42 views

Uploaded by Balasundar Ilangovan

- Prediction of available rotation capacity and ductility of wide-flange beams.pdf
- Mat 024 Theory
- Presentation Workshop JR Klepaczko 2009 Effect of strain rate on ductile fracture
- Breakage Analysis of Aluminum Wire Rod in Drawing Operation
- Crystal Imperfections- Dislocations
- NHPC Intern Report
- Crystal Imperfection CH 4
- Elastic-plastic Collapse of a Cylindrical Pipe under External Rigid Body Loading
- Validation of Simple Shear Tests for Parameter Ide
- 00 Xue 2007 PhD Thesis R3
- Lecture3 (1) Assign
- Mechanism of the Koehler Dislocation Multiplication Process
- CRACK PROPAGATION FOR CONCRETE FLAT PLATES USING XFEM METHOD
- Metallurgy Curriculum
- OTC 20197 Templeton FEA of Conductor Seafloor Interaction
- Module Descriptor.pdf
- Friction Cutting
- PV Lab Report
- Project Ppt
- Abstract

You are on page 1of 45

**299–343, Warszawa 2005
**

Eﬀect of dislocation density evolution on the thermomechanical

response of metals with diﬀerent crystal structures at low and

high strain rates and temperatures

G. Z. VOYIADJIS, F. H. ABED

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

Louisiana State University,

Baton Rouge, LA 70803 USA

The contribution of plastic strain evolution of mobile and forest dislocation den-

sities to the thermal and athermal components of polycrystalline metals ﬂow stress

is investigated in this work. The thermomechanical response is characterized here

for body centered cubic (bcc), face centered cubic (fcc) and hexagonal close-packed

(hcp) structures of metals at low and high strain rates and temperatures. Conse-

quently, the simulation of the plastic ﬂow stress for these metals is developed based

on the concept of thermal activation energy, the additive decomposition of the ﬂow

stress, dislocations interaction mechanisms and the role of dislocations dynamic in

crystals. The material parameters of the proposed modeling are physically deﬁned

and related to the nano- and micro-structure quantities. On the other hand, the

hardening parameters of each kind of metal structures are presented in two diﬀerent

forms; physically based deﬁnition which is developed, based on the aforementioned

concepts and empirical relation which is used by several authors and is based on ex-

perimental observations. Several experimental data obtained by diﬀerent authors for

Niobium, Tantalum, Vanadium, Oxygen Free High Conductivity (OFHC) Copper,

and Titanium are used in evaluating the proposed models. Good correlation is ob-

served between the proposed models predictions and the experimental observations.

Moreover, the predicted results show that the eﬀect of mobile and forest dislocation

densities evolution with plastic strain on the thermal stress of bcc metals is almost

negligible and pertained totally to the athermal stress part, whereas the plastic strain

evolution of these dislocation densities play crucial roles in determining the plastic

thermal ﬂow stress of most fcc metals. The thermal and athermal ﬂow stresses for

hcp metals, however, show a behavior that is a combination of that for both bcc and

fcc plastic deformation models.

Key words: plasticity, mobile and forest dislocation density, plastic ﬂow stress, ac-

tivation energy analysis, thermomechanical response; activation energy, plasticity.

1. Introduction

The plastic flow stress for relatively pure metals is determined through

the interaction of dislocations, which are moving inside the crystal lattice, with

the lattice itself and with the available barriers encountered inside the lattice.

Ashby and Frost [4] pointed out that dislocation motion through the lattice

300 G. Z. Voyiadjis, F. H. Abed

or past an obstacle require surmounting of the energy barrier by a combination

of applied stress and thermal activation. Thus, at the microscale level, the mech-

anisms associated with dislocation motion and dislocation multiplication, the

statistics of mobile dislocation populations, the nature and the statistics of ob-

stacle distributions and the relationship between the externally imposed plastic

strain rate and the dislocation kinetics, determine the form of the macroscopic

plastic response. Moreover, the crystal lattice conﬁguration plays a crucial role

in determining the eﬀect of thermal activation on the mechanical response of

relatively pure metals which are mainly classiﬁed into three common crystal

types; body-centered cubic (bcc), face-centered cubic (fcc) and hexagonal-close-

packed (hcp). Each of these three crystal structures exhibits a characteristic

thermomechanical behavior which is associated with the available slip systems

and symmetries as well as with the nature of dislocation cores. Good reviews of

plastic deformation in diﬀerent crystal structure types of metals are provided by

Kubin [30], Christian [14], Taylor [53], Vitek and Duesbury [54], Chichili

et al. [13], Nemat-Nasser et al. [44] and Lennon and Ramesh [33].

A great deal of eﬀort has been made in understanding the inﬂuence of temper-

ature and strain rate on the ﬂow stress of diﬀerent structure types of metals. This

understanding, however, is essential for the modeling and analysis of numerous

processes including high-speed machining, impact, penetration and shear local-

ization. Recently, considerable progress has been made in understanding the role

of rate controlling dislocation mechanisms on the temperature and strain rate

dependence of the ﬂow stress for metals and alloys. Hoge and Murkherjee [18]

studied the eﬀect of both temperature and strain rates on the lower yield stress

of tantalum as a bcc metal and proposed a model incorporating the combined

operation of the Peierls’ mechanism and dislocation drag process. Zerilli and

Armstrong [59] used dislocation mechanics concept to develop a constitutive

model that accounts for strain, strain rate and temperature in a coupled manner,

which can be incorporated in computer codes for applications related to dynamic

loading conditions. Their model considers two diﬀerent forms for the two diﬀerent

classes of metals (bcc and fcc). The rational for the diﬀerences in the two forms

mainly depends on the dislocation characteristics for each particular structure.

