. PHYSICAL FORM AND HANDLING CHARACTERISTICS Most acrylic adhesives are supplied as two high viscosity liquids or pastes that are mixed together. They all contain ingredients to initiate hardening or curing of the adhesive. is the characteristic odor of the methyl methacrylate monomer. various automated types of meter-mix-and-dispense equipment are marketed by a number of engineering companies. used in combination with various other polymers. there are many proprietary.47 L) should not be mixed at one time. Methyl methacrylate and some of the other related monomers that are typically used in acrylic adhesives are shown in Fig. Copyright © 2003 by Taylor & Francis Group. V. the unmixed adhesive is applied to the primed substrate. Accelerators are low viscosity liquids which are brush or spray applied to one or both of the substrates being bonded. This color change can be used as a rough indicator of cure state and can be utilized in many manufacturing situations as an effective means of verifying the presence of both adhesive components. they can all be characterized as having a significant portion of the formulation composed of acrylic monomers. however. This new technology offers performance characteristics equal to methyl methacrylate-containing products. In addition. specific adhesion. This odor may be objectionable to some people and may result in the use of other types of adhesives instead.’’ The formulations vary widely with different families and subfamilies of products constantly being introduced. This method eliminates the need for premixing the adhesive and accelerator. consult with suppliers to confirm recommended storage conditions. albeit at a higher price. Some types can also optionally be cured by no-mix accelerator lacquers. Later in this chapter some of the new ‘‘low odor’’ formulations will be briefly discussed as alternative adhesives where odor has been an issue. Many acrylic adhesive products also go through a notable color change as they cure. manufacturers generally recommend that quantities greater than a pint (ca. These monomers vary in volatility with the lower molecular weight members of this family having a rather high odor and low flash point. flexibility. highly formulated products described as ‘‘acrylic adhesives. For large continuous operations. IV. 2. they contain various other organic and inorganic components designed to achieve desired handling properties. Because many acrylic adhesives cure very rapidly with a significant exotherm. 0. PRODUCT COMPOSITION As with almost all commercially available high performance products on the market today. the use of dual component cartridges is often ideal. As a consequence of the rapid exothermic cure of many acrylic adhesives. Most products can be purchased in ready-to-use cartridges.This problem with shelf stability above 44 C is largely historic in nature since recently introduced products have much improved stability over early prototypes. which eliminates pot life concerns. and shelf stability. called ‘‘Mix-in Accelerator’’ systems.’’ In general. LLC . One typical concern with acrylic adhesives.

In summary. These stabilizers are generally complex organic compounds that have a strong ability to react with free radicals (the cure chemistry most commonly employed with acrylics). cure rates. flexibility. CURE INITIATING CHEMISTRY As has been noted above. These stabilizers stop unwanted side reactions and assure good shelf life of formulated adhesive products. highly formulated product having numerous ingredients to control cure. in light of a broad spectrum of acrylic adhesive formulations. and the initiators and stabilizers already mentioned. the lower molecular weight. LLC . In addition to the methacrylate monomers that are responsible for adhesive hardening. The tendency of acrylic monomers to spontaneously and quickly polymerize makes it necessary for adhesive formulators to include various types of chemical stabilizers as part of the formulation to assure good shelf stability. handling properties. Additionally. Higher molecular weight members offer lower odor and higher flash point. adhesion. in order for adhesive systems containing methacrylated monomers to cure. Consequently. shelf life. the higher molecular weight.Figure 2 Reactive species (monomers) for acrylics. A typical means of generating a Copyright © 2003 by Taylor & Francis Group. strength. and environmental resistance. These additional components are included by formulating chemists to control handling properties. most companies have developed unique proprietary ways to add flexible polymers to acrylic adhesives to achieve desired flexibility. not very useful as an adhesive. the lower molecular variants tend to be lower in overall cost and result in somewhat better adhesion to some surfaces. methyl methacrylate. Some insight into the types of polymers used and their combinations and levels can be found by searching patent literature and various technical journals. or blends thereof can be employed. it can be assumed that any purchased acrylic adhesive on the market today will be a complex. Polymerized methyl methacrylate monomer is a hard brittle material. a free radical must be generated. VI. physical properties. and adhesion. most acrylic adhesives also contain polymers of various types and molecular weight. Depending on which properties are of most importance in a particular application. It should be noted that modifiers to improve flexibility are particularly important in systems based on the most common monomer. The exact nature of specific components is held as a trade secret by companies. and also impart greater flexibility in the finished adhesives.

