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Q. J. eng. Geol. London, 1981 Vol. 14, pp. 325-346.

Printed in Northern Ireland

The engineering properties of mudrocks
J. C. Cripps & R. K. Taylor*
Department of Geology, University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield, S1 3JD. *Engineering Geology Laboratories, University of Durham, South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE.

The 'rock' and 'soil-like' properties of British mudrocks are shown to be influenced by: (a) their lithology; (b) their geological history of loading (especially during exhumation); (c) the type and method of testing; and (d) the degree of weathering. In particular, unloading and weathering leads ultimately to a normally-consolidated clay of much the same undrained shear strength, irrespective of age and origin of the parent material. For this reason, the engineering properties of the unweathered mudrocks are illustrated separately in terms of classification indices, undrained and effective shear strengths and deformability in relation to geological age.

Compaction and degradation of mudrocks
Using the gravitational compaction model of Skempton (1964), with diagenetic bonding as postulated by Bjerrum (1967), the formation, and attributes, of 'clay shales' are clearly and simply described by Fleming et al. (1970). Due to the action of these burial-related processes many British sedimentary clays have attained the state of indurated rocks and display engineering characteristics which are a product of their composition, geological loading history and ultimately the degree of weathering. Laboratory consolidation studies indicate that with an increasing sedimentary overload the volume of voids will decrease as pore water is expelled. This is depicted schematically in Fig. 1A and D (a-c). The shear strength of the 'normally consolidated' clay is proportional to the existing overburden load as represented by points b and c in Fig. lB. The rapid decrease in porosity with depth of burial has been demonstrated by Skempton (1970a) amongst others. However, the abnormally high fluid pressures, much greater than hydrostatic, reported from borehole depths even in excess of 4877 m (see Weaver & Beck 1971) would significantly reduce the effective vertical stress. If, as a consequence of uplift and erosion, unloading takes place, the labormory analogy demonstrates that the sediment will become 'over-consolidated' (point d in Fig. 1). Although it is under the same effective pressure as the normally consolidated equivalent (point b) the water content of the over-consolidated

material is markedly less, so that the particles are in a denser state of packing and the shear strength is higher. Table 1 gives an indication of the preconsolidation loads determined in the laboratory and the estimated thicknesses of overburden subsequently removed from certain well-known over-consolidated clay horizons. Lateral variations in the estimates will occur in accordance with geological interpretations (e.g. the London Basin, Fookes 1966). Bjerrum (1967) postulated that at (say) point c the normally consolidated sediment might be subject to the same sedimentary overload for a considerable period of time. Diagenetic changes would be operative during this period so that bonds due to particle adhesion, particle recrystallization and cementation would be developed. The sediment would therefore become stronger and more brittle, with a further, although minor, secondary decrease in volume (to point c' in Fig. 1). It should be appreciated that diagenetic changes (including clay-mineral species changes) will also be governed by temperature increase as a function of depth of burial or heat flow rates. For example, Teichmiiller & Teichmiiller (1967) show that coal rank is a function of depth of burial. Very broadly the diagenesis of coal is paralleled by that of the associated sediments and rocks. Price (1966) recognized that the uniaxal strength of siltstones and sandstones in some coalfields was related to the ranks of the associated coal seam. Berkovitch et al. (1959) and Taylor & Spears (1970) drew attention to an incipient rank or induration factor in respect to the breakdown of mudrocks from the Coal Measures. From their study in the USA, Weaver & Beck (1971) have postulated that pre-middle Carboniferous shales have, in general, been subject to higher temperatures than most of the younger shales and clays in the geological column. According to Bjerrum, water uptake and the degree of swell on unloading will be dictated by the strength of the diagenetic bonds (e.g. Fig. 1A and B). Moreover, the less indurated clays will more readily release the strain energy stored during compaction (Brooker 1967). Because vertical expansion is less restricted than horizontal expansion the degree of

0481-2085/81/1000-0325 $02.00 t~) 1981 The Geological Society


(a) (a)

C R I P P S & R. K. T A Y L O R

NOrmally consolidated

(e . I .
II x ,


Pre/Pre-, consolidotion



Overconsolidated -weak

. . . .



~' Overconsolidoted - s t r o n g bonds

o (c)'



Di Diog en-'-e'es~




_ _ _ Erosion











(C), (C) l


" (a)



I0 fissures and

I 1
_ I Opening of


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25 3O 35

1.5 London

2.0 Ko Cloy





vertical stress

~IG. 1. Schematic geological history of over-consolidated clay (after Fleming et al. 1970).

t~ased on Skempton (1961, 1964) and Bjerrum (1967).

vertical load slledding is greater than that in the horizontal direction. Consequently, the horizontal effective stresses would be smaller in the strongly bonded types (lpoint e, Fig. 1C) because the bonds would inhibit expansion. However, the importance of these stronger bonds is believed to be their ability for releasing strain energy on a time-dependent basis, thus leading to deformation and progressive failure in mudrocks and over-consolidated clays. In practice total rebound in thelse sediments is considered to be a combination of elastic and time-dependent rebound (see, for example, Nichols 1980). The ratio of horizon-

tal to vertical stresses (K0) is shown in Fig. 1E (for London Clay). It will be observed that the values vary from 1.46 at a depth of 33.53 m to 2.80 at 7 m below ground level. Computations by Bishop et al. (1965) suggest that the ratio might be even higher. Extensional failures, such as joints, are an expression of the elastic reponse of relaxation during uplift and denudation, whilst on a time-dependent basis, expansion promotes the opening of additional fractures and fissures. In the context of weathering (the converse of diagenesis) the disintegration of bonds and the opening of further fissures is accompanied by

ranging from competent. [Stewartby. Bucks. 2. such that indurated mudrocks may once again ultimately attain the status of remoulded. even in unweathered mudrocks. The present review of the literature has indicated that in terms of engineering properties the nomenclature problem is very complex indeed. Letchworth. ~ Bucks. Nr. Laboratory determined preconsolidation loads with estimates of subsequently eroded cover rocks Estimated depth of burial from the literature (m) 152 152-213 366-396 -425-520 610-760 1220--1370 1070-1220 1560 "1 600 Jackson & Fookes 1974 Not Quoted Not Quoted 9583-14504 9583 14847 500 330 850-945 760-885 855-975 Smith 1978 Smith 1978 Smith 1978 Deposit London Clay London Clay London Clay Gault Clay Gault Clay (Albian) Fullers Earth (Aptian) Weald Clay (Barremian) Kimmeridge Clay (Kimmeridgian) Upper Oxford Clay Lower Oxford Clay (Oxfordian/Callovian) Fullers Earth (Bathonian) Upper Lias Clay (Toarcian) Location Bradwell Central London Ashford Common Ely-Ouse Water Tunnel Nr. However. type and method of testing. A classification scheme (with modifications when necessary) such as that recommended by the Engineering Group Working Party (Anon 1977) is appropriate for the description of the degradation stages involved. Bath Empingham. In this paper the compressive strength criterion used for descriptive purposes is that of the Engineering Group Working Party (Anon 1977). Hants. lithology. Apart from the question of nomenclature. normally consolidated clays. Dorset 1"Chickerell. However.w e a k rock) is subtly different from that proposed by the Engineering Group Working Party (Anon 1972) and markedly different from the division advocated by Morgenstern & Eigenbrod (1974). it is only within the last few years (or for specific projects) that weathered equivalents have been categorized as in Table 2. Bucks. 1965 Samuels 1975 Smith 1978 Smith 1978 Smith 1978 Smith 1978 water entrainment and chemical degradation. Surrey Warnham.25 M N / m 2 . In order to put the engineering properties into their proper context the effects of the above factors are first considered. degree of induration (bonding and cementation) and subsequent rebound history. 3. Sussex Portland. Calvert. the magnitude of a particular parameter may be dependent on a number of factors which can be considered under the following headings: 1. The process is thus a progressive one. Coombe Hay. . On a strictly geological basis no distinction is drawn between mud 'rocks' and overconsolidated 'clays'. Variation in engineering properties The geological classification of mudrocks is based predominantly on grain size (see Taylor & Spears 1981). Leics. Herts. 4.* the dominance of clay minerals is not a prerequisite. and although they contain a high percentage of silt and clay sized detritus. 1436 2145 4137 3430-7080 8346 7104 13229 13229 Not Quoted Not Quoted Reference Skempton 1961 Skempton & Henkel 1957 Bishop et al. indurated rocks to soft. that the engineering properties recorded in this paper are collated. Any distinction between 'rock-like' and 'soil-like' properties is sensibly a reflection of the *> 50% clastic grains of < 60 txm in size. This latter soft-rock criterion (UCS> 1. induration is by no means a systematic variation with age and depth of burial. kWhittlesey. exhumation. degree of weathering. Dorset ]Bletchley and Calvert. It is within this framework. Preconsolidation pressure kN/m2 c. Redhill.ENGINEERING PROPERTIES OF MUDROCKS 327 TABLE 1. normally consolidated clays.

