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Arch. Mech., 57, 4, pp.

299–343, Warszawa 2005
Effect of dislocation density evolution on the thermomechanical
response of metals with different crystal structures at low and
high strain rates and temperatures
G. Z. VOYIADJIS, F. H. ABED
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Louisiana State University,
Baton Rouge, LA 70803 USA
The contribution of plastic strain evolution of mobile and forest dislocation den-
sities to the thermal and athermal components of polycrystalline metals flow stress
is investigated in this work. The thermomechanical response is characterized here
for body centered cubic (bcc), face centered cubic (fcc) and hexagonal close-packed
(hcp) structures of metals at low and high strain rates and temperatures. Conse-
quently, the simulation of the plastic flow stress for these metals is developed based
on the concept of thermal activation energy, the additive decomposition of the flow
stress, dislocations interaction mechanisms and the role of dislocations dynamic in
crystals. The material parameters of the proposed modeling are physically defined
and related to the nano- and micro-structure quantities. On the other hand, the
hardening parameters of each kind of metal structures are presented in two different
forms; physically based definition which is developed, based on the aforementioned
concepts and empirical relation which is used by several authors and is based on ex-
perimental observations. Several experimental data obtained by different authors for
Niobium, Tantalum, Vanadium, Oxygen Free High Conductivity (OFHC) Copper,
and Titanium are used in evaluating the proposed models. Good correlation is ob-
served between the proposed models predictions and the experimental observations.
Moreover, the predicted results show that the effect of mobile and forest dislocation
densities evolution with plastic strain on the thermal stress of bcc metals is almost
negligible and pertained totally to the athermal stress part, whereas the plastic strain
evolution of these dislocation densities play crucial roles in determining the plastic
thermal flow stress of most fcc metals. The thermal and athermal flow stresses for
hcp metals, however, show a behavior that is a combination of that for both bcc and
fcc plastic deformation models.
Key words: plasticity, mobile and forest dislocation density, plastic flow stress, ac-
tivation energy analysis, thermomechanical response; activation energy, plasticity.
1. Introduction
The plastic flow stress for relatively pure metals is determined through
the interaction of dislocations, which are moving inside the crystal lattice, with
the lattice itself and with the available barriers encountered inside the lattice.
Ashby and Frost [4] pointed out that dislocation motion through the lattice
300 G. Z. Voyiadjis, F. H. Abed
or past an obstacle require surmounting of the energy barrier by a combination
of applied stress and thermal activation. Thus, at the microscale level, the mech-
anisms associated with dislocation motion and dislocation multiplication, the
statistics of mobile dislocation populations, the nature and the statistics of ob-
stacle distributions and the relationship between the externally imposed plastic
strain rate and the dislocation kinetics, determine the form of the macroscopic
plastic response. Moreover, the crystal lattice configuration plays a crucial role
in determining the effect of thermal activation on the mechanical response of
relatively pure metals which are mainly classified into three common crystal
types; body-centered cubic (bcc), face-centered cubic (fcc) and hexagonal-close-
packed (hcp). Each of these three crystal structures exhibits a characteristic
thermomechanical behavior which is associated with the available slip systems
and symmetries as well as with the nature of dislocation cores. Good reviews of
plastic deformation in different crystal structure types of metals are provided by
Kubin [30], Christian [14], Taylor [53], Vitek and Duesbury [54], Chichili
et al. [13], Nemat-Nasser et al. [44] and Lennon and Ramesh [33].
A great deal of effort has been made in understanding the influence of temper-
ature and strain rate on the flow stress of different structure types of metals. This
understanding, however, is essential for the modeling and analysis of numerous
processes including high-speed machining, impact, penetration and shear local-
ization. Recently, considerable progress has been made in understanding the role
of rate controlling dislocation mechanisms on the temperature and strain rate
dependence of the flow stress for metals and alloys. Hoge and Murkherjee [18]
studied the effect of both temperature and strain rates on the lower yield stress
of tantalum as a bcc metal and proposed a model incorporating the combined
operation of the Peierls’ mechanism and dislocation drag process. Zerilli and
Armstrong [59] used dislocation mechanics concept to develop a constitutive
model that accounts for strain, strain rate and temperature in a coupled manner,
which can be incorporated in computer codes for applications related to dynamic
loading conditions. Their model considers two different forms for the two different
classes of metals (bcc and fcc). The rational for the differences in the two forms
mainly depends on the dislocation characteristics for each particular structure.
Bcc metals show stronger dependence of the yield stress on temperature and
strain rate while in the case of fcc metals the yield stress is mainly affected by
strain hardening. In other words, the cutting of dislocation forests is the principal
mechanism in fcc metals, while in bcc metals; the overcoming of Peierls-Nabarro
barriers is the principal mechanism. Zerilli–Armstrong (Z–A) model has been
derived based on the concept of thermal activation analysis for overcoming local
obstacles to dislocation motion. This model has been widely used in many com-
puter codes from which its material parameters, as first believed, are physically
interpreted. Very recently, Voyiadjis and Abed [55]) explained that the phys-
Effect of dislocation density evolution ... 301
ical definitions of the Z–A model parameters are, in fact, not accurate because
of the assumption made by using the expansion ln(1 + x) ≃ x in the model
derivation. This expansion, however, is valid only for values x ≪ 1.0, whereas
the definition of the variable x given by Z–A model indicates that its numerical
value increases and approaches the value of one with strain rate and temperature
increase. This, in turn, makes the Z–A parameters lose their physical meaning
when they are used in high temperature and strain rate applications. In other
words, by using the above-mentioned expansion, the Z–A model derivation was
directed to match the experimental evidence which shows that the temperature
degradation of the flow stress can be fitted using an exponential form (see the
paper of Voyiadjis and Abed [55] for more details).
Klepaczko [25, 26] derived a constitutive model that is based on a consis-
tent approach to the kinetics of macroscopic plastic flow of metals with bcc and
fcc structures. His constitutive formalism was applied utilizing one state variable
which is the total dislocation density and assuming that plastic deformation in
shear is the fundamental mode in metal plasticity. Furthermore, he assumed
that at constant microstructure, the flow stress consists of two components: the
internal stress and the effective stress. The internal stress is developed by the
long-range strong obstacles to dislocation motion whereas the effective stress is
due to thermally activated short-range obstacles. Unlike most experimental ob-
servations and theoretical interpretations, Klepaczko pointed out that for certain
bcc or fcc metals, athermal and thermal flow stress components that are per-
tained to the resistance of long and short range barriers respectively are strain
rate and temperature-dependent. Klepaczko and his co-workers (Klepaczko
and Rezaig [27] and Rusinek and Klepaczko [48]) have successfully evalu-
ated the material parameters of the derived constitutive model for different bcc
and fcc metals and they were able to study the adiabatic shear banding in mild
steel numerically.
Nemat-Nasser and his co-workers (e.g., Nemat-Nasser and Isaacs, [41],
Nemat-Nasser and Li [42] Nemat-Nasser et al. [43] and Nemat-Nasser and
Guo [44, 45]) developed an experimental technique measuring the flow stress of
different bcc, fcc and hcp metals and alloys over a broad range of strains, strain
rate and temperatures in uniaxial compression. Some of their experimental re-
sults are, actually, used in this work for models evaluation and comparisons. They
also presented a constitutive model that characterizes the plastic deformation of
different metals and alloys using the thermal activation concept and assuming
constant dislocation density throughout the deformation process. That is neither
the plastic strain evolution of dislocation density nor the rate multiplication of
the dislocation density evolution is considered.
Voyiadjis and Abed [55] incorporated the production rate of dislocation
density in modeling the plastic flow stress for both bcc and fcc metals using
302 G. Z. Voyiadjis, F. H. Abed
the concept of thermal activation analysis as well as the dislocation interaction
mechanisms. Some of their models parameters are physically derived and related
to the micro-structural quantities. Others, on the other hand, are defined empir-
ically based on the experimental results. It was concluded that the contribution
of mobile dislocation density rate to the plastic deformation modeling shows
considerable effect on the prediction of the flow stress, particularly in the case
of high strain rates and temperatures. Furthermore, Abed and Voyiadjis [1]
used a combination of their bcc and fcc models in characterizing the thermome-
chanical behavior of AL-6XN stainless steel over a wide range of temperatures
and strain rates.
In this paper, the effect of plastic strain evolution of dislocation density is
utilized in determining the plastic flow stress of three major categories of metal
structures: body centered cubic (bcc), face centered cubic (fcc), and hexagonal
close packed (hcp) over a wide range of temperatures and strain rates. The pro-
posed constitutive models are derived based on the concept of thermal activation
analysis, dislocation interaction mechanisms, experimental observations, and the
additive decomposition of flow stress to thermal and athermal components.
In Sec. 2, the role of dislocation dynamics inside the crystal lattice in de-
termining the general form of the thermal plastic stress is investigated using
the well-known Orowans’ [47] relation that considers the plastic deformation
as a dynamic process obtained by the motion of dislocations with an average
velocity. In turn, the plastic shear strain rate at the microscale is related to the
plastic strain rate tensor at the macroscale using the expression postulated by
Bamman and Aifantis [6]. Moreover, the evolution of dislocation density with
plastic strain given by Klepaczko [25] is also utilized in the derivation process
of the proposed modeling.
In Sec. 3, a constitutive description is presented in order to understand the
plastic deformation behavior of bcc, fcc and hcp metals considering the exper-
imental observations as well as the physical basis of the microsturctures inside
the material. Both the thermal and athermal components of the flow stress are
physically derived and all the models parameters are related to the nano and
micro-structure quantities. The hardening stresses are characterized using two
different definitions of hardening parameters for each metal structure. Finally,
the dynamic strain aging and the twinning phenomena encountered in some poly-
crystalline metals at certain range of strain rates and temperatures are briefly
discussed.
In Sec. 4, the determination procedure of the proposed bcc, fcc and hcp
models parameters is presented. Applications of the proposed models to nio-
bium, vanadium, and tantalum for bcc metals, OFHC copper for fcc metals and
titanium for hcp are then performed and compared to available experimental
results at low and high strain rates and temperatures. Furthermore, discussions
Effect of dislocation density evolution ... 303
of the model prediction results along with quantification of the nano and micro-
quantities are presented. Conclusions are then given in Sec. 5.
2. Dislocation dynamics in crystals under plastic deformation
The plastic behavior of metals can be determined by investigating the dislo-
cation dynamics of their crystals, which are generated, moved and stored dur-
ing the inelastic deformation. In turn, the most important features that should
serve as constituent elements of an appropriate theory of crystal plasticity are
the motion, multiplication and interaction of these dislocations. Orowan [47]
recognized the plastic deformation as a dynamic process by suggesting that the
plastic shear strain rate is obtained by the motion of dislocations with an average
velocity v such that:
(2.1) ˙ γ
p
= bρ
m
v,
where ρ
m
is the mobile dislocation density and b is the Burgers vector.
A theoretical description of plasticity should aim at relating the macroscopic
deformation behavior at both the intrinsic properties of the deforming material
and the externally imposed deformation conditions. On the microscopic scale,
the plastic flow of crystalline materials is controlled by the generation, motion
and interactions between dislocations. Thus, the constitutive description must,
in principle, bridge the entire hierarchy of length scales, starting from the de-
termination of the single dislocation properties on an atomistic scale and pro-
ceeding up to the characterization of the macroscopic material properties. In
many cases, conclusions about the macroscopic deformation behavior can be ob-
tained by investigating the temperature and strain rate dependence of the flow
stress of pure bcc and fcc metals considering the properties of single dislocations
(Zaiser et al. [58]). In relating the plastic shear strain rate at the microscale
to the plastic strain rate tensor at the macroscale, the following expression is
postulated (Bamman and Aifantis, [6]):
(2.2) ˙ ε
p
ij
= γ
p
M
ij
,
where M
ij
is the symmetric Schmidt orientation tensor which is defined as
follows:
(2.3) M
ij
=
1
2
(n
i
⊗ν
j

i
⊗n
j
),
where ˆ n denotes the unit normal on the slip plane and ˆ ν denotes the unit vec-
tor in the slip direction. Equation (2.2) indicates that the climb processes were
neglected and plastic incompressibility was assumed since the orientation ten-
sor
˙
M
ij
is traceless. Moreover, the variation of the Schmidt tensor is ignored
304 G. Z. Voyiadjis, F. H. Abed
either by considering that plasticity at the macroscale incorporates a number of
differently oriented grains into each continuum point and therefore an average
value is assumed or by being the product of two “first order” terms (Aifantis [2]
Bammann and Aifantis [7]).
Substituting Eq. (2.1) into Eq. (2.2), the equivalent plastic strain rate ˙ ε
p
at
the macroscale is defined in terms of the mobile dislocation density and disloca-
tion velocity as follows:
(2.4) ˙ ε
p
=
_
2
3
˙ ε
p
ij
˙ ε
p
ij
= ¯ mb ρ
m
v
where ¯ m = (2M
ij
M
ij
/3)
1/2
can be interpreted as the Schmidt orientation fac-
tor. It should be noted that both the mobility v and the concentration ρ
m
of
dislocations increase with increasing external forces (stresses). Nadgornyi [39]
showed that one can (and often should) use the dislocation rate as well as the
dislocation velocity interchangeably if one considers plastic deformation quanti-
tatively. Consequently, the meaning of the quantities defined in Eq. (2.1) should
be subject to refinement. Voyiadjis and Abed [55] utilized this concept in
the derivation of their constitutive models for both bcc and fcc metals. For the
present work, however, only the dislocation velocity is considered and rather
than incorporating the dislocation rate (dρ/dt), we consider the variation of the
mobile dislocation density with the plastic strain (dρ/dε
p
). Therefore, the accu-
mulation of dislocation density from its initial values until reaching its saturated
level is considered.
The accumulation process of material dislocation density during the plas-
tic deformation was investigated extensively by many authors (see for example,
Klepaczko [25], Kubin and Estrin [31], Bammann [8] and Barlat et al. [9].
Klepaczko [25] showed that the growth of dislocation density is nearly lin-
ear with regard to the deformation in the first steps of the hardening process,
independently of the temperature. This is followed by a recombination of the
dislocations that is assumed to be proportional with the probability of disloca-
tion meeting, that is to say of the dislocation density. Based on this hypothesis,
the following simple relation for the evolution of the total dislocation density ρ
was presented (Klepaczko, [25]):
(2.5)


p
= M −k
a
(ρ −ρ
i
),
where M = 1/bl is the multiplication factor, l is the dislocation mean free path, ρ
i
is the initial dislocation density encountered in the material due to the manufac-
ture process or by nature, and k
a
is the dislocation annihilation factor which may
depend on both the temperature and strain rate. Klepaczko and Rezaig [27]
Effect of dislocation density evolution ... 305
showed that for mild steels, both M and k
a
could be assumed constant at not so
high strain rates and up to the temperature where the annihilation micromech-
anisms (recovery) start to be more intense. It should be kept in mind however,
that at saturation, the slope dρ/dε
p
approaches the value of zero, which leads to
the following definition of the saturated dislocation density ρ
s
(2.6) ρ
s
= ρ
i
+
M
k
a
.
The mobile dislocation density is related to the total dislocation density ρ
by the linear relation (ρ
m
= fρ), where the fraction f ≤ 1.0 may change with ρ
and temperature (Kelly and Gillis [24] Sackett et al. [49]). In fact, it can be
shown that the constant value of the fraction f gives satisfactory quantitative
results for most metals (Klepaczko and Rezaig [27]). In this study, the fraction
f represents only the part of the mobile dislocation density that is thermally
affected through Orowan’s equation as will be discussed later.
Kubin and Estrin [31] proposed the following set of two coupled differen-
tial equations to describe both the forest ρ
f
and mobile ρ
m
dislocation density
evolutions with plastic strain using the same above-mentioned concepts:
(2.7)

m

p
=
λ
1
b
2
−λ
2
ρ
m

λ
3
b
ρ
1/2
f
,

f

p
= λ
2
ρ
m
+
λ
3
b
ρ
1/2
f
−λ
4
ρ
f
,
where the constant coefficients λ
i
are related to the multiplication of mobile
dislocations (λ
1
), their mutual annihilation and trapping (λ
2
), their immobi-
lization through interaction with forest dislocations (λ
3
), and to the dynamic
recovery (λ
4
).
The dislocations are assumed to move in a periodic potential and the average
dislocation velocity v is determined by the thermodynamic probability of achiev-
ing sufficient energy temperature T to move past a peak in the potential. In other
words, it is determined through thermal activation by overcoming local obsta-
cles to dislocation motion. Many expressions defining the dislocation speed for
thermally activated dislocation glides may be found in the literature (Stein and
Low [50] Gillis and Gilman [19], Li [34] and Hirth and Nix [17]). The follow-
ing general expression, however, is postulated (Bammann and Aifantis [6]):
(2.8) v = v
o
exp
_

G
kT
_
,
where k is the Boltzmann’s constant, and T is the absolute temperature. The
reference dislocation velocity v
o
represents the peak value where the tempera-
ture reaches or exceeds the melting point. It is defined by v
o
= d/t
w
, where t
w
306 G. Z. Voyiadjis, F. H. Abed
represents the time that a dislocation waits at an obstacle and d is the average
distance the dislocation moves between the obstacles. The shear stress-dependent
free energy of activation G may depend not only on stress but also on the inter-
nal structure. Kocks et al. [28] suggested the following definition to relate the
activation energy G to the thermal flow stress σ
th
:
(2.9) G = G
o
_
1 −
_
σ
th
ˆ σ
_
p
_
q
,
where G
o
is the reference Gibbs energy, ˆ σ is the threshold stress at which the
dislocations can overcome the barriers without the assistance of thermal activa-
tion (σ
th
= ˆ σ where G = 0.0), and p and q are constants definingthe shape of the
short-range barriers. According to Kocks [29] the typical values of the constant
q are 3/2 and 2 that is equivalent to a triangular obstacle profile near the top.
On the other hand, the typical values of the constant p are 1/2 and 2/3 which
characterizes the tail of the obstacle.
Substituting Eq. (2.5) for the dislocation density evolution (after perform-
ing proper integration) and Eq. (2.8) for the dislocation velocity into Eq. (2.4)
and making use of Eq. (2.9), the general relation of the thermal flow stress for
polycrystalline materials (metals) is defined as follows:
(2.10) σ
th
= ˆ σ
_
1 −
_
β
1

p
)T −β
2
T ln
˙ ε
p
˙ ε
i
po
_
1/q
_
1/p
,
where ˙ ε
i
po
represents the reference equivalent plastic strain rate in its initial
stage while related to the initial mobile dislocation. Its order of magnitude can,
however, be anywhere between 10
6
and 10
9
s
−1
which characterizes the highest
rate value a material may reach as related to the reference (highest) dislocation
velocity v
o
,
(2.11) ˙ ε
i
po
= ¯ mb v
o
ρ
mi
.
The parameters β
1
and β
2
are defined as follows:
(2.12) β
1
=
k
G
o
ln
_
1 +C
1
_
1 −exp(−k
a
ε
p
)
_
_
and
(2.13) β
2
=
k
G
o
where
(2.14) C
1
= f
M
k
a
ρ
mi
.
Effect of dislocation density evolution ... 307
It is worthwhile to mention here that β
1
is not constant and rather increases with
plastic strain increase. Its value, however, attains the maximum when the mobile
part of the total dislocation density reaches its saturated level (ρ
m
= ρ
ms
), which
is the case at high strains. On the other hand, β
1
vanishes as the plastic strain
approaches zero and, in consequence, the thermal plastic flow pertains totally to
the yield stress. In this work, the fraction f, which represents the mobile portion
amount of the total dislocation density, is assumed constant in order to simplify
the determination procedure of the model parameters. Moreover, average values
of the quantities M and k
a
are considered (Kubin and Estrin, [31]).
In understanding quantitatively the deformation behavior of metals, a con-
stitutive description is required. In fact, any constitutive modeling of crystalline
materials like metals should consider the physical basis of the microstructure
inside the material as well as the experimental observation during the plas-
tic deformation. However, deforming a metal beyond its elastic limit activates
and moves its dislocations through the crystal. In turn, two types of obstacles
are encountered that try to prevent dislocation movements through the lattice;
short-range and long-range barriers. The short-range ones are due to dislocations
trapping (forest) which can be overcome by introducing thermal energy through
the crystal. On the other hand, the long-range barriers are due to the structure of
the material, which cannot be overcome by introducing thermal energy through
the crystal. Therefore, the flow stress of any type of metals (σ = (3σ
ij
σ
ij
/2)
1/2
of
the von Mises type) will be additively decomposed into two major components;
the athermal stress σ
a
and the thermal stress σ
th
(2.15) σ = σ
th

