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FRANCE-A Case Study
Energy consumption & emission patterns, climate policy, action plan
Sarabjit Khosla (113104007) Tanay Walhekar (113170006)


possesses the third largest number of nuclear weapons in the world and the largest number of nuclear power plants in the European Union. WTO and the Latin Union. is a country located in Western Europe. West and Central Africa. It is also a founding member of the United Nations. military and political influence. It is often referred to as L’Hexagone ("The Hexagon") because of the geometric shape of its territory. France colonized much of North America. France is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its main ideals expressed in the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen. and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. Southeast Asia. OECD.Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION 1. Luxembourg. and Spain. Monaco. and the Netherlands Antilles (bordering Saint-Martin). During the 17th and 18th centuries. Italy. cultural. Metropolitan France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea. and many Pacific islands. Germany. and has the largest land area of all members. France is the largest country in the European Union by area and the second largest in Europe behind Ukraine (first if one includes its extra-European territories like Guadeloupe). It is the most visited country in the world. which passes underneath the English Channel.1 Basic facts about France France. France has been a major power for many centuries with strong economic. officially the French Republic. and a member of the Francophonie. including large portions of North. France's overseas departments and collectivities also share land borders with Brazil and Suriname (bordering French Guiana). France built the second largest empire of the time. . receiving 82 million foreign tourists annually. with several overseas islands and territories located on other continents. Metropolitan France is bordered (clockwise from the north) by Belgium. France is one of the founding members of the European Union. Switzerland. during the 19th and early 20th centuries. the G8. NATO. It is one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council. France is a developed country and possesses the fifth largest economy by nominal GDP and eighth largest economy by purchasing power parity. Andorra. France is linked to the United Kingdom by the Channel Tunnel.

Not withstanding its policy successes. consequently.and the growing internationalisation of the energy sector in Europe as it moves towards a single market. . France has now largely transposed the European Union directive its internal market: business market (small & large) is open since 2004 and mass market (residential customers) opened in July 2007. France faces a number of challenges. driven by two main forces: the introduction of competition into the electricity and natural gas sectors.oil). Nuclear energy is the major source of electricity production.1. Effective implementation of the announced policies and measures will be imperative for meeting France’s international and national commitments. excepted for electricity production. nation based approach with strong government involvement. The country also needs to boost the flexibility of electricity networks in order to achieve a structural balance between base load generation and increasing demand for peak-load. the context in which French energy policy historically operated has changed dramatically in recent years. Nonetheless. the co-existence of regulated tariffs and market prices may impede mobilising the investment needed for maintenance and life extensions of nuclear power plants. a strong energy dependence (gas.France has very limited energy reserves with. While greenhouse gas emissions in France are lower than the average among IEA countries due to the important role in electricity generation of nuclear power. emissions in the transport and buildings sectors increased from 1990 to 2008. Its targets aimed at combating climate change are very ambitious.2 Overview of Energy Policy French energy policy over the past decades has been characterised by a centralised. In the electricity sector.

and hydroelectric power. In the same year. The oil shocks of the mid. when fuel imports made up 26. By 1994 production had revived. putting a heavy strain on the country's foreign exchange reserves.9 million were imported. Discoveries of large supplies of natural gas and petroleum in the Sahara Desert changed the outlook radically. France imported 36. crude oil production was 28. the nation came to rely almost entirely on imports from oil fields of the Middle East.Chapter 2 ENERGY RESOURCES AND CONSUMPTION 2. in 1967 France was able to meet almost half its fuel needs from countries within the franc zone.000 barrels per day. 15%. Developments in the 1970s exposed the limitations of this strategy. 40% (67% in 1973). Small deposits of petroleum are located mainly in the Landes region. Petroleum production from the Saharan fields rose spectacularly from 8. Crude oil production was 2. production fell somewhat. Like its oil resources. of which 1. fuel imports accounted for 22. France's oil reserves were estimated at 240 million barrels. 6%.28 trillion cu ft) of liquefied natural gas (LNG) in 1999. Algeria took controlling interest in French oil company subsidiaries in 1971. In 2001. During the 1950s France became increasingly dependent on outside sources for petroleum. nuclear fuels.7 million tons in 1960 to 53 million tons in 1970. As of 2001.2 billion cu m (1. coal. . oil consumption was 2 million barrels per day. Although petroleum and natural gas continued to be produced in France itself (as they are today). France's coal and natural gas reserves are very limited.1 Energy Resources Primary energy sources in 2000 were oil. meeting only a small fraction of domestic requirements. Production of natural gas totaled 2 billion cu m (70 billion cu ft) in 1999. In response. but oil consumption continued to increase between 1973 and 1980.7 million tons in 1968. about 7%. Although France lost title to the Saharan deposits after Algerian independence. arrangements were made with the Algerian government to keep up the flow of oil to France. in the next two decades.8 million tons.9% of all imports. in 1975. natural gas. to 2. France began an energy conservation program.and late 1970s drove France's fuel and energy imports up.6% of total imports. 39%.

