You are on page 1of 18



DOA: 27/08/2010 DOR: 25/09/2010 DOS: 13/11/2010 Submitted to: Mr. AMANDEEP SINGH Deptt. Of Physics Submitted by: BISWAJIT SEN Roll.No.A17 Reg.No.11007652 Class RK4002


who have been instrumental in creating proper. We are thankful to all those. their help. AMANDEEP SINGH for his active support.No-11007652 Rollno. particularly the various friends . I am highly thankful to Mr. healthy and conductive environment and including new and fresh innovative ideas for us during the project. it would have been extremely difficult for us to prepare the project in a time bound framework. whole-hearted guidance.ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I take this opportunity to present my votes of thanks to all those guidepost who really acted as lightening pillars to enlighten our way throughout this project that has led to successful and satisfactory completion of this study. Name –BISWAJIT SEN Regd. valuable time and advice. Lastly. RK4002A17 . sincere cooperation and pains-taking involvement during the study and in completing the assignment of preparing the said project within the time stipulated.

Tech(ME) has satisfactorily completed the term paper in mechanics of first semester. B. :11007652 Signature of Internal Examiner Signature of External Examiner . Date : 7/11/2010 Registration No.CERTIFICATE Name of school: LITCA This is to certify that BISWAJIT SEN of section K4002.

# # Contents # Cyclotron        How the cyclotron works Uses of the cyclotron Problems solved by the cyclotron Advantages of the cyclotron Limitations of the cyclotron Mathematics of the cyclotron o Non-relativistic o Relativistic Related technologies # Betatron # How it works # Applications # Limitations # External links .

# # # INTRODUCTION # #Cyclotron .

houses the world's largest cyclotron.e. TRIUMF. The 18m diameter. The first cyclotron was manufactured by Ernest Lawrence. In physics. the cyclotron frequency is well defined. Each time the charged particles pass through the gap between the dees. a cyclotron is a type of particle accelerator. A perpendicular magnetic field causes the particles to spiral almost in a circle so that they re-encounter the accelerating voltage many times. called dees. Berkeley who started operating it in 1932. In 1932 George Gamow and Lev Mysovskii presented a draft for consideration by the Scientific Council of the Radium Institute. though others had been working along similar lines at the time. under the guidance and direct participation of the Igor Kurchatov and Lev Mysovskii cyclotron was installed and running by 1937. Since that motion is always circular. He developed the cyclotron. i. of the University of California. they spiral out toward the edge of the accelerator until they gain enough energy to exit the accelerator. produced by a powerful electromagnet. a magnetic field of constant magnitude and direction. Lawrence won the 1939 Nobel Prize in physics for a breakthrough in accelerator design in the early 1930s. the machine has only two hollow vacuum chambers.46 T while a 23 MHz 94 kV electric field is used to accelerate the 300 μA beam. As the particles gain energy. 4000 tonne main magnet produces a field of 0. they are accelerated. Cyclotrons accelerate charged particles using a high-frequency. keeps the particles moving in a circle. and the approval of it. Canada's national laboratory for nuclear and particle physics. The American physicist Ernest O. Instead of many tubes. A cyclotron is somewhat like a linac wrapped into a tight spiral.In technology.A magnetic field. that are shaped like capital letter Ds back to back . Vancouver. Canada. cyclotron frequency is the frequency of a charged particle moving perpendicularly to the direction of a uniform magnetic field. The first European cyclotron was founded in Leningrad in the physics department of the Radium Institute (Head Vitali Khlopin). the first circular accelerator. TRIUMF is run by a consortium of fifteen Canadian universities and is located at the University of British Columbia. alternating voltage (potential difference).  # # How the cyclotron works .

.Diagram of cyclotron operation from Lawrence's 1934 patent.

Subsequent chemical and particle analysis of the target material may give insight into nuclear transmutation of the elements used in the target. such as the mean spacing between atoms and the creation of various collision products. experiences a force perpendicular to its direction of motion. a high-frequency alternating voltage applied across the "D" electrodes (also called "dees") alternately attracts and repels charged particles. ## Cyclotrons can be used to treat cancer. In the cyclotron. The charged particles move freely in a vacuum. Lighting is caused by excitation of gas atoms in a bulb. while minimizing damage to healthy tissue along their path. several cyclotrons are still in use for this type of research. The perpendicular magnetic field (passing vertically through the "D" electrodes) . injected near the center of the magnetic field. to penetrate the body and kill tumors by radiation damage. Ion beams from cyclotrons can be used. The particles.Beam of electrons moving in a circle.) The radius will increase until the particles hit a target at the perimeter of the vacuum chamber. Either of these effects (increased velocity or increased mass) will increase the radius of the circle and so the path will be a spiral. (The particles move in a spiral. . Various materials may be used for the target. accelerate only when passing through the gap between the electrodes. combined with the increasing energy of the particles forces the particles to travel in a spiral path. flowing perpendicular to a magnetic field. energy is applied to the particles as they cross the gap between the dees and so they are accelerated (at the typical sub-relativistic speeds used) and will increase in mass as they approach the speed of light. so the particles follow a spiral path. # # Uses of the cyclotron ## For several decades. as in proton therapy. because a current of electrons or ions. cyclotrons were the best source of high-energy beams for nuclear physics experiments. In the cyclotron. and the collisions will create secondary particles which may be guided outside of the cyclotron and into instruments for analysis. which is flat. The electrodes shown at the right would be in the vacuum chamber. in a narrow gap between the two poles of a large magnet. The results will enable the calculation of various properties. With no change in energy the charged particles in a magnetic field will follow a circular path.