a
.
The above assumption of additive decomposition for the formulation of the flow
stress has been proved experimentally and is used by several authors (see for
example, Zerilli and Armstrong [59], Nemat-Nasser and Isaacs [41] and
Nemat-Nasser et al. [43]).
Although Eq. (2.10) represents the general relation of the thermal stress, the
final definition of thermal stress as well as athermal stress differs from metal
to metal, depending, on both the microstructure crystal shape (bcc, fcc, and
hcp) and on the experimental observations. In the following section, constitutive
relations will be proposed for different types of metals applicable to high strain
rates and temperatures.
3. Constitutive modeling of polycrystalline metals
Based on their crystal structure, metals can generally be classified into three
major types; body-centered cubic (bcc), face-centered cubic (fcc), and hexagonal
308 G. Z. Voyiadjis, F. H. Abed
close-packed (hcp). The crystal structure and the atom distribution inside the
lattice play a crucial role in controlling the dislocation generation and movement
during plastic deformation. Each type of metal, however, has its own behavior
coupled to strain rate and temperature. In this section, modeling of the plas-
tic flow is presented for the aforementioned types of metals using the thermal
activation energy principle combined with systematic experimental observations
investigated by many authors. On the other hand, the role of solute/dislocation
interaction in metals is not included in this study and therefore, the tempera-
tures and strain rates are considered in the range where dynamic strain aging
(DSA) is not effective.
3.1. Body centered cubic (BCC) metals
Experimental observations of most bcc metals, such as pure iron, tantalum,
niobium and vanadium show strong dependence of the yield stress on the strain
rate and temperature, whereas the plastic hardening is hardly influenced by
temperature. That is, at a given strain rate and different temperatures or at
a given temperature and several strain rates, the variation of the stress-strain
curves appear only on the yielding point whereas the hardening curves are almost
identical (e.g. see Fig. 1 for the case of vanadium). This indicates that the thermal
component of the flow stress is mainly controlled by the yield stress and nearly
independent of the plastic strain.
0
200
400
600
800
1000
0.00 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70
True Strain
T
r
u
e
S
t
r
e
s
s
(
M
P
a
)
Vanadium, 2,500 s-1
T0 = 77K
296K
400K
500K
600K
800K
Fig. 1. Adiabatic flow stress of vanadium for indicated initial temperatures, at 2500 s
−1
strain rate given by Nemat-Nasser and Guo [44, 45].
The thermal stress of bcc metals may be interpreted physically as the resis-
tance of the dislocation motion by the Peierls barriers (short-range barriers) pro-
vided by the lattice itself. Moreover, the thermal component of the flow stress for
Effect of dislocation density evolution ... 309
such metals can be determined using the same expression defined in Eq. (2.10).
In fact, it is found for most bcc metals that the effect of the variation of β
1
(or
variation of mobile dislocation density) on the thermal flow stress is practically
negligible as will be shown in the application section. This behavior, actually,
comes out from the fact that the plastic hardening is essentially allotted to the
athermal part of the flow stress which is primarily accomplished through the
relatively temperature-insensitive long-range barriers.
It should be mentioned here that the flow stress at a given temperature, T,
is proportional to an appropriate shear modulus, µ, at this temperature. It is
also necessary to have G proportional to µ(G ∝ µb
3
) in order for the activation
work done by the applied forces during the activation event to be independent
of material properties (Kocks [29]). Zerilli and Armstrong [59] related, at
zero Kelvin temperature, the thermal stress (σ
o
) to the reference Gibbs energy
(G
o
) and dislocation activation area (A
o
) as follows:
(3.1) σ
o
=
mG
o
A
o
b
,
where b is the magnitude of the Burgers vector and m is the orientation factor
that relates the shear stress to the normal stress, σ = mτ where m =

3 for the
case of the von Mises flow rule. Utilizing Eq. (3.1) with a proper proportional
relation of the reference Gibbs energy to the shear modulus, the parameter ˆ σ
can be related to the strain-independent internal structure as follows:
(3.2) ˆ σ = mα
o
µ
o
b
2
/A
o
,
where α
o
is a constant which represents the portion of the shear modulus µ
o
contributed to the activation energy, both at zero temperature. For bcc metals,
the activation area A
o
may be considered to be constant in accordance with the
intrinsic Peierls stress.
For most metals, an additional component of stress Y
a
is used that is inde-
pendent of plastic strain and temperature (athermal yield stress component) and
related to the internal microstructure quantities that are independent of plastic
strain (e.g. grain diameter D
g
). This component is defined as the product of
microstructural stress intensity and the inverse square root of the average grain
diameter. Klepaczko [26] proposed a definition for the stress intensity as re-
lated to the shear modulus and the magnitude of the Burgers vector from which
the athermal yield stress is finally defined as follows:
(3.3) Y
a
= α
1
µ
_
b
D
g
_
1/2
where α
1
is the interaction constant showing the contribution of the above mech-
anism to the athermal stress.
310 G. Z. Voyiadjis, F. H. Abed
The final component of the bcc flow stress is attributed to the hardening
stress, which is independent of temperature, and consequently contributes to
the athermal flow stress part. In fact, both the mobile dislocation density and
immobile (forest) dislocation density should be considered in the evolution (accu-
mulation) relations for the case of large strain problems (up to 50%). Therefore,
the hardening component of the flow stress is related to the effective total dislo-
cation density (¯ ρ = ρ−ρ
i
) where ρ
i
is the initial dislocation density encountered
originally inside the material. The dislocation model of Taylor [52] gives the
shear flow stress τ in terms of the total dislocation density ρ as
(3.4) τ = αµb

ρ,
where α is an empirical coefficient taken to be 0.2 for fcc metals and about 0.4
for bcc metals as given by Nabarro et al. [38], who pointed out that Eq. (3.4)
can be derived by several methods. Ashby [3] split the difference of α values
in assuming that α = 0.3 for most metals. The plastic strain evolution of the
effective total dislocation density can be defined, after solving the differential
equation Eq. (2.5), in terms of the internal physical quantities as follows:
(3.5) ¯ ρ =
M
k
a
(1 −exp(−k
a
ε
p
)) .
Relating the shear stress to the normal stress by σ = mτ, and substituting ¯ ρ
defined by Eq. (3.5) instead of ρ in Eq. (3.4), one has the athermal flow stress
in the following form:
(3.6) σ
a
= Y
a
+
¯
B(1 −exp(−k
a
ε
p
))
1/2
,
where
¯
B is the hardening parameter defined as
(3.7)
¯
B = mαµb (M/k
a
)
1/2
.
Alternatively, the plastic hardening for pure bcc metals may be evaluated
from an assumed power law dependent on strain. This assumption is observed
experimentally and used by many authors (see for example Zerilli and Arm-
strong [59] and Nemat-Nasser et al. [43]). Thus, the athermal flow stress of
bcc metals may be given as
(3.8) σ
a
= Y
a
+Bε
n
p
where B and n are the hardening parameters. This experimental observation can
be physically justified by using alternative explanation for the total dislocation
density. In other words, the total dislocation density may also be defined as the
Effect of dislocation density evolution ... 311
interaction between the density ρ
s
for statistically stored dislocations, which are
stored by trapping each other in a random way, and density ρ
g
for geometri-
cally necessary dislocations, which are stored in order to maintain the continuity
(compatibility) of various components of the material, i.e.
(3.9) ρ
γ
= ρ
γ
s

γ
g
,
where the exponent γ is a material parameter. Ashby [3] pointed out that, in
general, the presence of geometrically necessary dislocations will accelerate the
rate of statistical storage and that the value of γ = 1 should provide a lower
limit on the effective total dislocation density. Based on that, Zhao et al. [61]
argued that the value of γ should be less than or equal to 1 in order to properly
estimate the effective total dislocation density.
It is obvious from the above definitions of both dislocation densities that the
geometrically necessary dislocation density ρ
g
is related to the strain gradient
whereas the statistically stored dislocation density ρ
s
is related to the strain
hardening as follows (Zhao et al. [61]:
(3.10) ρ
g
=
ˆ
f
χ
b
, ρ
s
=
_
σ
ref
ε
N
mαµb
,
_
where χ is a suitable form of the third-order strain gradient tensor and
ˆ
f is
a function of higher order gradients of strain. The function
ˆ
f, however, becomes
constant when the strain-gradient field is uniform. The coefficients σ
ref
and N
represent the material parameters for the assumed power-law hardening rule.
Eq. (3.10) may be used for the definition of both the effective statistically stored
dislocation density ¯ ρ
s
and the effective geometrically necessary dislocation den-
sity ¯ ρ
g
except that they are related to the plastic strain and the plastic strain
gradient respectively.
By substituting Eq. (3.10) into Eq. (3.9), the power-law hardening parameters
can be related to the effective statistically stored dislocation density ¯ ρ
s
for the
case of uniform plastic straining (¯ ρ
g
≃ 0) as follows:
(3.11) σ
ref
ε
N
p
= mαµb

¯ ρ
s
.
Although the above equation (Eq. (3.11)) rationalizes the power-law hard-
ening rule by relating it to the internal physical quantities, the hardening para-
meters B and n, however, are not explicitly defined as in the case of those given
by Eq. (3.6). In turn, the athermal hardening stress may be estimated either by
using the physically derived relation given by Eq. (3.6) or by using the empirical
relation, Eq. (3.8), obtained through experimental observations.
312 G. Z. Voyiadjis, F. H. Abed
Accordingly, the total flow stress for bcc metals may be calculated, after
making use of the concept of additive decomposition in Eq. (2.15), through one
of the following relations:
(3.12) σ = Y
a
+
¯
B(1 −exp(−k
a
ε
p
))
1/2
+ ˆ σ
_
1 −
_
β
1

p
)T −β
2
T ln
˙ ε
p
˙ ε
i
po
_
1/q
_
1/p
and
(3.13) σ = Y
a
+Bε
n
p
+ ˆ σ
_
1 −
_
β
1

p
)T −β
2
T ln
˙ ε
p
˙ ε
i
po
_
1/q
_
1/p
The above relations may be used to predict the stress-strain curves for both
isothermal and adiabatic plastic deformations. For the case of isothermal defor-
mation, the temperature T remains constant during the plastic (representing the
initial testing temperature, T
o
) deformation. In the adiabatic case of deforma-
tion, heat inside the material increases as plastic strain increases and therefore,
the temperature T is calculated incrementally by assuming that the majority of
the plastic work is converted to heat:
(3.14) T = T
o
+
ζ
c
p
ρ
εp
_
0
σdε
p
.
Here ρ is the material density and c
p
is the specific heat at constant pressure. The
Taylor–Quinney empirical constant ζ is often assigned the value of 0.9. However,
recent tests have indicated that this parameter may vary with plastic strain
(for more details see the work of Kapoor and Nemat-Nasser, [23]). Equation
(3.14) may be solved numerically or can be integrated without introducing any
noticeable errors by either using the mean value theorem or the simple Euler
method. In this work, Eq. (3.14) is used for all types of metals to determine
the evolution of temperature with plastic strain throughout the adiabatic defor-
mation.
It should be noted that the thermal component of the flow stress given by the
last term in the right-hand side of Eq. (3.12) or Eq. (3.13) is non-negative. Thus,
the term between the brackets on the right-hand side should be set equal to zero
when the temperature exceeds the critical value. The critical temperature, in the
T vs σ curve, defines the starting point of the constant stress which represents
the athermal component of the flow stress. This critical value, however, is strain
rate dependent and is defined as follows:
Effect of dislocation density evolution ... 313
(3.15) T
cr
=
_
β
1
−β
2
ln
˙ ε
p
˙ ε
i
po
_
−1
.
3.2. Face centered cubic (FCC) metals
In the case of fcc metals, like copper and aluminum, the mechanisms of
thermal activation analysis are dominated and controlled by the emergence and
evolution of a heterogeneous microstructure of dislocations (mobile) as well as the
long-range interactions between dislocations (forest). On this basis, the thermal
activation is strongly dependent on the plastic strain. That is, the increase in the
yield point with a decrease in temperature is highly dependent on the strain-
hardened states for fcc metals. Experimental observations validate the plastic
strain dependence of strain rate and temperature for most fcc metals (Nemat-
Nasser and Li [40], Tanner et al. [51], Lennon and Ramesh [33]). That is,
for a certain strain rate and various temperatures, the adiabatic stress vs strain
plots clearly show that all curves start approximately from the same point (initial
yielding) and each curve hardens differently from each other, depending on the
corresponding temperature (see Fig. 2 for the case of OFHC Copper).
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
0.00 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00 1.20
True Strain
T
r
u
e
S
t
r
e
s
s
(
M
P
a
)
To = 296K
596K
796K
996K
OFHC Copper, 4,000/s
Fig. 2. Adiabatic flow stress of OFHC copper for indicated initial temperatures, at 4000 s
−1
strain rate given by Nemat-Nasser and Li [42].
The effect of mobile dislocation density is introduced to the flow stress by
utilizing Orowan’s equation as derived in the previous section. That is to say, the
parameter β
1
plays a significant role in characterizing the effect of dislocations
movement on the thermal flow stress during the thermal plastic deformation. Ad-
ditionally, for the thermal activation analysis behavior, the effect of dislocation
314 G. Z. Voyiadjis, F. H. Abed
intersection mechanisms (mobile and forest) on the flow stress can be described
as follows. When dislocation patterns (i.e. cell) are formed, the sources of mobile
dislocations become numerous in the cell walls. After deformation, dislocations
tend to be trapped on the next cell wall forming a forest of dislocations, which
become the major obstacle for a mobile dislocation. Therefore, introducing ther-
mal energy will facilitate dislocations in overcoming these types of obstacles and,
in consequence, provide hardening to the thermal flow stress.
On this basis, the distance d between dislocation intersections and conse-
quently the activation volume play an additional crucial role in determining an
appropriate formulation introducing the effect of plastic strain on the thermal
component of the material flow stress. Thus, the activation volume V can be
related to the distance between dislocation intersections as follows (Zerilli and
Armstrong [59], Voyiadjis and Abed [55]):
(3.16) V = Ab = db
2
/2,
where A is the activation area. In fact, Gracio [20] has speculated that in
copper, when the plastic strain increases, the mean free path decreases and
consequently, the distance between dislocation intersections decreases. Therefore,
the forest dislocation densities as well as the plastic strain are related to the
distance d through the relationship (Kubin and Estrin [31])
(3.17) d ∼ 1/ε
1/2
p
and ρ
f
∼ 1/d
2
.
The multiple slip-crystal flow stress for fcc metals at T = 0.0 Kelvin temperature
and any strain value is related to both the dislocation densities and strain by
the relation given by several authors (see for example Bell [11])
(3.18) σ
o
≃ σ

o
(b/d) ≃ σ
′′
o
ε
n
p
.
Comparing Eq. (3.18) with Eq. (2.10) for the case of zero Kelvin temperature,
and employing the argument given by Eqs. (3.16) and (3.17), the activation area
A
o
for fcc metals, determined by dislocation intersections, is proportional to the
inverse square root of plastic strain (and vice versa) as follows (Zerilli and
Armstrong [59]):
(3.19)
A
o
= A

o
ε
−1/2
p
or
A
−1
o
= A

−1
o
ε
1/2
p
Equation (3.19) clearly shows that the activation area decreases as the plastic
strain evolves which indicates that the value of the activation area is the highest
Effect of dislocation density evolution ... 315
at the initial stage of plastic deformation (ε
p
= 0). The initial activation area,
however, is a finite quantity, which is not the case as defined in Eq. (3.19) since
it will tend to infinity when the plastic strain is zero. In this work, therefore,
the definition of the initial activation area is modified by incorporating a finite
initial activation area A

o
, and defined for the case of fcc metals as follows:
(3.20) A
−1
o
= A

−1
o
+A
′′
−1
o
ε
1/2
p
.
Substituting Eq. (3.20) into Eq. (3.1) and since σ
o
= ˆ σ at T = 0, the thermal
component of the present constitutive equation for the case of fcc metals will
incorporate the coupling of temperature, strain rate, as well as plastic strain.
On the other hand, the athermal component of fcc flow stress is independent of
the plastic strain and it pertains totally to the initial yield stress and is related
to the internal structure (grain diameter) as in the case of bcc metals Eq. (3.3).
Using the additive decomposition given in Eq. (2.15), the total flow stress may
then be defined for the case of fcc metals as:
(3.21) σ = Y
a
+
_
˜

1/2
p
+Y
d
_
_
1 −
_
β
1

p
)T −β
2
T ln
˙ ε
p
˙ ε
i
po
_
1/q
_
1/p
,
where the parameters Y
a
and β
i
are the same as defined previously, whereas the
hardening parameter
˜
B is given as:
(3.22)
˜
B = mα
o
µ
o
b
2
/A
′′
o
.
It can be seen in Eq. (3.21) that, at a given plastic strain value, the thermal
stress preserves the same trend shown in bcc metals including that constants
p and q are falling in the same range as those given before. Moreover, there is
no strain rate and temperature effect on the initial yield stress and, thus, Y
a
is
constant.
In fact, the modification of the activation energy definition given in Eq. (3.20)
guided us in introducing an additional component to the thermal flow stress,
incorporating the electron- and phonon- drag effects on the movement of material
dislocations. This phenomenon is encountered mainly in fcc and hcp metals at
the regions where the plastic strains approach zero with relatively high strain
rates (Jassby and Vreeland [21] and Zerilli and Armstrong [60]). An
examination of Eq. (3.21) shows that when the plastic strain approaches the limit
zero (ε
p
→0.0), the solution for the thermal stress approaches the limiting value
(3.23) σ
th
→Y
d
_
_
1 −
_
k
G
o
T ln
˙ ε
i
po
˙ ε
p
_
1/q
_
_
1/p
,
316 G. Z. Voyiadjis, F. H. Abed
where the parameter Y
d
may be considered as the resultant drag-stress at the
reference velocity ˙ ε = ˙ ε
o
and/or zero Kelvin temperature T = 0 defined as
(3.24) Y
d
= mα
o
µ
o
b
2
/A

o
.
It’s obvious that the drag-stress component given by Eq. (3.23) is a decreasing
function of temperature whereas it increases with the increase of the strain rate.
Such a behavior, however, coincides with the experimental results and observa-
tions found in the literature (see Vreeland and Jassby [56] and Follansbee
et al. [15], Nemat-Nasser and Li [40] and Nemat-Nasser et al. [46]). In this
regard, Armstrong et al. [5] have noted that the strong upturn in flow stress at
high strain rates signifies a strong decrease in the activation area A, approaching
atomic dimensions, indicative of strongly reduced intersection spacing leading to
the dislocation density increase.
Actually, the hardening parameter
˜

n
p
given in Eq. (3.21) can alternatively
be derived by a more accurate method by relating the activation area to the
forest dislocation density after utilizing both Eqs. (3.16) and (3.17) as follows:
(3.25) A
o
= bd/2 ≃ ˜ mbρ
−1/2
f
,
where ˜ m is a constant and the evolution of forest dislocation density with plastic
hardening may be defined after making use of Eq. (2.5) as follows:
(3.26) ρ
f
= ρ
fi
+
¯
f
M
k
a
(1 −exp(−k
a
ε
p
)) ,
where
¯
f denotes the forest dislocation density fraction of the total dislocation
density. Substituting Eq. (3.25) into Eq. (3.2) and utilizing Eq. (3.26), the plas-
tic flow stress of fcc metals can alternatively be determined using the following
relation:
(3.27) σ = Y
a
+
_
ˆ
Y
d
+
ˆ
B(1 −exp(−k
a
ε
p
))
1/2
_
,
×
_
1 −
_
β
1

p
)T −β
2
T ln
˙ ε
p
˙ ε
i
po
_
1/q
_
1/p
,
where the hardening parameter
ˆ
B and the drag-stress component
ˆ
Y
d
are defined
by the following two relations:
(3.28)
ˆ
B = ˆ mα
o
µ
o
b
_
¯
f
M
k
a
,
(3.29)
ˆ
Y
d
= ˆ mα
o
µ
o
b