mudrocks 4 ) / c a n drop by 21. calcite and pyrite. Tests on highly weathered Lias Clay. One way of demonstrating the influence of the clay fraction on residual shear strength is to determine the ratio of clay minerals to 'massive' minerals (detrital plus diagenetic minerals) by X-ray diffraction. Exhumation The degradation of mudrocks commences with the removal of overburden which leads to associated fissuring. Many hundreds of vertical geotechnical profiles showing general reductions in plasticity and water content and increases in strength and elasticity modulus with . following Skempton (1964) who established an empirical relationship between (~/ and clay fraction (see Fig.8. Mass structure and material fabric are destroyed. of which quartz is the most important type. The residual shear strength (4)r') of mudrocks has been investigated by a number of workers in terms of composition. Burne|t & Fookes (1974) found that in the London Basin an eastward reduction in undrained shear strength with increase in plasticity of the London Clay can be attributed to an increase in clay fraction in that direction. K. Since all these data were derived from the same equipment. C. Figure 2 shows that for many U. who showed that the compressive strength of a range of Coal Measures s a n d s ~ n e s and siltstones is proportional to their quartz contents and previous depth of burial. including feldspars. CRIPPS & R. display a much lower range of 4)/. Discolouration Less than half of rock material decomposed. TAYLOR TABLE 2.From Fig. it would appear that 4)~' depends on the degree of induration (or weathering) and the amount of clay present.328 J. The more indurated Carboniferous mudrocks have 4)/ values falling within a significantly higher range compared with overconsolidated clays. Russell & Parker (1979) related changes in undrained shear strength of Oxford Clay to the amount and species of clay mineral and the presence of cementimg agents. 2 it is also clear that for a particular material type a lower ~ ' value is obtained when the proportion of clay minerals to massive minerals increases. More than half of rock material decomposed. Regional studies have shown the influence of major component minerals on undrained shear strength. corroborative evidence in the form of an incipient rank factor has already been referred to in the case of the Coal Measures succession.5 ~ as the ratio increases from 1. Some effects on engineering behaviour of mineralogy and compaction were demoastrated by Price (1960). and diagenetic carbonates and uulphides are significant constituents of particular mudrock types and formations. In particular. Discolouration on major discontinuity surfaces.5 to 7. Other minerals. For example. Residual soil VI Lithology Lithogology is taken to be the combination of composition and degree of induration following compaction and diagenesis. All rock material decomposed. an increase in water content and softening. Although it would be imprudent to extrapolate these findings to all argillaceous rocks. Positive correlations were obtained between shear strength and the diagenetic (cementing) minerals. in which the imprint of over-consolidation has been lost.K. they obtained negative correlations between strength and the proportion of mixed layer clay plus montmorillonite (and illite shape factor) in the < 2 / z m fraction. Classification of weathered mudrocks Term Fresh Faintly weathered Slightly weathered Moderately weathered Highly weathered Completely weathered Grade IA IB II III IV V Description No visible sign of weathering. 15). All rock material converted to soil. In a simple sense most mudrocks are composed oi platy clay minerals and more equant minerals. original mass structure still largely intact.

(1965) for the London Clay at Ashford Common. . . Influence of clay minerals on residual shear strength. 4. the percentage change in cohesion is considerably larger than the change in the frictional component: Property Depth 23m 46m Undrained shear strength*.~11973) Lias Clay(wthrd) 9 Kimmeridge Clay 1 Oxford Clay 0 Speeton Clay i ._. insofar as the individual rates of increase in undrained shear strength with depth are concerned. 9 9 9 20 9 O'r 16 degrees 12 "~. which were obtained by Bishop et al. shown in Fig. and by Chandler (1972) for the Lias Clay shown in Fig. kN/m 2 225 575 Effective cohesion. the shear strengths quoted were obtained from triaxial compression tests conducted on 3 8 r a m diameter specimens.I rooge 0 1 I I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Ratio clay minerals to detrital and diagenetic minerals FIG. kN/m 2 108 252 Effective angle of friction. Su. ~ . cp'. \ "~ 9 . 3*. depth are illustrated in the literature.D. (1965) from the lower 23 m of the Ashford Common Shaft. A Clay B a n d e in Coal 8 4 I 1 I I ~ I .(Attewell 8t Taylor 1973) zx Ampthill Clay 9 Gault Clay J Z8- \ ~ 24 20 \ \. Significantly.ENGINEERING PROPERTIES OF MUDROCKS 329 529 Coal Measures (Spears & Taylor 1972) 0 Etruria Marl(Hutchinson et o. Similar observations to these have been made by Ward et al. u . /x 9 .. but in terms of * su is equivalent to cu when ~b = 0. the authors make reference to the fact that the average fissure spacing increases with depth. machine and ~b/values from the same reversing shear boxes. good evidence exists for increases in shear strength (and stiffness) with depth. All mineralogical data from the same X. The values imply that geological age (time period of diagenesis) is seemingly a significant factor. .R. . However.~. From the results given below.~ D 9~ . . Vertical profiles showing average undrained shear strengths are available for a number of unweathered over-consolidated clays and rates of increase with depth are shown in Table 3 for horizons of increasing geological age. 2. 9 "~ [] '-~. Such an example is the Oxford Clay profile from near Peterborough. ~bp' degrees 25 29 Thus. With the exception of pressuremeter tests in the Keuper Marl. it can be seen that the peak effective shear strength parameters increase with depth.

800 ... TAYLOR s u (kN/m 2) E(MN/m 2) 1200 0 80 ' ' ' O0 ro 400 ' ' . c . The significance of this phenomenon is illustrated by the failure envelopes in Fig.~] IN .. For a more comprehensive treatment of the shear strength characteristics of soils and rocks. .. In these types the 'rocklike' character of unfissured. i.. X. .. 2o. absolute values the effect of fissuring. III I 60 0 I 100 200 1 l II 300 ] Effective shear strength and apparent effective strength parameters Modification of mudrock behaviour as a consequence of fissures (and joints) is especially noticeable in the more indurated rocks..... processing necessitated a detailed consideration of the following factors in particular: (a) interpretation of 'effective strength' and 'apparent effective strength'. (d) interpretation of residual shear strength... CRIPPS & R... reference should be made to Jaeger & Cook (1979)..• C} 6 \ I '1 = 14 FIG. (b) effects of sample disturbance and anisotropy.. In respect of the published data. Tests by Carter & Mills (1976) on 38-mm diameter cores of intact Coal Measures m~adstone from the Kielder aqueduct together with results by Hobbs (1966.. Suffice it to say that the intactness of the sample significantly influences its behaviour during triaxial testing... Type and method of testing Geotechnical test results must always be interpreted in the light of the characteristics of the material tested. 4. . 160 " ' 240 ' ' 520 '1 . 9 l 9 c:"~ .. . I . 5 to which typical values of effective and apparent shear strength parameters have been appended. . Zonellb A e# / ~ . . ..330 J .. 3.. 1978). XX \ \ t 1 Lower Oxford-I 24I 32 2]-' _ oX 9 xX~x ~ u I ~x ~t". sample type/size and method of testing will all be shown to be important. Water Content % s u ( k N / m 2) I the type of test performed and other details relating to the method of testing.. oi T.~xe~ tangent Kellaways Sand_ Ketlawoys Clay 9 x 9 9 BH4 u BH7 x Block samples Esecant Ftangent FIG. . 1970) 2 oilderClay ~-~ I .. Undrained shear strength and modulus of elasticity of Oxford Clay from near Peterborough (Burland et al. (c) type of test--laboratory and in situ tests... intact specimens tested in triaxial compression at a high confining pressure contrasts markedly with the 'soil-like' properties exhibited by fissured specimens in low pressure tests.~ o ~ t . K. Geotechnlcal profile for Upper Lias Clay from Northhamptonshire (Chandler 1972).