with the world's second-greatest nuclear power capacity (exceeded only by the United States). atomic energy is controlled by the state. . In the late 1990s. about 13% from hydroelectric power. exceeded only by Germany. Like other forms of power production and distribution.1 billion kWh in 2000. but not entirely. Of the total power production of 511. Most major generating plants are administered by Électricité de France. the state-owned power authority. and under 10% from fossil fuels. France is Europe's secondlargest power market. over 77% came from France's 57 nuclear plants. which produces and distributes over 95% of the country's electricity. France has become the world's leading producer of nuclear power per capita. on nuclear power. total installed power capacity was 111. In 2001. nuclear power was still a subject of heated national debate as public opinion turned against the former goal of 100% nuclear-powered energy.The burden of fossil fuel alternatives falls mainly.3 million kW.

waste Electricity Figure 2.Primary Energy supply for France for the year-2009 Supply Coal & and consump Peat tion Crude Oil Oil Produ cts Nat. Gas Nuclear 41% 3% 15% Hydro Geothermal. Gas Nuclear Hyd ro Ge oth er ma l.1: Total Primary Energy Supply for France . Sol ar. 898 0 0 0 Biofuels & Waste Electr icity Total* Producti on Imports Exports Internati onal Marine Bunkers* * Internati onal Aviation Bunkers* * Stock Changes TPES 91 10779 -486 0 1106 71779 -70 0 0 39045 -23468 -2523 763 40708 -1926 0 106780 0 0 0 4914 0 0 0 14948 415 -170 0 0 1592 -3823 0 129501 164318 -29942 -2523 0 0 -5462 0 0 0 0 0 0 -5462 836 11221 428 73243 160 7753 -1094 38451 0 106780 0 4914 0 898 -4 15188 0 -2230 325 256217 Table 1: Primary Energy supply for France for the year-2009 in thousand tonnes of oil equivalent (ktoe) on a net calorific value basis. etc. 2% 0% -1% 6% 4% Coal and Peat Crude oil 28% Oil products Nat. solar etc Biofuels.

exceeding thus the EU-27 average of 15%. Oil dominates in terms of types of energy consumed.1 Energy Consumption Transport is the single most energy-consuming sector in France.) CONSUM PTION Coal and Peat Cru de Oil Oil Produ cts Natur al Gas Nucle Hyd ar ro Ge oth er mal . in terms of energy consumption. Commerce exhibits an increase of 40% since 1990. Sol ar. while gas and electricity follow.2. The share of industrial demand is slightly below EU average levels. remaining fairly constant in recent years. etc. 736 Biofue ls and Waste Electri city Heat Tot-al Electricit y Plants Oil refineries Energy Industry Own Use Losses Industry Transpor t Other Residenti al Commerc ial and Public Services 5701 0 0 345 788 19 0 1223 719 1067 80 0 0 491 4 0 0 1456 -44177 0 77352 0 79851 4276 206 0 0 0 0 0 4739 0 0 -1032 9566 0 2826 0 382 339 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 576 5862 6606 40749 118 15532 2339 4 7817 1459 4 4146 5543 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 162 110 44 0 2346 2454 7708 6961 708 2832 9960 1079 25376 14638 10295 0 0 0 3820 0 0 3408 27599 44400 76374 44459 20736 Agricultur 0 e/ Forestry Fishing NonSpecified 0 43 0 3001 205 0 0 8 40 275 0 3529 0 0 311 256 0 3052 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 11 157 0 3820 322 7328 . Energy Consumption (in thousand tonnes of oil equivalent (ktoe) on a net calorific value basis.

1: Total Energy consumption by other misc.Electricity Plants 32% 32% Oil refineries Energy Industry Own Use Losses Industry 4% 19% 12% 1% 0% Transport Other Figure 2.1: Total Energy Consumption 0% 5% 10% Residential Commercial and Public Services Agriculture / Forestry 27% 58% Fishing Non-Specified Figure 2. sources .