Barring any unwanted interfering reactions as mentioned above. These radicals are capable of Figure 3 Redox reaction for acrylics. The result of the reaction of amine and peroxide is the formation of a free radical which is capable of reacting with methacrylated monomers to begin the polymerization process and subsequent cure. The complex details of properly initiating and appropriately controlling the chain reactions in acrylic adhesives have been carefully worked out by adhesive chemists (with the most effective ways of achieving this kept secret by companies that supply these adhesive materials). will ultimately lead to the formation of the high molecular weight polymers useful as adhesives. and low bond strength. One example is shown in Fig. Surfaces and contaminants to avoid are usually mentioned in the manufacturer’s literature. literature searches will reveal numerous other mechanisms to initiate cure. organic compounds used to initiate the reaction can vary considerably. 4. Copyright © 2003 by Taylor & Francis Group. 3. often an aromatic amine (as shown in Fig. A full and complete review of even the published information on this cure chemistry is beyond the scope of this chapter. LLC . The reader can gain further insight by consulting the bibliography at the end of this chapter. With some formulations. They typically react with another chemical substance—typically a peroxide (also shown in Fig. These amines are present in one portion or component of the adhesive. 4. As seen in Fig. 3). the polymerization and curing process. however. certain surfaces and certain contaminants can interfere with the reaction resulting in incomplete cure of the adhesive. This method of initiating the cure of acrylic adhesives is also known as a redox reaction. When accomplished skillfully. It should be noted that in addition to the use of amines and peroxides there have been other initiating reactions reported as methods to generate free radicals and cure acrylic adhesives. useful as an adhesive. 3). they all tend to result in the formation of critically important free radicals. In addition to this example. Redox reactions for acrylics typically involve the use of a chemical substance. The curing reaction will generally continue as long as there are unreacted monomer molecules present and there are no chemical or other factors present that could interfere with the reaction’s completion.free radical is shown in Fig. the final result is a tough high molecular weight complex polymer. once begun.

reacting with monomeric species found in the composition. The accelerator lacquer is usually in the form of a low viscosity liquid that is brush or spray applied to one or both of the substrates being bonded. Other types of adhesive products often cure by condensation polymerization reactions which dictate certain cure characteristics and handling techniques. two distinctly unique methods of handling and curing acrylic adhesives follow from their cure chemistry. At this point. the achievement of very rapid cures. These methods of handling acrylics are depicted in Figs. the ‘‘honeymoon’’ or ‘‘no-mix’’ method. These free radicals are then transported into the bulk of the adhesive and continue to propagate through the polymerizing methacrylate monomers to give the final full cure. 5 and 6. These are the so-called ‘‘accelerator lacquer’’ cure and the ‘‘no-mix’’ or ‘‘honeymoon’’ cure. As a consequence. and does not require expensive meter-mix-dispense equipment. it represents a source of free radicals due to the presence of the peroxide incorporated into it. during acrylic adhesive cure will continue to propagate throughout the curing adhesive. It should be noted that this cure mechanism is not possible with condensation polymers. until adhesive is applied over the lacquer. ultimately resulting in polymerization and cured high molecular weight polymers. Figure 5 shows the use of a solvent-carried peroxide-containing lacquer film former. The use of accelerator lacquers as a means to cure acrylics has been a very popular method since it allows the priming and storing of parts. This is in contrast to epoxy and urethane types which require intimate mixing for full cure. even if begun at a very localized region. When this accelerator lacquer is applied to one of the surfaces and dried. This means that cure. once formed. since they require full and intimate mixing of both components to achieve complete cures. LLC . forming free radicals. Figure 5 depicts the use of a peroxide-containing accelerator lacquer to cure the acrylic adhesive. amines in the adhesive react with the peroxide-containing lacquer to disassociate the peroxide.Figure 4 Amine plus sulfonyl chloride initiation of the cure of acrylic adhesives. Different curing possibilities for acrylics follow from the fact that the free radicals. can proceed throughout the adhesive glue line without additional mixing. This technique also takes advantage of the ability of free radicals to Copyright © 2003 by Taylor & Francis Group. The peroxide in the accelerator lacquer will remain unchanged chemically. such as epoxies and urethanes. VII. Figure 6 depicts another unique method of curing acrylics. UNIQUE CHARACTERISTICS OF ACRYLICS The polymerization of acrylic adhesives via free radicals (chain reaction) allows acrylic adhesives to be dispensed and cured using unique techniques.