Bcc metals show stronger dependence of the yield stress on temperature and

strain rate while in the case of fcc metals the yield stress is mainly aﬀected by

strain hardening. In other words, the cutting of dislocation forests is the principal

mechanism in fcc metals, while in bcc metals; the overcoming of Peierls-Nabarro

barriers is the principal mechanism. Zerilli–Armstrong (Z–A) model has been

derived based on the concept of thermal activation analysis for overcoming local

obstacles to dislocation motion. This model has been widely used in many com-

puter codes from which its material parameters, as ﬁrst believed, are physically

interpreted. Very recently, Voyiadjis and Abed [55]) explained that the phys-

Effect of dislocation density evolution ... 301

ical deﬁnitions of the Z–A model parameters are, in fact, not accurate because

of the assumption made by using the expansion ln(1 + x) ≃ x in the model

derivation. This expansion, however, is valid only for values x ≪ 1.0, whereas

the deﬁnition of the variable x given by Z–A model indicates that its numerical

value increases and approaches the value of one with strain rate and temperature

increase. This, in turn, makes the Z–A parameters lose their physical meaning

when they are used in high temperature and strain rate applications. In other

words, by using the above-mentioned expansion, the Z–A model derivation was

directed to match the experimental evidence which shows that the temperature

degradation of the ﬂow stress can be ﬁtted using an exponential form (see the

paper of Voyiadjis and Abed [55] for more details).

Klepaczko [25, 26] derived a constitutive model that is based on a consis-

tent approach to the kinetics of macroscopic plastic ﬂow of metals with bcc and

fcc structures. His constitutive formalism was applied utilizing one state variable

which is the total dislocation density and assuming that plastic deformation in

shear is the fundamental mode in metal plasticity. Furthermore, he assumed

that at constant microstructure, the ﬂow stress consists of two components: the

internal stress and the eﬀective stress. The internal stress is developed by the

long-range strong obstacles to dislocation motion whereas the eﬀective stress is

due to thermally activated short-range obstacles. Unlike most experimental ob-

servations and theoretical interpretations, Klepaczko pointed out that for certain

bcc or fcc metals, athermal and thermal ﬂow stress components that are per-

tained to the resistance of long and short range barriers respectively are strain

rate and temperature-dependent. Klepaczko and his co-workers (Klepaczko

and Rezaig [27] and Rusinek and Klepaczko [48]) have successfully evalu-

ated the material parameters of the derived constitutive model for diﬀerent bcc

and fcc metals and they were able to study the adiabatic shear banding in mild

steel numerically.

Nemat-Nasser and his co-workers (e.g., Nemat-Nasser and Isaacs, [41],

Nemat-Nasser and Li [42] Nemat-Nasser et al. [43] and Nemat-Nasser and

Guo [44, 45]) developed an experimental technique measuring the ﬂow stress of

diﬀerent bcc, fcc and hcp metals and alloys over a broad range of strains, strain

rate and temperatures in uniaxial compression. Some of their experimental re-

sults are, actually, used in this work for models evaluation and comparisons. They

also presented a constitutive model that characterizes the plastic deformation of

diﬀerent metals and alloys using the thermal activation concept and assuming

constant dislocation density throughout the deformation process. That is neither

the plastic strain evolution of dislocation density nor the rate multiplication of

the dislocation density evolution is considered.

Voyiadjis and Abed [55] incorporated the production rate of dislocation

density in modeling the plastic ﬂow stress for both bcc and fcc metals using

302 G. Z. Voyiadjis, F. H. Abed

the concept of thermal activation analysis as well as the dislocation interaction

mechanisms. Some of their models parameters are physically derived and related

to the micro-structural quantities. Others, on the other hand, are deﬁned empir-

ically based on the experimental results. It was concluded that the contribution

of mobile dislocation density rate to the plastic deformation modeling shows

considerable eﬀect on the prediction of the ﬂow stress, particularly in the case

of high strain rates and temperatures. Furthermore, Abed and Voyiadjis [1]

used a combination of their bcc and fcc models in characterizing the thermome-

chanical behavior of AL-6XN stainless steel over a wide range of temperatures

and strain rates.

In this paper, the eﬀect of plastic strain evolution of dislocation density is

utilized in determining the plastic ﬂow stress of three major categories of metal

structures: body centered cubic (bcc), face centered cubic (fcc), and hexagonal

close packed (hcp) over a wide range of temperatures and strain rates. The pro-

posed constitutive models are derived based on the concept of thermal activation

analysis, dislocation interaction mechanisms, experimental observations, and the

additive decomposition of ﬂow stress to thermal and athermal components.

In Sec. 2, the role of dislocation dynamics inside the crystal lattice in de-

termining the general form of the thermal plastic stress is investigated using

the well-known Orowans’ [47] relation that considers the plastic deformation

as a dynamic process obtained by the motion of dislocations with an average

velocity. In turn, the plastic shear strain rate at the microscale is related to the

plastic strain rate tensor at the macroscale using the expression postulated by

Bamman and Aifantis [6]. Moreover, the evolution of dislocation density with

plastic strain given by Klepaczko [25] is also utilized in the derivation process

of the proposed modeling.

In Sec. 3, a constitutive description is presented in order to understand the

plastic deformation behavior of bcc, fcc and hcp metals considering the exper-

imental observations as well as the physical basis of the microsturctures inside

the material. Both the thermal and athermal components of the ﬂow stress are

physically derived and all the models parameters are related to the nano and

micro-structure quantities. The hardening stresses are characterized using two

diﬀerent deﬁnitions of hardening parameters for each metal structure. Finally,

the dynamic strain aging and the twinning phenomena encountered in some poly-

crystalline metals at certain range of strain rates and temperatures are brieﬂy

discussed.

In Sec. 4, the determination procedure of the proposed bcc, fcc and hcp

models parameters is presented. Applications of the proposed models to nio-

bium, vanadium, and tantalum for bcc metals, OFHC copper for fcc metals and

titanium for hcp are then performed and compared to available experimental

results at low and high strain rates and temperatures. Furthermore, discussions

Effect of dislocation density evolution ... 303

of the model prediction results along with quantiﬁcation of the nano and micro-

quantities are presented. Conclusions are then given in Sec. 5.

2. Dislocation dynamics in crystals under plastic deformation

The plastic behavior of metals can be determined by investigating the dislo-

cation dynamics of their crystals, which are generated, moved and stored dur-

ing the inelastic deformation. In turn, the most important features that should

serve as constituent elements of an appropriate theory of crystal plasticity are

the motion, multiplication and interaction of these dislocations. Orowan [47]

recognized the plastic deformation as a dynamic process by suggesting that the

plastic shear strain rate is obtained by the motion of dislocations with an average

velocity v such that:

(2.1) ˙ γ

p

= bρ

m

v,

where ρ

m

is the mobile dislocation density and b is the Burgers vector.