" f I n t o c t rOcK tr E 5O o X Co 0 0 0 0 A. .~. indicate the following apparent shear strength parameters: ca -. Data given in Fig.~ .1 3 1 k N / m z and 4)'= 32-45. Davis (1971) draws attention to this aspect of the behaviour of Keuper Marl in which it is particularly difficult to obtain undisturbed laboratory samples of the partially weathered Zone III material. so that their behaviour in tests is no longer representative of the in situ material. Effective shear strength parameters and apparent effective shear strength parameters of fissured and intact rock. in back-saturated triaxial tests on 76-mm diameter borehole cores of fissured but largely unweathered Coal Measures shales and mudstones. such as those by Ward et al..R. is most likely to occur in hard clays and weak rocks.~. 5.5-7 MN/m 2 ca = 2-13 MN/m 2 (ha -. and in mudrocks which contain structural and lithological strength inhomogeneities. P . and Samuels (1975) on Gault Clay have compared undrained shear strengths (su) of specimens obtained from boreholes with those from blocks.-~ / ~n~= E3 5MN/m 2 60 9 (10 o co ~xo 9 r Nk- x t I o8 . 6 for Gault Clay indicate that Undrained shear strength.. t 9 LId / I I / / // / / ~ i rock 80 x ~ x x o o o /c'.5 ~ at low confining pressures. 1 1 J1 1 " . obtained effective strength parameters of c ' .0 . x Ist series of t e s t s } Rotary 10 o 2nd series 9 Open-drive samples cores Tests by 'B. Gault Clay Kimmeridge Clay Oxford Clay Upper Lias Clay Keuper Marl Rate of increase of s~ 6-10 kN/m2/m 7 kN/m2/m 15 kN/m2/m 28-30 kN/m2/m 37 kN/m~-/m 37.5 kN/mE/m Reference Ward et al. Increase of undrained shear strength with depth Age Palaeogene Cretaceous Jurassic Triassic Formation London Clay . .S. 6.' A 0 0 -=d .5_?OkN!_~2 0'= 3 5 0 . (1976) from various underground collieries. Sample disturbance and anisotropy Excessive damage to specimens. . O t h e r studies. (1978) Chandler (1972) Leach et al.'. (1965) on London Clay. @ Rotarycore z~ Open-drive I t samples 9 Horizontal(block) Vertical block samples I (range and mean) 20 xxx o OD o o I x x x I 0( 0I ~o~~ ~D 0 r o o x XxX x o o Co= 3 0 MN/m 2 /~/- J 4O A v 00=150-300 \ ~ IntOct rock s . the block samples which had suffered less disturbance than open-drive specimens were found to have Su values about 30% greater than the latter. (1965) Samuels (1975) Simm & Busbridge (1976) Burland et al. 100 I I 1 t I I FIG. Undrained shear strength of 38-mm diameter triaxial samples of Gault Clay from Ely-Ouse..Su(kN/m ) _o u 200 i 400 | 600 i 8oo i lOOO ~aoo i 1400 Tests by Le Grand Adsco Ltd. ..4 5 0 90 x I x x I Effective normal stress FIG.25-29 ~ Carter & Mills tba = 28-39 ~ Hobbs In contrast to these results. Essex water tunnel (Samuels 1975). Spears & Taylor (1972). In the case of London Clay.ENGINEERING PROPERTIES OF MUDROCKS 331 TABLE 3.

Since the removal of overburden is accompanied by vertical expansion. Starzewski & Th~)mas (1977) report that in this material the horizontld elastic modulus is 4. the su values ranged. 'Effect of type of test on the undrained shear strength of London Clay from Chelsea (Marsland 1973a).~ ~ [] z~ o 9 stiff grey clay 0 15ooo \ ~ 0 0 FIG.c. Similar results were obtained by Ward et aI. as shown in Fig. London Clay is among the growing number of formations which have been the subject of research into the relationship between field and laboratory determined parameters (see Marsland 1973a. it will be observed that the average undrained shear strength obtained from 865-mm diameter plate loading tests is approximately 28% less than that obtained s u (kN/m 2) 100 I 200 I 300 I 400 I 500 I 6OO 1 ~ ac~o ~ o 5- 9 865mm plate tests 38mm triaxial [] 98rnm triaxial o Penetration tests sand and gravel soft brown clay ~~. respectively.58end 98mm 865mm o\ triaxials plate test. 6).c: 4. I ~ '. From data obtained by Marsland (1973a) in Fig. but also features such as changes with depth become obscured.332 J. because of fissuring. 6. In the last 10 years however. K. These authors found that in shear-box tests in which the laminations were parallel to the plane of shear.- 10C3 ~ \ Oo . Type of test--laboratory and in-situ tests Undrained triaxial testing of 38-mm diameter samples is a standard technique for assessing the strength behaviour of over-consolidated clays.. the true mass strength of mudrocks can be considerably less than the value obtained from tests on small samples. Windle & Worth 1977). 4~' was reduced by approximately 10-12 ~ compared with tests conducted on specimens orientated with laminations at right angles to the shear plane. Bishop (1971) has investigated the effect on the measured undrained shear strength of sample size. the preferential development of horizontal fissures may often impart an anisotropy to mudrocks which can enhance the effects of existing vertical inhomogeneity. In tests on Gault Clay (see Fig. including those conducted on the Oxford Clay by Parry (1972) and by Jackson & Fookes (1974). penetration tests ~ 9 brown and clay mottled clay E . Samuels (1975) found that the strength of horizontal specimens from blocks were on average 25% greater than vertical ones. Typically.o ~. Marsland & Randolph 1978. This aspect of the behaviour of mudrocks has been considered in various investigations. C. Importantly. (1965) in London Clay from Ashflord Common.7 times the vertical value. 7. CRIPPS & R. .and 300-mm diameter. In tests conducted on London Clay specimens of between 18. Not only is it then necessary to conduct a large number of tests to arrive at a reliable average. and 28% stronger than those obtained by rotary coring. the undrained shear strength values of 38-mm diameter samples plotted against depth are widely scattered about a mean line. TAYLOR the specimens from blocks were 167% stronger than open-drive samples. from 217 kN/m 2 to 53 kN/m 2. . Specimen orietatation has also been found to have a significant effect on undrained shear strength. 100-mm diameter samples and in situ field tests h a v e become more commonplace.~\ [] . 7. Here the undrained shear strength anisotropy resulted in the horizontal specimens having su values about 46% greater than the vertical ones and 91% greater than samples inclined at 45 ~ Fkom research on Lower Lias Clay.

