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HRM vs HRD HRM stands for human resources management, which refers to the art of managing all aspects

of the human work force at a company or organization. HRM aims at providing an optimal working environment for employees to fully and freely utilize their skills to their best to achieve the company’s intended output. As human resources management usually applies to big companies and organizations, it has sub categories, among which is HRD, which stands for human resources development. This is a component of HRM that focuses on ‘nurturing’ employee’s skills. Because the process of hiring new employees can be long, expensive and cumbersome, most companies employ the strategy of HRD to promote longevity of employees within the company because through this an employee is likely to progressively scale up the managerial ladder.

Human resources management of a company is often an independent department of its own composed of various sections including recruitment and retention, performance and appraisal management, HRD and compensation sections. But HRD does not only focus on development of skills but also focuses on the personal development of employees. Because peoples’ needs and expectations are ever growing and changing this section of HRM is specifically there to help employees cope with such and prepare them for future uncertainties. Generally speaking, professionals working within the HRM department must have excellent people skills although this is more so with those particularly working in the HRD section. The HRD section needs to have professionals with impeccable people management skills as they need to be able to realize talent within people from a cross section of backgrounds. The HRD section is concerned with identifying strengths and weaknesses among different employees and devising training means that aim at making those skills complement the other. HRD aims at developing a superior workforce so that the company and individual employees may achieve their work goals in the customers’ service. It can take on a formal approach as in a classroom or laboratory training in a case where it may apply. It may also take the informal route where an employee receives coaching or simple mentorship from his superior, usually a manager. Summary: 1. HRD is a sub section of HRM, i.e. HRD is a section with the department of HRM. 2.HRM deals with all aspects of the human resources function while HRD only deals

with the development part. 3.HRM is concerned with recruitment, rewards among others while HRD is concerned with employee skills development. 4.HRM functions are mostly formal while HRD functions can be informal like mentorships.

PARTICIPATIVE MANAGEMENT

Meaning of Participative Management .Employee’s participation in management means associating workers with the decision-making process. It is a type of mental & emotional involvement of workers in industrial management. In industrial democracy, the opinion & suggestions of workers are taken into account while framing policies particularly those, which are directly connected with them or affect them directly. . Participation in an emotional involvement of employees in the working of their company. It is a process of giving & sharing views, ideas & information in between the employer & employees through certain channels / mechanism. Features of Participative Management

1. Higher status to employees: In participative management, employees are given higher status with 2.
power of participate in the decision-making & running of their business enterprise. Provides psychological satisfaction to employees: Participation is an emotional involvement of employees in the working of their company. As a result, some management decisions are as per the expectations of employees. This gives psychological satisfaction to employees. They feel that they are given better status & treatment & not treated merely as wage earners. Special attention to view of employees: The views of employees are given special attention in regard to following matters: • Social Matters: Hours of work, work rules, welfare facilities, safety, sanitation, health, etc. • Personnel: Recruitment, promotions & transfers, settlement of grievances, work distribution, holidays, etc. • Economic: Automation, lay-offs, production schedule, production methods, etc. Universally recognized concept: It is introduced in different countries in different forms. Participation is indirect: Employees participation in the management is indirect i.e. through the representatives of employees. E.g. Works comities, etc. Brings employees & management closure: It facilitates meaningful communication between management & employees, which ensures cordial industrial relations. Beneficial to both parties: The participative management will be beneficial to both parties only when company’s management is professional or progressive. Revolutionary concept: It is a powerful tool, which can make industrial democracy a reality. Concept has limitations: Employees will not be allowed to participate in financial & other decisions of the management. It is restricted to those aspects of management where employees are directly involved.

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Objectives or Purposes of Participative Management: ⇒ To create uniform approach of employer & workers. ⇒ To establish cordial industrial relation.

⇒ To raise industrial productivity. ⇒ To workers in confidence. ⇒ To introduce industrial democracy.

Needs of Participative Management:

1) Giving higher status & psychological satisfaction to workers: 2) Cordial labour-management relations: The participation of the workers in management can act as an
effective means for preventing industrial disputes.

3) Creating uniform approach of employer & workers: This avoids possible disputes. 4) Raising industrial production: As workers generally take interest in their work when they are given
due importance, respect & opportunity of self-expression.

5) Creating platform for direct negotiations: It is needed in order to create a platform for direct
negotiations & collective decisions.

6) Creating responsible approach among workers: To make workers more responsible, disciplined & 7) 8)
constructive in their approach in relation to the activities of the company. Encouraging communication between employer & workers: It enables management to understand the workers point of view at the time of decision-making. It removes suspicion among workers. Raising employee’s morale: For raising the morale of employees & in order to use their knowledge, skills & talents for the benefit of the company.

9) Introducing industrial democracy: Workers participation acts as a means for achieving the dream of industrial democracy. They are consulted as equal partners in the production process.

Methods of participative management
Participative management is possible by creating suitable agencies, forums or platforms through which effective communication between workers and management will be possible and joint decision will be arrived at the methods of Participative management are different alternative. Employees and workers can select any one of the method popular and also purposeful. This is the nature as the method selected is not important but the result oriented Participative is important. The method used is means while effective participation is the end. 1. Works committees: The industrial disputes act 1947 provided for the setting up of a work committees consisting of representative of management and employees in every undertaking employee 100 or more employees. The committees are for the removing the causes of friction between employers and the workers in the day to day working in factory level. This joint consultative committee meets frequently for discussion on common problem before workers and the company. After discussion, joint decisions are taken and such decisions are binding on both the parties. Matters like wage payment, bonus, training, discipline, welfare facility, working conditions etc. are discussed in such meetings. . 2. Joint management councils (JMCs): These council are similar to works committees with equal representation to employer and employees. Workers express their views, problems such as welfare facility; discipline, training, removal of workers, common grievances, holidays, rationalization, expansion programmes, etc. are discussed in the meetings of JMCs. Such joint consultative committees exist in UK and Sweden. In India, participative management is mainly through joint management councils.

employees participate in the management as co-owners i. views. Co-partnership ( Participation through ownership) : In co-partnership. As a result. but for quarrels and heated exchanges 3. etc.e. As a practice. This method is called “Automanagement”. Here. if they fail they can request to management to depute an expert to sort out the problem. 8.e. Employee Directors: Here. In this sense. Employees when empowered. employment takes place when employees enjoy power and they experience a sense of ownership and control over the jobs. It results into signing an agreement thereby restricting each party that it cannot take unilateral decision harming the interest of the other party.JMCs are in addition to works committees which are statutory in nature. heads of departments and technical experts. two or three representatives of workers are taken on the Board of Directors of the company. Voting rights are also given to employees. workers take over the industrial unit and manage it completely on co operative basis. One example in India under this category is that of Kamani Tubes Limited. In this method. shareholders. if found suitable. Their suggestions are considered by a joint committee representing workers. 7. Naturally. employee directors act as connecting link between workers and top level management. In addition. The employee directors / workers directors are elected by workers and they express the views of workers in the meetings of the Board. It is one significant constructive development in the field of trade unionism in India. For collecting suggestions. This gives them an opportunity to participate in the decision making and policy framing of their company at the highest level. meetings are held once in the week lasting for about as hour. Information is shared at every level leading to improved performance. energy conservation and safety measures. . the JMCs are not operation effectively in India due to limited interest and initiative in their functioning by managements and workers. They are not used for exchange of information. The company may give financial assistance to workers to purchase equity shares. waste management. 9. Member of quality circle is given free hand to solve problem related to the quality. Such participation ensures cordial industrial relations. Workers co-partnership / Auto Management: In this extreme form of labour participation. 5. 4. Workers are also allowed to attend meetings of the company and participate in the discussions. The suggestion should be implemented. The suggestions which are suitable are accepted. rewards are also given to those who make constructive suggestions. the personnel policies will be fair and favourable to workers. Collective Bargaining: Collective bargaining is the process in which the representative of the employer and employees meet together to negotiate a contract government both the parties. suggestions. this form of participation is voluntary. Quality Circle: Quality circle consist of a small number of employees who comes together on voluntary basis with one item on the agenda i. This happens to motivate them and they go out of the way to work. Unfavourable decisions to workers will be avoided and better treatment will be ensured to them. understanding that the job belong to them. to improve quality or to raise productivity or to avoid wastages. Employees become quality conscious and contribute to quality improvement in product and services. workers are converted into shareholders of the company (by offering equity shares to them) and are allowed to participate in the management like other shareholders. This is the first example of participative management in the manufacturing sector in India. 6. The representative of workers can put the views of workers before the directors and can also safeguard the interests of workers. etc.. . Collective bargaining is a better alternative to strike and industrial disputes. They can elect their representatives on the Board of Directors. Unfortunately. Suggestion Programme / Scheme: Under suggestion programme. workers are asked to give their suggestion to the management on various administrative and other matters such as machine utilization. the entire management is by the workers themselves. This circle highly proved to be highly successful because the problem is solved by member themselves through two way communication and brainstorming seriously and studies them effectively and promptly. suggestion boxes are kept in all departments. Empowered Team: When the authority is delegated to the employees its called empowering.