A theoretical description of plasticity should aim at relating the macroscopic

deformation behavior at both the intrinsic properties of the deforming material

and the externally imposed deformation conditions. On the microscopic scale,

the plastic ﬂow of crystalline materials is controlled by the generation, motion

and interactions between dislocations. Thus, the constitutive description must,

in principle, bridge the entire hierarchy of length scales, starting from the de-

termination of the single dislocation properties on an atomistic scale and pro-

ceeding up to the characterization of the macroscopic material properties. In

many cases, conclusions about the macroscopic deformation behavior can be ob-

tained by investigating the temperature and strain rate dependence of the ﬂow

stress of pure bcc and fcc metals considering the properties of single dislocations

(Zaiser et al. [58]). In relating the plastic shear strain rate at the microscale

to the plastic strain rate tensor at the macroscale, the following expression is

postulated (Bamman and Aifantis, [6]):

(2.2) ˙ ε

p

ij

= γ

p

M

ij

,

where M

ij

is the symmetric Schmidt orientation tensor which is deﬁned as

follows:

(2.3) M

ij

=

1

2

(n

i

⊗ν

j

+ν

i

⊗n

j

),

where ˆ n denotes the unit normal on the slip plane and ˆ ν denotes the unit vec-

tor in the slip direction. Equation (2.2) indicates that the climb processes were

neglected and plastic incompressibility was assumed since the orientation ten-

sor

˙

M

ij

is traceless. Moreover, the variation of the Schmidt tensor is ignored

304 G. Z. Voyiadjis, F. H. Abed

either by considering that plasticity at the macroscale incorporates a number of

diﬀerently oriented grains into each continuum point and therefore an average

value is assumed or by being the product of two “ﬁrst order” terms (Aifantis [2]

Bammann and Aifantis [7]).

Substituting Eq. (2.1) into Eq. (2.2), the equivalent plastic strain rate ˙ ε

p

at

the macroscale is deﬁned in terms of the mobile dislocation density and disloca-

tion velocity as follows:

(2.4) ˙ ε

p

=

_

2

3

˙ ε

p

ij

˙ ε

p

ij

= ¯ mb ρ

m

v

where ¯ m = (2M

ij

M

ij

/3)

1/2

can be interpreted as the Schmidt orientation fac-

tor. It should be noted that both the mobility v and the concentration ρ

m

of

dislocations increase with increasing external forces (stresses). Nadgornyi [39]

showed that one can (and often should) use the dislocation rate as well as the

dislocation velocity interchangeably if one considers plastic deformation quanti-

tatively. Consequently, the meaning of the quantities deﬁned in Eq. (2.1) should

be subject to reﬁnement. Voyiadjis and Abed [55] utilized this concept in

the derivation of their constitutive models for both bcc and fcc metals. For the

present work, however, only the dislocation velocity is considered and rather

than incorporating the dislocation rate (dρ/dt), we consider the variation of the

mobile dislocation density with the plastic strain (dρ/dε

p

). Therefore, the accu-

mulation of dislocation density from its initial values until reaching its saturated

level is considered.

The accumulation process of material dislocation density during the plas-

tic deformation was investigated extensively by many authors (see for example,

Klepaczko [25], Kubin and Estrin [31], Bammann [8] and Barlat et al. [9].

Klepaczko [25] showed that the growth of dislocation density is nearly lin-

ear with regard to the deformation in the ﬁrst steps of the hardening process,

independently of the temperature. This is followed by a recombination of the

dislocations that is assumed to be proportional with the probability of disloca-

tion meeting, that is to say of the dislocation density. Based on this hypothesis,

the following simple relation for the evolution of the total dislocation density ρ

was presented (Klepaczko, [25]):

(2.5)

dρ

dε

p

= M −k

a

(ρ −ρ

i

),

where M = 1/bl is the multiplication factor, l is the dislocation mean free path, ρ

i

is the initial dislocation density encountered in the material due to the manufac-

ture process or by nature, and k

a

is the dislocation annihilation factor which may

depend on both the temperature and strain rate. Klepaczko and Rezaig [27]

Effect of dislocation density evolution ... 305

showed that for mild steels, both M and k

a

could be assumed constant at not so

high strain rates and up to the temperature where the annihilation micromech-

anisms (recovery) start to be more intense. It should be kept in mind however,

that at saturation, the slope dρ/dε

p

approaches the value of zero, which leads to

the following deﬁnition of the saturated dislocation density ρ

s

(2.6) ρ

s

= ρ

i

+

M

k

a

.

The mobile dislocation density is related to the total dislocation density ρ

by the linear relation (ρ

m

= fρ), where the fraction f ≤ 1.0 may change with ρ

and temperature (Kelly and Gillis [24] Sackett et al. [49]). In fact, it can be

shown that the constant value of the fraction f gives satisfactory quantitative

results for most metals (Klepaczko and Rezaig [27]). In this study, the fraction

f represents only the part of the mobile dislocation density that is thermally

aﬀected through Orowan’s equation as will be discussed later.

Kubin and Estrin [31] proposed the following set of two coupled diﬀeren-

tial equations to describe both the forest ρ

f

and mobile ρ

m

dislocation density

evolutions with plastic strain using the same above-mentioned concepts:

(2.7)

dρ

m

dε

p

=

λ

1

b

2

−λ

2

ρ

m

−

λ

3

b

ρ

1/2

f

,

dρ

f

dε

p

= λ

2

ρ

m

+

λ

3

b

ρ

1/2

f

−λ

4

ρ

f

,

where the constant coeﬃcients λ

i

are related to the multiplication of mobile

dislocations (λ

1

), their mutual annihilation and trapping (λ

2

), their immobi-

lization through interaction with forest dislocations (λ

3

), and to the dynamic

recovery (λ

4

).