radiation shielding. But before these devices existed. showing a beam of accelerated ions (likely protons or deuterons) escaping the accelerator and ionizing the surrounding air causing a blue glow. Cyclotrons accelerate particles in a spiral path. In the 1920s. These are driven by highpower radio waves that continuously switch between positive and negative voltage. it was not possible to get high frequency radio waves at high power. A linear accelerator (also called a linac) accelerates particles in a straight line through an evacuated tube (or series of such tubes placed end to end). with more opportunities to accelerate the particles. since more expense may be allocated to increasing efficiency. higher-energy particles required longer accelerators than scientists could afford. A set of electrodes shaped like flat donuts are arranged inside the length of the tube(s). Modern linacs use high power Klystrons and other devices able to impart much more power at higher frequencies.## Cyclotron beams can be used to bombard other atoms to produce short-lived positronemitting isotopes suitable for PET imaging. The cyclotron was an improvement over the linear accelerators that were available when it was invented. # # Advantages of the cyclotron    Cyclotrons have a single electrical driver. circa 1939. # # Problems solved by the cyclotron 60-inch cyclotron. so the average power is relatively high. such as its foundations. a compact accelerator can contain much more distance than a linear accelerator. which saves both money and power. # # Limitations of the cyclotron . cyclotrons were cheaper than linacs. causing particles traveling along the center of the tube to accelerate. Cyclotrons produce a continuous stream of particles at the target. Either way. so either the accelerating electrodes had to be far apart to accommodate the low frequency or more stages were required to compensate for the low power at each stage. and the enclosing building. The compactness of the device reduces other costs. Therefore.

routing the magnetic field in two loops through a similar part below. The cyclotron is therefore only capable of accelerating particles up to a few percent of the speed of light. .The magnet portion of a 27" cyclotron. # # Mathematics of the cyclotron # # Non-relativistic The centripetal force is provided by the transverse magnetic field B. The D electrodes are contained in a vacuum chamber that was inserted in the central field gap. The white canisters held conductive coils to generate the magnetic field. q is its charge. The spiral path of the cyclotron beam can only "sync up" with klystron-type (constant frequency) voltage sources if the accelerated particles are approximately obeying Newton's Laws of Motion. So.) The speed at which the particles enter the cyclotron due to a potential difference. Cost limitations have been overcome by employing the more complex synchrotron or linear accelerator. B the magnetic field strength. and cannot receive any additional acceleration. both of which have the advantage of scalability. operating in a pulsed mode and changing the frequency applied to the dees as in the synchrocyclotrons. If the particles become fast enough that relativistic effects become important. i. spiral) is equal to Bqv.e. The gray object is the upper pole piece. (Where m is the mass of the particle. v is its velocity and r is the radius of its path. either of which is limited by the diminishing cost effectiveness of making larger machines. V. To accommodate increased mass the magnetic field may be modified by appropriately shaping the pole pieces as in the isochronous cyclotrons. offering more power within an improved cost structure as the machines are made larger. and the force on a particle travelling in a magnetic field (which causes it to be angularly displaced. the beam gets out of phase with the oscillating electric field.

so And since the angular frequency is ω = 2πf Therefore. The frequency of the driving voltage is simply the inverse of this frequency so that the particle crosses between the dees at the same point in the voltage cycle. ω. v/r is equal to angular velocity. .Therefore.

its frequency does not decrease. are used rather than velocity. as it is travelling more distance in the same time. and it must continue to accelerate. requiring modifications to the frequency. where this is in Natural units The relativistic cyclotron frequency is . or the magnetic field during the acceleration. In that case one should use the substitution.A pair of "dee" electrodes with loops of coolant pipes on their surface at the Lawrence Hall of Science. # # Relativistic The radius of curvature for a particle moving relativistically in a static magnetic field is where the Lorentz factor Note that in high-energy experiments energy. they acquire additional mass. where the target would be positioned This shows that for a particle of constant mass. and momentum. the frequency does not depend upon the radius of the particle's orbit. and both measured in units of energy. E. p. The particle exit point may be seen at the top of the upper dee. As particles approach the speed of light. As the beam spirals out.