The national economy also gets certain benefits when industrial peace and harmony exits over a long period. It helps consumer in an indirect manner. Mutual trust and confidence: 4. Importance of participative management: The importance of participative management is universally accepted and efforts are being made for introducing such participation through suitable agencies and methods. employers and society at large. In brief. Job enlargement and job evaluation: Job enlargement is the process of increasing the scope of the job by adding more tasks to it. Even the process of decision making is made democratic through the workers participation. Both the job enrichment and job enlargement are considering method of participative management as they provide freedom to each employee to use his judgment. Meaningful sharing of information: . Such participation gives higher status to workers and enable them to think and express their view on the working of their company.10. Efforts are being made in all countries in this regards. the concept of participative management is important because of economics. Job enrichment is designing a job in such a way that it provide the employee grater autonomy for planning and control his own performance. PRE-REQUISITES OF PARTICIPATIVE MANAGEMENT 1. social and human values connected with it. Genuine urge for co-operation: 5. Clear understanding of objective: 7. this experiment is reasonable . workers’ participation brings industrial democracy in reality. 9. The main objective of job enrichment and job enlargement is to force the worker from boredom which occurs because of excessive specialization. Industrial peace and cordial industrial relation are also established through participative management. Employee participation is useful for raising industrial production and productivity. Favourable attitude of management: 3. The ILO has given morale support to employee’s participation and has advocated its adoption in all countries. Strong trade unions: 2. Voluntary character desirable: . employees to get the opportunity to make grater use of their mental and physical skills. Job enrichment makes the jobs more interesting and challenging. In the countries of west. 8. Education and training of workers: 10. As tasks are related. Peaceful atmosphere: 6. It bring human element in industrial management. Participative management introduces a new set of volume for the workers and employers in which power is to be replaced by persuasion and compulsion by co-operation. In addition. Participation of supervisory staff: . Participative management is important it satisfies the psychological needs of self expression of workers. This freedom is course limited and restricted. Participative management has wider socio-economic importance as it given various advantages to workers.

organizational and job manpower requirement analysis should be undertaken by the management. Therefore. etc. the progress is not satisfactory even when consultative machinery exists in many countries. 5) To provide guidance and assistance to employees to develop their potentials to the highest level. b) CAREER INFORMATION:Here. resignation. 6) To improve employee morale and motivation by providing training and opportunities for promotion. ADVANTAGES OF CAREER PLANNING:A properly designed system of career planning can provide the following benefits: i. this motivates employees to grow and reach to higher position. at managerial level. compensation payment and future promotions. DISADVANTAGES/LIMITATIONS OF CAREER PLANNING:The main problems in career planning are as follows: . Involves a survey of employee abilities and attitudes. This prepares proper background for the introduction of career planning programmes for employees. 4) To achieve higher productivity and organizational development. A career is a sequence of positions/jobs held by a person during the course of his working life. efforts will be made to identify the number of employees required in future. Career planning facilitates expansion and growth of the enterprise. the selection procedure will be adjusted with the overall strategic goals of the organization.. d) CAREER PATHING:Management now plans job sequences for transfers and promotions of their employees. Career planning anticipates the future vacancies that may arise due to retirement. 2) To attract and retain the right type of persons in the organization. Along with job analysis. death. This makes transfers and promotions systematically with advance information to employees. It becomes possible. Career planning and development is the responsibility of the HR department NEED/PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES OF CAREER PLANNING:1) To map out careers of employees as per their ability and willingness and to train and develop them for higher positions. MEANING OF CAREER PLANNING (WHAT IS CAREER PLANNING?):Career planning is one important aspect of human resource planning and development. In addition. Career counselling is possible by senior executives through periodic discussions with their subordinates. 3) To utilize available managerial talent within the organization fully. information relating to career opportunities will be supplied to employees. SCOPE OF ORGANISATIONAL CAREER PLANNING:The following activities/areas are covered within the scope of organizational career planning: a) HUMAN RESOURCE FORECASTING AND PLANNING:Here. therefore to group together people talking on a similar wavelength and place them under supervisors who are responsive to that wavelength. it provides a fairly reliable guide for manpower forecasting. v. Every individual who joins an organization desires to make a good career for himself within the organization. Encourages him to avail of the training and development facilities in the organization so as to improve his ability to handle new and higher assignments. If the organizations want to get the best out of their employees. In brief. Such career guidance encourages subordinate employees to take interest in certain areas where suitable opportunities of career development are available. ii. He joins the organization with a desire to have a bright career in terms of status.successful while in developing countries including India. e) SKILL ASSESSMENT TRAINING:Training is essential for career planning and also for manpower development. Helps an employee to know the career opportunities available in an organization. iv. they must plan regularly the career development programmes in their organizations. c) CAREER COUNSELLING:Such counselling is next to supplying career information. iii. career planning refers to the formal programmes that organizations implement to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of the human resources available.

Facilitates available for training and development within and outside the organization. iii. Span of control available within the organization. qualifications. and vi. v. Total number of employees – their age distribution. the following information will be required: i. 10. political intervention in appointments and reservations of seats for scheduled castes/tribes and backward classes. What is to be attained/achieved? 5) . Such plan must describe the following in concrete form/forms: a. 5. ANALYSIS OF PESONNEL SITUATION 2. environmental factors such as government policy. Field staff at head office with necessary details. through one career development plan. Career planning can become a reality when opportunities for vertical ability are available. In family business houses in India. Therefore. public sector development. Therefore. particularly for illiterate and unskilled workers. members of the family expect to progress faster in their career than their professional colleagues. there is a need to select the pressing and urgent problems of employees and organization.e. it is not suitable for a very small organization. 1. career plans for a period exceeding a decade may not be effective. ii. DETAILS OF THE STEP IN CAREER PLANNING:1) ANALYSIS OF PERSONEL SITUATION:This is the first step which needs to be completed before the introduction of career planning programme. efforts are made to find out precisely the career development needs of the future period. 4) SELECTION OF PRIORITIES:It is rather difficult to meet all the needs of the employees and the organization for career development immediately i. 8. The information collected on these aspects serves as the base for the preparation of career development plan for the future period. Structure – broad as well as detailed and the qualifications required for each grade. MANAGERIAL PLANNING IMPLEMENTATION REVIEW AND EVALUATION FUTURE NEEDS 2) PROJECTION OF PERSONNEL SITUATION:In this second step.. v. etc. iv. 4. etc.i. PROJECTION OF PERSONNEL SITUATION 3. WRITE UP OF FORMULATED CAREER PLANS 7. In order to analyze the present career situation. DEVELOPMENT OF CAREER PLAN:This is the most important step in the whole process of career developing plan. In a developing country like India. 9. positions. It is possible to identify the scope and limitations of career development needs on the basis of the data collected. HOW TO INTRODUCE CAREER PLANNING PROGRAMME? (PROCESS OF CAREER PLANNING):. an attempt is being made to find out the situation likely to develop after the completion of career development plan. growth of backward areas. This upset the career planning process. specializations. This can be done on the basis of assumption which can predict what is likely to happen at the close of the career development plan. Personnel need of the organization. iii. ii. Systematically career planning becomes difficult due to favouritism and nepotism in promotions. Naturally. 3) IDENTIFYING OF CAREER NEEDS:In this third step. influence business and industry. IDENTIFYING CAREER NEEDS SELECTION OF PRIORITIES DEVELOPMENT OF CAREER PLANS 6. Career planning is not an effective technique for a large number of employees who work on the shop floor. (Category wise) iv.

MONITORING OF CAREER DEVELOPMENT PLAN:Monitoring of the plan is essential for its effective execution. For effective implementation. FUTURE NEEDS:This is the last step/stage of the current career development plan and the first step/stage of the next plan. Actual benefits available will be known only through such review and evaluation. IMPLEMENTATION (OF CAREER DEVELOPMENT PLAN):Implementation/execution of the plan is an integral aspect of planning process itself.sales 10. e.e.hrd 6. The extent to which it is to be attained.retail 18. the next major step is to prepare a write up (brief report) of the career plan.service 24. procedures and other details so that the evaluation of the plan will be easy and meaningful. Here. The length of time required the achieving the goals 6) WRITE-UP OF FORMULATED PLAN:After deciding the priorities of career development plan. Planning is a continuous process/activity. This rule is applicable to career development plans of an organization. It is built-in device to measure the effectiveness of the plan.ir 21. REVIEW AND EVALUATION OF CAREER PLANS:A plan needs periodical review. co-operation and co-ordination at all levels is necessary. on the basis of the achievements of the current plan. Such evaluation avoids mistakes. Expected results/benefits will be available only when the plan is implemented properly. etc during the implementation stage. The new priorities are decided and the details of the new career development plan are prepared. Such evaluation should be done by experts. The implementation needs proper monitoring so as to avoid possible shortfalls. 7) 8) 9) mpd 3. the career needs of the future period (of employees and also of the organization) are estimated. d.ipgp 9. deficiencies. The department in which the proposed plan will operate. MONITORING PLANNING i. c.b.oec(2-5) 13. This writ-up should contain all necessary details such as schedule (time sequence of plan). The employees involved. It should be conducted systematically and also impartially.brand (2-5) .