The dislocations are assumed to move in a periodic potential and the average

dislocation velocity v is determined by the thermodynamic probability of achiev-

ing suﬃcient energy temperature T to move past a peak in the potential. In other

words, it is determined through thermal activation by overcoming local obsta-

cles to dislocation motion. Many expressions deﬁning the dislocation speed for

thermally activated dislocation glides may be found in the literature (Stein and

Low [50] Gillis and Gilman [19], Li [34] and Hirth and Nix [17]). The follow-

ing general expression, however, is postulated (Bammann and Aifantis [6]):

(2.8) v = v

o

exp

_

−

G

kT

_

,

where k is the Boltzmann’s constant, and T is the absolute temperature. The

reference dislocation velocity v

o

represents the peak value where the tempera-

ture reaches or exceeds the melting point. It is deﬁned by v

o

= d/t

w

, where t

w

306 G. Z. Voyiadjis, F. H. Abed

represents the time that a dislocation waits at an obstacle and d is the average

distance the dislocation moves between the obstacles. The shear stress-dependent

free energy of activation G may depend not only on stress but also on the inter-

nal structure. Kocks et al. [28] suggested the following deﬁnition to relate the

activation energy G to the thermal ﬂow stress σ

th

:

(2.9) G = G

o

_

1 −

_

σ

th

ˆ σ

_

p

_

q

,

where G

o

is the reference Gibbs energy, ˆ σ is the threshold stress at which the

dislocations can overcome the barriers without the assistance of thermal activa-

tion (σ

th

= ˆ σ where G = 0.0), and p and q are constants deﬁningthe shape of the

short-range barriers. According to Kocks [29] the typical values of the constant

q are 3/2 and 2 that is equivalent to a triangular obstacle proﬁle near the top.

On the other hand, the typical values of the constant p are 1/2 and 2/3 which

characterizes the tail of the obstacle.

Substituting Eq. (2.5) for the dislocation density evolution (after perform-

ing proper integration) and Eq. (2.8) for the dislocation velocity into Eq. (2.4)

and making use of Eq. (2.9), the general relation of the thermal ﬂow stress for

polycrystalline materials (metals) is deﬁned as follows:

(2.10) σ

th

= ˆ σ

_

1 −

_

β

1

(ε

p

)T −β

2

T ln

˙ ε

p

˙ ε

i

po

_

1/q

_

1/p

,

where ˙ ε

i

po

represents the reference equivalent plastic strain rate in its initial

stage while related to the initial mobile dislocation. Its order of magnitude can,

however, be anywhere between 10

6

and 10

9

s

−1

which characterizes the highest

rate value a material may reach as related to the reference (highest) dislocation

velocity v

o

,

(2.11) ˙ ε

i

po

= ¯ mb v

o

ρ

mi

.

The parameters β

1

and β

2

are deﬁned as follows:

(2.12) β

1

=

k

G

o

ln

_

1 +C

1

_

1 −exp(−k

a

ε

p

)

_

_

and

(2.13) β

2

=

k

G

o

where

(2.14) C

1

= f

M

k

a

ρ

mi

.

Effect of dislocation density evolution ... 307

It is worthwhile to mention here that β

1

is not constant and rather increases with

plastic strain increase. Its value, however, attains the maximum when the mobile

part of the total dislocation density reaches its saturated level (ρ

m

= ρ

ms

), which

is the case at high strains. On the other hand, β

1

vanishes as the plastic strain

approaches zero and, in consequence, the thermal plastic ﬂow pertains totally to

the yield stress. In this work, the fraction f, which represents the mobile portion

amount of the total dislocation density, is assumed constant in order to simplify

the determination procedure of the model parameters. Moreover, average values

of the quantities M and k

a

are considered (Kubin and Estrin, [31]).

In understanding quantitatively the deformation behavior of metals, a con-

stitutive description is required. In fact, any constitutive modeling of crystalline

materials like metals should consider the physical basis of the microstructure

inside the material as well as the experimental observation during the plas-

tic deformation. However, deforming a metal beyond its elastic limit activates

and moves its dislocations through the crystal. In turn, two types of obstacles

are encountered that try to prevent dislocation movements through the lattice;

short-range and long-range barriers. The short-range ones are due to dislocations

trapping (forest) which can be overcome by introducing thermal energy through

the crystal. On the other hand, the long-range barriers are due to the structure of

the material, which cannot be overcome by introducing thermal energy through

the crystal. Therefore, the ﬂow stress of any type of metals (σ = (3σ

ij

σ

ij

/2)

1/2

of

the von Mises type) will be additively decomposed into two major components;

the athermal stress σ

a

and the thermal stress σ

th

(2.15) σ = σ

th

+σ

a

.

The above assumption of additive decomposition for the formulation of the ﬂow

stress has been proved experimentally and is used by several authors (see for

example, Zerilli and Armstrong [59], Nemat-Nasser and Isaacs [41] and

Nemat-Nasser et al. [43]).

Although Eq. (2.10) represents the general relation of the thermal stress, the

ﬁnal deﬁnition of thermal stress as well as athermal stress diﬀers from metal

to metal, depending, on both the microstructure crystal shape (bcc, fcc, and

hcp) and on the experimental observations. In the following section, constitutive

relations will be proposed for diﬀerent types of metals applicable to high strain

rates and temperatures.

3. Constitutive modeling of polycrystalline metals

Based on their crystal structure, metals can generally be classiﬁed into three

major types; body-centered cubic (bcc), face-centered cubic (fcc), and hexagonal

308 G. Z. Voyiadjis, F. H. Abed

close-packed (hcp). The crystal structure and the atom distribution inside the

lattice play a crucial role in controlling the dislocation generation and movement

during plastic deformation. Each type of metal, however, has its own behavior

coupled to strain rate and temperature. In this section, modeling of the plas-

tic ﬂow is presented for the aforementioned types of metals using the thermal

activation energy principle combined with systematic experimental observations

investigated by many authors. On the other hand, the role of solute/dislocation

interaction in metals is not included in this study and therefore, the tempera-

tures and strain rates are considered in the range where dynamic strain aging

(DSA) is not eﬀective.

3.1. Body centered cubic (BCC) metals

Experimental observations of most bcc metals, such as pure iron, tantalum,

niobium and vanadium show strong dependence of the yield stress on the strain

rate and temperature, whereas the plastic hardening is hardly inﬂuenced by

temperature. That is, at a given strain rate and diﬀerent temperatures or at

a given temperature and several strain rates, the variation of the stress-strain

curves appear only on the yielding point whereas the hardening curves are almost

identical (e.g. see Fig. 1 for the case of vanadium). This indicates that the thermal

component of the ﬂow stress is mainly controlled by the yield stress and nearly

independent of the plastic strain.