Consequently. a rapid generation of free radicals occurs followed by monomer polymerization and full adhesive cure. these distinctions have been blurred considerably.Figure 5 Accelerator lacquer cure. or no-mix. As with the accelerator lacquer. have had a series of technical improvements often referred to as ‘‘generations’’ or ‘‘families. some of the early nomenclature is still used. LLC . Conventional Acrylic Adhesives ‘‘Conventional’’ or ‘‘first generation’’ acrylic adhesives are the earliest examples of this technology.’’ These so-called ‘‘generations’’ of acrylic adhesives originally did represent fundamental changes in the formulations and significant improvement options to potential users. while a bead of component B is applied to the other. and safety features well beyond products introduced decades earlier. In this approach. A. Once the two surfaces are joined. Figure 6 Honeymoon. no reaction occurs until the two surfaces are mated. like many other adhesive types on the market today. an Copyright © 2003 by Taylor & Francis Group. and certainly is common in older literature. Most products on the market today are advanced formulations offering performance. They contain methacrylated monomers. but is not possible with adhesive types other than acrylics. In the following sections. each of the important acrylic types is covered separately in an attempt to clarify what they are and how they differ from one another. this technique requires the use of only inexpensive dispensing equipment. a variety of polymers. As in the case of the accelerator lacquer. they are reviewed here for historical purposes. ACRYLIC ADHESIVE ‘‘FAMILIES’’ Acrylic adhesives. a bead of component A is applied to one surface. VIII. In recent years. Nevertheless. propagate throughout the adhesive to complete the cure without the need for intimate mixing. cure for acrylic adhesives. handling.

initiator/stabilizer package. Such formulations.1 2. In bonding ABS to itself. Acrylic Adhesives Parts by weight 40 9 49 2 Component Styrene–methyl methacrylate copolymer syrup Methacrylic acid Poly(methyl methacrylate) syrup Accelerator–stabilizer package Table 2 Substrate Bond Performance of First Generation Acrylic Adhesives Lap shear strength (MPa)a 26. It can also be seen from this table that adhesion to galvanized steel is lower than to other metals. and to steel and aluminum provided the metals are clean. 1000 psi % 6. to wood and rubber..5 16. and are generally stronger than the substrates themselves. good bond strengths are retained for at least 35 days in aggressive environments (e. emerged in the early 1970s and found considerable utility in bonding thermoplastics. The patent literature also reports that when using mix-in accelerators. in condensing humidity cabinets). and methacrylic acid.9 MPa. Copyright © 2003 by Taylor & Francis Group. such as ABS. The failure mode of substrate failure in plastic substrates. Bonding to galvanized steel was a problem with first generation acrylic adhesives but it has been overcome with more recent embodiments of this technology covered later in this chapter.g. It should be noted that if adhesives of the type shown in Table 2 are applied and cured using an accelerator lacquer. The adhesives have good adhesion to thermoplastics such as polystyrene.7 17.9 Clean steel Clean aluminum Rigid poly(vinyl chloride) Steel to nylon Steel to polystyrene Steel to ABSb Galvanized steel a b ASTM D1002.9 MPa when either a mix-in accelerator or an accelerator lacquer are used. for example. a typical example of which is shown in Table 1. ABS. the literature reports stock breaks in the range of 5. rapid cure and adhesion. or First Generation. Typical bond performance of adhesives of the first generation type is shown in Table 2. They provide excellent gap filling characteristics.4 17. is also reported.9 20. Products classified as ‘‘first generation’’ are still on the market and are sold primarily for bonding thermoplastics. LLC .2 21. Data have also been reported in company literature claiming first generation acrylic adhesives will resist aggressive environments such as exposure to alcohols and hot water immersion. bond strengths equivalent to those achieved with mix-in peroxide pastes are obtained.Table 1 Conventional. and poly(vinyl chloride). Acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene.