employment exchange. “Recruitment is the process of searching for prospective employees and stimulating them to apply for jobs in the organization. 2) To meet the organization’s legal and social obligations regarding the demographic composition of its workforce. expansion and diversification of business activities of an enterprise. (iii) To infuse fresh blood at all levels of the organization. In addition. PURPOSE OF RECRUITMENT Recruitment has three major purposes: 1) to increase the pool of job applicants with minimum cost. retirement. are used. Recruitment represents the first contact that a company makes with potential employees. In the recruitment. information is collected from interested candidates. (iv) To develop an organizational culture that attracts competent people to the company. . DEFINITION OF RECREUITMENT According to Edwin Flippo. 3) To help increase the success rte of the selection process by reducing the percentage of applicants who are either poorly qualified or have the wrong skills. new vacancies are possible due to job respecification. Recruitment is a process “To discover the source of manpower to meet the requirements of staffing. NEED FOR RECRUITMENT The need for recruitment may be due to the following reasons/situations: (a) Vacancies due to promotions. (b) Creation of new vacancies due to growth. etc. For these different sources of recruitment such as newspaper advertisement.RECURITMENT Recruitment means to estimate the available vacancies and to make suitable arrangements for their selection and appointment. transfers. internal promotions. (ii) To induct outsider with a new perspective to lead the company. . In recruitment. termination. to employ effective measures for attracting potential manpower in adequate number”. death and labour turnover. (vi) To search for talents globally and not just within the company. a pool of eligible and interested candidates is created for the selection of most suitable candidate. OBJECTIVES OF RECRUITMENT The objectives of recruitment are as follows: (i) To attract people with multi-dimensional skills and experiences that suit the present and future organizational strategies. permanent disability. (v) To search or head hunt/head pouch people whose skills fit the company’s values.

The Internet has quickly become a very popular source of employment advertising. 3) 4) Job Fairs: . Talk-ins is now becoming popular and the applicants are required to meet the employer for detailed talks. Agencies can either be public or private. The advertisement mentions date.At times. 5) 6) ADVANTAGES OF INTERNAL RECRUITMENT 1) Internal recruitment is economical. Fees may be charged to either or both the client seeking a job and the company seeking applicants. 1) Newspaper Advertisement:-Newspaper advertisements are overwhelmingly popular source of 2) recruitment.The firm contacts an organization whose main purpose is locate job seekers. The "job fair" company will typically advertise in local media to attract qualified applicants. somebody from within the organization may be looked into. It may involve a promotion or demotion. The growth of Management institutes. it may be decided to recall that person. 1) Promotions: .com. Employment Agencies: .g.. Recalls: . Walk-ins.naukri. Write-ins and Talk ins:. management follows the policy of internal promotions. This source is quickly growing in popularity. transfer from head office to branch office. Transfers: .The most economical approach for recruitment of candidates is direct applications.SOURCES OF RECRUITMENT The sources of recruitment may be grouped into: Internal sources External sources INTERNAL SOURCES: As the term implies internal source of recruitment is for those who are currently members or the organization. Whenever any vacancy arises.Individuals who left for some other job. A job fair is an event sponsored by a "job fair" company who charges a fee to participating employers. Following are the most common external source of managerial recruitment. after meritorious service. The job seekers submit applications or resumes directly to the employer. following are the internal sources of recruitment. or no change in terms of responsibility or status. Recruitment through internet: . Retirements: . After the problem is solved. Private sector is able to attract many aspirants.When management faces a problem. Under this circumstances management may decide to call retired manager with new extension.Transfer refers to a change in job assignment. The promising students get job security immediately after securing degrees due to such campus interviews/recruitment. status and salaries. Some of the examples are www. it is imperative to respond quickly with invitations for in-plant interviews of qualified candidates. IIts and Regional Engineering Colleges has provided a popular source of recruitment. Write-ins are those who send written inquiries. Hiring managers can meet multiple candidates and conduct on-the-spot interviews. etc.Job fairs are very effective. www. which the agency then passes along to its clients. management may not find suitable candidate in place of the one who had retired. which can be solved only by a manager who has proceeded on long leave. Former employees: . Clients may be either employed or unemployed. The applicant is not required to submit any applications. The company provides the agency with information about the job.it is costly.monster. An advantage with these sources is that the performance of the person/employee is already known. Various positions in the organization are usually filled up by promotions of existing employees on the basis of merit or seniority or a combination of both. Campus Recruitment: .In order to motivate the existing employees. facilities. Because the applicants may be interviewing with multiple employers. These applicants a raked to complete application forms for further processing.com. If a job fair results in just one hire it is usually cost effective. There are many web sites through which recruitment takes place. . his leave may be extended.. A message containing general information about the job and the organization is placed in various newspapers. day and timing during which the applicant can ‘walk in’ for an interview. might be willing to come back for higher wages incentives. Promotion means shifting of an employee to a higher position carrying higher responsibilities. 2) 3) 4) 5) EXTERNAL SOURCES As the term implies the external source of recruitment is of potential workers who are not currently member of the organization.College Campuses are another very popular recruitment source. A transfer may be either temporary or permanent. It is an excellent source of recruiting management trainees. E. depending the necessity of filling jobs.

6) People recruited from within the organization do not need induction or training. This facilitates selection of people with rich and varied experience. abilities and personality to successfully fill specific jobs in the organization. 5) The management can fulfill reservation requirements in favour of the disadvantaged section of he society. 3) it provides security and continuity of employment. 2) The relations between employer and employee deteriorate leading to industrial disputes and strikes. SELECTION MEANING AND DEFINITION OF SELECTION .2) The present employees already know the company well and are likely to develop a loyalty for the same. 2) It prevents the entry of young blood in the organization. . leaving the best to be selected. experienced and ambitious employees. 5) Internal recruitment is a quick and more reliable method. In short. 3) Promotion to certain key post may not be possible due to non-availability of competent persons. 4) The organization will not be able to attract capable persons from outside if internal sources are used extensively. DISADVANTAGES OF EXTERNAL SOURCE OF RECRUITMENT 1) External recruitment leads to labour turnover particularly of skilled. The objective of the selection decision is to chose the individual who can most successfully perform the job from the pool of qualified candidates. 3) Selection can be made in an impartial manner as large number of qualified and interested candidates are available. “Right man at the right job” is the basic principle in selection. In brief. 4) Employees feel frustrated due to external recruitment and their morale is adversely affected. DISADVANTAGES OF INTERNAL RECURITMENT 1) Internal promotions create a feeling of discontent among those who are not promoted. selection process is negative function because it attempt to eliminate applicants. 2) Wide scope is available for selection. “Selection is the process in which candidates for employment are divided into two classes – those who are to be offered employment and those who are not”. selection is the process of choosing a person suitable for the job out of several persons. 5) It may encourage favoritism and nepotism. internal methods of recruitment should be used to extent possible but too much dependence on internal methods is undesirable and may prove costly to the organization in the long run. It is the process of logically choosing individuals who posses the necessary skills. 3) The present employees may lose their sense of security. 6) Promotions by seniority may not be always beneficial to the organization. Selection is the process of collecting and evaluating information about an individual in order to extend an offer of employment. 4) Internal recruitment helps to raise the morale of employees and develop cordial relations at the managerial levels. ADVANTAGES OF EXTERNAL SOURCE OF RECRUITMENT 1) Entry of young blood in the organization is possible. 4) Scope for heartburn and jealousy can be avoided by recruiting from outside. Their loyalty to the organization may be adversely affected.

etc) have been clearly specified. Further. benefits etc.The selection procedures cannot be effective until and unless: 1) Requirements of the job to be filled. It is in the interest of the organization in order to maintain the supremacy over the other competitive firms. the selection procedure is not a single act but is essentially a series of methods or stages by which different types of information can be secured through various selection techniques. Skilled workers help the management to expand the business and to earn more profits and in turn management compensates. Labour relation will be better because workers will be fully satisfied by the work. . Selection procedure is lengthy and time consuming particularly in the case of supervisory post.Preliminary or initial interview is often held in case of “at the gate” candidate. personal details. Every organization should n finalize the job analysis. A recruitment date may be extended if there are no qualified candidates.Proper selection of personnel reduces personnel problems in the organization. 2) Reduce Cost of Training and Development:. Where application forms are use. 3) Preliminary Interview: . 3) Absence of Personnel Problems: . facts may come to light which are useful for comparison with the job requirement and employee specifications. etc) 2) Employee specifications (physical. job specification and employee specification before proceeding to the next step of selection. After the close date of the recruitment. in this situation. applicants are reviewed and interviewed on a regular basis until an eligible candidate can be selected and appointed to the available position. The technique of application blank is traditional and widely accepted for securing information from the prospective candidates. 2) Application Form: . job description. At each step. The applicant who seems to be not fit for the job on the basis of information given in the application blank is rejected out rightly at this stage. The applicants who have not furnished the required information may also be rejected.Job analysis is the basis for selecting the right candidate. Selection of skilled personnel reduces the labour cost and increases the production. the organization can develop different training programmes for different persons on the basis of their individual differences. They can understand the technique of work better and in less time.Proper selection of candidates reduces the cost of training because qualified personnel have better grasping power. the Job Expert for the hiring department and Human Resources will screen the application forms for minimum education and qualification requirements. expected salary and allowances etc. salary. the data become a part of the employee’s record. Many problems like labour turnover. Educational information. absenteeism and monotony shall not be experienced in their severity in the organization. and behavioral. Thus preliminary interview is useful as a process of eliminating the undesirable and unsuitable candidate.Information given in the application form is used for selection purposes. social. have been clearly specified (job analysis. thus reducing the time and cost of training considerably. Following are the steps/ procedures of selection: 1) Job Analysis: . The information is generally required on the following items in the application forms: Personal background information. Work experiences. Recruitments can also be open until the position is filled. mental. IMPORTANCE OF SELECTION The importance of selection may be judged from the following facts:- 1) Procurement of Qualified and Skilled Workers: . 4) Screening Application Form: . If the candidate seems to possess the basic minimum requirements for efficient job performance. Selection of skilled personnel also facilitates the expansion in the size of the business. 3) Candidates for screening have been attracted. Thus. Applications will not be accepted after the close date. human resource planning and recruitment are necessary prerequisites to the selection process. This interview usually of short duration and is aimed at obtaining certain basic information with a view to identifying the obvious misfits or unqualified. the workers with high wages. SELECTION PROCEDURE Therefore.Application Form is also known as application blank.Scientific selection facilitates the procurement of well qualified and skilled workers in the organization. he is given an application form for being filled out by him. the development of job analyses.