France made a major commitment to nuclear power.9% of France's total emissions.1 Emission Patterns for France The fossil-fuel CO2 emissions history of France is striking in that emissions have declined since 1979.0% of emissions were from coal consumption.9% of France's 103 million metric tons of carbon released due to fossil-fuel combustion and cement production for 2008. simply multiply these estimates by 3. France continues to increase use of natural gas. and nuclear power generation grew rapidly from ca.7 metric tons per French person. only 13. Per capita emissions have declined steadily since the 1970s to present levels near 1. In 2008. . CO2 emissions from natural gas consumption are estimated at 25 million metric tons of carbon or 27. By 2008.Chapter 3 EMISSION PATTERNS 3. Carbon dioxide emissions from petroleum products have declined 33% since 1979 but still account for 59. 1975 until it contributed 76% of total electricity generation in 1987. France is a net exporter of electricity. Fossil-fuel CO2 emissions in 1950 were 82% from coal. France's emissions since 1979 reflect modest decline in petroleum use and marked decline in coal use. To convert these estimates to units of carbon dioxide (CO2).All emission estimates are expressed in thousand metric tons of carbon.667. Extensive use of nuclear power has clearly curtailed fossil fuel-related CO2 emissions from France.

75 1.65 1.95 1.65 1.85 1.9 1.7 1.75 1.66 Table 3.6 1995 2000 2005 2010 per capita emissions Year 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Total emissions fossil fuel 111561 101257 99689 105211 103479 105576 106274 106852 104249 102068 102805 Total Total emissions emissions from gaseous liquid fuel fuels 22513 68520 21278 61178 22339 59044 23452 65963 23304 63763 24436 63608 24968 64067 25556 63601 24667 62864 23985 60933 24864 61609 Total emissions from solid fuels 17876 16051 15568 13098 14038 14859 14388 14801 13654 14118 13381 emissions from cement production 2652 2750 2739 2698 2643 2673 2851 2894 3065 3033 2951 per capita emission rate 1. Source: http://cdiac.7 1.ornl.8 1.per capita emissions 1.1: Per capita emission estimates are expressed in metric tons of carbon.69 1.75 1.75 1.73 1.72 (Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center) .9 1.77 1.

1: Emission estimates Vs Source .120000 100000 80000 60000 40000 total fossil fuel emissions emissions from gaseous fuels emissions from liquid fuels emissions from solid fuels emisions from cement prodn 2000 2005 2010 20000 0 1995 Vertical axis is plotted in the units of thousand metric tonnes of carbon Figure 3.

and in 2007. with the The Grenelle de l’Environnement. whether new or existing buildings are at stake. These policies have been carried out and improved for the last 40 years. The 1973 oil shock resulted in France in a series of State policies aiming at enhancing energy efficiency and reducing France’s dependence on imported oil and gas. France has set standards for new buildings since 1976. the following can be singled out for their efficiency:  Green buildings: reducing emissions associated with building heating and cooling require two kinds of policies. which reaches 124 miles/h. with 1180 miles and first in terms of commercial speed. The 1973 oil shock resulted in France in a series of State policies aiming at enhancing energy efficiency and reducing France’s dependence on imported oil and gas. These policies have been carried out and improved for the last 40 years. after Japan.1 Climate policy France France is one of the greenest economies in Europe.  Passenger cars: the low diesel fuel taxes and an annual tax based on the power of cars adopted in the 80s has resulted in the mass diffusion of small and average diesel . this solution being particularly adapted to the French geography. with a consumption rate for new buildings set since 2005 at a third of the actual average (1). Several subsidies to households have been implemented to improve existing buildings’ insulation.  Public transportation: improving train transportation has been a major policy of the French Ministry of Transport for decades. Among the different policies adopted. a situation resulting from policies adopted as early as the 1970s.Chapter 3 CLIMATE POLICY 3. France confirms its commitment to green its economy. The launch of the TGV (High Speed Train) in the 80s and massive investments since in the technology and the rail network rank France second in terms of length of the system.