which is sufficient to induce nuclear reactions. The acceleration program for the increasing of the magnetic flux to keep the electron accelerating in a fixed-radius orbit must account for the change in the relativistic particle energy mc2. An alternating current in the primary coils accelerates electrons in the vacuum around a circular path. This radiative energy loss. but the concepts ultimately originate from Rolf Widerøe and previous development occurred in Germany through Max Steinbeck in the 1930s. # # Related technologies  The spiraling of electrons in a cylindrical vacuum chamber within a transverse magnetic field is also employed in the magnetron. limits the maximum energy from the betatron to a few hundred MeV.. and are accelerated by the magnetic field which also keeps them in the orbit. # # Betatron A betatron is a cyclotron developed by Donald Kerst at the University of Illinois in 1940 to accelerate electrons. It differs from the cyclotron in that the acceleration of the electrons is achieved by increasing the magnetic flux through the orbit of the electrons. Kerst. rather than with time. called synchrotron radiation. . which has a magnetic field that increases with radius. one must deal with the relativistic effects on the electron as well as the loss of energy from radiation. rather than in bursts as in most other accelerator types. The proton mass is nearly two thousand times the electron mass. and accelerated electrons radiate more energy in a given kinetic energy range than would protons. a device for producing high frequency radio waves (microwaves). of a charged particle with velocity v circling in a magnetic field. An alternative to the synchrocyclotron is the isochronous cyclotron. where fc is the classical frequency. the betatron is a circular accelerator for electrons.[1] The betatron is essentially a transformer with a torus-shaped vacuum tube as its secondary coil. This allows particles to be accelerated continuously. Invented in 1940 by D. so the frequency correction is 1% for a magnetic vacuum tube with a 5. so the 1% correction energy is about 9 MeV. The de-focusing effect of this radial field gradient is compensated by ridges on the magnet faces which vary the field azimuthally as well.11 keV/c2 direct current accelerating voltage. The rest mass of an electron is 511 keV/c2. given above. W. on every period of the radio frequency (RF). This principle that alternating field gradients have a net focusing effect is called strong focusing. In the betatron. It was obscurely known theoretically long before it was put into practice. The electrons travel in an orbit of fixed radius. All accelerated charges radiate electromagnetic energy.

Although the last quarter of the cycle also has a changing field that would accelerate the electrons. which is provided by the increasing field – the effects are proportional. the name of the betatron does not tell us anything about how it works. although the magnet must be carefully designed so that the field strength at the orbit radius is equal to half the average field strength linking the orbit: If the magnetic field increases. so the field is always strong enough to keep the electrons in orbit! The field is changed by passing an alternating current through the primary coils and particle acceleration occurs on the first quarter of the voltage sine wave’s cycle. with a ring of electrons as the secondary coil. there is a changing flux linking the loop of electrons and so an induced e. which accelerates the electrons. it is in the wrong direction for them to move in the correct circle! The target is bombarded with pulses of particles at the frequency of the ac supply.Unlike other particle accelerators. but it is best thought of as a transformer.f. The magnetic field used to make the electrons move in a circle is also the one used to accelerate them. As the electrons get faster they need a larger magnetic field to keep moving at a constant radius.m. .

as synchrotron radiation losses have not been taken into account. built in 1949. in reasonable agreement. With a magnetic field strength of 0. Converting from voltage induced to electric field strength using E = V/d gives and so . the maximum momentum will be and hence An example of this type of machine is the University of Chicago’s 315 MeV betatron. the calculated energy is 340 MeV. where N = 1 and A = r2. (see section on synchrotrons) The formula for the electron’s momentum can also be derived from Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction. As the centripetal force is again provided by the Lorentz force.22 m.The particles have maximum energy when the magnetic field is at its strongest value but the formula used for the cyclotron will not work for betatrons because the electron will be relativistic. However. if the total energy is much greater than the rest energy then E = pc is a good approximation.92 T and orbit radius of 1.

# # Limitations The maximum energy that betatron can impart is limited by the strength of the magnetic field due to the saturation of iron and by practical size of the magnet core. the betatron can be used as a source of energetic x-rays or gamma rays. Arthur Stiennon. the magnetic field spins the injected electrons and accelerates them at the center where there is a ring-shaped vacuum tube changing the magnetic field and producing an electric field in the vacuum ring. If the electron beam is directed at a metal plate. # # Applications Betatrons were historically employed in particle physics experiments to provide high energy beams of electrons—up to about 300 MeV. in a suburb of Madison. The next generation of accelerators. . these x-rays may be used in industrial and medical applications (historically in radiation oncology). the magnetic field at the orbit must be half the average magnetic field over its circular cross section. the synchrotrons.The force on the electron will be given by so Newton’s second law of motion gives and integrating gives # # How it works In a betatron. In other words. overcome these limitations. Wisconsin in the late 1950s. The Radiation Center. A small version of a Betatron was also used to provide electrons converted into neutrons by a target to provide prompt initiation of some nuclear weapons. The stable orbit for the electrons satisfies where θ0 is the flux with the orbit at r0 is the radius and H0 is the magnetic field at r0. O. the first private medical center to treat cancer patients with a betatron was opened by Dr. . encyclopedia) Topic betatron (answer.# # External links     Cyclotron (google ebook) Topic cyclotron (Britannica .com) Topic betatron (