After completion of the final interview. Training programme should be less expensive.. marketing and other aspect of business. It is not essential to follow the single method of training for all the employees. problem solving ability or attitudes etc. vocabulary. The purpose of training is to develop the men and therefore more than one method may be followed for different groups. A good reference check used sincerely fetches useful and reliable information to the organization. job and the organization where he is working.Final interview is usually followed by testing. This is very important because of a person of poor health cannot work competently and the investment in him may go waste. training is not a one step process but is a continuous or never-ending process. general knowledge and English language. the personnel department will engage in checking references. numbers. In this step the interviewer matches the information obtained about the candidate through various means to the job requirements and to the information obtained through his own observation during the interview. word fluency etc. It being the two way communication. to measure the candidates aptitude. the main purpose of training is to develop the human resources present within the organization. Candidates are required to give the name of reference in their application forms. technical knowledge. In fact. to know the candidate’s attitude towards job. The trainees will acquire new manipulative skills. The purpose of training is to achieve a change in the behaviour of those trained and to enable them to do their jobs in a better way. aptitude test measures individuals capacity or talent ability to learn a job if he is given adequate training. A appointment letter will be given to him mentioning the terms of employment EMPLOYEE TRAINING INTRODUCTION:Training plays an important role in human resource development. 6) Final interviewing: .The organization have to conduct written examination for the qualified candidates after they are screened on the basis of the application blanks so as to measure the candidate’s ability in arithmetical calculations. Selection: . about the job and the organization. Intelligence test measures the individuals capacity or reasoning. DEFINITION OF TRAINING:According to Edwin Flippo. The interviewer should not ask unwarranted questions which make the candidate nervous. Training programme should be designed taking in view the interests of both employer and employees. This is the most essential step in the process of selection. 7) Reference Checks: . training is “the act of increasing the knowledge and skill of an employee for doing a particular job”. new methods and new techniques are introduced in the production. knowledge in various disciplines. It comes next to recruitment and selection. a thorough medical examination is essential..The candidates who have crossed the above hurdles are required to go for the medical examination. Training is necessary due to technological changes rapidly taking place in the industrial field. New machines. Training is the responsibility of the management as it is basically for raising the efficiency and productivity of employees. These references may be from the individuals who are familiar with the candidate’s academic achievement or from the applicant’s previous employer. Thus. 5. 2.. . The programme should be conducted by a senior and experienced supervisor or 4. 8) Physical Examination: . who is well versed with the applicant’s job performance. and sometime from co-workers. Training programme should be developed for all in the organization and not for a particular group. reasoning. the interviewee should also be given a chance to ask questions if he so likes. PRINCIPLES OF EMPLOYEE TRAINING:A sound training programme must possess the following characteristics: 1. verbal comprehension. It also creates positive attitude towards fellow employees. If reference is checked in the correct manner.5) Written test:. a great deal can be learned about a person that an interview or tests cannot elicit. Interview must be conducted in a friendly atmosphere and the candidate must be made to feel at ease.If a candidate successfully overcomes all the obstacles or tests given he would be declared selected. Training is for developing overall personality of an employee. 3. The basic objective of the interview is to measure the applicant against the specific requirements of the job.

Specifically. Induction training creates favourable impression on the newly appointed employees and this impression remains in their mind over a long period.. capable and loyal employees at all levels 3) To provide opportunities of growth and self-development 4) To avoid accidents and wastages of all kinds. it will lose its market share. first it has to train the employees to impart specific skills and knowledge in order to enable them to contribute to the organizational efficiency and to cope with the changing environment. computerization and automation. If the organisation desires to adapt these changes. lecture by personnel manger/HRD manger is also arranged. It is a very short informative type of training given immediately after joining the organization. Human relations: Trends in approach towards personnel management has changed form the commodity approach to partnership approach. organisation of most of the companies has become complex. methods to be used and precautions to be taken 2) . Technological advances: Every organization in order to survive and to be effective should adopt the latest technology. It creates a feeling of involvement in the minds of newly appointed employees. 10) To develop certain personal qualities among employees which can serve as personal assets on long term basis TYPES OF EMPLOYEE TRAINING:1) INDUCTION (ORIENTATION) TRAINING:Induction training is basically for introducing the organisation to newly appointed employees. This situation calls for training in the skills of co-ordination. It gives information about machines. So training in human relations is necessary to deal with human problems (including alienation. 7. Change in the job assignment: Training is also necessary when the existing employee is promoted to the higher level in the organisation and when there is some new job or occupation due to transfer. 7) To improve the quality of production 8) To develop positive attitude and behaviour pattern . V. Training should be followed by a reward. information booklets are issued and short informative films are shown. behaviour etc. Organizational complexity: With the emergence of increased mechanization and automation. 9) the purpose of training is to improve the culture of the organisation. Organizational viability and the transformation process: The primary goal of most of the organizations is that their viability is continuously influenced by environmental pressure. So today. VI. . 6) To meet the challenges posed by new developments in the field of science and technology. integration and adaptability to the requirements of growth. attitude. Training is needed to fill these gaps by developing and moulding the employee’s skill. In addition. For induction training.6. JOB TRAINING:Job training relates to specific job which the worker has to handle.. the need for training arises due to the following reasons: I. process of production. Sufficient time should be provided to practice what has been learned by the employees. If the organisation does not adapt itself to the changing factors in the environment. III. IV. mechanization. managements of most of the organizations has to maintain human relations besides maintaining sound industrial relations although hitherto the managers are not accustomed to deal with the workers accordingly. Adoption of latest technological means and methods. to the tune of the job requirements and organizational needs. i. extension of operations to various regions of the country or in overseas countries. manufacturing of multiple products and by-products or dealing in services of diversified lines. healthy and safety attitudes among the employees. 2) To create a pool of well trained. instructions to be followed. will not be complete until they are manned by employees possessing skill to operate them. knowledge. Training is also necessary to equip the old employees with the advanced disciplines. techniques or technology. NEED FOR EMPLOYEE TRAINING:.. OBJECTIVES/PURPOSES OF EMPLOYEE TRAINING:1) To raise efficiency and productivity of employees and the organization as a whole. To match the employee specifications with the job requirements and organizational needs: Management finds deviations between employee’s present specifications and the job requirements and organizational needs. This creates the complex problems of co-ordination and integration of activities. diversification and expansion.e. II. inter-personal and inter-group conflicts etc. crossing the human relations approach.) and to maintain human relations. 5) to develop balanced.