 Renewable energy: subsidies through feed in tariffs. French car manufacturers are among the world leading diesel engines providers. making the average emissions of new cars and small gasoline cars.  Biofuels: a mix of biofuel content binding objectives for fuel distributors and fiscal incentives has resulted in a soar of biofuel content in diesel and gasoline.3% in 2005. call for tenders and direct subsidies have resulted in a renewable energy share of 10.7 % of diesel and gasoline in volume. .  Nuclear energy: nuclear energy represents 80 % of the French electricity mix. the biofuel content reached 5. (cf the specific fact sheet on this topic). In 2008. with more than 80% from hydropower and biomass.

non-governmental organizations) on an equal footing. trade unions. depending on the latitude and the energy mix. business and voluntary sectors to draw up a plan of action of concrete measures to tackle the environmental issue.1 Action Plan With the Grenelle de l’Environnement.1 Grenelle Environnement France in a series The Grenelle de l'environnement is an open multi-party debate in France that brings together representatives of national and local government and organizations (industry. The aim of the "Grenelle Environment Round Table" instigated by the President of France. ambitious new consumption rate will be as per the following standard: Standard will be set between 2.Chapter 4 ACTION PLAN 3. The name “Grenelle” comes from the first conference bringing all these players together which took place in May 1968 in the Rue de Grenelle 3.000 to 24. labour. is to define the key points of public policy on ecological and sustainable development issues for the coming five years. Nicolas Sarkozy in the summer of 2007. As soon as 2012. The “Grenelle Environnement” is a conference bringing together the government. local authorities. laws have been adopted and will soon be enforced with a specific emphasis on reducing carbon emissions. professional associations.000 BTU/feet²/year for commercial buildings and 10. launched in 2007 by President Sarkozy and driven by French Minister Borloo. France has drawn a consensus between stakeholders and with civil society to further green its economy. . with goal of unifying a position on a specific theme.000 BTU/feet²/an for residential buildings. As a result. The policies adopted include:  Green buildings: the objective is to generalize low energy consumption buildings.390 to 41.

5 billion scheme to support the production of renewable heat via a call for proposals. France will implement a new fiscally neutral taxation scheme aimed at rewarding low carbon behaviours.000 BTU/feet²/year depending on the latitude and the energy mix compared to 87 000 BTU/ feet²/year in 2007. (BTU = British Thermal Unit).5 poundsCO2/miles in 2008.  Renewable energy objective: in the framework of the Grenelle de l’Environnement. 1. associated with a “cash for clunker” scheme. for sectors not included in the carbon market (transportation. an objective all cars manufacturers were supposed to meet in 2008/2009. agriculture).000 BTU/feet²/year and 78. in particular to Italy. investing in the 4th generation / EPR will lead to greater efficiency in nuclear electricity generation. Spain and Portugal and implement a pay as you drive tax on heavy duty vehicles to finance investments in transportation infrastructure. Emissions from cars: France has implemented a “fee bate” for new car purchases. This scheme includes a $7450 (€5000) subsidy for the purchase of electric vehicles. build 1200 additional miles of high speed train by 2020. a $1. The French plan includes a suppression of administrative barriers.  Public transportation: massive public investments in urban public transportation ($37 billions by 2020). On nuclear energy. This policy has driven the demand for low carbon cars.  Carbon tax: in order to achieve France’s domestic emission reduction objective by 2020. a call for proposals for the building of biomass power plants adding up to 250 MW (850 MBTU/hr) and a call for proposals for the building of photovoltaic power plants adding up to 300 MW (1000 MBTU/hr) before 2011. . France has adopted ways and means to reach its 23% objective set in the European Renewable Energy objective. buildings. which explains why France is one of the two European countries whose average CO2 emissions from new cars are below 0. invest in railroad and sea fret transportation.Standard set between 25.

it also ranked 8th in terms of emission per capita with 8.Chapter 5 CONCLUSION Although with 531 MtCO2 emitted in 2007.6 tCO2eq per capita and 2nd.ambafrance-us. France ranked 24 out of 27 within the European Union in terms of absolute greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. behind Sweden. The following charts provide relevant comparisons. with 206 tCO2eq per M$ of (French Embassy in the United States) . GHG Emissions per capita in 2007 tCO2eq/cap GHG Emissions per GDP in 2007 tCO2eq/G$ Source: http://www. in terms of emission per GDP.

and renewable energy share ranks 11th in Europe. with 10. based on nuclear (80% of electricity) and hydro energies (10% of electricity).3 % of final energy consumption in 2005. Thus we can conclude that France is an energy-efficient country and with more focus on low carbon strategies such as nuclear. hydro-power it can reduce its emissions further.A very low-carbon electricity mix. and ambitious low-carbon policies are the main causes of such figures. For example. French emissions per new car sold ranks 2nd in Europe. . behind Portugal.