ρ
fi
,
Effect of dislocation density evolution ... 317
where ˆ m = m/ ˜ m is a constant. The plastic flow stress for bcc metals is then de-
termined using either Eq. (3.21) with a power low hardening stress component
or Eq. (3.27) with a more accurate physical interpretation of hardening stress.
Both relations, however, correlate properly with the experimental results.
As a final point, the evolution of the adiabatic temperature for fcc metals is
simulated using the same evolution relation given in Eq. (3.14). Moreover, the
critical temperature of fcc metals is both strain and strain rate-dependent and
is defined in the same way as that given in Eq. (3.15).
3.3. Hexagonal Close-Packed (HCP) Metals
The mechanical behavior of hcp metals, like titanium and zirconium, can
be determined by addressing the structure and energies of dislocation cores
and planer defects, including twin boundaries and stacking faults. However, dif-
ferent hcp materials have dramatically different mechanical properties which
make the modeling of the plastic flow of hcp metals very complicated and not
unique over broad temperature and strain rate ranges. In fact, hcp materials of-
ten show strong temperature-dependent behavior, often associated with changes
in deformation modes which, in turn, affect both the polycrystalline ductility
and dynamic recrystallization. Although the crystal structure of hcp metals is
close-packed like fcc metals, it shows plastic anisotropy and lacks the symmetry
needed to be sufficient in satisfying, for instance, the von Mises criterion (Yoo
et al. [57]). Since each hcp metal has its own mechanical behavior depending on
the internal structure (a/c ratio) and slip plane and direction, the authors choose
to concentrate in this study only on the thermal plastic deformation behavior of
titanium. Its alloys are considered to be the most increasingly used hcp metals
in structural applications at low and high strain rate of loading.
Observations of the experimental stress-strain results of titanium under high
strain rates and elevated temperatures indicated that not only is the yield stress
strongly dependent on temperature and strain rates but the strain hardening
also changes with temperatures, as shown in Fig. 3.
Figure 3 implies that thermal activation has the effect of both lowering the
yield stress and decreasing the effect of strain hardening. Thus, the macroscopic
thermomechanical behavior of hcp metals in general and titanium in particular,
tends to fall somewhere between that of the fcc and bcc metals. In this regard,
the plastic flow stress of hcp metals is related to temperature and strain rates
assuming that the plastic flow is mainly accounted for by dislocation motion and
intersections, as follows:
(3.30) σ = Y
a
+Bε
n
p
+
_
˜

1/2
p
+Y
d
_
_
1 −
_
β
1

p
)T −β
2
T ln
˙ ε
p
˙ ε
i
po
_
1/q
_
1/p
318 G. Z. Voyiadjis, F. H. Abed
or
(3.31) σ = Y
a
+
¯
B(1 −exp(−k
a
ε
p
))
1/2
+
_
ˆ
B(1 −exp(−k
a
ε
p
))
1/2
+Y
d
_
_
1 −
_
β
1

p
)T −β
2
T ln
˙ ε
p
˙ ε
i
po
_
1/q
_
1/p
.
Titanium
Strain Rate = 2200/s
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5
True Strain
T
r
u
e
S
t
r
e
s
s
(
M
P
a
)
To = 77K
296K
498K
398K
598K
698K
798K
Fig. 3. Adiabatic flow stress of titanium for indicated initial temperatures, at 2200 s
−1
strain rate given by Nemat-Nasser et al. [43].
The first two terms in Eq. (3.30) and Eq. (3.31) represent the athermal part of
the flow stress whereas the third term represents the thermal coupling of plastic
hardening and yield stress to the flow stress.
Recent research by Chichili et al. [13] on α-Ti indicated that twin-dislocation
intersections play an important role in strain hardening at room temperature and
for strain rates ranging from 10
−5
to 10
2
s
−1
. In contrast, the experimental study
of Nemat-Nasser et al. [43] for the plastic flow of commercially pure titanium
at strain rates from 10
−3
to 10
3
s
−1
and temperatures from 77 to 1000 K, with
strains exceeding 40%, showed that the high density of twins does not neces-
sarily correlate with a higher flow stress. On the other hand, they illustrated
that the dynamic strain aging takes place at both low and high strain rates and
for a wide range of temperatures. Accordingly, any constitutive relation that
deals with the thermomechanical response of titanium should consider not only
the role of dislocation activities (dislocation motion and intersections) but also
the role of dynamic strain aging as a major event with the role of deformation
twinning being uncertain.
Effect of dislocation density evolution ... 319
In this study, nevertheless, the plastic flow relation defined in Eq. (3.30)
is limited to temperature and strain ranges where both twinning and dynamic
strain aging is not activated. A brief description of twinning and DSA behav-
iors is presented in the following sections. The effect of dynamic strain aging
on the flow stress of metals, however, is of considerable current interest to the
authors and an extensive study of this phenomenon is going to be presented in
a forthcoming paper.
3.3.1. Dynamic strain aging (DSA). The dynamic strain aging can be interpreted
physically as the diffusion of solutes atoms to the mobile dislocations that are
temporarily trapped at an obstacle for a certain amount of time before they
jump to another obstacle. The activation of DSA takes place when the aging
time is equal to the waiting time of these dislocations and therefore, the obstacle
strength is increased by certain amount. Dynamic strain aging may be observed
at different strain rate levels and certain range of temperatures. It may occur
either through a directional diffusion of the dislocation core atmosphere, at high
strain rates, or through a bulk diffusion, at low strain rates (Nemat-Nasser
et al. [43]).
The dynamic strain aging behavior can be described macroscopically as the
sudden increase of the flow stress at certain temperature that normally causes a
decrease in the flow stress curve. In other words, at fixed strain and strain rate,
and with temperature increase, the decreasing flow stress may suddenly begin to
increase at a certain temperature and, after attaining a peak value, may begin
to decrease. This sudden increase and decrease of stress forms a noticeable hump
in the flow stress-temperature curve. The peak value of the flow stress, however,
changes with strain and strain rates. Moreover, the temperature value which
indicates the start of the sudden increase in the flow stress is also strain rate
dependent.
The range of temperature and strain rate where the DSA is displayed differs
from metal structure to another and even from metal to metal within the same
crystal structure. Experimental results of Nemat-Nasser and co-workers on bcc
and fcc metals (Nemat-Nasser and Issacs [41], Nemat-Nasser and Li [42],
Nemat-Nasser and Guo [44] and Cheng and Nemat-Nasser [12]) show that
Niobium exhibits dynamic strain aging at low strain rates only (around 10
−3
s
−1
)
for a temperature range of 450–700 K. On the other hand, the DSA behavior is
not encountered in tantalum, vanadium and OFHC copper at ranges of 10
−3

10
5
s
−1
strain rates and 77–1000 K temperatures. For the case of Titanium, the
dynamic strain aging is widely encountered at both low and high strain rates
and suitable temperature ranges. It is concluded that the DSA behavior is strain
rate dependent for all types of metals and it takes place when the deformation
temperature approaches its critical value defined in Eq. (3.15).
320 G. Z. Voyiadjis, F. H. Abed
As addressed by many authors, the thermomechanical modeling of the extra
flow stress produced by the effect of dynamic strain aging is not a straightfor-
ward procedure. However, as cited by Barlat et al. [9], Louat [35] has given
a mathematical expression for the extra flow stress σ
D
as follows:
(3.32) σ
D
= ˆ σ
D
_
1 −exp
_
−(t
w
/t
x
)
2/3
__
,
where ˆ σ
D
is the maximum stress increase produced by the DSA and t
x
is the
relaxation time associated with diffusion. Equation (3.32) indicates that the extra
flow stress vanishes as the waiting time t
w
approaches zero. This waiting time
can simply be related to the plastic strain by utilizing Orowan’s equation, after
neglecting the running time of the dislocation between obstacles, as follows
(3.33) t
w
=
¯ mbd ρ
m
˙ ε
p
.
The relaxation time t
x
associated with diffusion, on the other hand, is re-
lated to the temperature and the microstructure physical parameters as follows
(Friedel [16], Kubin and Shihab [32]):
(3.34) t
x
=
kTb
2
3WD
(c
1
/πc
o
)
3/2
.
where c
o
and c
1
are the bulk solute volume fraction and the saturation solute
concentration on dislocations respectively, D is the diffusion coefficient of solute
atoms, and W is the absolute value of binding energy between the solute and
dislocations. Hence, employing Eqs. (3.32), (3.33) and (3.34) with the DSA be-
ing effective at T → T
cr
, the additional flow stress could suitably be added in
calculating the total flow stress for certain metals.
3.3.2. Deformation twinning behavior. The unusual difficulty associated with
identification of deformation mechanisms within hcp metals may be attributed
to the fact that these closed-packed crystal structures often exhibit both slip and
twinning during plastic deformation. The presence of twin systems, in certain
cases, becomes necessary in order to maintain the compatibility of polycrystalline
deformation, and it is expected that twinning shear will contribute to the overall
strain. This contribution, however, is still inconsistent and uncertain.
Experiments conducted by Nemat-Nasser et al. [43] investigated commer-
cially pure titanium over a temperature range of 77–1000 K and strain rates of
10
−3
−10
4
s
−1
and showed that deformation twins were observed in most tem-
peratures. Moreover, they illustrated that the density of twins increases with in-
creasing strain rate to 2200 s
−1
, and when the temperature is decreased to 77 K.
Besides, they demonstrated that at 10% true strain and low strain rate, the twins
Effect of dislocation density evolution ... 321
start disappearing as soon as the temperature exceeds a limiting value of 600K.
However, it is shown that the amount of gross deformation produced by twins
is relatively small since the relative atomic movement is limited in deformation
twinning and hence, most of the plastic flow occurs by the motion of the twins
and their intersections. It is concluded, therefore, that though the deformation
of the material undergoes high density of twins at high strain and strain rates,
it does not correlate with a higher flow stress.
Chichili et al. [13], on the other hand, summarized the microstructure
characterization of the room temperature deformation of α-titanium as follows:
(1) the material deformation at low strain rates and low strains is mainly due to
dislocation motion with very few twins; (2) at large strains with the same low
strain rate level, it is noted that the increase of the numbers of twins as well as
a substantial dislocation motion is observed during the deformation; (3) at high
strain rates and small strains, densities of both dislocation motion and twins are
obviously increased; (4) by increasing both strains and strain rates, the twin den-
sity increases even further, with substantial twin-dislocation interactions. It is
concluded, however, that even when the material is heavily twinned, the amount
of plastic deformation contributed by twinning is measured to be much less that
due to dislocations. Consequently, incorporating such effect in the constitutive
modeling of pure titanium is still problematic and inconclusive.
4. Applications, comparisons, and discussions
The proposed constitutive models derived in the previous section for bcc, fcc
and hcp metals are further evaluated by direct comparison to the experimental
results that are mainly provided by Nemat-Nasser and his co-workers for dif-
ferent types of polycrystalline metals conducted at a wide range of strain rates
and temperatures. In this section, the evaluation of the material parameters of
the proposed models is first discussed. Applications of these models for predict-
ing the plastic deformation as well as comparisons to experimental results are
then illustrated for three bcc metals (niobium, tantalum and vanadium), one
fcc metal (OFHC copper) and one hcp metal (titanium) over a wide range of
temperatures and strain rates. Finally, numerical identification is also presented
for the nano/micro-structural physical quantities used in the definition of the
proposed models parameters.
4.1. Model parameters evaluation
Various techniques can be used to determine the material parameters of the
proposed models. However, a simple approach is used and similarly applied for
all the proposed models with little variation between the three structural types
of metals as given by Eq. (3.12) and Eq. (3.13) for bcc metals, Eq. (3.21) and
322 G. Z. Voyiadjis, F. H. Abed
Eq. (3.27) for fcc metals, and Eq. (3.30) and Eq. (3.31) for hcp metals. The
evaluation procedure is initiated by studying the stress-temperature relation
at different values of plastic strain and at certain strain rate value. Generally,
the flow stress decreases as the temperature increases until a point where the
stress is constant with further increase in temperature. These constant values
represent the athermal part of the flow stress which varies with plastic strain
for the case of bcc and hcp metals, whereas it is strain-independent for the case
of fcc metals. Employing the variation of the athermal flow stress with plastic
strain, the parameters (B and n or
¯
B and k
a
) for bcc and hcp metals models is
calculated using the nonlinear least-squares fit. The Y
a
value, on the other hand,
represents the athermal stress at zero plastic strain or the athermal component of
the initial yield stress. Subtracting the above stress increments (athermal stress)
values from the total flow stress, the thermal component of the flow stress is
then determined.
The thermal component of the flow stress is mainly pertained to the yield
stress for bcc metals and to the plastic hardening for both fcc and hcp metals.
Moreover, the thermal degradation mechanism is captured by selecting proper
values of the exponents p and qthat are chosen here to be 1/2 for the former
and 3/2 for the latter for all kinds of metals used in this study. Once these
exponents are determined for a particular mechanism, they become constants.
Next, the intercepts of the constant slope line plotted between σ
p
th
and T
1/q
at
different plastic strains and certain strain rate are employed here to obtain at
zero plastic strain, the threshold stress ˆ σ for bcc models and the parameter Y
d
for fcc and hcp models. On the other hand, the hardening parameter
˜
B or
ˆ
B for
fcc and hcp models are determined using the nonlinear least-square fit technique
for the different plastic strain intercept values. Then, for the case of bcc models,
a graph of (1 −(σ
th
/ˆ σ)
p
)
q
vs ln ˙ ε
p
is utilized to determine the parameter β
2
and
the reference plastic strain rate ˙ ε
i
po
. A similar procedure is followed for the case
of fcc and hcp models except that ˆ σ is replaced by Y
d
. Finally, the parameter β
1
or the constant C
1
is then determined after detecting all other stress components
from the total flow stress at different plastic strain values using the nonlinear
least-square fit.
4.2. Applications and comparisons
4.2.1. Bcc metals. Three bcc metals are used in this study as applications for
the proposed bcc models: (1) niobium (Nb) is a silvery bcc metal that is used
as an alloying agent in carbon and alloy steels, as it improves the strength of
the alloy; (2) vanadium (V) is a bright white bcc metal, and is soft and ductile
with good structural strength. It is used in the aerospace industry in titanium
alloys; (3) tantalum (Ta) has generated a lot of interest in industry due to its
density, strength and ductility over a wide range of deformation rates and tem-
Effect of dislocation density evolution ... 323
peratures. The material parameters of these bcc metals are determined following
the procedure discussed previously. The experimental data presented by Nemat-
Nasser and Guo [44, 45] is utilized for the case of Nb and V metals, whereas
the parameters of Ta are obtained using the experimental results presented by
Nemat-Nasser and Isaacs [41] and compared also to different results offered
by different authors. The numerical values of the material parameters defined
by the proposed bcc models are listed in Table 1 for the above-mentioned three
metals obtained using the aforementioned procedure.
It is obvious that the only difference between the two proposed bcc models Eq.
(3.12) and Eq. (3.13) is with regard to the two different definitions of the plastic
hardening component which is mostly associated to the athermal component of
the flow stress, i.e., independent of temperature and strain rate. Therefore, the
differences of the plastic flow stress predicted by the proposed two bcc definitions
emerge only in the athermal component. These differences may be attributed to
both the errors accumulated using the nonlinear least-square fit and to the dif-
ferent integration results used in calculating the adiabatic heat accumulated
inside the material through the plastic work. Therefore, the predicted stress-
strain curves using the proposed bcc models will depend totally on the accuracy
of determining the hardening parameters which vary from test to test. More-
over, the hardening parameters obtained using certain experimental data will
not necessarily match with the other data set presented by different researchers.
Table 1. The proposed bcc models parameters for niobium, vanadium,
and tantalum.
Model Parameters Nb V Ta
Ya (MPa)
¯
B (MPa)
B (MPa)
n
ka
ˆ σ (MPa)
C1
β2 (K
−1
)
˙ ε
i
po
(s
−1
)
q
p
60
415
450
0.25
3.7
1350
0.25
0.000149
7.07 × 10
6
3/2
1/2
60
275
305
0.16
9.9
945
0.1
0.0001392
6.32 × 10
6
3/2
1/2
50
290
330
0.41
2.5
1125
0.5
0.0000937
4.45 × 10
6
3/2
1/2
Figures 4 and 5 show the adiabatic stress strain results for niobium computed
using the present two bcc models at 3300 s
−1
and 8000 s
−1
strain rates respec-
tively. Generally, both the proposed bcc definitions show very good agreement as
compared to the experimental data presented by Nemat-Nasser and Guo [44,
45] for a wide range of elevated temperatures. In fact, the difference in the predic-
tions between the two proposed bcc relations for the plastic flow stress is notice-
able at low strains (up to 0.1) and it diminishes with strain increase (up to 0.6).
324 G. Z. Voyiadjis, F. H. Abed
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
0.00 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70
TrueStrain
T
r
u
e
S
t
r
e
s
s
(
M
P
a
)
Exp.(Nb,3300/s)
ProposedModel(Eq.27)
ProposedModel(Eq.28)
296K
To=77K
400K
600K
700K
(Eq.3.12)
(Eq.3.13)
Fig. 4. Adiabatic flow stress of niobium predicted using the proposed models and compared
to experimental results (Nemat-Nasser and Guo, [44, 45]) at 3300 s
−1
strain rate
and indicated initial temperatures.
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
0.00 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.70
TrueStrain
T
r
u
e
S
t
r
e
s
s
(
M
P
a
)
Exp.(Nb,8000/s)
ProposedModel(Eq. 3.12)
ProposedModel(Eq. 3.13)
To=296K
900K
700K
500K
Fig. 5. Adiabatic flow stress of niobium predicted using the proposed models and compared
to experimental results (Nemat-Nasser and Guo, [44, 45]) at 8000 s
−1
strain rate and
indicated initial temperatures.
The experimental comparison of the adiabatic flow stress for the case of vana-
dium agrees well at the strain rate of 2500 s
−1
and for different temperatures
(up to 800 K) as shown in Fig. 6. The agreement, however, is less for the case
of higher strain rate (8000 s
−1
) with a temperature range of 296 K to 700 K
Effect of dislocation density evolution ... 325
(see Fig. 7). This may indicate that assuming a constant value of the parameter
k
a
(i.e., neglecting the effect of temperature and strain rate) produces inaccurate
results in some cases. Furthermore, the prediction of the adiabatic flow stress
at different initial temperatures shows more variation between the two proposed
bcc relations for the case of a strain rate of 8000 s
−1
than those obtained at
2500 s
−1
strain rate.
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
0.00 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60
TrueStrain
T
r
u
e
S
t
r
e
s
s
(
M
P
a
)
Exp.(V,2500/s)
ProposedModel(Eq.3.12)
ProposedModel(Eq.3.13)
296K
To=77K
400K
500K
800K
600K
Fig. 6. Adiabatic flow stress of vanadium predicted using the proposed models and
compared to experimental results (Nemat-Nasser and Guo [44–45]) at 2500 s
−1
strain rate
and indicated initial temperatures.
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
0.00 0.10 0.20 0.40
TrueStrain
Exp.(V,8000/s)
ProposedModel(Eq.3.12)
ProposedModel(Eq.3.13)
To=296K
400K
500K
700K
T
r
u
e
S
t
r
e
s
s
(
M
P
a
)
Fig. 7. Adiabatic flow stress of vanadium predicted using the proposed models and
compared to experimental results (Nemat-Nasser and Guo [44–45]) at 2500 s
−1
strain rate
and indicated initial temperatures.
326 G. Z. Voyiadjis, F. H. Abed
For the case of tantalum, Eq. (3.12) and Eq. (3.13) show almost identical
results when computed at 5000 s
−1
and temperature range of 298 K to 796 K. In
addition, the adiabatic stress strain curves calculated by those two relations show
good correlations with the experimental results provided by Nemat-Nasser and
Isaacs [41] as shown in Fig. 8.
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7
S
t
r
e
s
s
(
M
p
a
)
Exp.(Ta,5000/s)
ProposedModel(Eq.3.12)
ProposedModel(Eq.3.13)
To=298K
396K
796K
596K
496K
Fig. 8. Adiabatic flow stress of tantalum predicted using the proposed models and compared
to experimental results (Nemat-Nasser and Isaacs [41]) at 5000 s
−1
strain rate and
indicated initial temperatures.
The results of the model simulations from the above experimental data are
also compared with other sets of experimental data. Fig. 9 shows the temperature
variation of the flow stresses obtained experimentally by Nemat-Nasser and
Isaacs [47] at 0.05 strain and 5000 s
−1
strain rate, Hoge and Mukharjee [18]
at 0.014 strain and 0.0001 s
−1
strain rate and Bechtold [10] at 0.014 strain and
0.00028 s
−1
strain rate as compared with those calculated using the proposed
model (Eq. (3.13)).
The proposed model, with the parameters obtained using the Nemat-Nasser
and Isaacs data, predicts results that agree very well with the data given by Hoge
and Mukharjee. The parameter Y
a
, however, is changed to 133 MPa in order to
get a better agreement with Bechtold [10] data. This change is used to allow
for possible differences in solute and grain size effects.
Furthermore, the stress variation with strain rates computed using the pro-
posed model Eq. (3.13), are compared with the experimental data presented
by Hoge and Mukharjee [18] at room temperature and with the single crys-
tal data obtained by Mitchell and Spitizig [36] at 373