2z . Hooper 1973). Simpson et al. 8 which Marsland (1973c) obtained by large diameter plate tests in London Clay from Hendon are much closer to values derived from the analysis of settlement records. Pressuremeter tests have also been employed to mitigate against the inherent draw-backs of triaxial testing of material sensitive to the effects of sample disturbance. (1979) have demonstrated that the ratio of elastic 333 Modulus of elasticity. disturbance. (1965) to cause a significant reduction in strength (presumably) due to rapid surface softening. . Initial secant moduli of London Clay from Hendon (triaxial and plate loading tests. In fact.ENGINEERING PROPERTIES OF MUDROCKS from triaxial compression tests (38. such as Keuper Marl. If these latter results represent the unfissured strength of the London Clay. Unless the mudrock is slickensided. In tests on London Clay at Hendon. \ "\ \ I 10 A i \ "i\ : "k. Precisely how these and other pressuremeter results relate to the mass strength of fissured clay is open to speculation since values obtained for a particular location in a borehole would generally be considerably higher than those derived from large diameter plate loading tests. the elasticity values in Fig. Furthermore. fissures should not influence this parameter although lithological lamination may result in anisotropic behaviour according to Jackson & Fookes (1974). the effects of delays in carrying out the tests after site excavation having been shown by Ward et al. Windle & Worth (1977) reported pressuremeter undrained shear strength values which averaged 60% higher than the equivalent triaxial tests. exhibits increased modulus values compared with non-consolidated samples. Leach et al.or 76-ram diameter samples) will typically be much lower than the equivalent value obtained for larger samples containing fissures tested in a Rowe cell (see Rowe 1972). and testing method than is undrained shear strength. varies between 140 for the large strains (--~1%) used in laboratory experiments to approximately 1000 for the small ground strains ( < 0 . compared with the reversing shear box. Intuitively. then dearly the presence of fissures has a highly significant influence on the strength of the clay en-masse. . It will be noted that the residual shear strength is reduced as the effective normal stress is increased. (1976) report tests in this formation at Kilroot. modulus (E) to undrained shear strength (su).and 98-mm diameter specimens) and about 75% less than the value determined in 5. such as those of Hooper (1973) for Hyde Park. . Although plate-bearing tests overcome many difficulties associated with sample size and disturbance. ~1 ~ "g i i FIG. 9 which are tests conducted by Chandler et al.5-mm diameter penetrometer tests. (1973) on Upper Lias Clay from Northamptonshire. Marsland 1973c) and the elasticity (E) of London Clay from Hyde Park (analysis of settlement. The effects of varying both the type of test and the effective normal stress can be demonstrated by the results in Fig. re-consolidated to its original overburden pressure. It is of interest to note that Simons & Som (1969) report that London Clay. Deformation moduli are probably even more sensitive to the effects of sample size. Co. The coefficient of volume compressibility determined in an oedometer on small (50. 5 % ) measured in practice. it would be anticipated that the deformation modulus determined from triaxial tests on small samples would generally be greater than the value obtained by in situ plate loading or pressuremeter tests. in which the pressuremeter undrained shear strength results were on average 230% higher than the values obtained from triaxial tests for the same depths. E (MN/m 2) 00 40 I I 80 I I 120 I 38mm diometer samples 98ram diometer samples 865mm plate test. hand finished surfoce E=IO§ 5. 8. The fact that it is not so may be due to the effects of stress relief adversely affecting laboratory samples. that is E : Su. Part of the explanation for the discrepancy between deformation characteristics derived from settlement records and the predictions based on laboratory tests could rest with strain dependency effects. than they are to the equivalent laboratory test results. Antrim. . E N I \ i \ \ 9 9 i '\ \ I 20 9 "" 9 i \ "\ 25 i 9 . Residual shear strength The measured value of residual shear strength depends primarily on test method and the effective normal pressure used. .

It is clear from the discussion regarding the removal of overburden that stress relief may be responsible for a large drop in the c' value possibly to about 35 kN/m 2. Residual shear strength of London Clay Method Ring shear Reversing shear box Co-planar triaxial Residual shear strength 4)'r 8. with a general increase in plasticity and water content. Some results from extensive research into weathering of Upper Lias Clay from Northamptonshire by Chandler (1972) are presented in Fig.9-15.29 Location Neasden Ashford Common..] Reference Sills et al. Thus.334 20 t e'N~ "X~ J. This progressive softening and degrading is accompanied by reductions in strength and deformation moduli. 1973). kN/m 2 c' ItN/m2 4)'degrees Brown 100-175 0. the ring shear apparatus and the triaxial test approach in which the maximum resolved shear stress was coplanar with a natural shear surface. Skempton & Hutchinson (1969). As a further observation arising out of this work. the individual values exhibit considerable scatter. (1965). Some measure of the effects of weathering on the shear strength of London Clay can be gauged by comparing determinations from blue. unweathered Zone I or II material. TAYLOR Shear box peak strength 9 Shear box cut plane o Triaxial natural shear surface 9 15 1o o ~. (1971) . The water content increases from approximately 16 to 30% during this process. with its brown.C.6 ~ 13. give respectively lower and higher values at a particular effective normal pressure. K. (1978) Bishop et al. the average undrained shear strength of the clay is reduced from 2 0 0 k N / m 2 to 63 kN/m 2 as weathering proceeds from Zone I to Zone III material.~1oo I I fi0 100 I I 150 I 200 E 23o i kN/m2 t. Nevertheless.60 kN/m z 257-126 kN/m 2 T. Chandler contrasts the slow rate of oxidation found in Zone III Lias Clay with the more rapid rate apparent in London Clay. for the cases cited the undrained shear strength is reduced by about 50% and the effective cohesion (c') can undergo a very large reduction. 10. Degree of weathering The greatest variation found in the engineering properties of mudrocks can be attributed to the effects of weathering..8 ~ 12. through the destruction of interparticle bonds by accommodation straining. ~ o . zero.I I I ' I _ / . CRIPPS & R. Effect of type of test and method on the residual shear strength of Upper Lias Clay from Northamptonshire (Chandler et al. C'r= 2-kN/m z I "~"" .31 20. Since these curves are based on undrained triaxial tests on 38-mm samples.r 8-5~ .1 ~ Effective normal stress 250-7 kN/m 2 240. Weathering is responsible for dramatic changes in more indurated mudrocks such as those from the TABLE 4. Undrained and effective shear strength of weathered and unweathered London Clay Property s. However._~=----~9_. sensiblyremoulded condition.2-14." ~ ..0-13. weathering can reduce this further to a value close to. or equal to. weathered Zone III or IV equivalent (Table 5).~BLE 5. considering only those results from which samples were not suspected of swelling.. Bishop et al.] Wraysbury and ~ Edgware .. (1971) has produced similar results for London Clay (see Table 4). 9. ~ 60 =o c'r=TkN/m z I 150 I 200 ^ 100 Effective n o r m a l s t r e s s ( k N / m z) FIG.23 Blue 120-250 35-252 25. Research by Bishop et al. this process returns the material to a normally-consolidated. L_ 0 co ~o f . The effective angle of shearing resistance is also reduced and at ~b'= 20 ~ the value corresponds with a fully softened condition (Skempton 1970b).------. Ultimately.

values for weathered materials are . average values are given. viz: be remembered that.~osed on "-"~.~ x 335 SO OC U 25 9 e-. The style of presentation adopted in Table 6 is described below for the water content of weathered London Clay: (a) 23-4 Range of values for the parameter. undrained and effective shear strength. liquid limit. For Zone I material the curve is of the type consistent with brittle failure. Spears & Taylor (1972) attribute a reduction of 93% in effective cohesion and a drop in 4)' to 26 ~ (c'= 0) to this effect. o o'. Wherever possible this distinction has been based on the attributed weathering zone. Chandler (1969b) describes the weathering related modifications to the stress-strain curve obtained during triaxial testing.0 Su (kN/m 2) FIG. profiles depth . For data regarding the hydrological properties of mudrocks. The value of this pressure is lower in more weathered marl. For the purpose of the present exercise. Changes in the stress-strain behaviour may also be apparent. the engineering behaviour of the mudrocks is discussed with reference to a series of diagrams which show the values of the respective geotechnical parameters. No published data have been deliberately omitted in establishing the values presented. when viewing the data in the following section it must Because many of the engineering parameters of weathered mudrocks do not show very much variation throughout the geological column. Code for footnote information regarding the type of test performed or sample used. Compilation of engineering properties and parameters of British mudrocks Having considered the major variations and difficulties.. 2 ~ ~. but the retrieval systems may have failed to locate them.=~. Carboniferous period. values are given for the materials both in the weathered and unweathered states. In addition. a depth of approximately 7 m (Taylor & Spears 1981) has generally been assumed to mark the base of the weathered zone. In spite of the fact that the results presented herewith represent an extensive literature search. The suppression of the peak in the stress-strain curve is largely responsible for the reduction in the effective strength parameters recorded. reference should be made to Tellam & Lloyd (1981). it will be appreciated that a certain amount of in-built bias will also be inevitable. porosity. the values quoted were determined by the methods given in Table 7._ / samples which may o o n e llo I'hove swelled during o Lonella i sampling [] Zone I J ~ . Effect of weathering on the undrained shear strength and natural water content of Upper Lias Clay from Northamptonshire (Chandler 1972). strength and deformability. each one of which can have a blanketing effect on overall trends. clay fraction. plasticity index. 55 (c) a Zone I III IV c' kN/rn 2 28 17 17 r degrees 40 ) 42-32 1 32-25 Reference Chandler (1969a) Generally the modulus of elasticity is reduced as the degree of weathering becomes more advanced. elasticity and consolidation characteristics are presented in Table 6. inevitably some important references will have been missed. In the latter case. On these diagrams. Hence. the failure being entirely plastic. . indicated in the list of references. However. mudrocks not referred to in the literature are not necessarly without problems. Unless otherwise specified by a footnote. For geological age (depth of burial) purposes. Thus. (b) 53..E N G I N E E R I N G P R O P E R T I E S OF MUDROCKS 40 ~. The magnitude of a particular engineering parameter is sensitive to the testing method used. Table 6 is a compilation of the maximum and minimum values of the engineering parameters as quoted in the references cited.~ Zonelll Weatherin(] zone x Landslip ] z~ Zonelll [ solid symbols denote Z . l aZone . In the case of Keuper Marl. although authors may well have related their experiences with problem mudrocks. the curve for Zone IV material has no peak. similar difficulties will not always arise at other locations in the same horizon. In the case of Keuper Marl structural modifications bring about large changes in the deformation characteristics if a particular threshold pressure is exceeded (see Davis 1971). Even more importantly.~ w ~ ~ ZoneUb -"-. Code for the source of the data. in the case of undrained shear strength and coefficient of volume compressibility. the view has been taken that a resonable compilation of the engineering properties of mudrocks can be gained from a consideration of classification indices. 10. but in other cases an appropriate description or depth below ground level has been used. the engineering properties in terms of water content. 9 20 " ~ e ~ 15 o o Zone I 10 50 11~0 I 150 200 I 250 3.