job knowledge and skills and allow him to do the job. Employee failure in the program is not only damaging to the employee but a waste of money as well. especially when he or she leaves your firm for a better job. Training must be given for performing duties at a higher level efficiently. is the most commonly used method. The trainee learns under the supervision and guidance of a qualified worker or instructor. Training programs should be designed to consider the ability of the employee to learn the material and to use it effectively. The trainee receives job knowledge and gains experience from his supervisor or trainer in each of the different job assignments. 4) REFRESHER TRAINING:The purpose of refresher training is to refresh the professional skills. The manager should criticize the act and not the individual. This method gives an opportunity to the trainee to understand the problems of employees on other jobs and respect them. Under this method.. Therefore.while performing the job. c) JOB INSTRUCTION:This method is also known as training through step by step. The trainees solve the problem jointly. also known as job instruction training. Setting goals helps to evaluate the training program and also to motivate employees. the next decision is who should be trained? For a small business.. METHODS OF EMPLOYEE TRAINING:. For this. the trainee is separated form the job situation and his attention is focused upon learning the material related to his future job performance. 5) CORRECTIVE TRAINING:Corrective training is necessary when employees violate company rules and procedures. and to make the most efficient use of resources possible. Goals should include milestones to help take the employee from where he or she is today to where the firm wants him or her in the future. Allowing employees to participate in setting goals increases the probability of success. OFF-THE-JOB METHODS Under this method of training. the trainer explains to the trainee the way of doing the job. b) COACHING:The trainee is placed under a particular supervisor who functions as a coach in training the individual. this question is crucial. a group of trainees are given and asked to solve an actual organizational problem. precise and of short duration. The manager should handle the problem with treatment that corrects the outlook rather than giving punishment. This training develops skills and confidence among the workers and enables them to perform the job efficiently. Training an employee is expensive. The supervisor provides feedback to the trainee on his performance and offer him for suggestions for improvement. Here. SELECTION OF TRAINEES:Once you have decided what training is necessary and where it is needed. 3) TRAINING FOR PROMOTION:Promotion means giving higher position. The trainer appraises the performance of the trainee. For example. information and experience of persons occupying important executive positions. This training is specific. techniques and procedures for raising efficiency. It gives information about new developments and techniques to trainees and enables them to use new methods. It develops team work. This facilitates easy and quick adjustment with the new job and also develops new insight into the duties and responsibilities assigned. Selecting the right trainees is important to the success of the program. Under this method. A limitation of this method of training is that the trainee may not have the freedom or opportunity to express his own ideas. Course objectives should clearly state what behavior or skill will be changed as a result of the training and should relate to the mission and strategic plan of the company. Often the trainee share some of the duties an responsibilities of the coach and relieves him of his burden. it is important to carefully select who will be trained. provides feedback information and corrects the trainee. ON-THE-JOB TRAINING METHODS This type of training. He should motivate concerned individual to correct his behaviour. TRAINING GOALS:. a) JOB ROTATION:This type of training involves the movement of the trainee from one job to another. It is also important that employees be motivated by the training experience. the behaviour of employee cannot be changes simply by disciplinary action. the individual is placed on a regular job and taught the skills necessary to perform that job. absence without prior sanction or smoking in a “No smoking” area or not using safety devices while operating dangerous machines. Off-the-job training methods are as follows: . training is given after promotion and before actually joining the new assignment. d) COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS:Under the committee assignments.

Training does not eliminate the need for supervision but it reduces the need for detailed and constant supervision. An advantage of lecture method is that it is direct and can be used for a large group of trainees. The participants play the role of certain characters. 1. foreman. and to assess the value of training in the light of that information. maintenance engineers. trainer’s ability and trainee ability are evaluated on the basis of quantity of content learned and time in which it is learned and the learner’s ability to use or apply. LEARNING:Training programme. INCREASE IN WAGE EARNING CAPACITY:Training helps the employees in acquiring new knowledge and job skills. JOB BEHAVIOUR:This evaluation includes the manner and extent to which the trainee has applied his learning to his job. . costs and time involved are reduced. depth of the course content. The participants feel free to speak in small groups. all of which contribute to the improvement of the job performance. This increases their pay and status. doing and practice. In this way. REACTIONS:Training programme is evaluated on the basis of trainee’s reactions to the usefulness of coverage of the matter. The success of this method depends on the leadership qualities of the person who leads the group. The duration of this training ranges from days to a few weeks. organization and ultimate value. job behaviour. examine and share facts. ideas and data. ii. FOLLOW UP OF SELECTION PROCEDURE:Training is a follow up of selection procedure. training increases their market value and wage earning power. To be effective.a) VESTIBUTE TRAINING:In this method. 6. Training can be used in spotting out promising men and in removing defects in selection process.” Evaluation leads to controlling and correcting the training programme. LECTURE METHOD:The lecture is a traditional and direct method of instruction. quality control inspectors. the content he learned. Hamblin suggested five levels at which evaluation of training can take place. EVALUATION OF TRAINING PROGRAMME:The process of training evaluation has been defined as “any attempt to obtain information on the effects of training performance. such as the production manager. It helps in choosing the most appropriate individuals for different jobs. JOB-SECURITY:Continued training can help an employee to develop his ability to learn. This method is mostly used for developing interpersonal interactions and relations. This method of training involves action. actual work conditions are simulated in a class room. files and equipments those are used in actual job performance are also used in training. superintendents. A well trained employee is self-reliant in his work because he knows what to do and how to do it. b) c) d) ADVANTAGES OF EMPLOYEE TRAINING:Training is advantageous not only to the organization but also to the employees. This method involves a group of people who pose ideas. Discussion has the distinct advantage over the lecture method. Material. and draw conclusions.. The instructor organizes the material and gives it to a group of trainees in the form of a talk. CHANCES FOR PROMOTION:Training also qualifies the employees for promotion to more responsible jobs. BETTER PERFORMANCE:Training brings about an improvement of the quality and quantity of output by increasing the skill of the employees. 4. workers and the like. CONFERENCE OR DISCUSSION:. learning to use new kinds of equipment and adjusting to major changes in job contents and work relationship. REDUCTION IN COST OF PRODUCTION:If the employees are given proper training the need for supervision is lessened. method of presentation. test assumptions. This type of training is commonly used for training personnel for clerical and semi-skilled jobs. 5. viz. learning. Theory can be related to practice in this method. iii.adapting himself to new work methods. Training makes the fresh and old employees more skilled and accurate in performance of their work. Thus. teaching methods etc. the lecture must motivate and create interest among the trainees. reactions. 3. mechanical engineer. 2. i. ROLE PLAYING:It is defined as a method of human interaction that involves realistic behaviour in imaginary situations. in that the discussion involves two-way communication and hence feedback is provided.

Performance appraisal is a continuous process in every large scale organization. normally including both the quantitative and qualitative aspect of job performance. FEATURES OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL Performance appraisal is the systematic description of an employee’s job relevant strengths and weaknesses. but performance is always measured in terms of result and not efforts. developed and implemented through a series of steps: ESTABLISHING PERFORMANCE STANDARD CONNUNICATION OFOF ACTUAL MEASUREMENT PERFORMANCE PERFORMANCE STANDARDS . ORGANISATION:v. and to the individual goals like development of personality and social goals like maximizing social benefit.” Performance appraisal is a method of evaluating the behavior of employees in the work spot.. Often the term is confused with effort. It refers to how well someone is doing the assigned job. PROCESS OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL Performance appraisal is planned. Job evaluation determines how much a job is worth to the organization and there for. ULTIMATE VALUE:It is the measurement of ultimate result of the contributions of the training programme to the company goals like survival. morale. profitability etc. This evaluation measures the use of training.iv. It indicates how well an individual is fulfilling the job demands. growth. learning and change in the job behaviour of the department/organization in the form of increased productivity. Performances here refer to the degree of accomplishment of the tasks that make up an individual’s job. The basic purpose is to find out how well the employee is performing the job and establish a plan of improvement. Appraisals are arranged periodically according to a definite plan. sales turnover and the like. what range of pay should be assigned to the job. MEANING OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL A formal definition of performance appraisal is “it is the systematic evaluation of the individual with respect to his or her performance on the job and his or her potential for development. quality. Performance appraisal is not job evaluation.

5) Taking Corrective Action. if Necessary. Performance measures in order to be helpful must be easy to use. Appraisal systems require performance standards. This requires the use of dependable performance measures. It has serious emotional overtones as it affects the self-esteem of the appraise. help appraise set his goals and targets. The appraiser should prepare job descriptions clearly. whereas the basic corrective action gets to the source of deviations and seems to adjust the difference permanently. Goals must be written down. For this purpose. which strikes at he root of the problems permanently. the next step is to measure actual performance. Performance appraisal involves attract two parties. Actual performance may be better than expected and sometimes it may even go off the track. 4) Compare Actual Performance with Standards and Discuss the Appraisal. the appraiser who does the appraisal and the appraise whose performance is being evaluated. which serve as benchmarks against which performance is measured. managers regarding how to measure actual performance use four common sources of information: personal observation.PROCESS OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL Performance appraisal is planned. 2) Communicate the Standards. Corrective action is of two types: The one. Performance standards must be both to the appraiser and the appraise. . The performance standards of goals must be developed after a thorough analysis of the job. oral reports and written reports. The assessment of another person's contribution and ability is not an easy task. Immediate action sets things right and get things back or track. statistical reports. They must be measurable within certain time and cost considerations. Generally. 3) Measure Actual Performance. Appraisals must have a clear. offer coaching and guidance to appraise whenever required and reward good results. These standards must be revised or modified as and when required. the ratings used to evaluate performance. The appraiser should be very clear about what he is doing and why he is doing. standards should relate to the desired results of each job.cut criteria. developed and implemented through a series of steps: ESTABLISHING PERFORMANCE STANDARD CONNUNICATION OF PERFORMANCE STANDARDS COMPARISON OF ACTUAL PERFORMANCE WITH THE STANDARDS MEASUREMENT OF ACTUAL PERFORMANCE FOLLOW UP ACTIONS 1) Establish Performance Standards. In order to be useful. Any appraisal asked on subjective criteria is likely to be questioned by the appraisers and leave him quite dejected and unhappy when the appraisal turns out to be negative. After the performance standards are set and accepted. Basic corrective step seek to find out how and why performance deviate. analysis results objectively. reliable and report on the critical behaviors that determine performance. Both are expected to do certain things. the performance standards must be communicated to appraise and their reactions are noted initially. which puts out the fires immediately and the other one.