K temperature and
Mordike and Rudolph [37] at 200

K temperature. The comparisons illus-
trated in Fig. 10 show very good agreement with the experimental results.
Effect of dislocation density evolution ... 327
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
0 200 400 600 800 1000
Temperature(K)
S
t
r
e
s
s
(
M
p
a
)
Nemat-Nasser&Issacs(5000/s)
Bechtold(0.00028/s)
Hoge&Mukharjee(0.0001/s)
Proposed Model(Eq.3.13)
Fig. 9. Proposed model results of the temperature variation of the flow stress, for tantalum
Ta, as compared to experimental data obtained by several authors at different strain rates.
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
0.000001 0.0001 0.01 1 100 10000
StrainRate(1/s)
S
t
r
e
s
s
(
M
p
a
)
Mordike&Rudolph(T=200K)
Hoge&Mukharjee(T=298K)
Mitchell&Spitzig (T=373K)
ProposedModel(Eq.3.13)
Fig. 10. Proposed model results of the strain rate variation of the flow stress, for tantalum
Ta, as compared to experimental data obtained by several authors at different temperatures.
The adiabatic stress-strain curves of the plastically deformed specimens pre-
sented here are estimated using Eq. (3.14) where the thermo-mechanical para-
meters are listed in Table 2 for all metals used in this study. The incremental
accumulation of the temperature during the adiabatic process is calculated by
assuming a conversion of 100% plastic work into heat is used for Nb, V and Ta
based on experimental results presented by Nemat-Nasser and Guo [44, 45]
and Nemat-Nasser and Isaacs [41].
328 G. Z. Voyiadjis, F. H. Abed
Table 2. Thermal and Elastic properties for niobium, vanadium, tantalum,
OFHC copper and titanium.
Physical
parameters
Nb V Ta OFHC Cu Ti
ρ (g/cm
3
)
cp (J/g.K)
ζ
µ (GPa)
µo (GPa)
8.57
0.265
1.0
37.0
70.0
6.16
0.498
1.0
45.0
75.0
16.62
0.139
1.0
60.0
90.0
8.96
0.383
0.9
45.0
77.0
4.54
0.523
1.0
43.0
75.0
4.2.2. Fcc metals. The Oxygen-Free High Conductivity (OFHC) copper is used
here as an application for the proposed fcc models to show the temperature
and strain rate variation of the flow stress. OFHC Cu is an important fcc metal
used in the industry due to its high thermal and electrical conductivity and high
ductility combined with low volatility which makes this material indispensable
in the electronics industry. The material parameters of the proposed two fcc
relations (Eq. (3.21) and Eq. (3.27)) are listed in Table 3 which are determined
by following the same procedure explained in the previous section using the
experimental data presented by Nemat-Nasser and Li [42]. Using the same
parameters, the proposed fcc models are further compared to other experimental
data found in the paper by Johnson and Cook [22].
Table 3. The proposed fcc models parameters for OFHC copper.
Model Parameters OFHC Cu
Ya (MPa)
ˆ
B(MPa)
˜
B(MPa)
Y
d
or
ˆ
Y
d
(MPa)
ka
C1
β2 (K
−1
)
˙ ε
i
po
(s
−1
)
q
p
25
1175
990
50
0.9
40
0.0000351
6.97 × 10
6
3/2
1/2
Generally, the adiabatic flow stresses calculated using the proposed fcc re-
lations agree well with most of the experimental data for several strain rates
and initial testing temperature. In Fig. 11, the adiabatic stress-strain calculated
using both relations Eq. (3.21) and Eq. (3.27) predict very good results as com-
pared with the Nemat-Nasser and Li [42] experimental data at 4000 s
−1
strain
rate and different initial temperatures (77 K–996 K). Equation (3.27), however,
estimates higher stress values than those calculated by Eq. (3.21) at strains up
to 0.45. These differences are generally ascribed to the two different definitions
Effect of dislocation density evolution ... 329
used in calculating the hardening stresses. The flow stresses predicted by the pro-
posed fcc relations are further compared to the experimental results conducted
by the same authors at lower and higher strain rates (0.1 s
−1
and 8000 s
−1
) as
shown in Fig. 12. The comparison shows good agreement as well.
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
0.00 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00
TrueStrain
T
r
u
e
S
t
r
e
s
s
(
M
P
a
)
Exp.(OFHCCu,4000/s)
ProposedModel(Eq.3.27)
ProposedModel (Eq.3.21)
296K
To=77K
596K
796K
996K
Fig. 11. Adiabatic flow stress of OFHC copper predicted using the proposed models and
compared to experimental results (Nemat-Nasser and Li [42]) at 4000 s
−1
strain rate and
indicated initial temperatures.
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
0.00 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00
T
r
u
e
S
t
r
e
s
s
(
M
P
a
)
Exp.(OFHCCu)
ProposedModel(Eq.3.27)
ProposedModel(Eq.3.21
77K,8000/s
296K,8000/s
296K,0.1/s
Fig. 12. Flow stress of OFHC copper predicted using the proposed models and compared to
experimental results (Nemat-Nasser and Li [42]) at strain rates of 8000 s
−1
(adiabatic) and
0.1 s
−1
(isothermal) and indicated temperatures.
330 G. Z. Voyiadjis, F. H. Abed
An assessment of the model parameters determined using the experimental
data by Nemat-Nasser and Li [42] can be made by comparing the adiabatic
stress-strain results with the experimental data found in the paper of Johnson
and Cook [22] as shown in Fig. 13. Overall, the predicted results of Eq. (3.21)
correlate well with the experimental data at strain rates of 451 s
−1
, 449 s
−1
and 464 s
−1
with initial temperatures of 298 K, 493 K and 730 K respectively.
However, Eq. (3.27) overestimates the stress values in most cases. This deviation,
however, is part due to neglecting the temperature and strain rate effects of the
parameter k
a
.
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
0.00 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40
PlasticStrain
T
r
u
e
S
t
r
e
s
s
(
M
P
a
)
Exp.(OFHCCu)
ProposedModel(Eq.3.27)
ProposedModel(Eq.3.21)
To=298K,451/s
To=493K,449/s
To=730K,464/s
Fig. 13. Adiabatic flow stress of OFHC copper predicted using the proposed models and
compared to experimental results (Johnson and Cook, [22]) at different strain rates of and
temperatures.
In the case of copper, the prediction of the adiabatic stress strain curves
predicted by the present model is obtained based on the assumption of conversion
of 90% of the plastic work deformation to heat calculated using the same relation
defined in Eq. (3.14) with the thermo-mechanical parameters listed in Table 2.
4.2.3. Hcp metals. The hcp commercially pure titanium (Cp Ti) used in this
study has an axial ratio of c/a = 1.587, and is strongly plastically anisotropic
as indicated by Nemat-Nasser et al. [43] who conducted both adiabatic and
isothermal testing on both annealed and as received samples at low and high
strain rates and temperatures. The experimental results clearly show that this
material (Ti) is widely affected by the dynamic strain aging phenomenon over
most strain rates and temperatures. At strain rates of 0.001 s
−1
and 0.1 s
−1
, the
DSA effect starts clearly at temperature values of 296 K up to 500 K continuing
Effect of dislocation density evolution ... 331
slightly up to 600 K for the case of isothermal process. At higher strain rates with
adiabatic deformation (2200 s
−1
and 8000 s
−1
strain rates), the appearance of the
DSA effects starts at 400 K temperature continuing up to 1000 K temperature.
As mentioned earlier, the proposed hcp models (Eq. (3.30) and Eq. (3.31)),
which did not take into consideration the dynamic strain aging effects, are possi-
bly not accurate in predicting both the adiabatic and the isothermal flow stresses
in the strain rate and temperature ranges where the DSA effects are active. This
indicates that the flow stresses predicted by the proposed two hcp relations will
more likely underestimate the experimental results in theses ranges. The pro-
posed model parameters for titanium are determined using the experimental
data presented by Nemat-Nasser et al. [43] using a combination of the bcc
and fcc procedures described earlier. These parameters are listed in Table 4. In
fact, the proposed hcp model is derived based on the fact that the plastic defor-
mation behavior of most hcp metals shows a combination of both bcc and fcc
plastic deformation behaviors.
Table 4. The proposed hcp model parameters for titanium.
Model Parameters Ti
Ya (MPa)
ˆ
B (MPa)
˜
B (MPa)
Y
d
or
ˆ
Y
d
(MPa)
ka
C1
β2 (K
−1
)
˙ ε
i
po
(s
−1
)
q
p
¯
B (MPa)
B (MPa)
n
20
2050
2025
115
1.31
0.9
0.0000433
1.95 × 10
7
3/2
1/2
90
85
0.43
Next, assessments of the proposed hcp models are made by comparing the
isothermal stresses predicted using both Eq. (3.30) and Eq. (3.31) to the exper-
imental results by Nemat-Nasser et al. [43] at 0.001s strain rate and different
temperatures as shown in Fig. 14. The comparison between the predicted results
and the experimental data shows good agreement at temperature values of 77 K,
673 K and 773 K whereas they underestimate the experimental results at other
temperatures due to the effect of DSA. In Fig. 15, the adiabatic stress-strain
results predicted by the proposed hcp models are compared to the experimental
data at a strain rate of 2200 s
−1
and different initial temperatures. Similarly,
the comparison agrees well at temperatures where the DSA is inactive (77 K
and 296 K) whereas, the proposed models predict lower results at temperatures
where the DSA effect is dominating.
332 G. Z. Voyiadjis, F. H. Abed
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
0.00 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40
TrueStrain
T
r
u
e
S
t
r
e
s
s
(
M
P
a
)
Exp.(Ti,0.001/s)
ProposedModel(Eq.3.31)
ProposedModel(Eq.3.30
296K
T =77K
473K
673K
773K
Fig. 14. Isothermal flow stress of titanium predicted using the proposed models and
compared to experimental results (Nemat-Nasser et al. [43]) at 0.001 s
−1
strain rate and
indicated temperatures.
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
0.00 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40
TrueStrain
T
r
u
e
S
t
r
e
s
s
(
M
P
a
)
Exp.(Ti,2200/s)
ProposedModel(Eq.3.31)
ProposedModel(Eq.3.30)
296K
To=77K
498K
798K
Fig. 15. Adiabatic flow stress of titanium predicted using the proposed models and
compared to experimental results (Nemat-Nasser et al. [43]) at 2200 s
−1
strain rate and
indicated initial temperatures.
The flow stress prediction of the proposed hcp models are further compared
to the experimental results at the strain rate of 0.1 s
−1
for the case of isothermal
Effect of dislocation density evolution ... 333
deformation process and at the 8000 s
−1
strain rate for the case of adiabatic
deformation as shown in Fig. 16. Similar comparison results are concluded for
both strain rates. In comparing the flow stress results predicted by the proposed
two hcp relations, it is found that Eq. (3.31) deviates largely at higher strain
rates predicting higher stress values than those calculated using Eq. (3.30). This
deviation, however, appears noticeably at strain values up to 30%.
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
0.00 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40
TrueStrain
Exp.(Ti)
ProposedModel(Eq.3.31)
ProposedModel(Eq.3.30
8000/s,296K
8000/s,498K
0.1/s,798K
0.1/s,598K
0.1/s, 473K
Fig. 16. Flow stress of titanium predicted using the proposed models and compared to
experimental results (Nemat-Nasser et al. [43]) at strain rates of 0.01 s
−1
(isothermal) and
8000 s
−1
(adiabatic) and indicated temperatures.
For the case of titanium, a 100% of the plastic work generated during the
deformation process under different strain rates is converted to heat as given
by Nemat-Nasser et al. [43]. The temperature accumulation during the plastic
deformation is, therefore, calculated using Eq. (3.14) with the thermo-mechanical
parameters for Ti given in Table 2.
4.3. Discussions
In investigating the proposed bcc, fcc and hcp models, the definition of the
thermal component of the flow stress is nearly the same for all kinds of metals.
However, the model parameters values and accordingly the physical quantities
differ from metal to metal. In addition, it is found that the thermal stress for
all bcc metals used in this study is independent of strain. That is to say, the
effect of the parameter β
1
which represents the effect of the evolution of the
334 G. Z. Voyiadjis, F. H. Abed
mobile dislocation density that is thermally affected through Orowan’s equation
is almost negligible. This, however, supports the experimental observations which
indicate that the thermal stresses for most bcc metals are strain-independent and
mainly controlled by the yield stress. This behavior can be interpreted physically
as the resistance of the initial dislocation motion by the Peierls barriers. On the
other hand, the thermal component of the flow stress for fcc metals depends
mainly on the strain through the evolution of the mobile dislocation density
defined by the parameter β
1
and also through the evolution of the remaining
part (mainly forest) of the dislocation density introduced through the hardening
parameters definitions given by Eq. (3.22) or Eq. (3.28). For the case of hcp
metals, the strain dependence of the thermal stresses is introduced only through
the hardening parameters, whereas the effect of β
1
is very small and can be
neglected. Figure 17 shows the thermal component of the flow stresses as varying
with the plastic strain using the proposed models for V, Nb, Ta, Ti and OFHC
Cu at strain rate and temperature values of 8000 s
−1
and 296 K respectively.
8000/s,296K
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4
PlasticStrain
T
h
e
r
m
a
l
S
t
r
e
s
s
(
M
P
a
)
Nb
V
Ta
OFHCCu
Ti
Fig. 17. Strain variations of the thermal stresses for several metals using the proposed
models at 8000 s
−1
strain rate and 296 K

temperature.
The consequence of the variation of the parameter β
1
with plastic strain for
fcc metals is observed in determining the values of the critical temperature (T
cr
)
that become strain-dependent as well. In contrast, the critical temperature for
bcc and hcp metals does not depend on plastic strain. In fact, T
cr
is defined
as the highest temperature value that corresponds to the minimum thermal
stresses (zero thermal stress) observed during the degradation process of the
Effect of dislocation density evolution ... 335
flow stress as the material temperature increases. Figure 18 shows the strain
rate variation of T
cr
calculated using Eq. 3.14 for the five metals used in this
study at 0.1 plastic strain. It is found that T
cr
values increase with strain rates
increase. Also, the critical temperature values for OFHC Cu and Ti are higher
than those obtained for the three bcc metals. This disparity may be attributed
to the variation of the reference plastic strain rate ˙ ε
i
po
values and also to the
different β
2
values that is mainly related to the Gibbs free energy G
o
. Since ˙ ε
i
po
values for all metals used in this study are approximately of the same order,
the value of G
o
is considered the major factor that affects the variation of T
cr
values from one metal to another at a fixed strain rate. The higher the activation
energy values (around 2.4, 2.0, 0.92, 0.62, 0.58 eV/atom for Cu, Ti, Ta, V, and Nb
respectively) needed to overcome the barriers, the higher the critical temperature
values achieved. Actually, the thermal stress is interpreted as the resistance of
the barriers to the dislocation movement, thus, the barriers that need higher
activation energy to be overcome require also higher temperature to produce
this thermal energy until the resistance of these barriers has vanished which
indicates zero thermal stresses.
PlasticStrain=0.1
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
4000
4500
5000
0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10 100 1000 10000
StrainRate(1/s)
C
r
i
t
i
c
a
l
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
T
c
r
(
K
)
OFHCCu
Ti
Nb
V
Ta
Fig. 18. Critical temperatures predicted by the proposed models for several metals at 10%
strain and different strain rates.
In general, most metals contain initial amount of dislocations which are nat-
urally excited or generated through the manufacture process. These dislocation
densities, however, help metals to deform plastically until a level where no further
dislocations generation are allowed, which indicates that the saturation limit of
dislocation densities is reached. The initial and saturated values of the dislo-
336 G. Z. Voyiadjis, F. H. Abed
cation densities, however, differ from metal to metal. The numerical values of
the physical nano- and micro-quantities used in defining the proposed models
that are obtained for the indicated metals are listed in Table 5. Although these
quantities are defined based on the model parameters that are fitted experimen-
tally, their values are found to be reasonable when compared to those available
in the literature. The initial dislocation density values are fixed and set around
5×10
12
m
−2
for the case of bcc metals and little higher for fcc and hcp metals.
Consequently, the saturated values of these dislocation densities are found to be
of the order of 10
15
m
−2
for all metals. In fact, the effect of initial dislocation
density enters the proposed models through the thermal component of the flow
stress. This effect, however, is expected to be higher for bcc metals than other
metal structures due to the fact that the thermal stress of bcc metals is nearly
related to the yield stress (Peierls stress) and not affected by the dislocation
density evolution with plastic strain. That is to say, the yielding strength is
less when the material contains high initial dislocation density and vice versa.
Once the material yields, the evolution of dislocation density along with the ini-
tial dislocation density contribution plays a crucial role in determining the flow
stress and particularly the thermal stress as in the case for most fcc metals and
slightly less for hcp metals. Figure 19 shows, for all metals presented here, the
variation effect of initial dislocation density generated inside the material on the
flow stress at 298 K and 8000 s
−1
temperature and strain rate‘respectively. It is
obvious that the flow stress decreases with the increase of the originated (initial)
dislocation density. The decreasing slopes for bcc metals are higher than those
for hcp and fcc metals which supports the above-mentioned argument.
Table 5. Numerical values for the physical quantities used in deriving the
proposed models parameters for Nb, V, Ta, OFHC Cu and Ti.
Physical parameters Nb V Ta OFHC Cu Ti
Go (eV/atom)
b (Å)
vo (m/sec)
ρmi (m
−2
)
ρ
fi
(m
−2
)
ρs (m
−2
)
Ao (m
2
)
Dg (mm)
A

o (m
2
)
A
′′
o (m
2
)
0.58
3.3
8.57 × 10
3
5 × 10
12
2 × 10
12
4.5 × 10
15
26b
2
0.013


0.62
3.1
8.3 × 10
3
4.9 × 10
12
2 × 10
12
1.5 × 10
15
27b
2
0.016


0.92
2.9
7.71 × 10
3
4.1 × 10
12
2 × 10
12
1.1 × 10
15
27b
2
0.0375


2.4
2.5
3.97 × 10
3
1.4 × 10
13
1.1 × 10
13
6.1 × 10
15

0.073
585b
2
30b
2
2.0
3.0
5.1 × 10
3
2.55 × 10
13
2.69 × 10
13
9.0 × 10
15

0.125
321b
2
18b
2
It is interesting to note that the Helmholtz free energy values for fcc metals
are higher than those found for bcc metals which indicates that the dislocation in-
teraction mechanism necessitates higher activation energy than the Peierls mech-
Effect of dislocation density evolution ... 337
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
1.E+12 1.E+13 1.E+14
InitialDislocationDensity(m-2)
F
l
o
w
S
t
r
e
s
s
(
M
P
a
)
8000/s,298K
PlasticStrain=0.1
Nb
OFHCCu
Ti
V
Ta
Fig. 19. Initial dislocation density variation of the flow stress, for several metals, computed
at 8000 s
−1
strain rate and 298 K