When HP acrylics were used to bond oily metals. but did not require the use of awkward oily primers. In some cases the term ‘‘DH’’ is used interchangeably with ‘‘second generation. in addition to most of the other substrates that earlier offerings were capable of bonding. This type of system. as with the DH types. water immersion. So these adhesives may not be well suited for certain applications in the automobile area where galvanized steel is being bonded (Note that later generations covered in this chapter do not necessarily have this shortcoming). and an increasing use of novel cure chemistry and specialty adhesion enhancing additives. and often were also considerably lower in odor. however. one obvious difference between these materials and earlier types is that the accelerator lacquers used with these newer systems often were oily. and gasoline immersion) for up to 1000 hours. In addition. than bonds obtained with clean surfaces. however. offered users the ability to bond through oily metals. These adhesives differ from the original offerings in the polymers used. These systems showed the ability not only to bond to unprepared steel and aluminum surfaces. continue to show weaknesses when zinc surfaces were bonded. Second generation and DH acrylic adhesives were notably different from earlier systems in that they were the first type of acrylic adhesives that could be cured and good bonds to unprepared metals could be obtained. magnesium.. Adhesives of HP type have been shown to bond bronze. copper. DH Acrylic Adhesives The so-called ‘‘Dexter Hysol (DH) acrylic adhesives’’ are an example of one of the later generation products and are loosely an extension of the original technology. They did. and often stronger.B. This ability marked a significant advancement in acrylic adhesives and established them as a unique family of adhesive materials for bonding oily and unprepared metals.’’ although adhesive suppliers would argue that this is not accurate and the two terms represent quite different types of products. The oily accelerator lacquers that are available for curing DH acrylics are difficult to apply and once primed. and stainless steel. salt spray. lead. but also to aluminum and steel surfaces that still had varieties of different oils and drawing compounds on them. parts are difficult to handle. Nevertheless. interfering with manufacturers’ ability to supply product consistently. C.g. and the bonded parts were subjected to aggressive environments (e. some of the key raw materials have been of limited availability. ‘‘second generation’’ acrylic adhesives. LLC . aluminum. condensing humidity. Table 3 gives the lap shear bond strength of typical substrates bonded with high performance acrylic adhesives. They also were based on formulations that contained specialty adhesion promoting components. little or no reduction in overall bond strength was reported. These types of acrylic adhesive systems enjoyed considerable popularity when they were first introduced. steel. Copyright © 2003 by Taylor & Francis Group. It can be seen from these data that bonds to oily metals are at least as strong. nickel. more ‘‘user-friendly’’ adhesive formulations that do not require nondrying (oily) primers and accelerators. DH and other generations are often lumped together under a general term. and peroxides other than benzoyl peroxide were often used. often contained monomers that were less flammable than first generation products. the monomers used. HP Second Generation Acrylic Adhesives The emergence of the DH acrylic adhesives occurred concurrent with the introduction of the so-called ‘‘HP’’ or ‘‘high performance’’ acrylic adhesives. More recently. they have been replaced by other.