0

200

400

600

800

1000

0.00 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70

True Strain

T

r

u

e

S

t

r

e

s

s

(

M

P

a

)

Vanadium, 2,500 s-1

T0 = 77K

296K

400K

500K

600K

800K

Fig. 1. Adiabatic ﬂow stress of vanadium for indicated initial temperatures, at 2500 s

−1

strain rate given by Nemat-Nasser and Guo [44, 45].

The thermal stress of bcc metals may be interpreted physically as the resis-

tance of the dislocation motion by the Peierls barriers (short-range barriers) pro-

vided by the lattice itself. Moreover, the thermal component of the ﬂow stress for

Effect of dislocation density evolution ... 309

such metals can be determined using the same expression deﬁned in Eq. (2.10).

In fact, it is found for most bcc metals that the eﬀect of the variation of β

1

(or

variation of mobile dislocation density) on the thermal ﬂow stress is practically

negligible as will be shown in the application section. This behavior, actually,

comes out from the fact that the plastic hardening is essentially allotted to the

athermal part of the ﬂow stress which is primarily accomplished through the

relatively temperature-insensitive long-range barriers.

It should be mentioned here that the ﬂow stress at a given temperature, T,

is proportional to an appropriate shear modulus, µ, at this temperature. It is

also necessary to have G proportional to µ(G ∝ µb

3

) in order for the activation

work done by the applied forces during the activation event to be independent

of material properties (Kocks [29]). Zerilli and Armstrong [59] related, at

zero Kelvin temperature, the thermal stress (σ

o

) to the reference Gibbs energy

(G

o

) and dislocation activation area (A

o

) as follows:

(3.1) σ

o

=

mG

o

A

o

b

,

where b is the magnitude of the Burgers vector and m is the orientation factor

that relates the shear stress to the normal stress, σ = mτ where m =

√

3 for the

case of the von Mises ﬂow rule. Utilizing Eq. (3.1) with a proper proportional

relation of the reference Gibbs energy to the shear modulus, the parameter ˆ σ

can be related to the strain-independent internal structure as follows:

(3.2) ˆ σ = mα

o

µ

o

b

2

/A

o

,

where α

o

is a constant which represents the portion of the shear modulus µ

o

contributed to the activation energy, both at zero temperature. For bcc metals,

the activation area A

o

may be considered to be constant in accordance with the

intrinsic Peierls stress.

For most metals, an additional component of stress Y

a

is used that is inde-

pendent of plastic strain and temperature (athermal yield stress component) and

related to the internal microstructure quantities that are independent of plastic

strain (e.g. grain diameter D

g

). This component is deﬁned as the product of

microstructural stress intensity and the inverse square root of the average grain

diameter. Klepaczko [26] proposed a deﬁnition for the stress intensity as re-

lated to the shear modulus and the magnitude of the Burgers vector from which

the athermal yield stress is ﬁnally deﬁned as follows:

(3.3) Y

a

= α

1

µ

_

b

D

g

_

1/2

where α

1

is the interaction constant showing the contribution of the above mech-

anism to the athermal stress.

310 G. Z. Voyiadjis, F. H. Abed

The ﬁnal component of the bcc ﬂow stress is attributed to the hardening

stress, which is independent of temperature, and consequently contributes to

the athermal ﬂow stress part. In fact, both the mobile dislocation density and

immobile (forest) dislocation density should be considered in the evolution (accu-

mulation) relations for the case of large strain problems (up to 50%). Therefore,

the hardening component of the ﬂow stress is related to the eﬀective total dislo-

cation density (¯ ρ = ρ−ρ

i

) where ρ

i

is the initial dislocation density encountered

originally inside the material. The dislocation model of Taylor [52] gives the

shear ﬂow stress τ in terms of the total dislocation density ρ as

(3.4) τ = αµb

√

ρ,

where α is an empirical coeﬃcient taken to be 0.2 for fcc metals and about 0.4

for bcc metals as given by Nabarro et al. [38], who pointed out that Eq. (3.4)

can be derived by several methods. Ashby [3] split the diﬀerence of α values

in assuming that α = 0.3 for most metals. The plastic strain evolution of the

eﬀective total dislocation density can be deﬁned, after solving the diﬀerential

equation Eq. (2.5), in terms of the internal physical quantities as follows:

(3.5) ¯ ρ =

M

k

a

(1 −exp(−k

a

ε

p

)) .

Relating the shear stress to the normal stress by σ = mτ, and substituting ¯ ρ

deﬁned by Eq. (3.5) instead of ρ in Eq. (3.4), one has the athermal ﬂow stress

in the following form:

(3.6) σ

a

= Y

a

+

¯

B(1 −exp(−k

a

ε

p

))

1/2

,

where

¯

B is the hardening parameter deﬁned as

(3.7)

¯

B = mαµb (M/k

a

)

1/2

.

Alternatively, the plastic hardening for pure bcc metals may be evaluated

from an assumed power law dependent on strain. This assumption is observed

experimentally and used by many authors (see for example Zerilli and Arm-

strong [59] and Nemat-Nasser et al. [43]). Thus, the athermal ﬂow stress of

bcc metals may be given as

(3.8) σ

a

= Y

a

+Bε

n

p

where B and n are the hardening parameters. This experimental observation can

be physically justiﬁed by using alternative explanation for the total dislocation

density. In other words, the total dislocation density may also be deﬁned as the

Effect of dislocation density evolution ... 311

interaction between the density ρ

s

for statistically stored dislocations, which are

stored by trapping each other in a random way, and density ρ

g

for geometri-

cally necessary dislocations, which are stored in order to maintain the continuity

(compatibility) of various components of the material, i.e.

(3.9) ρ

γ

= ρ

γ

s

+ρ

γ

g

,

where the exponent γ is a material parameter. Ashby [3] pointed out that, in

general, the presence of geometrically necessary dislocations will accelerate the

rate of statistical storage and that the value of γ = 1 should provide a lower

limit on the eﬀective total dislocation density. Based on that, Zhao et al. [61]

argued that the value of γ should be less than or equal to 1 in order to properly

estimate the eﬀective total dislocation density.