temperature.
anism in overcoming the short-range barriers. Consequently, the waiting time
needed by the dislocation to overcome an obstacle is less for bcc [t
w
= O(10
−12
s)]
than those required for fcc metals [t
w
= O(10
−11
s)] (Kocks et al. [28]). There-
fore, the reference velocity v
o
= d ∼ b/t
w
values of fcc metals are less than the
ones obtained for bcc metals as illustrated in Table 5. Moreover, the average
values of the Burger vector are chosen to be around 3.3, 3.1, 2.9, 2.5 and 3.0Å
for Nb, V, Ta, OFHC Cu and Ti respectively.
In the proposed models, the following typical values of 1.5 and 0.5 for the
exponents p and q respectively are used for all metals. Unfortunately, the value
of ˆ σin the thermal component of the bcc flow stress is sensitive to the choice of
p which characterizes the tail of the obstacle. This sensitivity, however, is less
for the case of fcc and hcp metals in obtaining the parameters and Y
d
. In fact,
ˆ σ represents a parameter which refers to a state of zero Kelvin temperature. It
should be noted here that the determination procedure of the proposed bcc, fcc
and hcp model parameters is simple and straightforward. However, more caution
is required in the numerical techniques used in obtaining the hardening para-
meters that produce not only the hardening stresses but also the temperature
evolving with the plastic work.
In the proposed model, two different definitions for the hardening stresses
are presented. The first definition is derived based on experimental observations
which indicate that the fitting of the hardening stresses can be achieved using
338 G. Z. Voyiadjis, F. H. Abed
the power law definition. On the other hand, the second definition of the hard-
ening parameters is derived using the concept of dislocation density evolution
with plastic strain. Both definitions are used in predicting the isothermal and
adiabatic flow stresses and compared with the available experimental data. It
is found that the power-law definition of the plastic hardening stresses predicts
more accurate results than the other definition in most experimental compar-
isons at different strain rates and temperatures. Actually, the deviation of the
predicted results may be attributed to the use of constant values for the para-
meter k
a
assumed in the derivation of the proposed model.
For the bcc metals presented here, it is found that the dynamic strain ag-
ing activates when the temperature reaches its critical values. In this stage,
dislocations require higher temperatures to overcome the obstacle which con-
sequently increases the waiting time of these dislocations before the obstacle.
This, in turn, helps in activating the dynamic strain aging by strengthening the
obstacles through the diffusion process of the atoms and accordingly, increas-
ing suddenly the flow stress throughout the deformation process. On the other
hand, the dynamic strain aging effect is observed in titanium over a wide range
of temperatures and at all strain rates. It is found that the DSA phenomenon
activates at different temperature depending on the strain rate values. These
temperature values increase as the strain rates increase. In the case of OFHC
copper, however, the dynamic strain aging is not observed for most of the strain
rates and temperatures used in the presented experimental comparisons. The
effect of DSA on the plastic flow simulation along with the strain rate and tem-
perature dependence of the dislocation annihilation factor k
a
will be discussed
in a forthcoming paper by the authors.
5. Conclusions
The effect of dislocation density evolution with plastic strain is incorporated
in modeling the thermo-mechanical response of different structure types of met-
als. The proposed models are derived basing on the concept of thermal activation
energy as well as the dislocation interaction mechanisms. Two different defini-
tions for modeling the hardening stresses are employed using the least-square
technique. The first definition uses the experimental power law fitting, whereas
the second one is derived using the plastic strain evolution of the dislocation
density. The simulation of the adiabatic and isothermal plastic flow stresses for
different bcc, fcc and hcp metals is achieved at low and high strain rates and tem-
peratures. The predicted results, generally, show good agreement as compared
with different experimental results conducted by several authors for niobium,
vanadium and tantalum for bcc metals, titanium for hcp metal and OFHC cop-
per for fcc metal.
Effect of dislocation density evolution ... 339
In bcc metals, the thermal yield stress, due to the short-range barriers (Peierls
barriers), shows strong dependence on the strain rate and temperature while the
plastic strain hardening which represents the athermal stress is independent of
them. On the contrary, the thermal stress in fcc metals is strongly dependent on
the plastic strain due to domination of the dislocation intersections on the mech-
anisms behavior of the thermal activation analysis. For the case of hcp metals,
the thermo-mechanical behavior shows a combination between the plastic defor-
mation behavior of both bcc and fcc structures. Thus, the thermal component
as well as the athermal component of the flow stress for the proposed hcp model
strongly depends on the plastic strain. Besides, both yielding and hardening
stresses are strain rate and temperature-dependent.
The dynamic strain aging phenomenon is clearly encountered in titanium for
most temperatures and strain rates while it activates only at low strain rates
and over a narrow range of high temperatures for most bcc metals. For OFHC
copper, the DSA effect is not observed for the present temperature and strain
rate range of experimental data. In fact, the dynamic strain aging encountered in
some metals at certain temperatures is strain rate dependent. Its effect, however,
is not included in the present modeling where the dislocation movement as well
as the dislocation evolution controls the plastic deformation in the absence of
diffusion and creep.
It is concluded from the stress-strain prediction of the proposed bcc models
that the effect of the parameter β
1
which represents the evolution of the thermally
affected part of the mobile dislocation density is almost negligible. That is the
evolution of the mobile and forest dislocation density is related to the athermal
part of the flow stress. In contrast, the mobile dislocation density evolution
through the parameter β
1
as well as the forest dislocation density evolution
through the hardening parameters shows considerable dependence on the thermal
stresses of OFHC copper. In titanium, on the other hand, the effect of β
1
on the
thermal stresses is very small which indicates that the strain dependence of the
thermal stresses is ascribed to the hardening stress that is mainly generated
through the evolution of the forest dislocation density.
Acknowledgment
The authors acknowledge the financial support under grant number M67854-
03-M-6040 provided by the Marine Corps Systems Command, AFSS PGD, Quan-
tico, Virginia. They thankfully acknowledge their appreciation to Howard "Skip"
Bayes, Project Director. The authors also acknowledge the financial support
under grant number F33601-01-P-0343 provided by the Air Force Institute of
Technology, WPAFB, Ohio.
340 G. Z. Voyiadjis, F. H. Abed
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300

G. Z. Voyiadjis, F. H. Abed

or past an obstacle require surmounting of the energy barrier by a combination of applied stress and thermal activation. Thus, at the microscale level, the mechanisms associated with dislocation motion and dislocation multiplication, the statistics of mobile dislocation populations, the nature and the statistics of obstacle distributions and the relationship between the externally imposed plastic strain rate and the dislocation kinetics, determine the form of the macroscopic plastic response. Moreover, the crystal lattice configuration plays a crucial role in determining the effect of thermal activation on the mechanical response of relatively pure metals which are mainly classified into three common crystal types; body-centered cubic (bcc), face-centered cubic (fcc) and hexagonal-closepacked (hcp). Each of these three crystal structures exhibits a characteristic thermomechanical behavior which is associated with the available slip systems and symmetries as well as with the nature of dislocation cores. Good reviews of plastic deformation in different crystal structure types of metals are provided by Kubin [30], Christian [14], Taylor [53], Vitek and Duesbury [54], Chichili et al. [13], Nemat-Nasser et al. [44] and Lennon and Ramesh [33]. A great deal of effort has been made in understanding the influence of temperature and strain rate on the flow stress of different structure types of metals. This understanding, however, is essential for the modeling and analysis of numerous processes including high-speed machining, impact, penetration and shear localization. Recently, considerable progress has been made in understanding the role of rate controlling dislocation mechanisms on the temperature and strain rate dependence of the flow stress for metals and alloys. Hoge and Murkherjee [18] studied the effect of both temperature and strain rates on the lower yield stress of tantalum as a bcc metal and proposed a model incorporating the combined operation of the Peierls’ mechanism and dislocation drag process. Zerilli and Armstrong [59] used dislocation mechanics concept to develop a constitutive model that accounts for strain, strain rate and temperature in a coupled manner, which can be incorporated in computer codes for applications related to dynamic loading conditions. Their model considers two different forms for the two different classes of metals (bcc and fcc). The rational for the differences in the two forms mainly depends on the dislocation characteristics for each particular structure. Bcc metals show stronger dependence of the yield stress on temperature and strain rate while in the case of fcc metals the yield stress is mainly affected by strain hardening. In other words, the cutting of dislocation forests is the principal mechanism in fcc metals, while in bcc metals; the overcoming of Peierls-Nabarro barriers is the principal mechanism. Zerilli–Armstrong (Z–A) model has been derived based on the concept of thermal activation analysis for overcoming local obstacles to dislocation motion. This model has been widely used in many computer codes from which its material parameters, as first believed, are physically interpreted. Very recently, Voyiadjis and Abed [55]) explained that the phys-

Effect of dislocation density evolution ...

301

ical definitions of the Z–A model parameters are, in fact, not accurate because of the assumption made by using the expansion ln(1 + x) ≃ x in the model derivation. This expansion, however, is valid only for values x ≪ 1.0, whereas the definition of the variable x given by Z–A model indicates that its numerical value increases and approaches the value of one with strain rate and temperature increase. This, in turn, makes the Z–A parameters lose their physical meaning when they are used in high temperature and strain rate applications. In other words, by using the above-mentioned expansion, the Z–A model derivation was directed to match the experimental evidence which shows that the temperature degradation of the flow stress can be fitted using an exponential form (see the paper of Voyiadjis and Abed [55] for more details). Klepaczko [25, 26] derived a constitutive model that is based on a consistent approach to the kinetics of macroscopic plastic flow of metals with bcc and fcc structures. His constitutive formalism was applied utilizing one state variable which is the total dislocation density and assuming that plastic deformation in shear is the fundamental mode in metal plasticity. Furthermore, he assumed that at constant microstructure, the flow stress consists of two components: the internal stress and the effective stress. The internal stress is developed by the long-range strong obstacles to dislocation motion whereas the effective stress is due to thermally activated short-range obstacles. Unlike most experimental observations and theoretical interpretations, Klepaczko pointed out that for certain bcc or fcc metals, athermal and thermal flow stress components that are pertained to the resistance of long and short range barriers respectively are strain rate and temperature-dependent. Klepaczko and his co-workers (Klepaczko and Rezaig [27] and Rusinek and Klepaczko [48]) have successfully evaluated the material parameters of the derived constitutive model for different bcc and fcc metals and they were able to study the adiabatic shear banding in mild steel numerically. Nemat-Nasser and his co-workers (e.g., Nemat-Nasser and Isaacs, [41], Nemat-Nasser and Li [42] Nemat-Nasser et al. [43] and Nemat-Nasser and Guo [44, 45]) developed an experimental technique measuring the flow stress of different bcc, fcc and hcp metals and alloys over a broad range of strains, strain rate and temperatures in uniaxial compression. Some of their experimental results are, actually, used in this work for models evaluation and comparisons. They also presented a constitutive model that characterizes the plastic deformation of different metals and alloys using the thermal activation concept and assuming constant dislocation density throughout the deformation process. That is neither the plastic strain evolution of dislocation density nor the rate multiplication of the dislocation density evolution is considered. Voyiadjis and Abed [55] incorporated the production rate of dislocation density in modeling the plastic flow stress for both bcc and fcc metals using

302

G. Z. Voyiadjis, F. H. Abed

the concept of thermal activation analysis as well as the dislocation interaction mechanisms. Some of their models parameters are physically derived and related to the micro-structural quantities. Others, on the other hand, are defined empirically based on the experimental results. It was concluded that the contribution of mobile dislocation density rate to the plastic deformation modeling shows considerable effect on the prediction of the flow stress, particularly in the case of high strain rates and temperatures. Furthermore, Abed and Voyiadjis [1] used a combination of their bcc and fcc models in characterizing the thermomechanical behavior of AL-6XN stainless steel over a wide range of temperatures and strain rates. In this paper, the effect of plastic strain evolution of dislocation density is utilized in determining the plastic flow stress of three major categories of metal structures: body centered cubic (bcc), face centered cubic (fcc), and hexagonal close packed (hcp) over a wide range of temperatures and strain rates. The proposed constitutive models are derived based on the concept of thermal activation analysis, dislocation interaction mechanisms, experimental observations, and the additive decomposition of flow stress to thermal and athermal components. In Sec. 2, the role of dislocation dynamics inside the crystal lattice in determining the general form of the thermal plastic stress is investigated using the well-known Orowans’ [47] relation that considers the plastic deformation as a dynamic process obtained by the motion of dislocations with an average velocity. In turn, the plastic shear strain rate at the microscale is related to the plastic strain rate tensor at the macroscale using the expression postulated by Bamman and Aifantis [6]. Moreover, the evolution of dislocation density with plastic strain given by Klepaczko [25] is also utilized in the derivation process of the proposed modeling. In Sec. 3, a constitutive description is presented in order to understand the plastic deformation behavior of bcc, fcc and hcp metals considering the experimental observations as well as the physical basis of the microsturctures inside the material. Both the thermal and athermal components of the flow stress are physically derived and all the models parameters are related to the nano and micro-structure quantities. The hardening stresses are characterized using two different definitions of hardening parameters for each metal structure. Finally, the dynamic strain aging and the twinning phenomena encountered in some polycrystalline metals at certain range of strain rates and temperatures are briefly discussed. In Sec. 4, the determination procedure of the proposed bcc, fcc and hcp models parameters is presented. Applications of the proposed models to niobium, vanadium, and tantalum for bcc metals, OFHC copper for fcc metals and titanium for hcp are then performed and compared to available experimental results at low and high strain rates and temperatures. Furthermore, discussions

the following expression is postulated (Bamman and Aifantis. A theoretical description of plasticity should aim at relating the macroscopic deformation behavior at both the intrinsic properties of the deforming material and the externally imposed deformation conditions. 2. in principle. Moreover. moved and stored during the inelastic deformation.3) 1 Mij = (ni ⊗ νj + νi ⊗ nj ). 2 where n denotes the unit normal on the slip plane and ν denotes the unit vecˆ ˆ tor in the slip direction.1) γ p = bρm v. In turn. Equation (2. ˙ij where Mij is the symmetric Schmidt orientation tensor which is defined as follows: (2.Effect of dislocation density evolution . On the microscopic scale. Dislocation dynamics in crystals under plastic deformation The plastic behavior of metals can be determined by investigating the dislocation dynamics of their crystals. the constitutive description must. the variation of the Schmidt tensor is ignored .2) indicates that the climb processes were neglected and plastic incompressibility was assumed since the orientation ten˙ sor Mij is traceless. 5. Conclusions are then given in Sec.2) εp = γ p Mij . multiplication and interaction of these dislocations. Thus. In many cases. conclusions about the macroscopic deformation behavior can be obtained by investigating the temperature and strain rate dependence of the flow stress of pure bcc and fcc metals considering the properties of single dislocations (Zaiser et al. 303 of the model prediction results along with quantification of the nano and microquantities are presented. ˙ where ρm is the mobile dislocation density and b is the Burgers vector. starting from the determination of the single dislocation properties on an atomistic scale and proceeding up to the characterization of the macroscopic material properties. motion and interactions between dislocations.. [6]): (2. Orowan [47] recognized the plastic deformation as a dynamic process by suggesting that the plastic shear strain rate is obtained by the motion of dislocations with an average velocity v such that: (2. In relating the plastic shear strain rate at the microscale to the plastic strain rate tensor at the macroscale. bridge the entire hierarchy of length scales. [58]). the plastic flow of crystalline materials is controlled by the generation. which are generated.. the most important features that should serve as constituent elements of an appropriate theory of crystal plasticity are the motion.

Klepaczko [25] showed that the growth of dislocation density is nearly linear with regard to the deformation in the first steps of the hardening process. the following simple relation for the evolution of the total dislocation density ρ was presented (Klepaczko. Kubin and Estrin [31]. (2.2). Therefore.1) should be subject to refinement. that is to say of the dislocation density. independently of the temperature.304 G. Klepaczko [25]. however. [25]): (2. [9]. Abed either by considering that plasticity at the macroscale incorporates a number of differently oriented grains into each continuum point and therefore an average value is assumed or by being the product of two “first order” terms (Aifantis [2] Bammann and Aifantis [7]). Voyiadjis and Abed [55] utilized this concept in the derivation of their constitutive models for both bcc and fcc metals. Substituting Eq. (2.4) εp = ˙ 2 p p ε ε = mb ρm v ˙ ˙ ¯ 3 ij ij where m = (2Mij Mij /3)1/2 can be interpreted as the Schmidt orientation fac¯ tor. Based on this hypothesis. F. It should be noted that both the mobility v and the concentration ρm of dislocations increase with increasing external forces (stresses). Nadgornyi [39] showed that one can (and often should) use the dislocation rate as well as the dislocation velocity interchangeably if one considers plastic deformation quantitatively. This is followed by a recombination of the dislocations that is assumed to be proportional with the probability of dislocation meeting. H. Z. dεp where M = 1/bl is the multiplication factor. For the present work. Bammann [8] and Barlat et al. Voyiadjis. only the dislocation velocity is considered and rather than incorporating the dislocation rate (dρ/dt). Consequently. the equivalent plastic strain rate εp at ˙ the macroscale is defined in terms of the mobile dislocation density and dislocation velocity as follows: (2. the meaning of the quantities defined in Eq. (2. ρi is the initial dislocation density encountered in the material due to the manufacture process or by nature. the accumulation of dislocation density from its initial values until reaching its saturated level is considered.1) into Eq. l is the dislocation mean free path.5) dρ = M − ka (ρ − ρi ). and ka is the dislocation annihilation factor which may depend on both the temperature and strain rate. we consider the variation of the mobile dislocation density with the plastic strain (dρ/dεp ). The accumulation process of material dislocation density during the plastic deformation was investigated extensively by many authors (see for example. Klepaczko and Rezaig [27] .

it is determined through thermal activation by overcoming local obstacles to dislocation motion.7) where k is the Boltzmann’s constant. however. and to the dynamic recovery (λ4 ). dεp b where the constant coefficients λi are related to the multiplication of mobile dislocations (λ1 ). [49]). (2. is postulated (Bammann and Aifantis [6]): (2. The dislocations are assumed to move in a periodic potential and the average dislocation velocity v is determined by the thermodynamic probability of achieving sufficient energy temperature T to move past a peak in the potential. 305 showed that for mild steels. In this study. In fact. The reference dislocation velocity vo represents the peak value where the temperature reaches or exceeds the melting point. dεp b b dρf λ3 1/2 = λ2 ρm + ρf − λ4 ρf . where tw .6) ρs = ρi + M .. Kubin and Estrin [31] proposed the following set of two coupled differential equations to describe both the forest ρf and mobile ρm dislocation density evolutions with plastic strain using the same above-mentioned concepts: dρm λ1 λ3 1/2 = 2 − λ2 ρm − ρf . which leads to the following definition of the saturated dislocation density ρs (2. Li [34] and Hirth and Nix [17]).0 may change with ρ and temperature (Kelly and Gillis [24] Sackett et al. that at saturation. the fraction f represents only the part of the mobile dislocation density that is thermally affected through Orowan’s equation as will be discussed later. In other words.. and T is the absolute temperature. ka The mobile dislocation density is related to the total dislocation density ρ by the linear relation (ρm = f ρ). their mutual annihilation and trapping (λ2 ). It should be kept in mind however.Effect of dislocation density evolution . it can be shown that the constant value of the fraction f gives satisfactory quantitative results for most metals (Klepaczko and Rezaig [27]). where the fraction f ≤ 1. The following general expression. Many expressions defining the dislocation speed for thermally activated dislocation glides may be found in the literature (Stein and Low [50] Gillis and Gilman [19]. their immobilization through interaction with forest dislocations (λ3 ).8) v = vo exp − G kT . It is defined by vo = d/tw . both M and ka could be assumed constant at not so high strain rates and up to the temperature where the annihilation micromechanisms (recovery) start to be more intense. the slope dρ/dεp approaches the value of zero.

According to Kocks [29] the typical values of the constant q are 3/2 and 2 that is equivalent to a triangular obstacle profile near the top. however. Its order of magnitude can. (2. σ is the threshold stress at which the ˆ dislocations can overcome the barriers without the assistance of thermal activation (σth = σ where G = 0. (2. ka ρmi β2 = k Go β1 = k ln 1 + C1 1 − exp(−ka εp ) Go .14) C1 = f M . The shear stress-dependent free energy of activation G may depend not only on stress but also on the internal structure. and p and q are constants definingthe shape of the ˆ short-range barriers. (2.11) ¯ εi = mb vo ρmi . the typical values of the constant p are 1/2 and 2/3 which characterizes the tail of the obstacle. Substituting Eq.306 G.10) σth εp ˙ = σ 1 − β1 (εp )T − β2 T ln i ˆ εpo ˙ 1/q 1/p .12) and (2.8) for the dislocation velocity into Eq. On the other hand. H. be anywhere between 106 and 109 s−1 which characterizes the highest rate value a material may reach as related to the reference (highest) dislocation velocity vo . F. where Go is the reference Gibbs energy. where εi represents the reference equivalent plastic strain rate in its initial ˙po stage while related to the initial mobile dislocation.9).0). Voyiadjis. [28] suggested the following definition to relate the activation energy G to the thermal flow stress σth : (2.4) and making use of Eq.5) for the dislocation density evolution (after performing proper integration) and Eq. Z.13) where (2.9) G = Go 1 − σth σ ˆ p q . Abed represents the time that a dislocation waits at an obstacle and d is the average distance the dislocation moves between the obstacles. the general relation of the thermal flow stress for polycrystalline materials (metals) is defined as follows: (2. Kocks et al. (2. ˙po The parameters β1 and β2 are defined as follows: (2. (2.

fcc. Therefore. the final definition of thermal stress as well as athermal stress differs from metal to metal. Nemat-Nasser and Isaacs [41] and Nemat-Nasser et al. which cannot be overcome by introducing thermal energy through the crystal. 3.15) σ = σth + σa .Effect of dislocation density evolution . Moreover. the thermal plastic flow pertains totally to the yield stress. (2. the flow stress of any type of metals (σ = (3σij σij /2)1/2 of the von Mises type) will be additively decomposed into two major components. two types of obstacles are encountered that try to prevent dislocation movements through the lattice. depending. short-range and long-range barriers. face-centered cubic (fcc). Its value. Zerilli and Armstrong [59]. and hexagonal . average values of the quantities M and ka are considered (Kubin and Estrin. the long-range barriers are due to the structure of the material. In turn. In understanding quantitatively the deformation behavior of metals. in consequence. constitutive relations will be proposed for different types of metals applicable to high strain rates and temperatures. any constitutive modeling of crystalline materials like metals should consider the physical basis of the microstructure inside the material as well as the experimental observation during the plastic deformation. Although Eq. 307 It is worthwhile to mention here that β1 is not constant and rather increases with plastic strain increase. is assumed constant in order to simplify the determination procedure of the model parameters. however. In the following section. On the other hand. which represents the mobile portion amount of the total dislocation density. which is the case at high strains. the athermal stress σa and the thermal stress σth (2. attains the maximum when the mobile part of the total dislocation density reaches its saturated level (ρm = ρms ). and hcp) and on the experimental observations.10) represents the general relation of the thermal stress. The above assumption of additive decomposition for the formulation of the flow stress has been proved experimentally and is used by several authors (see for example. on both the microstructure crystal shape (bcc.. On the other hand. [31]). In fact. In this work. body-centered cubic (bcc). β1 vanishes as the plastic strain approaches zero and. The short-range ones are due to dislocations trapping (forest) which can be overcome by introducing thermal energy through the crystal. metals can generally be classified into three major types. However. deforming a metal beyond its elastic limit activates and moves its dislocations through the crystal.. Constitutive modeling of polycrystalline metals Based on their crystal structure. a constitutive description is required. [43]). the fraction f .

has its own behavior coupled to strain rate and temperature.g. Z. however. 3. the variation of the stress-strain curves appear only on the yielding point whereas the hardening curves are almost identical (e. tantalum. Voyiadjis.40 True Strain 0.20 0. Abed close-packed (hcp). F. In this section. 45].00 0. at 2500 s−1 strain rate given by Nemat-Nasser and Guo [44.10 0. see Fig. On the other hand. 1 for the case of vanadium).1. Each type of metal.70 Fig. 2. The thermal stress of bcc metals may be interpreted physically as the resistance of the dislocation motion by the Peierls barriers (short-range barriers) provided by the lattice itself. the temperatures and strain rates are considered in the range where dynamic strain aging (DSA) is not effective. niobium and vanadium show strong dependence of the yield stress on the strain rate and temperature. Moreover.30 0. 1000 Vanadium.60 0. H. at a given strain rate and different temperatures or at a given temperature and several strain rates. the thermal component of the flow stress for .500 s-1 800 True Stress (MPa) T0 = 77K 600 296K 400K 500K 600K 800K 400 200 0 0.308 G. The crystal structure and the atom distribution inside the lattice play a crucial role in controlling the dislocation generation and movement during plastic deformation. Adiabatic flow stress of vanadium for indicated initial temperatures. the role of solute/dislocation interaction in metals is not included in this study and therefore.50 0. modeling of the plastic flow is presented for the aforementioned types of metals using the thermal activation energy principle combined with systematic experimental observations investigated by many authors. 1. whereas the plastic hardening is hardly influenced by temperature. That is. This indicates that the thermal component of the flow stress is mainly controlled by the yield stress and nearly independent of the plastic strain. such as pure iron. Body centered cubic (BCC) metals Experimental observations of most bcc metals.