sometimes of different families than strictly acrylic. but also significant heat resistance makes them ideal for applications where product performance over a wide temperature range is required. more convenient mix combinations also have been introduced. HI products retain virtually all of the performance features of earlier variants. and the B component is applied to the other substrate to be bonded. Copyright © 2003 by Taylor & Francis Group. Equal-Mix Acrylic Adhesives A disadvantage of many acrylic adhesive products on the market today is that those that require mixing may require an awkward mix ratio. making highly automated production very difficult to achieve effectively.Table 3 Bond Performance of ‘‘High Performance’’ Acrylic Adhesives on Oily Metals Substrate SAE 1010 steel (oily) SAE 1010 steel (solvent wiped) SAE 1010 steel (grit blasted) 6061-T6 aluminum (oily) 6061-T6 aluminum (solvent wiped) 6061-T6 aluminum (grit blasted) 2024-T3 aluminum (oily) 2024-T3 aluminum (solvent wiped) a Lap shear strength (MPa)a 44. E.1 42.6 34. 6 previously. HI and Current Families of Acrylic Adhesives Another advancement in acrylic adhesives has been in the area of acrylics with improved low temperature properties. as shown in Fig. These products represent additional advances made by polymer scientists and formulating chemists. When these two halves are joined together. D.1 41. and even certain products with 1 to 1. and is a very useful technique in bonding magnets for electrical motors where the fast cure and easy application technique have found extensive utility. 1000 psi % 6.9 MPa. As the various generations of acrylics have emerged.5 ASTM D1002. and even products that do not require significant mixing at all have come to the market. first 10 to 1. enough free radicals are generated to initiate and complete the cure.7 35. sometimes called ‘‘HI’’ or ‘‘high impact’’ acrylics. The first generation products. The no-mix or honeymoon type acrylic adhesives are unique in that polymerization is adequately achieved after the A component of the adhesive is applied to one substrate to be bonded. generally required a mix of 20 parts adhesive to 1 part curing agent. They use unique molecular building blocks and polymers.1 33. then 4 to 1 variants. for instance. In addition to the properties noted above. leading to numerous ‘‘hybrids’’ involving other polymer and elastomer types emerging very recently. The no-mix technology is unique in that it has found extensive use in the electronics industry.0 35. then 2 to 1. Formulators have also further advanced the art in the use of ingredients that are nonflammable and have little or no odor. These variants of the technology not only offer outstanding low temperature properties. Recently true equal-mix products have emerged. LLC .1 32.

not be considered the major chemical family of adhesives. These materials are added to the formulations and result in the formation of free radicals when exposed to UV or visible light. but it should be noted that these use special photoinitiators in place of redox or other forms of generating free radicals. rather than methacrylate. benzophenones. Company literature from several adhesive suppliers is currently available that lists UV curable and visible light curing acrylic adhesives as part of their product package. due to the need for the unique handling characteristics and performance properties achievable with acrylics. IX. F. The acrylates are much more prone to UV initiation and propagation than the methacrylates and are consequently the better choice for the formulators. Acrylics would. is the systems that will cure via exposure to light of various wavelengths. When these photoinitiators are exposed to the correct wavelength of light they dissociate into smaller segments to form free radical-containing molecular fragments that ultimately result in a cure much like other acrylic adhesives. Of most interest are the ultraviolet (UV) radiation (below 300 nm wavelength) and. the visible range (400 to 700 nm wavelength). particularly since so many of the chemistries involved are nowadays hybrids of more than one type. when compared to epoxies and urethanes. are the benzoin ethers. Representative compounds that are sensitive to UV light. they maintain and will continue to maintain an important position among high performance structural adhesive types. USES OF ACRYLIC ADHESIVE Worldwide use and sales for acrylic adhesives of the types discussed here are difficult to determine. 7. This type of acrylic adhesive is being used successfully in polycarbonate lens bonding. LLC . Photocurable (1-Part No-Mix) Acrylic Adhesives A separate class of acrylic adhesives. The only significant difference is found in the use of acrylate. Nevertheless.Figure 7 Typical photoinitiators. To achieve UV cure requires a specific type of initiator called a photoinitiator. not always listed with this family of materials. to some extent. These and a compound that can activate in the visible region are shown in Fig. particularly of 200–300 nm wavelength. and similar compounds. as the carrier monomer. These types of adhesives obviously are of utility in bonding substrates that are transparent in the UV and visible regions which is typical of many clear plastics and glass. Compositionally. photoinitiated acrylics are much like the formulations already reported in this chapter. no doubt. Copyright © 2003 by Taylor & Francis Group.