good work done etc.Does he make mistakes frequently? Yes/ No Yes/ No Yes/ No Yes/ No Yes/ No A rating score from the checklist helps the manager in evaluation of the performance of the employee. Its primary purpose is the correct tendency of the rates to give consistently high and low ratings to all employees. then A’s performance is compared with that of B’s and decision is arrived at as to whose is the better or worst. major mistakes. Under this the value of each question may be weighted more heavily than others. management by objective 3.Does he give respect to his superiors? . weaknesses. The impression of the superior about the superior is merely recorded here. The report highlights the strengths.Is the employee is really interested in the task assigned? . Since A is already compared with B. for example. The rater has merely to check on the scale where he thinks the employee belongs.METHODS OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL: Methods of Performance Appraisal A) Traditional Methods Confidential report Ranking Graphical rating scale Checklists Forced distribution Critical incidents Essay evaluation Group appraisals B) Modern Methods 1. and E In this evaluation is asked to rate the employees from highest to lowest on some overall criterion. Assessment centre 4. It is a descriptive report generally prepared at the end of the year. Human resource accounting 2. this time B is to be compared with only C.Is he respected of his colleagues? . it is very difficult to rank the average employees. Next. the subjective analysis of the superior is likely to be hotly contested. BARS( Behaviorally anchored rating scale ) Traditional methods: Confidential report method It is mostly used in government organizations. dependability etc. the ranking of an employee in a work group is against that of another employee. two of which are positive and two of . Graphical rating scale It is the oldest and the most commonly used method of performance in this. Checklists and weighted checklists The checklist is a simple rating technique in which the supervisor is given a list of statement or world and ask to check statement representing the characteristic and performance of each employee a checklist represents a set of objective statement about the employee and his behavior. of the subordinate. Four to twelve factors are selected. It does not offer any feedback to appraise. initiative. integrity. B is also compares with all others. depending upon the category to which the employee belongs. Some of these factors are quantity of out put. merits. Forced distribution method It was developed to eliminate the bias and the preponderance of high ratings that might occur in some organizations. when there are five employees (A. by the employee’s immediate superior.B. It is a narrative method of performance appraisal since the report is not made public and hence no freedom is available.D. It is easier to rank the best and the worst employee. The following are sample questions in the checklist: .C. Ranking method This is relatively easy method of performance evaluation. quality of out put. A more recent variation of the checklist is weighted list. a printed form is used to evaluate the performance of an employee. these factors and their degrees are marked on a graph paper provided in the form. In it. D. This method makes those of several sets of pair phases. The relative position of each employee is tested in terms of his or her numerical rank.Does he follow instructions properly? .E) to be compared.

Management by objectives It is the modern method of evaluating the performance of personnel. Subordinates who successively reach the established goals may be allowed to participate more in the goal setting process the next time. MBO thus represents more than an evaluation process. in general.them are negative and the rates is asked to indicate which of the four phrase is the most or least descriptive of a particular employee. In this the overall objectivity is increased in the employee’s performance because the rater does not know how high or low he is evaluating the individual. In the third step. studies the need for change in the job analysis and standards and recommends changes. At the end of the rating period. Group appraisal In this method an employee is appraised by a group of appraisers. other supervisors who have close contact with employee’s work. . Employees understanding about the company’s programmes. compares the performance with the standards. new strategies for goals that previously not attained. discusses the reasons. etc. as he has no access to the storing key. the rater considers the following factors: Job knowledge and potential of the employee. as performance is evaluated by multiple rates. The evaluator explores the reasons or the goals that were not met and the goals that were exceeded. The goals typically refer to the desired outcome to be achieved. These critical incidents or events represent the outstanding poor behavior of the employees. policies. Critical incident method The manager prepares test of statements of every effective and ineffective behavior of an employee. The MBO can be described in four steps: The first step is to establish the goals each subordinate is to attain. The final step involves establishing new goals and. It also alerts the superior of the conditions that may affect but over which the subordinate has no control. responsibility in terms of results expected of him and use these measures as a guide for operating the unit and assessing the contributions of each of its members. This method shows the investment the organization makes in the people and how the value of these people change over a time. possibly. demand. However. B) Modern Methods: Human resource accounting HRA is a sophisticated way to measure in financial terms the effectiveness of the personal manager activities and the use of people in an organization. organizing and controlling ability. the actual level of goal attainment is compared with the goals agreed upon. The immediate supervisor enlighten other members about the job characteristics. The goals can be then used to evaluate the employee performance The second step involves setting of the performance standard fro the subordinates in a previously arranged time period. It tries to place a value on the organizational human resources as assets and not as expenses. therefore suggests ways for improvement of performance. then the group appraise the performance of the employee. In brief. The process is repeated. objective. Mcgreger and Odioine in management science. In it. This group consists of the immediate supervisor of the employee. Managers have become increasingly aware that the traditional performance evaluation systems are characterized by facing goals. the recorded critical incidents are used in the evaluation of the workers’ performance. The concept of MBO is actually the outcome the pioneering work of Drucker. The employee’s relation with the co-workers and superiors. At this point. prepares an action plan. The manager prepares records of the critical incidents of the worker’s behavior. manager or head of department or consultant. standards or performance etc. Essay Appraisal Under this method the rater is asked to express the strong as well as the weak points of the employee’s behavior. it is very time consuming process. MBO can be described as the process whereby the superior and subordinate manager of an organization jointly identify its common goals. The head of department or manager may be the chairman of the group and the supervisor may act as the coordinate for the group activities. Actually the statement items are grounded in such a way that the rater cannot which statement applies to the most effective employee. in this method the employees’ performance is evaluated in terms of costs and contributions of employees. The employees general planning. This method eliminates “personal bias” to a large extent. subordinate and superior involvement in the goal setting may change. if necessary. It is process of accounting people as an organization resource. The favorable qualities earn a plus credit and the unfavorable ones earn the severest. This step helps to determine the training needs. The acquisition of employee is compared with the replacement cost from time to time. finds out the deviation. each individual’s areas of operations. The attitude and perceptions of the worker. This technique is normally used with a combination of the graphical rating scale because the rater an elaborately present the scale by sustaining an explanation for his rating.

better judge employee performance in service organizations relating to behaviors. Such a method can be useful provided the relationships between superiors and subordinates art cordial. training on development. every six month or annually. other superiors having knowledge about the work of the employee and department head or manager. promptness. Typical appraisals are supervisors. the concept of change superiors rated by subordinates in being used in most organizations. When to appraise? Informal appraisals are conducted whenever the supervisor or personnel manager feel it necessary. contents to be appraised. employees who appraise their own performance may become highly motivated. they are accountable for the successful performance of their subordinates. This method represent he latest innovation in the performance appraisal. the consultants are trained and they observe the employee at work for sufficiently long periods for the purpose of appraisal. General practice is that immediate superior appraises the performance. Consultants Sometimes consultants may be engaged for appraisal when employees or employers do not trust the supervisory appraisal and management does not trust the self-appraisal and the appraisal done by subordinates. which in turn is reviewed by the departmental head/ managers. The appraisal should be capable of determining what is more important and what is relatively less important. This is because superiors are responsible free managing their subordinates and they have the opportunity to observe. since employee development means self-development. employees themselves. 360° PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL The appraisal may be any person who has thorough knowledge about the job contents. Self-Appraisal If individuals understand the objectives they are expected to achieve and the standards by which they are to be evaluated. The critical incidents serve as the anchor statement on a scale and the rating form usually contains six to eight specifically defined performance dimensions. they are to a great extent in the best position to appraise their own performance. Supervisors Supervisors include superiors of the employee. All assesses get an equal opportunity to show their talents and capabilities based on merit. students better judge a teacher’s performance. Subordinate's ratings in such cases can be quite useful in identifying competent superiors. Example. Peers Peer appraisal may be reliable of the workgroup is stable over a reasonably long period of time and performs tasks that require interaction.Assessment center In this approach individuals from various departments are brought together to spend two or three days working on an individual or a group assignment similar to the ones they would be handling when promoted. In such situation. peers. Also. Behaviorally anchored rating scale This method is also known as behavioral expectation scale. direct and control the subordinate continuously. . systematic appraisals are conducted on a regular basis. Performance Appraisal by all these parties is called 360° Performance Appraisal. However. who have close contact with employee work also appraise with a view to provide additional information. Observers rank the performance of each and every participant in order to merit since assessment centers are basically meant for evaluating the potential of candidates to be considered for promotion. they offer an excellent means for conducting evaluation process in an objective way. Sometimes other supervisors. user of service and consultants. Subordinates In developed countries. Moreover. Users of Services/Customers The customers on users of services can. Subordinates. He should prepare reports and made judgments without bias. It is the combination of the rating scale and critical incident techniques of employee performance evaluation. say for example. standards of contents and who observes the employee's by performing a job. speed in doing the job and accuracy.

