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Original Title: Piezo Equations

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Piezoelectricity is a coupling between a material's mechanical and electrical behaviors. In the simplest of terms, when a piezoelectric material is squeezed, an electric charge collects on its surface. Conversely, when a piezoelectric material is subjected to a voltage drop, it mechanically deforms. Many crystalline materials exhibit piezoelectric behavior. A few materials exhibit the phenomenon strongly enough to be used in applications that take advantage of their properties. These include quartz, Rochelle salt, lead titanate zirconate ceramics (e.g.PZT4, PZT-5A, etc.), barium titanate, and polyvinylidene flouride (a polymer film). On a nanoscopic scale, piezoelectricity results from a nonuniform charge distribution within a crystal's unit cells. When such a crystal is mechanically deformed, the positive and negative charge centers displace by differing amounts. So while the overall crystal remains electrically neutral, the difference in charge center displacements results in an electric polarization within the crystal. Electric polarization due to mechanical input is perceived as piezoelectricity. From an engineering or modeling point of view, piezoelectricity results in a change to a material's constitutive properties. Many finite element codes include piezoelectric modeling capability.

What is a constitutive equation? For mechanical problems, a constitutive equation describes how a material strains when it is stressed, or vice-versa. Constitutive equations exist also for electrical problems; they describe how charge moves in a (dielectric) material when it is subjected to a voltage, or vice-versa. Engineers are already familiar with the most common mechanical constitutive equation that applies for everyday metals and plastics. This equation is known as Hooke's Law and is written as:

In words, this equation states: Strain = Compliance Stress. However, since piezoelectric materials are concerned with electrical properties too, we must also consider the constitutive equation for common dielectrics:

Coupled Equation

Piezoelectric materials combine these two seemingly dissimilar constitutive equations into one coupled equation, written as:

The piezoelectric coupling terms are in the matrix d. In order to describe or model piezoelectric materials, one must have knowledge about the material's mechanical properties (compliance or stiffness), its electrical properties (permittivity), and its piezoelectric coupling properties.

The subscripts in piezoelectric constitutive equations have very important meanings. They describe the conditions under which the material property data was measured. For example, the subscript E on the compliance matrix sE means that the compliance data was measured under at least a constant, and preferably a zero, electric field. Likewise, the subscript T on the permittivity matrix T means that the permittivity data was measured under at least a constant, and preferably a zero, stress field.

Piezoelectricity is described mathematically within a material's constitutive equation, which defines how the piezoelectric material's stress (T), strain (S), charge-density displacement (D), and electric field (E) interact. The piezoelectric constitutive law (in Strain-Charge form) is:

The matrix d contains the piezoelectric coefficients for the material, and it appears twice in the constitutive equation (the superscript t stands for matrix-transpose). For a more detailed explanation of the constitutive variables, see the Symbol Definition page. For more on constitutive equations, visit the Constitutive Backgroundpage.

Other Forms

The four state variables (S, T, D, and E) can be rearranged to give an additional 3 forms for

a piezoelectric constitutive equation. Instead of the coupling matrix d, they contain the coupling matrices e, g, or q. It is possible to transform piezo constitutive data in one form to another form. Why are these transformations important? A leading motivation is that vendors typically publish material data for d and g, whereas certain finite element codes require piezo data entered as e. To view the 4 piezoelectric constitutive equations and their mutual transformations, visit the Constitutive Transform page.

The four possible forms for piezoelectric constitutive equations are shown below. The names for each of the forms is arbitrary; they were taken from the two dependent variables on the left-hand-side of each equation. Note that the Voltage and Electric Field variables are related via a gradient. Strain-Charge Form: Stress-Charge Form:

Strain-Voltage Form:

Stress-Voltage Form:

Transformations

Matrix transformations for converting piezoelectric constitutive data from one form into another form are shown below. Only 4 out of the 6 possible combinations are shown. Strain-Charge to Stress-Charge: Strain-Charge to Strain-Voltage:

Stress-Charge to Stress-Voltage:

Strain-Voltage to Stress-Voltage:

See the Symbol Definition page for the units and dimensions of the constitutive matrices shown here. See Subscript Definitions for an explanation to the subscripts on the constitutive matrices.