SUMMARY Curing acrylic adhesives were introduced decades ago and have been a class of adhesive materials that have continued to be improved since their introduction. Their unique adhesion to aluminum has translated into their use in bonding aluminum for construction (windows and doors). CT Permabond Englewood. NY Dymax Torrington. NJ Copyright © 2003 by Taylor & Francis Group. faster curing. Current versions will no doubt be replaced by even more improved variants as this technology continues to be a rich area for research. ACRYLIC ADHESIVE SUPPLIERS PRODUCT VersilokÕ . FusorÕ DependÕ QuickbondTM MVPTM Engineering Adhesive MagnacrylÕ COMMENT General purpose and most types ‘‘Modified’’ pastes ‘‘Toughened’’ acrylics Acrylic adhesives ‘‘Modified’’ types Paste UV curable SUPPLIER Lord Corporation Erie. PA Beacon Chemical Mount Vernon. LordÕ . The markets served include the recreational and industrial areas. more resistant to aggressive environments. and hybrid types will also have a positive effect on overall growth. The development of formulations with lower overall odor. such as magnets for fractional horsepower motors. LLC . 1-part systems. Acrylics have also been found to be the most effective way to bond aluminum. They also offer potential in the automotive area where bonding metals used in primary structures is becoming a possibility. Significant advances have occurred in making these materials tougher. X. MA Hysol Pittsburgh.Acrylic adhesives’ distinct ability to bond quickly to a variety of unprepared metals has meant that they are a significant factor in bonding certain electrical components. In the future the various families of acrylic adhesives are expected to grow as more and more design engineers specify bonded parts and as specialty substrates continue to emerge that are bondable only with acrylic adhesives. PA Loctite Hartford. where fast room temperature bonding to unprepared aluminum is required. Acrylics offer some unique capabilities to bond to plastics without surface priming. They are also very good gap filling materials which makes their use preferable to solvent welding in many cases. Uses in the area of plastic appliances and other plastic molded devices are also known to exist. XI. NJ Devcon Danvers. recreation (boats). The use of acrylics for metal exterior structures has also been an area of active investigation. and easier to handle. and military (repair and primary bonding) applications.

Copyright © 2003 by Taylor & Francis Group. Wood and R. Adhesives and Sealants Industry. Damico. 7. McGraw-Hill. 12. 3. Structural adhesive is key to vandal-proof coin box. D. D. MN IPS Corp. Jr. Putting today’s new structural adhesives to work for you. Introduction to Polymer Chemistry. J. Damico. A. Int. J. E. G. 9. (1987). 2. 8. Wostratzky. Paint and Varnish Production. Radiation Curing July (1973). Seymour. W. Bowen and H. Radiation Curing July (1982). Polymer Sci. Toughened structural adhesives and their use. July 19–27 (1973). 11: June (1979). Yeames. Lees. 41 Dec. DE Saf-T-Lok Lombard. June 67–68 (1991). New York. Fundamentals of acrylics. A. Gatechair and D. 13. 1984. Argentar. D. H.’’ Society of Manufacturing Engineers. 15. Adhesion Adhesives 1(5): July (1981). J. Bachmann.SUPPLIER Ciba Geigy Madison Hts. Bonding galvanized steel with RT curing acrylics. Design News. CA PRODUCT AraviteTM DP-810 Weld-OnÕ High ImpactTM HardlocTM H4200 and H4400 COMMENT 2-part general purpose General purpose 2-part general purpose Syrup Syrup High elongation SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. MI 3M Minneapolis.. 17: (1973).. 5. Fundamental aspects of ultraviolet light and electron beam curing. Modern Plastics July (1974). 10. Free radical initiators for styrene polymerization. J. L. 1984. Kramer. W. Adhesives Age. LLC . A new adhesive for structural bonding of engineering materials. Pasternack. The new century of adhesives. Rohm and Haas Company Brochure. W. W. Adhesives Age Oct. Brendley. Jan. 1971. 6. B. R. Adhesives ’84 Conference. A method for determining the optimum peroxide-to-amine ratio for self-curing resins. R. Appl. Photoinitiators: an overview of mechanisms and applications. 241–247 (2000). J. Society of Manufacturing Engineers. 11. The science of acrylic adhesives. N. L. K. G. Newark. J. Catalysts for the Polymerization of Acrylic Monomers. Lewis. R. A. 14. Lees. (1998). J. June 1959. ‘‘Aerobic acrylic adhesives (new technology in acrylic adhesives). IL Denka Japan Dexter Hysol. 4. Polymer J. Adhesives ’84 Conference. Brit.