v. U n w e a t h e r e d U . The maximum values for the weathered material have been added in . p.104 104 46 2 4 . borehole sample.4 9 - 89 I00-f75 66'115 e 100-400 London Cloy Woalwieh and Reading beds 19-28 118 15-27 42-67 118 20-37 118 73 CretaceoUs Chalk forimotian 5 6 7 8 9 I0 114 30 32~42 21 18-30 - 114- 114 38 Goult Cloy Ather field and Weald City Weald Clqjy Fullers Fm-th Speeton Clay 86 ~o 70-92 58 54 1o3. % Unweathered Plasticity index ie. depth up to approximately 30 m.49 130-2800 5z 67 100-150 67 300-1200 Carboniferous Etruria Marl Coal meaeures 19 57 17-44 9-22 57 57 43-79 55-52 57 8-:52 57 57 12-25 57 r 21-35 120-620 - 104 - 104 I 8 104 59-49 42 104 9-19 Mudstane Shale Seotearth 20 21 22 25 6-8 /04 9-14 9 104 104 42-45 44-51 104 12-19 104 104108. this trend is partially obscured in Fig.Jurassic 90 Kimmeridlge Clay Ampthill (]lay Middle Ox|ordClay Lower OxfDrd Cloy Fullers Eolr th Upper 103. In addition..7~103 o)30-54 19 110-560 78 52-95 45-490 78#9 19 103 38 I 1-25 56-68 36 41-77 I00 103 38 53-70 31.103 38-68 48 103 103t28 r 52-48 31 96-1500 - -31 50 360-1100 10-120 26 Lias Clay 20-38 36 56. and previous overburden is just discernable. m u d r o c k s h a v e w a t e r c o n t e n t s in the range 3 .5 3 " 2 . may not be plastic. 11 s h o w the range o f values for u n w e m t h e r e d material and the m a x i m u m v a l u e for the w e a t h e r e d state.3o 106 3o 58-62 ~4. ~./3. ~. rl. 45. shear vane test results. % state of weathering not known.106 r t5-68 103 50 103 5 28 103 57 - 69 . 63 I 6 21-55 21-32 6.2 5 } 8 3 0 9 " 1 0 3 } 108 104 MN/m~8 37-87 ~ 3-50 u 29 MN/m z 46 100-180 83 u MN/m _ 104 II 104 33-34 30-35 - 104 13-41 26-3'# 104 39 82 28-45 108 35-77 104 W 3-28 - 70 83 15-335 u 12-14 MN / m = - 18.39 Undivi~led 3-32 3 18 82 36 9 86. Fermanagh having higher values. )t. tests on indicated by circles and those for unweathered materials by squares. c . Code on graphs Water content w. the m o i s t u r e c o n t e n t s for the m u d r o c k s p r e s e n t e d in Fig.55 7 19-26 5 52.103 5[3-76 59 45-75 28-50 19 3 1 .4 019t78 59 3 5 .108 27-72 108. o. 82 40-106 39 25-35 9 82 20-74 21-52 - 82 v 16-88 >200 qs I0 9 9 82 - 82 v 32-54 - 24 25 26 15-88 2-5 5-28 9 88 50 88 50 9 16-17 II-21 88 50 41 41 140 33 O 0 a. % Weathered Liquid limit w. From 'medium hard lumps'. 39 24-7<.12 20-74 103. undivided Leas shales.63 25-70 68 20-210 50-350 68 40 68 68 112-150 43 2 :5 4 43 66-100 50-105 40-65 43 66. pressuremeter test. Atherfield Clay. L.% Cloy fraction <2F% Porosity n.90-110% . CRIPPS & R. 11 by differences of sampling depth between the formations considered. ranges of extreme values are distinguished from average values by the use of solid and open symbols. Engineering properties of British mudrocks Formation . 87 56-1280 . 90 5 79 70-Sl 103. from back analysis. 99 25-34 5 46 - 103 42-82 8 55 5 - 8 28-32 8 8. K. tr. Thus. high value of water content for mudflow. Lower Gault w 1 -.3o ~J 31-48 30 17-76 30. Upper Gault w 1 = 60-620%. deep borehole sample. K.. Water content and porosity So far as p o s s i b l e . K . 90~110 27-80 17-58 106 27-46 106 41-90 106 17-71 106 v 20-85 I01.49 ~/ 10-50 67 70-200 5z 40-240 ! 61.7 059 30-70 19 19.103 20-59 36. 38 44 a 26 26 110-240 20-180 o 28-57 40-1200 o95-179 30-150 28 Lower Lies Clay 29 t6-22 105 105 105. large specimen. 100-mm diameter samples. e.X. 34 12-40 5-15 24 24 p 25-60 25-35 24 10-35 24 24 10-50 24.336 J . 7r. 82 Limestone series Culm meaeures Remainin~ Lower Palaeozoip rocks Symbols a n g r a p h s 45.90i 24-59 5 49 103 57 - 103 35 70-500 90 - 9O 130-470 II 5 12 15 f4 15 16 17 23-88 18-22 19 84 20-53 31 26-41 35 2 0 . A general reduction in water content value with age. whereas the lower than expected values found in Weald Clay and Woolwich and Reading Beds were obtained from borehole material. k N / m 2 (renge) Undrained shear strength $.115 73 34-814 ~ 400 --3.105 r 37-44 J:~'5-45 MN/m 2 Triassic Keuper M l r l 18 24.% Undrained shear strength $ . the high values for Middle Oxford Clay and Lower Leas Clay are for shallow samples.28 52-57 56 o50-56 28. depth of 50-70 m. kN/m 2 (average) Unweothered Weathered 6 45-82 Weathered Unweathered Weathered Unweathered Paloeoge~ne Barton Cley Bracklesham beds 6.28 o56-62 55-63 38 20-39 36 55-65 26 17 26. . Unfortunately. respectively.89 Y 40-72 ~ 37-59 40-190 143 80-800 43 66.3 0 % with only the Fuller's Earth horizons and 'Calp' shale from the Limestone Series of Co. -r. TAYLOR TABLE 6. higher value at 46 m depth. 0. rockfill-Silurian mudstone. v. /z. ~.2 8 19 15-25 - 59. 60 30 87 300-550 U~60-120 I.38 <~2 3 . swell pressure plus 100kN/m2.