It is also necessary to have G proportional to µ(G ∝ µb3 ) in order for the activation work done by the applied forces during the activation event to be independent of material properties (Kocks [29]).1) σo = mGo . both at zero temperature. ˆ where αo is a constant which represents the portion of the shear modulus µo contributed to the activation energy.1) with a proper proportional relation of the reference Gibbs energy to the shear modulus. (3. at this temperature. Ao b where b is the magnitude of the Burgers vector and m is the orientation factor √ that relates the shear stress to the normal stress. it is found for most bcc metals that the effect of the variation of β1 (or variation of mobile dislocation density) on the thermal flow stress is practically negligible as will be shown in the application section.2) σ = mαo µo b2 /Ao . an additional component of stress Ya is used that is independent of plastic strain and temperature (athermal yield stress component) and related to the internal microstructure quantities that are independent of plastic strain (e. grain diameter Dg ).. σ = mτ where m = 3 for the case of the von Mises flow rule.g. It should be mentioned here that the flow stress at a given temperature.. at zero Kelvin temperature. is proportional to an appropriate shear modulus. the parameter σ ˆ can be related to the strain-independent internal structure as follows: (3. Klepaczko [26] proposed a definition for the stress intensity as related to the shear modulus and the magnitude of the Burgers vector from which the athermal yield stress is finally defined as follows: (3. For bcc metals. comes out from the fact that the plastic hardening is essentially allotted to the athermal part of the flow stress which is primarily accomplished through the relatively temperature-insensitive long-range barriers. This behavior. For most metals. Utilizing Eq. (2. . the thermal stress (σo ) to the reference Gibbs energy (Go ) and dislocation activation area (Ao ) as follows: (3. 309 such metals can be determined using the same expression defined in Eq.Effect of dislocation density evolution . T . the activation area Ao may be considered to be constant in accordance with the intrinsic Peierls stress. Zerilli and Armstrong [59] related.10). actually. This component is defined as the product of microstructural stress intensity and the inverse square root of the average grain diameter. µ. In fact.3) Ya = α1 µ b Dg 1/2 where α1 is the interaction constant showing the contribution of the above mechanism to the athermal stress.

ka Relating the shear stress to the normal stress by σ = mτ .4) √ τ = αµ b ρ.2 for fcc metals and about 0. This experimental observation can be physically justified by using alternative explanation for the total dislocation density. and consequently contributes to the athermal flow stress part. In fact.5) instead of ρ in Eq. (3. The plastic strain evolution of the effective total dislocation density can be defined. Z.5) ρ= ¯ M (1 − exp(−ka εp )) .4).4) can be derived by several methods. [43]). F. Ashby [3] split the difference of α values in assuming that α = 0. (3. Thus. (2.6) ¯ σa = Ya + B(1 − exp(−ka εp ))1/2 . and substituting ρ ¯ defined by Eq. one has the athermal flow stress in the following form: (3. in terms of the internal physical quantities as follows: (3. the athermal flow stress of bcc metals may be given as (3.310 G. where α is an empirical coefficient taken to be 0. which is independent of temperature. Voyiadjis.7) ¯ B = mαµb (M/ka )1/2 . [38]. In other words. This assumption is observed experimentally and used by many authors (see for example Zerilli and Armstrong [59] and Nemat-Nasser et al. Abed The final component of the bcc flow stress is attributed to the hardening stress. the plastic hardening for pure bcc metals may be evaluated from an assumed power law dependent on strain. who pointed out that Eq. after solving the differential equation Eq. the total dislocation density may also be defined as the . Alternatively.3 for most metals. (3.4 for bcc metals as given by Nabarro et al.8) σa = Ya + Bεn p where B and n are the hardening parameters. H. both the mobile dislocation density and immobile (forest) dislocation density should be considered in the evolution (accumulation) relations for the case of large strain problems (up to 50%). the hardening component of the flow stress is related to the effective total dislocation density (¯ = ρ − ρi ) where ρi is the initial dislocation density encountered ρ originally inside the material. Therefore.5). The dislocation model of Taylor [52] gives the shear flow stress τ in terms of the total dislocation density ρ as (3. ¯ where B is the hardening parameter defined as (3.

are not explicitly defined as in the case of those given by Eq. ¯ p Although the above equation (Eq. [61]: (3. In turn.9) ργ = ργ + ργ .. By substituting Eq. Eq.6) or by using the empirical relation. b ρs = σref εN . in general. the power-law hardening parameters can be related to the effective statistically stored dislocation density ρs for the ¯ case of uniform plastic straining (¯g ≃ 0) as follows: ρ (3.Effect of dislocation density evolution . which are stored in order to maintain the continuity (compatibility) of various components of the material. which are stored by trapping each other in a random way.10) ˆχ ρg = f . s g where the exponent γ is a material parameter.10) into Eq.11) √ σref εN = mαµb ρs . The coefficients σref and N represent the material parameters for the assumed power-law hardening rule. The function f constant when the strain-gradient field is uniform. 311 interaction between the density ρs for statistically stored dislocations.10) may be used for the definition of both the effective statistically stored dislocation density ρs and the effective geometrically necessary dislocation den¯ sity ρg except that they are related to the plastic strain and the plastic strain ¯ gradient respectively. (3. (3. (3. the athermal hardening stress may be estimated either by using the physically derived relation given by Eq. however. i. .. Based on that. (3. however. It is obvious from the above definitions of both dislocation densities that the geometrically necessary dislocation density ρg is related to the strain gradient whereas the statistically stored dislocation density ρs is related to the strain hardening as follows (Zhao et al.8). Eq. the hardening parameters B and n.6). (3. the presence of geometrically necessary dislocations will accelerate the rate of statistical storage and that the value of γ = 1 should provide a lower limit on the effective total dislocation density.e. obtained through experimental observations.9). (3. (3. mαµb ˆ where χ is a suitable form of the third-order strain gradient tensor and f is ˆ. [61] argued that the value of γ should be less than or equal to 1 in order to properly estimate the effective total dislocation density. (3. Zhao et al. becomes a function of higher order gradients of strain. and density ρg for geometrically necessary dislocations.11)) rationalizes the power-law hardening rule by relating it to the internal physical quantities. Ashby [3] pointed out that.

9.12) or Eq. in the T vs σ curve.13) is non-negative. H. F. To ) deformation. In this work.13) σ = Ya + Bεn p εp ˙ + σ 1 − β1 (εp )T − β2 T ln i ˆ εpo ˙ 1/q 1/p 1/q 1/p The above relations may be used to predict the stress-strain curves for both isothermal and adiabatic plastic deformations. through one of the following relations: (3. the temperature T is calculated incrementally by assuming that the majority of the plastic work is converted to heat: εp (3. It should be noted that the thermal component of the flow stress given by the last term in the right-hand side of Eq. The critical temperature.14) ζ T = To + cp ρ σdεp . The Taylor–Quinney empirical constant ζ is often assigned the value of 0. Z. (3. (3.14) may be solved numerically or can be integrated without introducing any noticeable errors by either using the mean value theorem or the simple Euler method. defines the starting point of the constant stress which represents the athermal component of the flow stress.12) ¯ σ = Ya + B (1 − exp(−ka εp ))1/2 εp ˙ + σ 1 − β1 (εp )T − β2 T ln i ˆ εpo ˙ and (3. is strain rate dependent and is defined as follows: . the term between the brackets on the right-hand side should be set equal to zero when the temperature exceeds the critical value.15). [23]).14) is used for all types of metals to determine the evolution of temperature with plastic strain throughout the adiabatic deformation. the total flow stress for bcc metals may be calculated. recent tests have indicated that this parameter may vary with plastic strain (for more details see the work of Kapoor and Nemat-Nasser. the temperature T remains constant during the plastic (representing the initial testing temperature. Eq. Voyiadjis. However. Equation (3. This critical value. In the adiabatic case of deformation. after making use of the concept of additive decomposition in Eq. (2. 0 Here ρ is the material density and cp is the specific heat at constant pressure. For the case of isothermal deformation. (3. however. Thus.312 G. Abed Accordingly. heat inside the material increases as plastic strain increases and therefore.

600 OFHC Copper. 313 (3. On this basis.Effect of dislocation density evolution . 2. depending on the corresponding temperature (see Fig. for a certain strain rate and various temperatures. That is to say. Face centered cubic (FCC) metals In the case of fcc metals. like copper and aluminum.000/s 500 True Stress (MPa) To = 296K 400 596K 300 796K 996K 200 100 0 0. The effect of mobile dislocation density is introduced to the flow stress by utilizing Orowan’s equation as derived in the previous section.00 0. Experimental observations validate the plastic strain dependence of strain rate and temperature for most fcc metals (NematNasser and Li [40]. Additionally..15) Tcr = εp ˙ β1 − β2 ln i εpo ˙ −1 . Tanner et al. for the thermal activation analysis behavior. the mechanisms of thermal activation analysis are dominated and controlled by the emergence and evolution of a heterogeneous microstructure of dislocations (mobile) as well as the long-range interactions between dislocations (forest). 3.60 True Strain 0. the parameter β 1 plays a significant role in characterizing the effect of dislocations movement on the thermal flow stress during the thermal plastic deformation. the adiabatic stress vs strain plots clearly show that all curves start approximately from the same point (initial yielding) and each curve hardens differently from each other. the effect of dislocation .40 0. 4. [51].20 Fig.80 1.00 1.20 0. That is. Lennon and Ramesh [33]). the thermal activation is strongly dependent on the plastic strain. That is.. the increase in the yield point with a decrease in temperature is highly dependent on the strainhardened states for fcc metals. 2 for the case of OFHC Copper). at 4000 s−1 strain rate given by Nemat-Nasser and Li [42].2. Adiabatic flow stress of OFHC copper for indicated initial temperatures.

in consequence. (3.16) V = Ab = db2 /2. p Comparing Eq. introducing thermal energy will facilitate dislocations in overcoming these types of obstacles and.0 Kelvin temperature and any strain value is related to both the dislocation densities and strain by the relation given by several authors (see for example Bell [11]) (3. On this basis. determined by dislocation intersections. Gracio [20] has speculated that in copper. the distance d between dislocation intersections and consequently the activation volume play an additional crucial role in determining an appropriate formulation introducing the effect of plastic strain on the thermal component of the material flow stress. Voyiadjis and Abed [55]): (3.18) ′ ′′ σo ≃ σo (b/d) ≃ σo εn . (2.314 G. (3. and employing the argument given by Eqs.19) clearly shows that the activation area decreases as the plastic strain evolves which indicates that the value of the activation area is the highest . F. the activation area Ao for fcc metals.18) with Eq.e. the activation volume V can be related to the distance between dislocation intersections as follows (Zerilli and Armstrong [59]. When dislocation patterns (i. Therefore. Thus.16) and (3. provide hardening to the thermal flow stress. cell) are formed. where A is the activation area. Abed intersection mechanisms (mobile and forest) on the flow stress can be described as follows. the sources of mobile dislocations become numerous in the cell walls. After deformation. when the plastic strain increases. the forest dislocation densities as well as the plastic strain are related to the distance d through the relationship (Kubin and Estrin [31]) (3. In fact.17) 1/2 d ∼ 1/εp and ρf ∼ 1/d2 .19) or A−1 = A′ −1 εp o o 1/2 −1/2 Equation (3. H. is proportional to the inverse square root of plastic strain (and vice versa) as follows (Zerilli and Armstrong [59]): Ao = A′ εp o (3.17). the mean free path decreases and consequently. the distance between dislocation intersections decreases. Z.10) for the case of zero Kelvin temperature. Therefore. which become the major obstacle for a mobile dislocation. The multiple slip-crystal flow stress for fcc metals at T = 0. dislocations tend to be trapped on the next cell wall forming a forest of dislocations. Voyiadjis.

23) σth → Yd 1 −  εi ˙po k T ln Go εp ˙ 1/q 1/p  . as well as plastic strain. at a given plastic strain value. o It can be seen in Eq.21) shows that when the plastic strain approaches the limit zero (εp → 0.drag effects on the movement of material dislocations.1) and since σo = σ at T = 0. (3. however. is a finite quantity. o p −1 −1 Substituting Eq. . Moreover.3). which is not the case as defined in Eq. (3.Effect of dislocation density evolution . incorporating the electron. (3.15). On the other hand. the thermal ˆ component of the present constitutive equation for the case of fcc metals will incorporate the coupling of temperature.. and defined for the case of fcc metals as follows: o (3.. (2. Using the additive decomposition given in Eq. In fact. (3. the athermal component of fcc flow stress is independent of the plastic strain and it pertains totally to the initial yield stress and is related to the internal structure (grain diameter) as in the case of bcc metals Eq. whereas the ˜ hardening parameter B is given as: (3. (3. 315 at the initial stage of plastic deformation (εp = 0).20) guided us in introducing an additional component to the thermal flow stress. This phenomenon is encountered mainly in fcc and hcp metals at the regions where the plastic strains approach zero with relatively high strain rates (Jassby and Vreeland [21] and Zerilli and Armstrong [60]).21) ˜ 1/2 σ = Ya + Bεp + Yd εp ˙ 1 − β1 (εp )T − β2 T ln i εpo ˙ 1/q 1/p . Ya is constant. the thermal stress preserves the same trend shown in bcc metals including that constants p and q are falling in the same range as those given before. In this work.19) since it will tend to infinity when the plastic strain is zero. the modification of the activation energy definition given in Eq. the definition of the initial activation area is modified by incorporating a finite initial activation area A′ .0). the total flow stress may then be defined for the case of fcc metals as: (3. thus. An examination of Eq.and phonon. (3. therefore.20) A−1 = A′ o + A′′ o ε1/2 .22) ˜ B = mαo µo b2 /A′′ . there is no strain rate and temperature effect on the initial yield stress and.21) that. strain rate. where the parameters Ya and β i are the same as defined previously. The initial activation area.20) into Eq. (3. the solution for the thermal stress approaches the limiting value (3.

17) as follows: (3. εp ˙ × 1 − β1 (εp )T − β2 T ln i εpo ˙ 1/q 1/p . [15]. (3. (3. Substituting Eq.23) is a decreasing function of temperature whereas it increases with the increase of the strain rate. (3. ˆ ˆ where the hardening parameter B and the drag-stress component Yd are defined by the following two relations: (3. Abed where the parameter Yd may be considered as the resultant drag-stress at the reference velocity ε = εo and/or zero Kelvin temperature T = 0 defined as ˙ ˙ (3.24) Yd = mαo µo b2 /A′ . Armstrong et al. ρf = ρf i + f ka ¯ where f denotes the forest dislocation density fraction of the total dislocation density. where m is a constant and the evolution of forest dislocation density with plastic ˜ hardening may be defined after making use of Eq.2) and utilizing Eq.26) ¯M (1 − exp(−ka εp )) . Nemat-Nasser and Li [40] and Nemat-Nasser et al. however. o It’s obvious that the drag-stress component given by Eq. F. [5] have noted that the strong upturn in flow stress at high strain rates signifies a strong decrease in the activation area A.16) and (3.25) Ao = bd/2 ≃ mbρf ˜ −1/2 . coincides with the experimental results and observations found in the literature (see Vreeland and Jassby [56] and Follansbee et al. (3. the hardening parameter Bεn given in Eq. the plastic flow stress of fcc metals can alternatively be determined using the following relation: (3.26). ˆ .28) (3. Voyiadjis. approaching atomic dimensions. [46]).316 G.21) can alternatively p be derived by a more accurate method by relating the activation area to the forest dislocation density after utilizing both Eqs. (3. Such a behavior. (2.5) as follows: (3. H.25) into Eq.29) ˆ B = mαo µo b ˆ ¯M f .27) ˆ ˆ σ = Ya + Yd + B (1 − exp(−ka εp ))1/2 . Z. ˜ Actually. (3. indicative of strongly reduced intersection spacing leading to the dislocation density increase. ka √ ˆ Yd = mαo µo b ρf i . In this regard.

21) with a power low hardening stress component or Eq. In fact. often associated with changes in deformation modes which. Although the crystal structure of hcp metals is close-packed like fcc metals. hcp materials often show strong temperature-dependent behavior. Its alloys are considered to be the most increasingly used hcp metals in structural applications at low and high strain rate of loading. the critical temperature of fcc metals is both strain and strain rate-dependent and is defined in the same way as that given in Eq. Since each hcp metal has its own mechanical behavior depending on the internal structure (a/c ratio) and slip plane and direction. As a final point. However. as follows: (3. the von Mises criterion (Yoo et al. like titanium and zirconium. affect both the polycrystalline ductility and dynamic recrystallization. can be determined by addressing the structure and energies of dislocation cores and planer defects. (3. tends to fall somewhere between that of the fcc and bcc metals. the macroscopic thermomechanical behavior of hcp metals in general and titanium in particular. including twin boundaries and stacking faults.15).27) with a more accurate physical interpretation of hardening stress. however. (3. Hexagonal Close-Packed (HCP) Metals The mechanical behavior of hcp metals. The plastic flow stress for bcc metals is then deˆ ˜ termined using either Eq. [57]).Effect of dislocation density evolution . In this regard. different hcp materials have dramatically different mechanical properties which make the modeling of the plastic flow of hcp metals very complicated and not unique over broad temperature and strain rate ranges.30) σ = Ya + Bεn p + ˜ 1/2 Bεp + Yd εp ˙ 1 − β1 (εp )T − β2 T ln i εpo ˙ 1/q 1/p . (3. 317 where m = m/m is a constant. 3.3. for instance. the evolution of the adiabatic temperature for fcc metals is simulated using the same evolution relation given in Eq. (3. it shows plastic anisotropy and lacks the symmetry needed to be sufficient in satisfying.14). Observations of the experimental stress-strain results of titanium under high strain rates and elevated temperatures indicated that not only is the yield stress strongly dependent on temperature and strain rates but the strain hardening also changes with temperatures. the authors choose to concentrate in this study only on the thermal plastic deformation behavior of titanium. as shown in Fig.. Both relations. 3. correlate properly with the experimental results. Moreover.. Thus. Figure 3 implies that thermal activation has the effect of both lowering the yield stress and decreasing the effect of strain hardening. in turn. the plastic flow stress of hcp metals is related to temperature and strain rates assuming that the plastic flow is mainly accounted for by dislocation motion and intersections.