This helps in planning performance better. self and management development programmes. The system should be open and participative: It should involve employees in goal-setting process. too ambitious. . The system should be both valid and reliable: The validity of the ratings is the degree to which they are truly indicative of the intrinsic merit of the employees. To contribute to the employee growth and development thought training. For example it may reveal that goals need to be modified on. advocate against the direct linkage between the appraisal and rewards. the system must help in identifying employee’s strengths and weaknesses and indicate corrective actions. retrenchment etc. To facilitate fair and equitable compensation based on performance. To guide the job changes with help to continuous ranking. As such it should have linkage with the job description. there is need for classification of duties or for additional training or job rotation or job enrichment. The appraisal system of many organizations lacks this objectivity and bunches all employees into one or two top ranks without taking into account their merits. The systems should focus more on the development and growth: Of the employee than on generating data for administrative decision making related to promotions. The system should be sufficiently grounded in the requirement of the organization: It should reflect the value system of the organization. increments. etc. such a connection throttles downward communication of performance appraisal because superiors do not like being questioned by disgruntled subordinates. The reliability of the ratings is the consistency with which the ratings are made. if the people find that the system is too theoretical. In fact functioning as a definition of performance. Both validity and reliability result from objectivity. In their opinion. Similarly. it may be anchored to the ground by its own dead weight of complicated forms which nobody but the experts understand. The system should have built-in incentive: This means that the reward should follow satisfactory performance. This raises outstanding performances but also raises doubts about the validity of the system. or that has been foisted on them by the ivory-tower staff consultants who have no comprehension of the demand then they will recent it.PURPOSES OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL To create and maintain a satisfactory level of performance. REQUIREMENTS OF A GOOD APPRAISAL SYSTEM: It must be easily understandable: If the system is too much complex or to time consuming. To help the superior to have a proper understanding about their subordinates. one by one rater at different times. Many authors however. It musty has support of all line people who administer it: If the line people think that there role is not very important then they will not consider the system seriously. it should tell he employee what set of activities or what qualities are considered desirable by the organization. To provide information for making decision regarding lay off. either by different sectors.

MEANING OF CAREER PLANNING (WHAT IS CAREER PLANNING?):Career planning is one important aspect of human resource planning and development. Career planning and development is the responsibility of the HR department of the organization. 11) To provide guidance and assistance to employees to develop their potentials to the highest level. education and skills effectively. An organization has to provide better opportunities to its employees in their career development and also use their efficient services for the benefit of the organization. information relating to career opportunities (promotions. efforts will be made to identify the number of employees required in future. According to Edwin B. 12) To improve employee morale and motivation by providing training and opportunities for promotion. 10) To achieve higher productivity and organizational development. career planning refers to the formal programmes that organizations implement to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of the human resources available. etc) will be supplied to employees. the career path includes the following job positions: Unskilled worker – Semi-skilled worker – Skilled worker – Highly skilled worker – Assistant foreman – Foreman. the selection procedure will be adjusted with the overall strategic goals of the organization. This is described as career path. In brief. ability. If the organizations want to get the best out of their employees. In addition. NEED/PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES OF CAREER PLANNING:7) To map out careers of employees as per their ability and willingness and to train and develop them for higher positions. skills and so on. An individual with potentials joins a firm not for job but for career development. He joins the organization with a desire to have a bright career in terms of status. higher status and opportunity to use knowledge. career planning and development have become crucial in management process. every person joining an organization has a desire to make career as per his potentiality. As already noted. In the case of an ordinary worker. An organization has to provide facilities/opportunities for the career development of individual employees. Career of an employee represents various jobs performed by him during the course of his working life. compensation payment and future promotions. SCOPE OF ORGANISATIONAL CAREER PLANNING:The following activities/areas are covered within the scope of organizational career planning: f) HUMAN RESOURCE FORECASTING AND PLANNING:Here. From the point of view of an organization. Every individual who joins an organization desires to make a good career for himself within the organization. Supplying career information/opportunities has special significance as this motivates employees to grow and reach to higher position. Employees (of all categories) want to grow in their careers as this provides more salary. training for self development.A career is a sequence of positions/jobs held by a person during the course of his working life. order and meaning to a person’s life”. Flippo “a career is a sequence of separate but related work activities that provide continuity. h) CAREER COUNSELLING:- . they must plan regularly the career development programmes in their organizations. 8) To attract and retain the right type of persons in the organization. g) CAREER INFORMATION:Here. 9) To utilize available managerial talent within the organization fully.

it provides a fairly reliable guide for manpower forecasting. etc. Along with job analysis. ix. political intervention in appointments and reservations of seats for scheduled castes/tribes and backward classes. What is happening in most of the organizations is that this concepts is given only lip service and theoretical importance. SKILL ASSESSMENT TRAINING:Training is essential for career planning and also for manpower development. death. resignation. career plans for a period exceeding a decade may not be effective. Therefore. This prepares proper background for the introduction of career planning programmes for employees. The employees required to fill job vacancies in future can be identified and developed in time. If the . It becomes possible. such career development planning is a continuous activity. ADVANTAGES OF CAREER PLANNING:A properly designed system of career planning can provide the following benefits: vi. viii. Career pathing creates suitable mental make up of employees for self development. Systematically career planning becomes difficult due to favouritism and nepotism in promotions. it is not suitable for a very small organization. organizational and job manpower requirement analysis should be undertaken by the management. x. Career counselling is possible by senior executives through periodic discussions with their subordinates. Career planning encourages him to avail of the training and development facilities in the organization so as to improve his ability to handle new and higher assignments. growth of backward areas. HOW TO INTRODUCE CAREER PLANNING PROGRAMME? (PROCESS OF CAREER PLANNING):It is not easy to introduce career development programme at the level of an organization. members of the family expect to progress faster in their career than their professional colleagues. x. etc. CAREER PATHING:Management now plans job sequences for transfers and promotions of their employees. environmental factors such as government policy. at managerial level. vii. Such counselling is needed when employees have to plan their own careers and develop themselves for career progress. therefore to group together people talking on a similar wavelength and place them under supervisors who are responsive to that wavelength. Career planning helps an employee to know the career opportunities available in an organization. Such career guidance encourages subordinate employees to take interest in certain areas where suitable opportunities of career development are available. Career planning is not an effective technique for a large number of employees who work on the shop floor. Moreover. Career planning facilitates expansion and growth of the enterprise. This makes transfers and promotions systematically with advance information to employees.i) j) Such counselling is next to supplying career information. ix. In a developing country like India. vii. It is a type of internal guidance and motivation of employees for the selection of possible career paths. In family business houses in India. This upset the career planning process. Therefore. public sector development. Therefore. Career planning can become a reality when opportunities for vertical ability are available. Career planning anticipates the future vacancies that may arise due to retirement. influence business and industry. DISADVANTAGES/LIMITATIONS OF CAREER PLANNING:The main problems in career planning are as follows: vi. particularly for illiterate and unskilled workers. viii. Career planning involves a survey of employee abilities and attitudes.

employee potentials. through one career development plan. 4. efforts are made to find out precisely the career development needs of the future period. In . In order to analyze the present career situation. Personnel need of the organization. and appraisal of employees). Field staff at head office with necessary details. 8.organization wants to get the best out of their employees. there is a need to select the pressing and urgent problems of employees and organization. and vi. It is possible to identify the scope and limitations of career development needs on the basis of the data collected (through personnel inventory of the organization. IDENTIFYING CAREER NEEDS SELECTION OF PRIORITIES DEVELOPMENT OF CAREER PLANS 6. 3) IDENTIFYING OF CAREER NEEDS:In this third step of career development plan. Here. 5. DETAILS OF THE STEP IN CAREER PLANNING:2) ANALYSIS OF PERSONEL SITUATION:This is the first step which needs to be completed before the introduction of career planning programme. Facilitates available for training and development within and outside the organization. iii. ANALYSIS OF PESONNEL SITUATION 2. The information collected on these aspects serves as the base for the preparation of career development plan for the future period. qualifications. This relates to a time from which career planning is to be introduced. MANAGERIAL PLANNING IMPLEMENTATION REVIEW AND EVALUATION FUTURE NEEDS 3) PROJECTION OF PERSONNEL SITUATION:In this second step. 9. WRITE UP OF FORMULATED CAREER PLANS 7. an attempt is being made to find out the situation likely to develop after the completion of career development plan. Span of control available within the organization. the base line will be prepared to help the planners to make projections for the planning period and to help in the evaluation of plans. Total number of employees – their age distribution. the following information will be required: i. Structure – broad as well as detailed and the qualifications required for each grade. 4) SELECTION OF PRIORITIES:It is rather difficult to meet all the needs of the employees and the organization for career development immediately i. Naturally. This can be done on the basis of assumption which can predict what is likely to happen at the close of the career development plan. positions. 10. etc. v. 1. it must plan the career developments programmes continuously and effectively in its organization. specializations. ii. PROJECTION OF PERSONNEL SITUATION 3. (Category wise) iv.e.