It is obvious from the above deﬁnitions of both dislocation densities that the

geometrically necessary dislocation density ρ

g

is related to the strain gradient

whereas the statistically stored dislocation density ρ

s

is related to the strain

hardening as follows (Zhao et al. [61]:

(3.10) ρ

g

=

ˆ

f

χ

b

, ρ

s

=

_

σ

ref

ε

N

mαµb

,

_

where χ is a suitable form of the third-order strain gradient tensor and

ˆ

f is

a function of higher order gradients of strain. The function

ˆ

f, however, becomes

constant when the strain-gradient ﬁeld is uniform. The coeﬃcients σ

ref

and N

represent the material parameters for the assumed power-law hardening rule.

Eq. (3.10) may be used for the deﬁnition of both the eﬀective statistically stored

dislocation density ¯ ρ

s

and the eﬀective geometrically necessary dislocation den-

sity ¯ ρ

g

except that they are related to the plastic strain and the plastic strain

gradient respectively.

By substituting Eq. (3.10) into Eq. (3.9), the power-law hardening parameters

can be related to the eﬀective statistically stored dislocation density ¯ ρ

s

for the

case of uniform plastic straining (¯ ρ

g

≃ 0) as follows:

(3.11) σ

ref

ε

N

p

= mαµb

√

¯ ρ

s

.

Although the above equation (Eq. (3.11)) rationalizes the power-law hard-

ening rule by relating it to the internal physical quantities, the hardening para-

meters B and n, however, are not explicitly deﬁned as in the case of those given

by Eq. (3.6). In turn, the athermal hardening stress may be estimated either by

using the physically derived relation given by Eq. (3.6) or by using the empirical

relation, Eq. (3.8), obtained through experimental observations.

312 G. Z. Voyiadjis, F. H. Abed

Accordingly, the total ﬂow stress for bcc metals may be calculated, after

making use of the concept of additive decomposition in Eq. (2.15), through one

of the following relations:

(3.12) σ = Y

a

+

¯

B(1 −exp(−k

a

ε

p

))

1/2

+ ˆ σ

_

1 −

_

β

1

(ε

p

)T −β

2

T ln

˙ ε

p

˙ ε

i

po

_

1/q

_

1/p

and

(3.13) σ = Y

a

+Bε

n

p

+ ˆ σ

_

1 −

_

β

1

(ε

p

)T −β

2

T ln

˙ ε

p

˙ ε

i

po

_

1/q

_

1/p

The above relations may be used to predict the stress-strain curves for both

isothermal and adiabatic plastic deformations. For the case of isothermal defor-

mation, the temperature T remains constant during the plastic (representing the

initial testing temperature, T

o

) deformation. In the adiabatic case of deforma-

tion, heat inside the material increases as plastic strain increases and therefore,

the temperature T is calculated incrementally by assuming that the majority of

the plastic work is converted to heat:

(3.14) T = T

o

+

ζ

c

p

ρ

εp

_

0

σdε

p

.

Here ρ is the material density and c

p

is the speciﬁc heat at constant pressure. The

Taylor–Quinney empirical constant ζ is often assigned the value of 0.9. However,

recent tests have indicated that this parameter may vary with plastic strain

(for more details see the work of Kapoor and Nemat-Nasser, [23]). Equation

(3.14) may be solved numerically or can be integrated without introducing any

noticeable errors by either using the mean value theorem or the simple Euler

method. In this work, Eq. (3.14) is used for all types of metals to determine

the evolution of temperature with plastic strain throughout the adiabatic defor-

mation.

It should be noted that the thermal component of the ﬂow stress given by the

last term in the right-hand side of Eq. (3.12) or Eq. (3.13) is non-negative. Thus,

the term between the brackets on the right-hand side should be set equal to zero

when the temperature exceeds the critical value. The critical temperature, in the

T vs σ curve, deﬁnes the starting point of the constant stress which represents

the athermal component of the ﬂow stress. This critical value, however, is strain

rate dependent and is deﬁned as follows:

Effect of dislocation density evolution ... 313

(3.15) T

cr

=

_

β

1

−β

2

ln

˙ ε

p

˙ ε

i

po

_

−1

.

3.2. Face centered cubic (FCC) metals

In the case of fcc metals, like copper and aluminum, the mechanisms of

thermal activation analysis are dominated and controlled by the emergence and

evolution of a heterogeneous microstructure of dislocations (mobile) as well as the

long-range interactions between dislocations (forest). On this basis, the thermal

activation is strongly dependent on the plastic strain. That is, the increase in the

yield point with a decrease in temperature is highly dependent on the strain-

hardened states for fcc metals. Experimental observations validate the plastic

strain dependence of strain rate and temperature for most fcc metals (Nemat-

Nasser and Li [40], Tanner et al. [51], Lennon and Ramesh [33]). That is,

for a certain strain rate and various temperatures, the adiabatic stress vs strain

plots clearly show that all curves start approximately from the same point (initial

yielding) and each curve hardens diﬀerently from each other, depending on the

corresponding temperature (see Fig. 2 for the case of OFHC Copper).

0

100

200

300

400

500

600

0.00 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00 1.20

True Strain

T

r

u

e

S

t

r

e

s

s

(

M

P

a

)

To = 296K

596K

796K

996K

OFHC Copper, 4,000/s

Fig. 2. Adiabatic ﬂow stress of OFHC copper for indicated initial temperatures, at 4000 s

−1

strain rate given by Nemat-Nasser and Li [42].

The eﬀect of mobile dislocation density is introduced to the ﬂow stress by

utilizing Orowan’s equation as derived in the previous section. That is to say, the

parameter β

1

plays a signiﬁcant role in characterizing the eﬀect of dislocations

movement on the thermal ﬂow stress during the thermal plastic deformation. Ad-

ditionally, for the thermal activation analysis behavior, the eﬀect of dislocation

314 G. Z. Voyiadjis, F. H. Abed

intersection mechanisms (mobile and forest) on the ﬂow stress can be described

as follows. When dislocation patterns (i.e. cell) are formed, the sources of mobile

dislocations become numerous in the cell walls. After deformation, dislocations

tend to be trapped on the next cell wall forming a forest of dislocations, which

become the major obstacle for a mobile dislocation. Therefore, introducing ther-

mal energy will facilitate dislocations in overcoming these types of obstacles and,

in consequence, provide hardening to the thermal ﬂow stress.