F.30) and Eq. 1000 Titanium Strain Rate = 2200/s To = 77K 296K 398K 498K 598K 698K 798K True Stress (MPa) 800 600 400 200 0 0 0. [43]. any constitutive relation that deals with the thermomechanical response of titanium should consider not only the role of dislocation activities (dislocation motion and intersections) but also the role of dynamic strain aging as a major event with the role of deformation twinning being uncertain. at 2200 s−1 strain rate given by Nemat-Nasser et al.318 G. showed that the high density of twins does not necessarily correlate with a higher flow stress.2 True Strain 0. Voyiadjis.1 0. 3. (3. Abed or (3. the experimental study of Nemat-Nasser et al. On the other hand. [13] on α-Ti indicated that twin-dislocation intersections play an important role in strain hardening at room temperature and for strain rates ranging from 10−5 to 102 s−1 . Z. Accordingly. they illustrated that the dynamic strain aging takes place at both low and high strain rates and for a wide range of temperatures. In contrast.3 0. . Recent research by Chichili et al.5 Fig.4 0. H. The first two terms in Eq. with strains exceeding 40%. (3.31) ¯ σ = Ya + B (1 − exp(−ka εp ))1/2 ˆ + B (1 − exp(−ka εp ))1/2 + Yd 1200 εp ˙ 1 − β1 (εp )T − β2 T ln i εpo ˙ 1/q 1/p . Adiabatic flow stress of titanium for indicated initial temperatures. [43] for the plastic flow of commercially pure titanium at strain rates from 10−3 to 103 s−1 and temperatures from 77 to 1000 K.31) represent the athermal part of the flow stress whereas the third term represents the thermal coupling of plastic hardening and yield stress to the flow stress.

(3. the obstacle strength is increased by certain amount.Effect of dislocation density evolution . after attaining a peak value. (3. This sudden increase and decrease of stress forms a noticeable hump in the flow stress-temperature curve. and with temperature increase. The effect of dynamic strain aging on the flow stress of metals. vanadium and OFHC copper at ranges of 10−3 – 105 s−1 strain rates and 77–1000 K temperatures.. In other words. at low strain rates (Nemat-Nasser et al. It may occur either through a directional diffusion of the dislocation core atmosphere. changes with strain and strain rates. Moreover. For the case of Titanium. A brief description of twinning and DSA behaviors is presented in the following sections. Dynamic strain aging may be observed at different strain rate levels and certain range of temperatures. It is concluded that the DSA behavior is strain rate dependent for all types of metals and it takes place when the deformation temperature approaches its critical value defined in Eq. Experimental results of Nemat-Nasser and co-workers on bcc and fcc metals (Nemat-Nasser and Issacs [41].. the dynamic strain aging is widely encountered at both low and high strain rates and suitable temperature ranges. nevertheless. 3. Dynamic strain aging (DSA). is of considerable current interest to the authors and an extensive study of this phenomenon is going to be presented in a forthcoming paper. The dynamic strain aging behavior can be described macroscopically as the sudden increase of the flow stress at certain temperature that normally causes a decrease in the flow stress curve.15). however. or through a bulk diffusion. the temperature value which indicates the start of the sudden increase in the flow stress is also strain rate dependent. The activation of DSA takes place when the aging time is equal to the waiting time of these dislocations and therefore. Nemat-Nasser and Guo [44] and Cheng and Nemat-Nasser [12]) show that Niobium exhibits dynamic strain aging at low strain rates only (around 10−3 s−1 ) for a temperature range of 450–700 K. the decreasing flow stress may suddenly begin to increase at a certain temperature and. Nemat-Nasser and Li [42]. however.1.30) is limited to temperature and strain ranges where both twinning and dynamic strain aging is not activated. 319 In this study.3. The dynamic strain aging can be interpreted physically as the diffusion of solutes atoms to the mobile dislocations that are temporarily trapped at an obstacle for a certain amount of time before they jump to another obstacle. the plastic flow relation defined in Eq. the DSA behavior is not encountered in tantalum. On the other hand. may begin to decrease. The range of temperature and strain rate where the DSA is displayed differs from metal structure to another and even from metal to metal within the same crystal structure. [43]). at fixed strain and strain rate. The peak value of the flow stress. . at high strain rates.

3W D where co and c1 are the bulk solute volume fraction and the saturation solute concentration on dislocations respectively. This contribution.33) tw = mbd ρm ¯ . D is the diffusion coefficient of solute atoms. F. on the other hand. Besides. Equation (3.32). Experiments conducted by Nemat-Nasser et al. (3.32) indicates that the extra flow stress vanishes as the waiting time tw approaches zero. where σD is the maximum stress increase produced by the DSA and tx is the ˆ relaxation time associated with diffusion. in certain cases. Z. and when the temperature is decreased to 77 K.33) and (3. [9]. However.34) with the DSA being effective at T → Tcr . the twins 3. they demonstrated that at 10% true strain and low strain rate. The unusual difficulty associated with identification of deformation mechanisms within hcp metals may be attributed to the fact that these closed-packed crystal structures often exhibit both slip and twinning during plastic deformation. however. [43] investigated commercially pure titanium over a temperature range of 77–1000 K and strain rates of 10−3 −104 s−1 and showed that deformation twins were observed in most temperatures.3. εp ˙ The relaxation time tx associated with diffusion. Hence. they illustrated that the density of twins increases with increasing strain rate to 2200 s−1 .32) σD = σD 1 − exp −(tw /tx )2/3 ˆ . . Moreover. Louat [35] has given a mathematical expression for the extra flow stress σD as follows: (3. the thermomechanical modeling of the extra flow stress produced by the effect of dynamic strain aging is not a straightforward procedure.34) tx = kT b2 (c1 /πco )3/2 . Deformation twinning behavior. is related to the temperature and the microstructure physical parameters as follows (Friedel [16]. Kubin and Shihab [32]): (3. after neglecting the running time of the dislocation between obstacles. Abed As addressed by many authors. becomes necessary in order to maintain the compatibility of polycrystalline deformation. and it is expected that twinning shear will contribute to the overall strain. is still inconsistent and uncertain. employing Eqs. (3. as cited by Barlat et al.2. and W is the absolute value of binding energy between the solute and dislocations.320 G. H. the additional flow stress could suitably be added in calculating the total flow stress for certain metals. as follows (3. Voyiadjis. The presence of twin systems. This waiting time can simply be related to the plastic strain by utilizing Orowan’s equation.

21) and . fcc and hcp metals are further evaluated by direct comparison to the experimental results that are mainly provided by Nemat-Nasser and his co-workers for different types of polycrystalline metals conducted at a wide range of strain rates and temperatures. the amount of plastic deformation contributed by twinning is measured to be much less that due to dislocations. [13]. that even when the material is heavily twinned. on the other hand. with substantial twin-dislocation interactions. comparisons. It is concluded. In this section. it does not correlate with a higher flow stress. and discussions The proposed constitutive models derived in the previous section for bcc. it is noted that the increase of the numbers of twins as well as a substantial dislocation motion is observed during the deformation.12) and Eq. 4. Finally. however. most of the plastic flow occurs by the motion of the twins and their intersections. Chichili et al. tantalum and vanadium). However. (3. the twin density increases even further. Consequently. the evaluation of the material parameters of the proposed models is first discussed. Model parameters evaluation Various techniques can be used to determine the material parameters of the proposed models. that though the deformation of the material undergoes high density of twins at high strain and strain rates. one fcc metal (OFHC copper) and one hcp metal (titanium) over a wide range of temperatures and strain rates. (3. (3.1. therefore.. 321 start disappearing as soon as the temperature exceeds a limiting value of 600K.. incorporating such effect in the constitutive modeling of pure titanium is still problematic and inconclusive. a simple approach is used and similarly applied for all the proposed models with little variation between the three structural types of metals as given by Eq.Effect of dislocation density evolution . (3) at high strain rates and small strains.13) for bcc metals. Applications. summarized the microstructure characterization of the room temperature deformation of α-titanium as follows: (1) the material deformation at low strain rates and low strains is mainly due to dislocation motion with very few twins. (4) by increasing both strains and strain rates. 4. it is shown that the amount of gross deformation produced by twins is relatively small since the relative atomic movement is limited in deformation twinning and hence. numerical identification is also presented for the nano/micro-structural physical quantities used in the definition of the proposed models parameters. However. Eq. densities of both dislocation motion and twins are obviously increased. (2) at large strains with the same low strain rate level. Applications of these models for predicting the plastic deformation as well as comparisons to experimental results are then illustrated for three bcc metals (niobium. It is concluded.

Z. The evaluation procedure is initiated by studying the stress-temperature relation at different values of plastic strain and at certain strain rate value. Voyiadjis. on the other hand.322 G. the parameter β1 ˆ or the constant C1 is then determined after detecting all other stress components from the total flow stress at different plastic strain values using the nonlinear least-square fit. 4. p Next.27) for fcc metals.2. H. the thermal degradation mechanism is captured by selecting proper values of the exponents p and qthat are chosen here to be 1/2 for the former and 3/2 for the latter for all kinds of metals used in this study. (3. (3. the parameters (B and n or B and ka ) for bcc and hcp metals models is calculated using the nonlinear least-squares fit. (3. Applications and comparisons Three bcc metals are used in this study as applications for the proposed bcc models: (1) niobium (Nb) is a silvery bcc metal that is used as an alloying agent in carbon and alloy steels. Subtracting the above stress increments (athermal stress) values from the total flow stress. The thermal component of the flow stress is mainly pertained to the yield stress for bcc metals and to the plastic hardening for both fcc and hcp metals. they become constants. (3) tantalum (Ta) has generated a lot of interest in industry due to its density. as it improves the strength of the alloy. Abed Eq. On the other hand. Moreover. F. a graph of (1 − (σth /ˆ )p )q vs ln εp is utilized to determine the parameter β2 and σ ˙ the reference plastic strain rate εi .2. Bcc metals. A similar procedure is followed for the case ˙po of fcc and hcp models except that σ is replaced by Yd . the flow stress decreases as the temperature increases until a point where the stress is constant with further increase in temperature. The Ya value. Then. Once these exponents are determined for a particular mechanism. . for the case of bcc models. Generally. It is used in the aerospace industry in titanium alloys. the intercepts of the constant slope line plotted between σth and T 1/q at different plastic strains and certain strain rate are employed here to obtain at zero plastic strain. represents the athermal stress at zero plastic strain or the athermal component of the initial yield stress. and Eq. the threshold stress σ for bcc models and the parameter Yd ˆ ˜ ˆ for fcc and hcp models.1. and is soft and ductile with good structural strength.31) for hcp metals. the thermal component of the flow stress is then determined. Finally. the hardening parameter B or B for fcc and hcp models are determined using the nonlinear least-square fit technique for the different plastic strain intercept values.30) and Eq. Employing the variation of the athermal flow stress with plastic ¯ strain. whereas it is strain-independent for the case of fcc metals. These constant values represent the athermal part of the flow stress which varies with plastic strain for the case of bcc and hcp metals. (2) vanadium (V) is a bright white bcc metal. strength and ductility over a wide range of deformation rates and tem4.

000149 7. In fact. Table 1..9 945 0. 45] is utilized for the case of Nb and V metals. and tantalum. 45] for a wide range of elevated temperatures. the difference in the predictions between the two proposed bcc relations for the plastic flow stress is noticeable at low strains (up to 0.25 0.. The numerical values of the material parameters defined by the proposed bcc models are listed in Table 1 for the above-mentioned three metals obtained using the aforementioned procedure.07 × 106 3/2 1/2 V 60 275 305 0..32 × 106 3/2 1/2 Ta 50 290 330 0. whereas the parameters of Ta are obtained using the experimental results presented by Nemat-Nasser and Isaacs [41] and compared also to different results offered by different authors.6). . the hardening parameters obtained using certain experimental data will not necessarily match with the other data set presented by different researchers. independent of temperature and strain rate. The experimental data presented by NematNasser and Guo [44.13) is with regard to the two different definitions of the plastic hardening component which is mostly associated to the athermal component of the flow stress.45 × 106 3/2 1/2 Figures 4 and 5 show the adiabatic stress strain results for niobium computed using the present two bcc models at 3300 s−1 and 8000 s−1 strain rates respectively. the differences of the plastic flow stress predicted by the proposed two bcc definitions emerge only in the athermal component.1) and it diminishes with strain increase (up to 0. It is obvious that the only difference between the two proposed bcc models Eq. Therefore. i.0000937 4. the predicted stressstrain curves using the proposed bcc models will depend totally on the accuracy of determining the hardening parameters which vary from test to test. Model Parameters Ya (MPa) ¯ B (MPa) B (MPa) n ka σ (MPa) ˆ C1 β 2 (K−1 ) εi (s−1 ) ˙po q p Nb 60 415 450 0.7 1350 0. The proposed bcc models parameters for niobium. Generally. 323 peratures. both the proposed bcc definitions show very good agreement as compared to the experimental data presented by Nemat-Nasser and Guo [44. Moreover.0001392 6. These differences may be attributed to both the errors accumulated using the nonlinear least-square fit and to the different integration results used in calculating the adiabatic heat accumulated inside the material through the plastic work.5 1125 0. (3.e.25 3.Effect of dislocation density evolution . The material parameters of these bcc metals are determined following the procedure discussed previously.1 0. vanadium.16 9.5 0.12) and Eq. Therefore.41 2. (3.

00 Exp. Adiabatic flow stress of niobium predicted using the proposed models and compared to experimental results (Nemat-Nasser and Guo.70 Fig. H. 45]) at 8000 s−1 strain rate and indicated initial temperatures.10 0.50 0. 3.27) (Eq.12) (Eq. 4.00 0.28) 1000 True Stress (MPa) 800 To = 77K 296K 400K 600K 700K 600 400 200 0 0. Z. 6. F. Voyiadjis. however. 3. 8000/s) Proposed Model (Eq.20 0. 3.324 1200 G. Adiabatic flow stress of niobium predicted using the proposed models and compared to experimental results (Nemat-Nasser and Guo. The experimental comparison of the adiabatic flow stress for the case of vanadium agrees well at the strain rate of 2500 s−1 and for different temperatures (up to 800 K) as shown in Fig.20 0. 5. 800 700 600 True Stress (MPa) 500K 700K 900K To = 296K 500 400 300 200 100 0 0.30 True Strain 0. is less for the case of higher strain rate (8000 s−1 ) with a temperature range of 296 K to 700 K .60 0.13) Proposed Model (Eq. 3. 3300/s) Proposed Model (Eq. (Nb. [44.40 True Strain 0.13) 0.70 Fig. Abed Exp. (Nb. 45]) at 3300 s−1 strain rate and indicated initial temperatures.10 0. The agreement. [44.12) Proposed Model (Eq.30 0.

(V. .00 296K 400K 500K 600K 800K To = 77K Exp.20 0.12) Proposed Model (Eq. 1000 900 800 True Stress (MPa) 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 0. This may indicate that assuming a constant value of the parameter ka (i.12) Proposed Model (Eq.40 Fig.30 True Strain 0.3.3.10 0. the prediction of the adiabatic flow stress at different initial temperatures shows more variation between the two proposed bcc relations for the case of a strain rate of 8000 s−1 than those obtained at 2500 s−1 strain rate.e. 8000/s) Proposed Model (Eq.13) 0. (V.60 Fig.Effect of dislocation density evolution .00 Exp.3. 7). 700 600 True Stress (MPa) 500 400 700K To = 296K 400K 500K 300 200 100 0 0.. Furthermore..3. Adiabatic flow stress of vanadium predicted using the proposed models and compared to experimental results (Nemat-Nasser and Guo [44–45]) at 2500 s−1 strain rate and indicated initial temperatures. 6.40 0.10 0.20 True Strain 0. 325 (see Fig.. 7. neglecting the effect of temperature and strain rate) produces inaccurate results in some cases.13) 0. 2500/s) Proposed Model (Eq. Adiabatic flow stress of vanadium predicted using the proposed models and compared to experimental results (Nemat-Nasser and Guo [44–45]) at 2500 s−1 strain rate and indicated initial temperatures.50 0.

The parameter Ya .7 Fig. 9 shows the temperature variation of the flow stresses obtained experimentally by Nemat-Nasser and Isaacs [47] at 0. Z. 10 show very good agreement with the experimental results.2 0.0001 s−1 strain rate and Bechtold [10] at 0. with the parameters obtained using the Nemat-Nasser and Isaacs data. are compared with the experimental data presented by Hoge and Mukharjee [18] at room temperature and with the single crystal data obtained by Mitchell and Spitizig [36] at 373◦ K temperature and Mordike and Rudolph [37] at 200◦ K temperature. Fig. The proposed model.13)).05 strain and 5000 s−1 strain rate.3.13). Abed For the case of tantalum. Voyiadjis.4 0. The comparisons illustrated in Fig.5 0. (Ta.6 0. .00028 s−1 strain rate as compared with those calculated using the proposed model (Eq.12) Proposed Model (Eq. predicts results that agree very well with the data given by Hoge and Mukharjee. (3.12) and Eq. 8. To = 298K 396K 496K 596K 796K Exp. In addition. (3.326 G. F. (3.014 strain and 0. the adiabatic stress strain curves calculated by those two relations show good correlations with the experimental results provided by Nemat-Nasser and Isaacs [41] as shown in Fig. 800 700 600 Stress (Mpa) 500 400 300 200 100 0 0 0.1 0.014 strain and 0. This change is used to allow for possible differences in solute and grain size effects.13) The results of the model simulations from the above experimental data are also compared with other sets of experimental data. however. Eq.3.13) show almost identical results when computed at 5000 s−1 and temperature range of 298 K to 796 K. the stress variation with strain rates computed using the proposed model Eq. Furthermore. 8. (3. 5000/s) Proposed Model (Eq. H. Hoge and Mukharjee [18] at 0. is changed to 133 MPa in order to get a better agreement with Bechtold [10] data.3 0. Adiabatic flow stress of tantalum predicted using the proposed models and compared to experimental results (Nemat-Nasser and Isaacs [41]) at 5000 s−1 strain rate and indicated initial temperatures.

000001 Mordike & Rudolph (T=200K) Hoge & Mukharjee (T=298K) Mitchell & Spitzig (T=373K) Proposed Model (Eq. (3.13) 327 Fig. Proposed model results of the temperature variation of the flow stress.00028/s) Hoge & Mukharjee (0.14) where the thermo-mechanical parameters are listed in Table 2 for all metals used in this study.. 9.Effect of dislocation density evolution . as compared to experimental data obtained by several authors at different temperatures. 800 700 600 Stress (Mpa) 500 400 300 200 100 0 0. Proposed model results of the strain rate variation of the flow stress.3. 10. The adiabatic stress-strain curves of the plastically deformed specimens presented here are estimated using Eq. for tantalum Ta. 45] and Nemat-Nasser and Isaacs [41].0001 0. V and Ta based on experimental results presented by Nemat-Nasser and Guo [44..0001/s) Proposed Model (Eq. for tantalum Ta.13) 0.01 1 Strain Rate (1/s) 100 10000 Fig.3. as compared to experimental data obtained by several authors at different strain rates. . 800 700 600 Stress (Mpa) 500 400 300 200 100 0 0 200 400 600 Temperature (K) 800 1000 Nemat-Nasser & Issacs (5000/s) Bechtold (0. The incremental accumulation of the temperature during the adiabatic process is calculated by assuming a conversion of 100% plastic work into heat is used for Nb.

0 60. 4.62 0.57 0.K) ζ µ (GPa) µo (GPa) Nb 8. In Fig. (3. Voyiadjis. Fcc metals.0 45. Abed Table 2. (3. Using the same parameters. H. These differences are generally ascribed to the two different definitions . vanadium.9 45.383 0. the adiabatic flow stresses calculated using the proposed fcc relations agree well with most of the experimental data for several strain rates and initial testing temperature.0 37.0 75.139 1.0 The Oxygen-Free High Conductivity (OFHC) copper is used here as an application for the proposed fcc models to show the temperature and strain rate variation of the flow stress. tantalum. estimates higher stress values than those calculated by Eq.21) at strains up to 0. (3.265 1. the proposed fcc models are further compared to other experimental data found in the paper by Johnson and Cook [22]. (3. Physical parameters ρ (g/cm3 ) cp (J/g.27) predict very good results as compared with the Nemat-Nasser and Li [42] experimental data at 4000 s−1 strain rate and different initial temperatures (77 K–996 K).21) and Eq. however.97 × 106 3/2 1/2 Generally.328 G.498 1.0 77. Equation (3.2. F. OFHC copper and titanium.96 0. Thermal and Elastic properties for niobium.0 V 6. Model Parameters Ya (MPa) ˆ B(MPa) ˜ B(MPa) ˆ Yd or Yd (MPa) ka C1 β2 (K−1 ) εi (s−1 ) ˙po q p OFHC Cu 25 1175 990 50 0.0000351 6.9 40 0.27).523 1.0 OFHC Cu 8.21) and Eq.16 0.0 Ta 16. the adiabatic stress-strain calculated using both relations Eq.0 70. 11. Table 3.0 75.27)) are listed in Table 3 which are determined by following the same procedure explained in the previous section using the experimental data presented by Nemat-Nasser and Li [42]. (3. The proposed fcc models parameters for OFHC copper. OFHC Cu is an important fcc metal used in the industry due to its high thermal and electrical conductivity and high ductility combined with low volatility which makes this material indispensable in the electronics industry. The material parameters of the proposed two fcc relations (Eq. Z.54 0.45.0 43.2.0 Ti 4.0 90.