Following is a description of all matrix variables used in the piezoelectric constitutive equations. Symbol Object Type

vector

Size 6x1

Units

Meaning

1) 3)

vector

6x1

vector

3x1

electric field components electric charge density displacement components compliance coefficients

vector

3x1

matrix

6x6

matrix

6x6

stiffness coefficients

matrix

3x3

matrix

3x6

matrix

3x6

piezoelectric coupling coefficients for StressCharge form piezoelectric coupling coefficients for StrainVoltage form piezoelectric coupling coefficients for StressVoltage form

matrix

3x6

matrix

3x6

Material Selection

Select from the following list of piezoelectric materials to view their constitutive property data. The data is presented in constitutive matrix form.

Insulators

Ammonium Dihydrogen Phosphate Potassium Dihydrogen Phosphate Barium Sodium Niobate Barium Titanate Barium Titanate (poled) Lithium Niobate Lithium Tantalate Lead Zirconate Titanate: PZT-2, PZT-4, PZT-4D, PZT-5A,PZT5H, PZT-5J, PZT-7A, PZT-8 Quartz Rochelle Salt Bismuth Germanate

Semiconductors

Cadmium Sulfide Gallium Arsenide Tellurium Dioxide

The entries in the constitutive matrices for piezoelectric materials are subscript-labeled as follows: s11 s12 s22 s13 s23 s33 s14 s24 s34 s15 s25 s35 s16 s26 s36 Compliance Matrix is symmetric.

s44

s45 s55

11

0 22

Subscript Ordering

Constitutive data is presented in a 3-axis cartesian coordinate system, denoted by {x, y, z}. The ordering of the 6 stress (and 6 strain) variables follows the convention used by crystallographers. This ordering determines the layout of the compliance matrix s, and determines the column ordering in the coupling matrix d. The first 3 entries are the direct stresses along the x, y, and z axes, respectively. The final 3 entries are the shear stresses around the x, y, and z axes, respectively. The electric field (and charge displacement) variable ordering is straightforward. The 3 entries correspond to the electric field component along the x, y, and z axes, respectively. This ordering determines the layout of the permittivity matrix , and determines the row ordering in the coupling matrix d. For polarized piezoelectric materials (e.g. PZT), the poling direction is assumed to lie along the z axis.

Caution! Some finite element codes use a different ordering scheme for their stress and strain variables. Such a scheme would require the data in the s and d matrices to be rearranged accordingly. Watch out for this!

Piezoelectric Impedance

The electrical impedance is a distinguishing characteristic for piezoelectric elements. It differs substantially from the impedance of non-piezoelectric dielectric elements when driven at high-enough frequencies. The difference stems from the coupling of electrical energy input to mechanical motion output. Recall that the electrical impedance is defined as the voltage drop across an element divided by the current through the element. For a (simple geometry) piezoelectric element, the electrical impedance over a given frequency range will appear similar to that shown here:

The impedance for a non-piezoelectric element (of the same shape and dielectrical properties) is also shown in blue. The presence of electrical resonances and anti-resonances make the piezoelectric impedance unique. The resonances result from the electrical input signal exciting a mechanical resonance in the piezo element. For each mechanical resonance in the piezo element, a resonance/anti-resonance pair will exist in the impedance. This characteristic piezoelectric impedance can be modeled by an equivalent circuit.

Equivalent Circuit

The following electric circuit can be used to model a resonance / anti-resonance pair that exists in the electrical impedance of piezoelectrics.

The following 2 conditions are required for the circuit to accurately simulate piezoelectric resonance behavior: The value of C must be much smaller than Cp C and Cp in parallel must equal the piezo's low-frequency capacitance The frequencies (in Hz) of the electrical resonance and anti-resonance are given by the following equations (which assume a small series resistance R):

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