On this basis, the distance d between dislocation intersections and conse-

quently the activation volume play an additional crucial role in determining an

appropriate formulation introducing the eﬀect of plastic strain on the thermal

component of the material ﬂow stress. Thus, the activation volume V can be

related to the distance between dislocation intersections as follows (Zerilli and

Armstrong [59], Voyiadjis and Abed [55]):

(3.16) V = Ab = db

2

/2,

where A is the activation area. In fact, Gracio [20] has speculated that in

copper, when the plastic strain increases, the mean free path decreases and

consequently, the distance between dislocation intersections decreases. Therefore,

the forest dislocation densities as well as the plastic strain are related to the

distance d through the relationship (Kubin and Estrin [31])

(3.17) d ∼ 1/ε

1/2

p

and ρ

f

∼ 1/d

2

.

The multiple slip-crystal ﬂow stress for fcc metals at T = 0.0 Kelvin temperature

and any strain value is related to both the dislocation densities and strain by

the relation given by several authors (see for example Bell [11])

(3.18) σ

o

≃ σ

′

o

(b/d) ≃ σ

′′

o

ε

n

p

.

Comparing Eq. (3.18) with Eq. (2.10) for the case of zero Kelvin temperature,

and employing the argument given by Eqs. (3.16) and (3.17), the activation area

A

o

for fcc metals, determined by dislocation intersections, is proportional to the

inverse square root of plastic strain (and vice versa) as follows (Zerilli and

Armstrong [59]):

(3.19)

A

o

= A

′

o

ε

−1/2

p

or

A

−1

o

= A

′

−1

o

ε

1/2

p

Equation (3.19) clearly shows that the activation area decreases as the plastic

strain evolves which indicates that the value of the activation area is the highest

Effect of dislocation density evolution ... 315

at the initial stage of plastic deformation (ε

p

= 0). The initial activation area,

however, is a ﬁnite quantity, which is not the case as deﬁned in Eq. (3.19) since

it will tend to inﬁnity when the plastic strain is zero. In this work, therefore,

the deﬁnition of the initial activation area is modiﬁed by incorporating a ﬁnite

initial activation area A

′

o

, and deﬁned for the case of fcc metals as follows:

(3.20) A

−1

o

= A

′

−1

o

+A

′′

−1

o

ε

1/2

p

.

Substituting Eq. (3.20) into Eq. (3.1) and since σ

o

= ˆ σ at T = 0, the thermal

component of the present constitutive equation for the case of fcc metals will

incorporate the coupling of temperature, strain rate, as well as plastic strain.

On the other hand, the athermal component of fcc ﬂow stress is independent of

the plastic strain and it pertains totally to the initial yield stress and is related

to the internal structure (grain diameter) as in the case of bcc metals Eq. (3.3).

Using the additive decomposition given in Eq. (2.15), the total ﬂow stress may

then be deﬁned for the case of fcc metals as:

(3.21) σ = Y

a

+

_

˜

Bε

1/2

p

+Y

d

_

_

1 −

_

β

1

(ε

p

)T −β

2

T ln

˙ ε

p

˙ ε

i

po

_

1/q

_

1/p

,

where the parameters Y

a

and β

i

are the same as deﬁned previously, whereas the

hardening parameter

˜

B is given as:

(3.22)

˜

B = mα

o

µ

o

b

2

/A

′′

o

.

It can be seen in Eq. (3.21) that, at a given plastic strain value, the thermal

stress preserves the same trend shown in bcc metals including that constants

p and q are falling in the same range as those given before. Moreover, there is

no strain rate and temperature eﬀect on the initial yield stress and, thus, Y

a

is

constant.

In fact, the modiﬁcation of the activation energy deﬁnition given in Eq. (3.20)

guided us in introducing an additional component to the thermal ﬂow stress,

incorporating the electron- and phonon- drag eﬀects on the movement of material

dislocations. This phenomenon is encountered mainly in fcc and hcp metals at

the regions where the plastic strains approach zero with relatively high strain

rates (Jassby and Vreeland [21] and Zerilli and Armstrong [60]). An

examination of Eq. (3.21) shows that when the plastic strain approaches the limit

zero (ε

p

→0.0), the solution for the thermal stress approaches the limiting value

(3.23) σ

th

→Y

d

_

_

1 −

_

k

G

o

T ln

˙ ε

i

po

˙ ε

p

_

1/q

_

_

1/p

,

316 G. Z. Voyiadjis, F. H. Abed

where the parameter Y

d

may be considered as the resultant drag-stress at the

reference velocity ˙ ε = ˙ ε

o

and/or zero Kelvin temperature T = 0 deﬁned as

(3.24) Y

d

= mα

o

µ

o

b

2

/A

′

o

.

It’s obvious that the drag-stress component given by Eq. (3.23) is a decreasing

function of temperature whereas it increases with the increase of the strain rate.

Such a behavior, however, coincides with the experimental results and observa-

tions found in the literature (see Vreeland and Jassby [56] and Follansbee

et al. [15], Nemat-Nasser and Li [40] and Nemat-Nasser et al. [46]). In this

regard, Armstrong et al. [5] have noted that the strong upturn in ﬂow stress at

high strain rates signiﬁes a strong decrease in the activation area A, approaching

atomic dimensions, indicative of strongly reduced intersection spacing leading to

the dislocation density increase.