002-0.o. Plasticity and clay fraction Plasticity is defined in terms of liquid limit in Fig.115 0"2-2"0 74 0"5-60 74 I 62. 98 8-50 - 65 -q e - 65./9 103 105 /9." 78 0-20 IO 19 31 59 3/ 10-216 59 ~r /03. 87.3 9 I 3r-3e 39 12-14 0./03 103 103 59 103./2 12-18 12 t2 10. Apparent shear strength parameters../3 20-29 97. water content and specific gravity. W h e n plotted in Fig.r0.r ".lo 104.SGN/mz '. X.3 9 15 68 7 T0-065-0-5 7 7 ).3 24-460 L 0-131 108 o.zz o-17 28! 5 25. where the actual values lie between the maximum and minimum limits indicated. 2-15 74 0-02-0-12 0-5-20 ~2. % = ' . In fact. 68 7-11 a 63.o Cv. 0 . The values of porosity (n) quoted in Table 6 have been obtained either directly from the literature or by calculation from published bulk density.3 22-26 i u@a 12"3940'22 86..0.58 25-124 0. So for . remarks similar to those regarding the variation in the natural water content apply to the changes in porosity value. ' .52 ). 1112/ yr Weathered Unweathered Weathered ~.io7-26oo I intact rock cores (s.68 27.10 GN/m z {~. Also displayed on this diagram are the clay size functions for these materials.161 II 88 88 31 - 88 23-32 1at II r 40-5Q'$ 9 9 I I0.108 29-29 r i. oJ. N / .29 29 5. ca. higher value from field shear box test.2-0-78 /03 0"002 12 11-20 _ 5 I i t 500 /03 25"1 103 0'02 103 0"007 103 143 _ 103 14 5 14"-23 5 17-32 59 5 10-18 5 10-14 51 14-67 5 23-48 83 l 0"22 17r 103 0"002 4"5 83 vr 5 0 0 103 _ 103.5-22 74 0-05-0"18 -~qR.ENGINEERING PROPERTIES OF MUDROCKS 337 Effective cohesion c'. the upper and lower limits of the range apply respectively to weathered and unweathered materials.01-0-08 12-100 0-09-1-4 /0/ ~ 2J-34 lOG 6-14 106 0.49-0"95 /9 0'076 0 5/ 31 23-40 0"017-0.Z8 9-13"5 0"2 83 83 5 - /03 18-25 27 . order to demonstrate the extent to which the water content can vary in particular mudrocks.48 o@.3 2 M N / m 2 104 31-39 r ur [ i6 - Z5 40 85 13-26 /04 22.3z-13e 104 45.68 8-24 68 18-24 e 63.117 0-49 [ u%3Z t 40 104.w~ i o-16 22.023 7r0-003-0-03 0"005 43-59 103 0"02 28.=. m Z / M N i Weathered Unweathered Equivalent modulus MN/m z Weathered olosticltr.107 9-36 45.1 83 I i o-t~ /04 /04 40 i083 - 22.:.c iz .70 32-3"# 104 45. mudrocks are illustrated in terms of the Engineering Group Working Party's (Anon 1972) classification. Figures in italic refer to references.'6. 48 { u2-49GN/m 2 12-97 ~.K.003 ~r 3 3 3 .19 0. =~o-c).5 5 34 43 102. r o Weathered Unweathered Residual =heor strength Coefficient of volume compression my. u~'~ 12 117 16 0"08 83 i I i 83 12 /04 ~ 9-49 -~ 104 48 aN/m 2 1o4 24-162 15 3 9 9 22 ! <.76 0"02-0"06 //4 7 .5-17-5 - 22. these data suggest that expected reductions in the porosity of mudrocks with increasing age and depth of overburden are confirmed.2z-52 105 61 2-80 _> 3 0 24 25-42 >_ 4 0 24 24 18-30 55 0"008 35 I "2 71 100-1200 61 2"8 57 22 I v Ca' 2-13 M N / m 2 - 8. 12 and the plasticity ranges of U.118 r7-50 370 113 114 30./3 31-252 7 18-32 17-25 7 25 43 102. z e . specific gravity of soil particles and water content data. k N / m 2 Unweathered Effective onole of friction.74 0"75-95 10-35 - 25-141 118.8 58 K 25 ] 1 //5 4"9 56 581 I0 58.S / 0 4 39 21 45. 54 5. r higher value determined from published values of bulk density.58 0"25-2-7 59 78 21"5-28 17"4 83 O' 0 9 13-17 12 19 0"07 7 } II - 83 59 T 56 Tr 3 3 . E = i/m v Unweathered Modulus of elasticity E. water content and specific gravity. both values determined from published values of bulk density. In general. .. 32 IO-IO0 0"42-0-67 _ 44 I .40 r~.3 8-19 i - ~" u2-2i GN/m z 72 ~.::. 11..5 0 0 28 J3-16 -44 . Weathered MN/m t Unweathered c::. # 9 " 26"5-40 - 5O o.I I . ha.3 3 3 200 19 30-40 40-140 19 19 >40 .87 20-162 30 1'0-8"9 .54 19-53 /o/ rB-24 26 54 12-19 58 Oil2 K I/4 0"04 115 8 30.

As already mentioned. Some high average Su values (su = 575 kN/m 2) are quoted by Ward et al. and similar values obtained by Dumbleton et al. Pal. 13 demonstrate concisely how weathering reduces all the mudrocks to materials with much the same properties. Lower Lias calcareous mudstone from Hinkley Point. In this. lithology and thickness of present overburden impose variations which mask this trend. Somerset is the youngest mudrock in the stratigraphic column to have become sufficiently indurated to be described as strong rock. in the less strong rocks sample disturbance can have a significant effect on the strength determined in laboratory tests. and the minimum value for the weathered materials are displayed on this diagram. the range of values for the unweathered. Porosity. Lias. there is a general trend ~ reduced plasticity with age and depth of burial.338 J. For the unweathered material the undrained shear strengths range from firm clays to very strong rocks (Anon 1977). In both instances the data apply to shallow depths and additionally. As already explained. (1976) in triaxial tests on Keuper Marl from Kilroot. instance. in the case of the Fullers Earth. clays from the Limestone series and London Clay may also exhibit extra high plasticity characteristics. 3 it can be seen that the low strength values for the Middle Oxford Clay are a reflection of the sampling depth (maximum 12 m). although differences in geological loading history. there is a high percentage of expandable clay minerals. 6 and 7. K. In the case of London Clay practically the whole of the variation found in the average values can be accounted for by the increase of strength with depth. The results presented in Fig.C. and older mudrocks. and profiles showing the extent of this variation for the Oxford. n% 0 20 40 I Undrained shear strength 100 60 I 80 I Numerical codes given in table 6 Polaeogene 4 5 Cretaceous /5. . The parallel trend found in the clay size fraction may be due either to a genuine reduction in the clay size c~mponent or to an increase degree of clay mineral aggregation in the older rocks. From Fig. The comparatively high water contents of the Fullers Earth and U p p e r Lias Clay would appear to account for their low strength. The su values for the Kimmeridge Clay are also unexpectedly low.t 26 _ Weathered = 9 s - 9 L. A general increase in su with age is just discernable. the maximum value for the unweathered. the undrained shear strength generally increases with depth in any one horizon. respectively. CRIPPS & R.K.(-----~11 Jurassic Triassic 20 Carboniferous L____ 23 : 24 Natural[ woter . The plasticity of U. (1965) for samples obtained from a depth of 46 m in the Ashford Common shaft. Gault and London Clays are given in Figs 3. w%. This is not surprising. In their weathered state. TAYLOR Natural ~ater content. weathered Barton Clay has been found to consist of between 25 and 69% clay size fraction. . (1978) for material from depths of up to 60 m. 11. Although the laboratory results covered . When other data are available and space permits. A wide scatter of results due to this effect was found by Leach et al. Co. these are also included. 13. 13. 4.K. which are based on results for depths between 14 m and 30 m. in view of its complex loading history in which reloading with Recent deposits has followed the removal of the original over-burden. Fullers Earth. Generally. mudrocks. compressive strengths of small intact specimens give equivalent su values far in excess of the values from undrained triaxial tests on fissured samples. are not included in the averages given in Table 6 or Fig. Antrim. Natural water content and porosity of U. mudrocks ranges from low in Keuper Marl and some Coal Measures rocks to extra high in the (fault Clay. These. Apart from the Gault Clay whose extra high plasticity is attributed to a large expandable clay mineral contenlt (Perrin 1971) and the low value for Weald clay due to a small clay fraction. The undrained shear strength data are plotted on a logarithmic scale in Fig. 26 :: - contentL Unweathered Porosity FIG.