What is to be attained/achieved? g. II. Providing within the organization.addition. d) Take positive steps to encourage career development. on the basis of the achievements of the current plan. and III. Improve their level of skill and knowledge. the career needs . financial and administrative must be taken into consideration while finalizing the priorities. The gap between the two (i. procedures and other details so that the evaluation of the plan will be easy and meaningful. Gain wider experiences. MONITORING OF CAREER DEVELOPMENT PLAN:Monitoring of the plan is essential for its effective execution. 14) FUTURE NEEDS:This is the last step/stage of the current career development plan and the first step/stage of the next plan. 3. It is built-in device to measure the effectiveness of the plan.e. This writ-up should contain all necessary details such as schedule (time sequence of plan). Outside recruitment. deficiencies. IV. promotion within the organization. 12) IMPLEMENTATION (OF CAREER DEVELOPMENT PLAN):Implementation/execution of the plan is an integral aspect of planning process itself. In order to execute the career development plan. Removing artificial barriers to promotion. 10) WRITE-UP OF FORMULATED PLAN:After deciding the priorities of career development plan. Such plan must describe the following in concrete form/forms: f. Planned (expected) targets and targets actually achieved can be compared through suitable monitoring of the plan. the organization should: a) Introduce systematic policies and programmes of staff training and career development for all categories of employees so as to enable them to: I. 5) DEVELOPMENT OF CAREER PLAN:This is the most important step in the whole process of career developing plan. For effective implementation. Transfer within the organization. j. 2. Such evaluation avoids mistakes. II. Such evaluation should be done by experts. The extent to which it is to be attained. Here. It should be conducted systematically and also impartially. the next major step is to prepare a write up (brief report) of the career plan. Actual benefits available will be known only through such review and evaluation. etc during the implementation stage. The employees involved. other factors such as technical. c) Develop the experience of the employees by encouraging their rotation from one region to another. co-operation and co-ordination at all levels is necessary. suitable remedial measures can be taken to rectify the shortfalls. i. Expected results/benefits will be available only when the plan is implemented properly. The implementation needs proper monitoring so as to avoid possible shortfalls. such as: I. The length of time required the achieving the goals. Giving priorities in the filling of vacancies in the following order for: 1. short falls) can be located quickly.e. h. b) Establish and effectively implement a system of study leave. Assume higher responsibilities. 13) REVIEW AND EVALUATION OF CAREER PLANS:A plan needs periodical review. In addition. The department in which the proposed plan will operate. 11) MONITORING PLANNING i. III. Establishing a register of employees for promotion on merit-cum-seniority basis.

Planning is a continuous process/activity. Where opportunity is restricted they continue with the same job. HIGH EXPLORATION ESTABLISHMENT MID-CAREER LATE CAREER DECLINE . responsibility. Others may think of “life after retirement”. After decades of hard work. Employees who were climbers and achievers will find it hard to compromise with the reality. this stage is of no relevance because it happens prior to the employment. On the other hand. such employees have to retire. In other to show their utility to the organization. There is continuous improvement in performance. There is no desire to improve performance and improve past records. Most of them switch job either within the organization or in some other organization. This rule is applicable to career development plans of an organization. Very few people stick to the same job throughout their life. depending on available opportunity. employees who are unhappy and frustrated with the job. They go through the following stages: 1) EXPLORATION:Almost all candidates who start working after college education start around mid-twenties. rewards and incentives are highest at this stage. The new priorities are decided and the details of the new career development plan are prepared. Employees tend to settle down inn their jobs and “job hopping” is not common. 3) MID-CAREER STAGE:This career stage represents fastest and gainful leap for competent employees who are commonly called “climbers”. 2) ESTABLISHMENT:This career stage begins with the candidate getting the first job getting hold of the right job is not an easy task. CAREER STAGES:Education is thought of in terms of employment. Candidates are likely to commit mistakes and learn from their mistakes. 4) LATE CAREER:This career stage is pleasant for the senior employees who like to survive on the past glory. They are expected to train younger employees and earn respect from them. 5) DECLINE STAGE:This career stage represents the completion of one’s career usually culminating into retirement. several times before retirement. Some candidates who come from better economic background can wait and select a career of their choice under expert guidance from parents and well-wishers. employees must remain productive at this stage. Authority.of the future period (of employees and also of the organization) are estimated. Many a time they are not sure about future prospects but take up a job in anticipation of rising higher up in the career graph later. “climbers” must go on improving their own performance. Chances are they change jobs. Slowly and gradually they become responsible towards the job. People go for school and college education and prepare for their occupation. Such employees enjoy playing the role of elder statesperson. Ambitious candidates will keep looking for more lucrative and challenging jobs elsewhere. there is marked deterioration in their performance. From the point of view of organization. This may either result in migration to another job or he will remain with the Same job because of lack of opportunity.

). PERFORMANCE:Career progress rests largely on performance. IV. etc. old-boy networks to gain exposure and achieve their career ambitions. however. the only option left is to resign from the current position and take up the new job (opportunity in terms of better pay. professional associations. Some of the important steps that could help an individual cross the hurdles on the way ‘up’ may include: I. LOYALTY TO CAREER:- III. If the performance is sub-standard. LEVERAGING:Resigning to further one’s career with another employer is known as leveraging. etc. which implies becoming known by those who decide promotions.g. The actions for career development may be initiated by the individual himself or by the organization. business deals. INDIVIDUAL CAREER DEVELOPMENT:Career progress and development is largely the outcome of actions on the part of an individual. jumping the jobs frequently (job-hopping) may not be a good career strategy in the long-run.). lucrative job offers. NETWORKING:Networking implies professional and personal contacts that would help inn striking good deals outside (e. When the opportunity is irresistible. Career development looks at the long-term career effectiveness of employees where as employee development focuses of effectiveness of an employee in the immediate future. You must undertake actions that would attract the attention of those who matter most in an organization.LOW 25 35 AGE 45 55 60 CONCEPT/INTRODUCTION TO CAREER DEVELOPMENT:Career development consists of the personal actions one undertakes to achieve a career plan.. The terms ‘career development’ and ‘employee development’ need to be differentiated at this stage. new title. even modest career goals can’t be achieved. V. a new learning experience. . transfers and other career opportunities. II. for years men have used private clubs. EXPOSURE:Career development comes through exposure.

interests. realizing these problems. A variety of tools and activities are employees for this purpose. develop suitable action plans and point out obstacle that come in the way. however. a costly and time-consuming process. Mentors take junior employees under their protégé and offer advice and guidance on how to survive and get ahead in the organization. They are coming out with schemes such as part-time work. ORGANISATIONAL CAREER DEVELOPMENT:The assistance from managers and HR department is equally important in achieving individual career goals and meeting organizational needs. generally speaking. innovative compensation packages in addition to employee stock option plans for those who remain with the company for a specified period. Professionals and recent college graduates generally jump jobs frequently when they start their career. they share their findings with others in career workshops. b) INDIVIDUAL COUNSELLING:Employee counselling is a process whereby employees are guided in overcoming performance problems. who takes care of children. workshops. After individuals complete their self-assessment. It is usually done through face-to-face meetings between the employee and the counselor or coach. These workshops throw light on how to prepare and follow through individual career strategies. etc. Two self-assessment tools are quite commonly used in the organizations. When we talk of dual career couples (a situation where both husband and wife have distinct careers outside the home) certain puzzling questions arise naturally: whose career is important. tailor-made guide to learn about their career chances. They identify career goals. skills and work attitudes and preferences. who buys groceries and cleans the house if both are busy. a) SELF-ASSESSMENT TOOLS:Here the employees go through a process in which they think through their life roles. called as a career workbook. Here discussions of employees’ interests goals. Sometimes outside experts are also be called in. c) EMPLOYEE DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMES:These consist of skill assessment and training efforts that organizations use to groom their employees for future vacancies. job rotations and mentoring programmes are used to develop a broad base of skills as a part of such developmental activities. NIIT. what if the wife gets a tempting promotion in another location. child care centers. career paths. organizations are providing a place and a procedure for discussing such role conflicts and coping strategies. CAREER PROGRAMMES FOR SPECIAL GROUPS:In recent years. is someone in the organization who can create career development opportunities. on the other hand.VI. MENTORS AND SPONSORS:A mentor is. an older person in a managerial role offering informal career advice to a junior employee. The second tool. Seminars. generally throws light on organization’s structure. This is. This guide. Individuals use this company specific. Counselling is generally offered by the HR department. long parental leave. if supervisors act as coaches they should be given clearly defined roles and training. qualifications for jobs and career ladders. current job activities and performance and career objectives take place. To overcome this problem. there is growing evidence regarding dual career families developing tensions and frictions owing to their inability to reconcile the differences between the family roles and work demands. They do not think that career-long dedication to the same organization may not help them further their career ambitions. companies such as Infosys. A sponsor. flexible d) . WIPRO (all information technology companies where the turnover ratios are generally high) have come out with lucrative. consists of a form of career guide in the question-answer format outlining steps for realizing career goals. They act as role models. The first one is called the careerplanning workshop.

if he wants career progress. if they find that career opportunities elsewhere are better than those of the present organization. c) RESIGNATIONS:Employees may resign the present job in the organization. knowledge. advice and encouragements to switch over to other career or organization. b) EXPOSURE:Employee’s desire for career progress should expose their skills. to those who take the decision about career progress. qualifications.working hours and promotions and transfers in tune with the demands of dual career conflicts. e) CAREER GUIDANCE:And counselling provides information. . d) CHANGE THE JOB:Employees who put organizational loyalty above career loyalty may change the job in the same organization are better than those in the present job. performance etc. CAREER DEVELOPMENT ACTIONS:a) JOB PERFORMANCE:Employee must prove that his performance on the job is to the level of standards established.. where career opportunities are better. achievements.