. 4000/s) Proposed Model (Eq.60 True Strain 0. 12.Effect of dislocation density evolution .40 0.60 0.1/s 77K.3.27) Proposed Model (Eq.80 1. Adiabatic flow stress of OFHC copper predicted using the proposed models and compared to experimental results (Nemat-Nasser and Li [42]) at 4000 s−1 strain rate and indicated initial temperatures.00 296K Exp.00 296K.3.80 1. The comparison shows good agreement as well. 0.1 s−1 (isothermal) and indicated temperatures. Flow stress of OFHC copper predicted using the proposed models and compared to experimental results (Nemat-Nasser and Li [42]) at strain rates of 8000 s−1 (adiabatic) and 0. 8000/s Fig. The flow stresses predicted by the proposed fcc relations are further compared to the experimental results conducted by the same authors at lower and higher strain rates (0.27) Proposed Model (Eq. (OFHC Cu.20 0.1 s−1 and 8000 s−1 ) as shown in Fig. . 800 700 True Stress (MPa) 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 0.20 0. 12.40 0. 8000/s 296K. 11.00 Fig.3.3. 800 700 True Stress (MPa) 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 0.21 0.00 Exp. 329 used in calculating the hardening stresses.. (OFHC Cu) Proposed Model (Eq.21) To = 77K 596K 796K 996K 0.

27) Proposed Model (Eq.21) correlate well with the experimental data at strain rates of 451 s−1 . . Adiabatic flow stress of OFHC copper predicted using the proposed models and compared to experimental results (Johnson and Cook. At strain rates of 0. 493 K and 730 K respectively. Z.3. the predicted results of Eq. (3. [22]) at different strain rates of and temperatures. This deviation.20 Plastic Strain 0. In the case of copper.21) To = 298K.3.00 0. The hcp commercially pure titanium (Cp Ti) used in this study has an axial ratio of c/a = 1. The experimental results clearly show that this material (Ti) is widely affected by the dynamic strain aging phenomenon over most strain rates and temperatures.30 0.3. (3.40 Fig. H.27) overestimates the stress values in most cases. the DSA effect starts clearly at temperature values of 296 K up to 500 K continuing 4. 13. Eq. 13. (3.10 0. 400 350 True Stress (MPa) 300 250 200 To = 730K.1 s−1 . [43] who conducted both adiabatic and isothermal testing on both annealed and as received samples at low and high strain rates and temperatures.587. (OFHC Cu) Proposed Model (Eq. and is strongly plastically anisotropic as indicated by Nemat-Nasser et al. F. Hcp metals. the prediction of the adiabatic stress strain curves predicted by the present model is obtained based on the assumption of conversion of 90% of the plastic work deformation to heat calculated using the same relation defined in Eq.14) with the thermo-mechanical parameters listed in Table 2. Overall. 451/s 150 100 50 0 0.001 s−1 and 0. however.330 G. 46 4/s To = 493K. 449 s−1 and 464 s−1 with initial temperatures of 298 K. Voyiadjis. 449 /s Exp. Abed An assessment of the model parameters determined using the experimental data by Nemat-Nasser and Li [42] can be made by comparing the adiabatic stress-strain results with the experimental data found in the paper of Johnson and Cook [22] as shown in Fig. However. is part due to neglecting the temperature and strain rate effects of the parameter ka .2.

43 Next. (3. Table 4. (3. assessments of the proposed hcp models are made by comparing the isothermal stresses predicted using both Eq. (3.Effect of dislocation density evolution .31 0. Model Parameters Ya (MPa) ˆ B (MPa) ˜ B (MPa) ˆ Yd or Yd (MPa) ka C1 β2 (K−1 ) εi (s−1 ) ˙po q p ¯ B (MPa) B (MPa) n Ti 20 2050 2025 115 1. (3.0000433 1. the proposed hcp models (Eq. The comparison between the predicted results and the experimental data shows good agreement at temperature values of 77 K.31) to the experimental results by Nemat-Nasser et al. 673 K and 773 K whereas they underestimate the experimental results at other temperatures due to the effect of DSA.30) and Eq. These parameters are listed in Table 4. [43] using a combination of the bcc and fcc procedures described earlier. the adiabatic stress-strain results predicted by the proposed hcp models are compared to the experimental data at a strain rate of 2200 s−1 and different initial temperatures. 15.30) and Eq. The proposed model parameters for titanium are determined using the experimental data presented by Nemat-Nasser et al. 14. the proposed models predict lower results at temperatures where the DSA effect is dominating. the comparison agrees well at temperatures where the DSA is inactive (77 K and 296 K) whereas..95 × 107 3/2 1/2 90 85 0.. In Fig. are possibly not accurate in predicting both the adiabatic and the isothermal flow stresses in the strain rate and temperature ranges where the DSA effects are active. As mentioned earlier. 331 slightly up to 600 K for the case of isothermal process.001s strain rate and different temperatures as shown in Fig.31)). . The proposed hcp model parameters for titanium. the proposed hcp model is derived based on the fact that the plastic deformation behavior of most hcp metals shows a combination of both bcc and fcc plastic deformation behaviors.9 0. At higher strain rates with adiabatic deformation (2200 s−1 and 8000 s−1 strain rates). In fact. the appearance of the DSA effects starts at 400 K temperature continuing up to 1000 K temperature. Similarly. [43] at 0. which did not take into consideration the dynamic strain aging effects. This indicates that the flow stresses predicted by the proposed two hcp relations will more likely underestimate the experimental results in theses ranges.

00 0.10 0.001 s−1 strain rate and indicated temperatures. 1200 Exp.3.00 0.30 T = 77K 1000 True Stress (MPa) 800 600 296K 400 473K 200 673K 773K 0 0.10 0.332 1200 G. (Ti.20 True Strain 0. 2200/s) Proposed Model (Eq. 0. H. (Ti. [43]) at 2200 s−1 strain rate and indicated initial temperatures. 14. The flow stress prediction of the proposed hcp models are further compared to the experimental results at the strain rate of 0.20 True Strain 0.30 0.31) Proposed Model (Eq.30) To = 77K 1000 True Stress (MPa) 296K 498K 798K 800 600 400 200 0 0. 15. Adiabatic flow stress of titanium predicted using the proposed models and compared to experimental results (Nemat-Nasser et al. Z.40 Fig.31) Proposed Model (Eq.001/s) Proposed Model (Eq.30 0.3.1 s−1 for the case of isothermal .40 Fig. Isothermal flow stress of titanium predicted using the proposed models and compared to experimental results (Nemat-Nasser et al. F. [43]) at 0. Abed Exp.3.3. Voyiadjis.

calculated using Eq.1/s. (Ti) Proposed Model (Eq. 473K 0.40 Fig.1/s. 598K 0. 498K Exp.01 s−1 (isothermal) and 8000 s−1 (adiabatic) and indicated temperatures. (3. 16. In addition. [43]. however. Discussions In investigating the proposed bcc.. This deviation.. (3. the model parameters values and accordingly the physical quantities differ from metal to metal.3.31) Proposed Model (Eq.3. [43]) at strain rates of 0.31) deviates largely at higher strain rates predicting higher stress values than those calculated using Eq.20 True Strain 0. the definition of the thermal component of the flow stress is nearly the same for all kinds of metals. 296K 0.10 0. However. 16.00 0. it is found that the thermal stress for all bcc metals used in this study is independent of strain. Flow stress of titanium predicted using the proposed models and compared to experimental results (Nemat-Nasser et al. appears noticeably at strain values up to 30%. 4.30 8000/s. The temperature accumulation during the plastic deformation is.3. therefore. (3. In comparing the flow stress results predicted by the proposed two hcp relations. a 100% of the plastic work generated during the deformation process under different strain rates is converted to heat as given by Nemat-Nasser et al.30). 333 deformation process and at the 8000 s−1 strain rate for the case of adiabatic deformation as shown in Fig.30 0. Similar comparison results are concluded for both strain rates.14) with the thermo-mechanical parameters for Ti given in Table 2. it is found that Eq.Effect of dislocation density evolution . fcc and hcp models.1/s. 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 0. That is to say. 798K 8000/s. For the case of titanium. the effect of the parameter β1 which represents the effect of the evolution of the .

25 Plastic Strain 0. however. Z. (3. Voyiadjis. The consequence of the variation of the parameter β1 with plastic strain for fcc metals is observed in determining the values of the critical temperature (Tcr ) that become strain-dependent as well.15 0. the thermal component of the flow stress for fcc metals depends mainly on the strain through the evolution of the mobile dislocation density defined by the parameter β1 and also through the evolution of the remaining part (mainly forest) of the dislocation density introduced through the hardening parameters definitions given by Eq.2 0. For the case of hcp metals. whereas the effect of β1 is very small and can be neglected.22) or Eq. Ta.05 0. 1200 8000/s. H. In fact. Ti and OFHC Cu at strain rate and temperature values of 8000 s−1 and 296 K respectively. (3. Tcr is defined as the highest temperature value that corresponds to the minimum thermal stresses (zero thermal stress) observed during the degradation process of the . 17. the critical temperature for bcc and hcp metals does not depend on plastic strain. This.1 0. Nb. Strain variations of the thermal stresses for several metals using the proposed models at 8000 s−1 strain rate and 296 K◦ temperature. On the other hand. 296K 1000 Thermal Stress (MPa) Ti 800 600 Ta 400 V 200 OFHC Cu Nb 0 0 0. Figure 17 shows the thermal component of the flow stresses as varying with the plastic strain using the proposed models for V. Abed mobile dislocation density that is thermally affected through Orowan’s equation is almost negligible. supports the experimental observations which indicate that the thermal stresses for most bcc metals are strain-independent and mainly controlled by the yield stress.28).334 G. This behavior can be interpreted physically as the resistance of the initial dislocation motion by the Peierls barriers. In contrast. F.4 Fig.3 0. the strain dependence of the thermal stresses is introduced only through the hardening parameters.35 0.

which indicates that the saturation limit of dislocation densities is reached. however. 0. Ti.Effect of dislocation density evolution . Critical temperatures predicted by the proposed models for several metals at 10% strain and different strain rates. the critical temperature values for OFHC Cu and Ti are higher than those obtained for the three bcc metals.. Since εi ˙po values for all metals used in this study are approximately of the same order. The initial and saturated values of the dislo- .14 for the five metals used in this study at 0.62.58 eV/atom for Cu. thus. most metals contain initial amount of dislocations which are naturally excited or generated through the manufacture process.4. 2. 335 flow stress as the material temperature increases.1 plastic strain.. The higher the activation energy values (around 2.1 0. the thermal stress is interpreted as the resistance of the barriers to the dislocation movement. help metals to deform plastically until a level where no further dislocations generation are allowed. It is found that Tcr values increase with strain rates increase.0.01 0. In general.92. and Nb respectively) needed to overcome the barriers.001 V Nb Ta OFHC Cu Ti Plastic Strain = 0. This disparity may be attributed to the variation of the reference plastic strain rate εi values and also to the ˙po different β2 values that is mainly related to the Gibbs free energy Go . 5000 4500 Critical Temperature Tcr (K) 4000 3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 0. the value of Go is considered the major factor that affects the variation of Tcr values from one metal to another at a fixed strain rate. Actually. the barriers that need higher activation energy to be overcome require also higher temperature to produce this thermal energy until the resistance of these barriers has vanished which indicates zero thermal stresses. 3. These dislocation densities. the higher the critical temperature values achieved. Ta. 0. V. Also. 0.1 1 10 Strain Rate (1/s) 100 1000 10000 Fig. Figure 18 shows the strain rate variation of Tcr calculated using Eq. 18.

1 × 103 2.5 × 1015 27b2 0.125 321b2 18b2 It is interesting to note that the Helmholtz free energy values for fcc metals are higher than those found for bcc metals which indicates that the dislocation interaction mechanism necessitates higher activation energy than the Peierls mech- .1 8. Voyiadjis.97 × 103 1. Ta. The numerical values of the physical nano. their values are found to be reasonable when compared to those available in the literature. differ from metal to metal.3 × 103 4.0375 – – OFHC Cu 2.71 × 103 4. however.1 × 1013 6. for all metals presented here. In fact.336 G.5 × 1015 26b2 0. OFHC Cu and Ti. That is to say. Abed cation densities. This effect. Z.3 8. Physical parameters Go (eV/atom) b (Å) vo (m/sec) ρmi (m−2 ) ρf i (m−2 ) ρs (m−2 ) Ao (m2 ) Dg (mm) A′ o (m2 ) A′′ o (m2 ) Nb 0.0 3.58 3.0 5. The initial dislocation density values are fixed and set around 5×1012 m−2 for the case of bcc metals and little higher for fcc and hcp metals. F. Once the material yields.013 – – V 0. the evolution of dislocation density along with the initial dislocation density contribution plays a crucial role in determining the flow stress and particularly the thermal stress as in the case for most fcc metals and slightly less for hcp metals. V.073 585b2 30b2 Ti 2. Figure 19 shows.1 × 1015 27b2 0.5 3. the yielding strength is less when the material contains high initial dislocation density and vice versa.9 × 1012 2 × 1012 1.1 × 1015 – 0.57 × 103 5 × 1012 2 × 1012 4.016 – – Ta 0.55 × 1013 2. Although these quantities are defined based on the model parameters that are fitted experimentally.0 × 1015 – 0.9 7.4 × 1013 1. Consequently.1 × 1012 2 × 1012 1.and micro-quantities used in defining the proposed models that are obtained for the indicated metals are listed in Table 5. H.4 2.62 3. however. Table 5.69 × 1013 9. The decreasing slopes for bcc metals are higher than those for hcp and fcc metals which supports the above-mentioned argument.92 2. the saturated values of these dislocation densities are found to be of the order of 1015 m−2 for all metals. the variation effect of initial dislocation density generated inside the material on the flow stress at 298 K and 8000 s−1 temperature and strain rate‘respectively. the effect of initial dislocation density enters the proposed models through the thermal component of the flow stress. Numerical values for the physical quantities used in deriving the proposed models parameters for Nb. It is obvious that the flow stress decreases with the increase of the originated (initial) dislocation density. is expected to be higher for bcc metals than other metal structures due to the fact that the thermal stress of bcc metals is nearly related to the yield stress (Peierls stress) and not affected by the dislocation density evolution with plastic strain.

[28]). 19. OFHC Cu and Ti respectively. two different definitions for the hardening stresses are presented.1. computed at 8000 s−1 strain rate and 298 K◦ temperature.1 337 1. the value of σ in the thermal component of the bcc flow stress is sensitive to the choice of ˆ p which characterizes the tail of the obstacle.Effect of dislocation density evolution . 298K Plastic Strain = 0. The first definition is derived based on experimental observations which indicate that the fitting of the hardening stresses can be achieved using . fcc and hcp model parameters is simple and straightforward. the waiting time needed by the dislocation to overcome an obstacle is less for bcc [tw = O(10−12 s)] than those required for fcc metals [tw = O(10−11 s)] (Kocks et al. the reference velocity vo = d ∼ b/tw values of fcc metals are less than the ones obtained for bcc metals as illustrated in Table 5.5 and 0. Therefore. This sensitivity.9. Initial dislocation density variation of the flow stress. 2. more caution is required in the numerical techniques used in obtaining the hardening parameters that produce not only the hardening stresses but also the temperature evolving with the plastic work. 1000 900 800 Flow Stress (MPa) 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 1. for several metals. the average values of the Burger vector are chosen to be around 3. σ represents a parameter which refers to a state of zero Kelvin temperature.5 and 3. In the proposed models. 2. Ta.E+13 Initial Dislocation Density (m-2) 1. Consequently. V. It ˆ should be noted here that the determination procedure of the proposed bcc. In the proposed model. however.. In fact. the following typical values of 1. 3.0Å for Nb.3. anism in overcoming the short-range barriers. is less for the case of fcc and hcp metals in obtaining the parameters and Yd .5 for the exponents p and q respectively are used for all metals. Moreover.E+12 OFHC Cu Nb Ta V Ti 8000/s . Unfortunately. However.E+14 Fig..

fcc and hcp metals is achieved at low and high strain rates and temperatures. Both definitions are used in predicting the isothermal and adiabatic flow stresses and compared with the available experimental data. The first definition uses the experimental power law fitting. it is found that the dynamic strain aging activates when the temperature reaches its critical values. helps in activating the dynamic strain aging by strengthening the obstacles through the diffusion process of the atoms and accordingly. dislocations require higher temperatures to overcome the obstacle which consequently increases the waiting time of these dislocations before the obstacle. Voyiadjis. Two different definitions for modeling the hardening stresses are employed using the least-square technique. Z. the dynamic strain aging effect is observed in titanium over a wide range of temperatures and at all strain rates. the deviation of the predicted results may be attributed to the use of constant values for the parameter ka assumed in the derivation of the proposed model. whereas the second one is derived using the plastic strain evolution of the dislocation density. . H. the second definition of the hardening parameters is derived using the concept of dislocation density evolution with plastic strain. the dynamic strain aging is not observed for most of the strain rates and temperatures used in the presented experimental comparisons. In this stage. It is found that the power-law definition of the plastic hardening stresses predicts more accurate results than the other definition in most experimental comparisons at different strain rates and temperatures. The effect of DSA on the plastic flow simulation along with the strain rate and temperature dependence of the dislocation annihilation factor ka will be discussed in a forthcoming paper by the authors. F. 5. vanadium and tantalum for bcc metals. Actually. show good agreement as compared with different experimental results conducted by several authors for niobium. The simulation of the adiabatic and isothermal plastic flow stresses for different bcc.338 G. The predicted results. For the bcc metals presented here. On the other hand. These temperature values increase as the strain rates increase. Conclusions The effect of dislocation density evolution with plastic strain is incorporated in modeling the thermo-mechanical response of different structure types of metals. In the case of OFHC copper. Abed the power law definition. titanium for hcp metal and OFHC copper for fcc metal. generally. It is found that the DSA phenomenon activates at different temperature depending on the strain rate values. This. however. The proposed models are derived basing on the concept of thermal activation energy as well as the dislocation interaction mechanisms. increasing suddenly the flow stress throughout the deformation process. in turn. On the other hand.

They thankfully acknowledge their appreciation to Howard "Skip" Bayes. For OFHC copper. The authors also acknowledge the financial support under grant number F33601-01-P-0343 provided by the Air Force Institute of Technology. Besides. Project Director. Quantico. The dynamic strain aging phenomenon is clearly encountered in titanium for most temperatures and strain rates while it activates only at low strain rates and over a narrow range of high temperatures for most bcc metals. On the contrary. the DSA effect is not observed for the present temperature and strain rate range of experimental data. Its effect. 339 In bcc metals. Ohio. For the case of hcp metals. shows strong dependence on the strain rate and temperature while the plastic strain hardening which represents the athermal stress is independent of them. the effect of β1 on the thermal stresses is very small which indicates that the strain dependence of the thermal stresses is ascribed to the hardening stress that is mainly generated through the evolution of the forest dislocation density.. the thermo-mechanical behavior shows a combination between the plastic deformation behavior of both bcc and fcc structures. the mobile dislocation density evolution through the parameter β1 as well as the forest dislocation density evolution through the hardening parameters shows considerable dependence on the thermal stresses of OFHC copper. the thermal yield stress.. is not included in the present modeling where the dislocation movement as well as the dislocation evolution controls the plastic deformation in the absence of diffusion and creep. It is concluded from the stress-strain prediction of the proposed bcc models that the effect of the parameter β1 which represents the evolution of the thermally affected part of the mobile dislocation density is almost negligible. the dynamic strain aging encountered in some metals at certain temperatures is strain rate dependent. both yielding and hardening stresses are strain rate and temperature-dependent.Effect of dislocation density evolution . Acknowledgment The authors acknowledge the financial support under grant number M6785403-M-6040 provided by the Marine Corps Systems Command. That is the evolution of the mobile and forest dislocation density is related to the athermal part of the flow stress. In contrast. due to the short-range barriers (Peierls barriers). the thermal component as well as the athermal component of the flow stress for the proposed hcp model strongly depends on the plastic strain. Virginia. on the other hand. however. In fact. AFSS PGD. . WPAFB. the thermal stress in fcc metals is strongly dependent on the plastic strain due to domination of the dislocation intersections on the mechanisms behavior of the thermal activation analysis. Thus. In titanium.

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