K. as explained with r e f e r e n c e to Fig. Secant modulus for the initial stress-strain curve at 50% ultimate load in undrained triaxiai compression tests. Esec Liquid limit. as depicted in Fig. fissuring and p r e s e n t o v e r b u r d e n d e p t h exert a m a j o r control on the und r a i n e d shear strength of m u d r o c k s in the u n w e a t h e r e d state.e x h u m e d o v e r . Ca. d/) and a p p a r e n t effective strength p a r a m e t e r s (ca. . Consolidated drained reversing direct shear tests on 60-mm square samples. intact rocks. t~' Sedimentation test. particularly with r e f e r e n c e to the m o r e i n d u r a t e d L o w e r Lias m u d r o c k s or even L o w e r Oxford Clay. Previous c o m m e n t s r e g a r d i n g the i m p o r tance of fissures are r e i n f o r c e d in Fig. in the case of K e u p e r Marl. Consolidated drained. 12. the averages q u o t e d in Table 6 and plotted in Fig. 14. 13 are press u r e m e t e r values. 5.ENGINEERING PROPERTIES OF MUDROCKS 339 TABLE 7. < 2/xm Undrained shear strength. ~b. the distinction b e t w e e n t h e m in rocks is dictated by the process of d e g r a d a t i o n . Cv Modulus of elasticity. If. . Triaxial compression tests on small cores of dry rock. the m e a n value for the f o r m e r was a p p r o x i m a t e l y 4 4 % of the in situ value for the same range of depths. high F]o. 9 ~ 8~ 1 12 Jurassic 14 15 Effective and apparent effective shear strength parameters ___ZwoI . Plasticity and clay size fraction of U. If the w e a t h e r e d condition is also consid e r e d . and o l d e r mudrocks. Methods used for the determination of parameters Clay fraction. 4~a Coefficient of volume compression. m v value given for a pressure increment of 100 kN/m 2 above the effective overburden pressure. these p a r a m e t e r s are p l o t t e d with c' or ca on a logarithmic scale against 4~' or 4~a. 23 9 9 24 I 9 25 _ 26 _ 9 L. practically the same r a n g e as p r e s s u r e m e t e r results. mudrocks (Anon 1972).<2pro% 0 20 ! 40 . then the results can be s e p a r a t e d into the following groups: i.c o n s o l i d a t e d clays. m v Coefficient of consolidation. M o r e o v e r . . . 13. T h e r e f o r e ...w~%. Residual shear strength. or undrained with pore water pressure measurement triaxial compression tests on 38mm or 100-mm diameter samples. the und r a i n e d shear strengths of w e a t h e r e d m u d r o c k s are very m u c h the same n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g the o t h e r causes of variation. ii. the r a n g e of su values o b t a i n e d for a particular horizon can be very large indeed. PLASTtClTY ~ : Weathered ] LIqmd limit = Unweathered t ~ Cloy f r a c t i o n B ] low {mediate. . It is c o n v e n i e n t to consider both effective strength (c'. Clay fraction. It is a p p a r e n t from Fig. Oedometer consolidation tests on 76-mm diameter samples. qS/ Apparent effective shear strength parameters. Or direct shear tests on 60-ram square samples.Pal. Undrained triaxial compression tests on 38-ram diameter specimens. C'. j o i n t e d and fissured rocks and n o n . 9 60 1 i i | Numerical codes given in table i 80 100 6 Poloeogene ' Z: f 4 ' Cretaceous .) u n d e r the same h e a d i n g since. 13 and earlier discussion that the previous d e p t h of burial. su Effective shear strength parameters.

can become softened at unusually great depths as a function of groundwater circulation in the immediately overlying coal seam.ard FIG.. .-9 _ _ 7 ~ ~ . c 16 14 o o9 17 Triassic 19 18 Carboniferous 24 ROCKS very w e o k ' ~ ~ moderately weak T ~ v e r y strong ::. due to the weakening of interparticle bonds.. It is useful to compare these data with empirical relationships obtained between residual shear strength and other geotechnical parameters.--n o 9 -e Weathered ].. lc~ _2 BE ~.~. Unfortunately. For each formation the minimum ~br' value is assumed to correspond with the maximum clay fraction value.K. In certain cases (Etruria Marl and Weald and Atherfield Clay) the residual shear strength is lower than expected. with a smaller reduction in 4". 15 are residual shear strength and clay fraction data from Table 6. 14.Unweathered o . Lias Clay. Etruria Marl.5-36 ~ given in Table 6 for indurated mudrocks of Keuper Marl. Coal Measures mudstone and SOILS Residual shear strength The high values of maximum residual shear strength (~b'r = 26. Undrained shear strength of U. It is not surprising therefore.o D Cretaceous 11 13 3. as already demonstrated. . CRIPPS & R. For example. . K. C. the line for a particular formation represents ranges of points that could theoretically lie anywhere within the rectangle of which the line is a diagonal.. In Fig. 15. Pertinent to the degradation history of certain mudrocks are the parameters obtained for seatearths tested by Spears & Taylor (1972) which fall within group ii in Fig. Culm Measures and Lower Palaeozoic age contrast markedly with the . groups (ii) and (iii) represent the end members of ranges in that. stress relief causes a large reduction in c'.Range values = -. 13.340 J.-ii Jurassic 9 z 15 --. Skempton (1964) related ~br' to the clay fraction by the envelopes shown in Fig. some Coal Measures mudrocks have slightly higher 4)/values than their clay contents suggest is appropriate. su(kN/rn2) 10 100 ! 1000 i 10000 i 100000 i . to find that some results for partially weathered Coal Measures mudstone and Keuper Marl exhibit behaviour intermediate b~tween groups (ii) and (iii). Coal Measures. Voight (1973) and others have drawn a plasticity index (Ip) versus tb/ diagram. . mudrocks iii. P Average values o~a UnweatheredJ Numerical codes given in table 6 --- D-. . These materials. Instead of plotting clay fraction against residual shear strength. lower values (~br'=5-24 ~) obtained for overconsolidated clays. Jurassic Fullers Earth.c 6 o 3 4 o -. there are insufficient effective strength data for mudrocks to detect any trend which may be related to age or previous depth of overburden. Hence. Hence. 14. 15. TAYLOR Undrained shear strength. and vice-versa. .. Data from Table 6 have been added to Voight's plot in Fig. . they can assume the character of stiff over-consolidated clays. Of the mudrocks for which the variation in both Iv and tb~' is known. Superimposed on these envelopes in Fig. exhumed over-consolidated clays and degraded rocks.o Weathered " 1 . Furthermore.-.a Palaeogene -. 16 where the same method of plotting has been used as in Fig. . .

mudrocks...K.o 5'o 6'o ~o 8'o .1.~ ~ o ~ ~ ~ -~ X ~ --\ ~ \ \\. .m.Sk:~:on (1964~. 2 o ~ e24 e14 21e 111 I ond weothered rocks /. \ \ 17e // \~ 018 ~' / 0' or 0o (degrees) FIG. Residual shear strength and clay size fraction of U.overconsolidotedcleys e21 (kN/mZ) / 3 7eiii2 012 ~ . ] 4 . . Atlewell & Former(1976).K. .0 1~o Cloy f r o c t i o n . ~.nen..ioo.' ~ ~--'~ \ ~- [] Envelopefrom Skempton (1964) t "o 1~ ~'o 3'o . Erem Atle Chendler ona t. "\... \ ~ 9 0 9 '~ Goult Cloy Speeton Cloy Kimmeridge Cloy Ampthill Cloy \ ~ \ o O~for~ Cley ~ * Lies Cloy \ 9 Cool Measures )ton .~ -~. mudrocks. • k / • 2~.. %. 15.. (1969). < 2 p FIG. Effective shear s t r e n g t h and a p p a r e n t effective shear s t r e n g t h parameters of U. w20 /6 9 181r (iii}Overconselidetedcloys . I C or Ca 100 (ii)Fissured rocks end ~" • ' . \'X~\ O'r 20 degrees X " * \N N \ 12 t \4 \ ~ ~ ~' - "~ 15 -~ ~-~\~ 114.~~.ENGINEERING 100000 PROPERTIES OF MUDROCKS 341 IB2~"~" ~'-~ (i) Intact rocks 10000 9 Weathered 9 Unweathered Codes denoting mudrock formations given in Table 6 \ \ \ \ / / / / N\ ao// ~1000 . .

k% Numerical codes given in table 6 degrees ] 10 " ~0 I 'i % f:%. c . Since these are averages.002m2/MN which compares w i t h . These improvements. Conclusions In terms of their general geotechnical properties.% F~c. A retrogression of these properties on exhumation results in the loss of over-consolidation through associated softening and breakdown of interparticle bonds. Although variations in m a n y factors preclude any rigorous demonstration of the causes of variation in just one factor. CRIPPS & R. then a comparison between bor(h parameters has been made on the assumption that E~--1/my. I\ [\~ ~ / . which are largely commensurate with age and depth of burial. The effects of induration are dramatically demonstrated b F the comparatively high deformation modulus found in the Lower Carboniferous and the remaining Lower Palaeozoic mudrocks.\ .'o . may be brought about by a reduction in the clay size fraction or enhanced diagenetic clay particle aggregation and species changes. Residual shear strength and plasticity index values of U.K. degree of over-consolidation and diagenetic changes. The engineering properties they display are a product of a number of genetic factors. Although the paucity of the information precludes correlations being made between deformation characteristics and age or depth of burial of mudrock formations.o . Atherfield and Weald Clay are among the formations that appear to have residual shear strength Values which are lower than expected.a mean value of 0.. can 'improve' the engineering properties of mudrocks. Where both coefficient of volume compressibility and modulus of elasticity data are available for the same formation. a slight trend of increasing modulus and decreasing coefficient of volume compression is discernable. 16. This degradation process is continued during weathering and ultimately leads to a normally consolidated soft to very soft clay. Even many of the overconsolidated clay horizons range in strength up to weak rocks.(1973~ . mudrocks.342 J . K.02 m2/MN.. In Table 6 it can be seen that these parameters do not relate particularly well to each other. in particular reductions in the clay size fraction or amount of expandable clay mineral in proportion to the othermore equant constituents.K. changes in composition. notwithstanding the parent material. . Deformation parameters The average values of the consolidation parameters and elastic moduli are presented in Table 6 for a number of U. including composition.'o ~'o Plasticity index% go . shale.g 2'0 3'0 . mudrocks. The more indurated varieties can exhibit uniaxial compressive strengths (or undrained shear strengths) and elasticities which are commensurate with very strong rocks. mudrocks have characteristics intermediate between those of soils and rocks. TAYLOR 36 52 \ \ ~ 1 / ~ ~ | ~ "~176 c'~ I II GaultClay / O Atherfield Cloy| * Lios Cloys O KeuperMarl / / ~. values which are either lower or higher can be found in the literature. Butler (1974) quotes a minimum coefficient of volume compressibility of 0. In the case of London Clay. w.oldClay I-~on~v0io.

.1979. P. Principles of Engineering Geology. G. with the angle of internal friction also being reduced. London.. It is significant that the actual rate of increase in undrained shear strength with depth is more rapid in more heavily over-consolidated mudrocks. or equal to zero and smaller percentage reductions in the angle of internal friction occur. Unfortunately.). H. & TAYLOR. 5. & STROUTS. The presence of fissures can cause difficulties in establishing engineering parameters in that sample disturbance and size have significant effects on the results of tests. 9. This process is accompanied by a dominantly vertical expansion of the formation which involves the development of joints and fissures together with softening. 3-58.G. JCC acknowledges the financial support provided by the University of Sheffield Research Fund. only in certain cases are there sufficient data to define the zones according to their engineering properties. The degradation of the Barton Clay cliffs of Hampshire. In-situ Investigation of Soils and Rocks. The process of fissuring has many important ramifications in that these structural weaknesses affect mass behaviour. 307-8. more undurated mudrocks where the 'rock-like' shear strength characteristics of the non-fissured and jointed rock are replaced by the 'soil-like' characteristics of the fissured material. ~ . Geol. BARTON. 10. BISHOP. Comparisons between residual shear strengths obtained from tests using a ring shear apparatus. & FARMER. 6. ~ 1973. Proc. Proc. Weathering is accompanied by increase in water content. L. ANDERSON.E N G I N E E R I N G PROPERTIES OF MUDROCKS 343 The residual shear strength (4~r') of a mudrock is a geotechnical parameter which is particularly sensitive to the clay size fraction present. Conf. E. 32. Aaq~WELL. 1971. 293-381. P. C. & BROWN. G. B. since partially weathered mudrocks tend to be heterogeneous. plasticity and compressibility with reductions in strength. In general the engineering behaviour of more fully weathered mudrocks is a function of their composition rather than other genetic features. Generally the reversing shear box produces results which are not greatly different in magnitude from those obtained from the back analysis of slope failures. 335-76. Q. & LEWIN. stress relief effects appear to cause significant reductions in the modulus of elasticity values obtained in laboratory tests. eng. Part I--Assessing the breakdown of shales in water. G. London. Proc. Part of the difference may be due to strain dependency effects. Disc. Compared with values obtained by back analysis. BERKOVITCH.R. Undisturbed samples of London Clay from the Ashford Common . These changes are accompanied by reductions in strength and increase in deformability. Clay shale and discontinuous rock mass studies. 6. 273-328. Army. Geol. W. the reversing shear box and co-planar triaxial tests indicate that the first gives the lowest values with triaxially determined values being the highest. GARGA. N. Q.1977. & POTFER. I. GREEN. Chapman & Hall. Rock Engineering.. Thus. Typically. J. M. P. The stability of tips and soil heaps. U. 1977. 21. . ATrEWELL. 1965. plate loading tests may yield conservatively low values. 4. London. Large decreases in effective (stress) cohe- sion to a value near. 423-40. 1973. the lowest strength values are obtained in large diameter (865-mm) plate loading tests. 1969. Roscoe Memorial Syrup. Contract No. G~otechnique. the cohesion intercept can undergo a reduction of several orders of magnitude.. 7. 1971. since rapid surface softening can occur once the test site has been excavated.. Q. B. but to a lesser extent. 10. B. Newcastle. D. This latter parameter can be reduced to the 'fully softened' value through the d e v e l o p m e n t of progressive small-scale failures in the weathering mudrock mass. Cambridge. Working party report on the description of rock masses for engineering purposes. ANON. Geol. J. 8. 1VIANACKERMAN. 12. Q. 1959. London. J.. Conf. Providing that sample disturbance has not been excessive. 579-89. Perhaps the most important genetic feature of mudrocks that significantly influences their engineering behaviour is the removal of overburden (uplift and erosion). Geol. 6. E. V. A. WEBB. Working party report on the preparation of maps and plans in terms of engineering geology. D. eng. 5. The weathering zonation is a useful framework for the classification of weathered mudrocks. K. Engineering geological aspects of dock and harbour engineering in Southampton Water. J. . (ed. eng. Final Report to European Research Office. DA-ERO-59172-G0005. A new ring shear apparatus and its application to the measurement of residual strength. I. W. J. 1973. It is noticeable that more indurated mudrocks generally have high 4~'r values compared with those of over-consolidated clays. J. 12. A. 1972. Q. eng. The effect of fissuring is particularly significant in the older. In fact. 3. London. 243-55. R. C. Inst. 2. 13. London. The shale breakdown problem in coalwashing. 1976. In: PARRY. London. 1045 PP. eng. Shear strength parameters for undisturbed and remoulded soil specimens. Appraisal of face stability at a limestone quarry in Shropshire. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT. 355-88. Fuel. water content and plasticity. 11.S. The strong d e p e n d e n c e of the value of residual shear strength on the value of effective stress used in the tests is another important behavioural aspect. 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