Actually, the hardening parameter

˜

Bε

n

p

given in Eq. (3.21) can alternatively

be derived by a more accurate method by relating the activation area to the

forest dislocation density after utilizing both Eqs. (3.16) and (3.17) as follows:

(3.25) A

o

= bd/2 ≃ ˜ mbρ

−1/2

f

,

where ˜ m is a constant and the evolution of forest dislocation density with plastic

hardening may be deﬁned after making use of Eq. (2.5) as follows:

(3.26) ρ

f

= ρ

fi

+

¯

f

M

k

a

(1 −exp(−k

a

ε

p

)) ,

where

¯

f denotes the forest dislocation density fraction of the total dislocation

density. Substituting Eq. (3.25) into Eq. (3.2) and utilizing Eq. (3.26), the plas-

tic ﬂow stress of fcc metals can alternatively be determined using the following

relation:

(3.27) σ = Y

a

+

_

ˆ

Y

d

+

ˆ

B(1 −exp(−k

a

ε

p

))

1/2

_

,

×

_

1 −

_

β

1

(ε

p

)T −β

2

T ln

˙ ε

p

˙ ε

i

po

_

1/q

_

1/p

,

where the hardening parameter

ˆ

B and the drag-stress component

ˆ

Y

d

are deﬁned

by the following two relations:

(3.28)

ˆ

B = ˆ mα

o

µ

o

b

_

¯

f

M

k

a

,

(3.29)

ˆ

Y

d

= ˆ mα

o

µ

o

b

√

ρ

fi

,

Effect of dislocation density evolution ... 317

where ˆ m = m/ ˜ m is a constant. The plastic ﬂow stress for bcc metals is then de-

termined using either Eq. (3.21) with a power low hardening stress component

or Eq. (3.27) with a more accurate physical interpretation of hardening stress.

Both relations, however, correlate properly with the experimental results.

As a ﬁnal point, the evolution of the adiabatic temperature for fcc metals is

simulated using the same evolution relation given in Eq. (3.14). Moreover, the

critical temperature of fcc metals is both strain and strain rate-dependent and

is deﬁned in the same way as that given in Eq. (3.15).

3.3. Hexagonal Close-Packed (HCP) Metals

The mechanical behavior of hcp metals, like titanium and zirconium, can

be determined by addressing the structure and energies of dislocation cores

and planer defects, including twin boundaries and stacking faults. However, dif-

ferent hcp materials have dramatically diﬀerent mechanical properties which

make the modeling of the plastic ﬂow of hcp metals very complicated and not

unique over broad temperature and strain rate ranges. In fact, hcp materials of-

ten show strong temperature-dependent behavior, often associated with changes

in deformation modes which, in turn, aﬀect both the polycrystalline ductility

and dynamic recrystallization. Although the crystal structure of hcp metals is

close-packed like fcc metals, it shows plastic anisotropy and lacks the symmetry

needed to be suﬃcient in satisfying, for instance, the von Mises criterion (Yoo

et al. [57]). Since each hcp metal has its own mechanical behavior depending on

the internal structure (a/c ratio) and slip plane and direction, the authors choose

to concentrate in this study only on the thermal plastic deformation behavior of

titanium. Its alloys are considered to be the most increasingly used hcp metals

in structural applications at low and high strain rate of loading.

Observations of the experimental stress-strain results of titanium under high

strain rates and elevated temperatures indicated that not only is the yield stress

strongly dependent on temperature and strain rates but the strain hardening

also changes with temperatures, as shown in Fig. 3.

Figure 3 implies that thermal activation has the eﬀect of both lowering the

yield stress and decreasing the eﬀect of strain hardening. Thus, the macroscopic

thermomechanical behavior of hcp metals in general and titanium in particular,

tends to fall somewhere between that of the fcc and bcc metals. In this regard,

the plastic ﬂow stress of hcp metals is related to temperature and strain rates

assuming that the plastic ﬂow is mainly accounted for by dislocation motion and

intersections, as follows:

(3.30) σ = Y

a

+Bε

n

p

+

_

˜

Bε

1/2

p

+Y

d

_

_

1 −

_

β

1

(ε

p

)T −β

2

T ln

˙ ε

p

˙ ε

i

po

_

1/q

_

1/p

318 G. Z. Voyiadjis, F. H. Abed

or

(3.31) σ = Y

a

+

¯

B(1 −exp(−k

a

ε

p

))

1/2

+

_

ˆ

B(1 −exp(−k

a

ε

p

))

1/2

+Y

d

_

_

1 −

_

β

1

(ε

p

)T −β

2

T ln

˙ ε

p

˙ ε

i

po

_

1/q

_

1/p

.

Titanium

Strain Rate = 2200/s

0

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5

True Strain

T

r

u

e

S

t

r

e

s

s

(

M

P

a

)

To = 77K

296K

498K

398K

598K

698K

798K

Fig. 3. Adiabatic ﬂow stress of titanium for indicated initial temperatures, at 2200 s

−1

strain rate given by Nemat-Nasser et al. [43].

The ﬁrst two terms in Eq. (3.30) and Eq. (3.31) represent the athermal part of

the ﬂow stress whereas the third term represents the thermal coupling of plastic

hardening and yield stress to the ﬂow stress.

Recent research by Chichili et al. [13] on α-Ti indicated that twin-dislocation

intersections play an important role in strain hardening at room temperature and

for strain rates ranging from 10

−5

to 10

2

s

−1

. In contrast, the experimental study

of Nemat-Nasser et al. [43] for the plastic ﬂow of commercially pure titanium

at strain rates from 10

−3

to 10

3

s

−1

and temperatures from 77 to 1000 K, with

strains exceeding 40%, showed that the high density of twins does not neces-

sarily correlate with a higher ﬂow stress. On the other hand, they illustrated

that the dynamic strain aging takes place at both low and high strain rates and

for a wide range of temperatures. Accordingly, any constitutive relation that

deals with the thermomechanical response of titanium should consider not only

the role of dislocation activities (dislocation motion and intersections) but also

the role of dynamic strain aging as a major event with the role of deformation

twinning being uncertain.

Effect of dislocation density evolution ... 319

In this study, nevertheless, the plastic ﬂow relation deﬁned in Eq. (3.30)

is limited to temperature and strain ranges where both twinning and dynamic

strain aging is not activated. A brief description of twinning and DSA behav-

iors is presented in the following sections. The eﬀect of dynamic strain aging

on the ﬂow stress of metals, however, is of considerable current interest to the

authors and an extensive study of this phenomenon is going to be presented in

a forthcoming paper.

3.3.1. Dynamic strain aging (DSA). The dynamic strain aging can be interpreted

physically as the diﬀusion of solutes atoms to the mobile dislocations that are

temporarily trapped at an obstacle for a certain amount of time before they

jump to another obstacle. The activation of DSA takes place when the aging

time is equal to the waiting time of these dislocations and therefore, the obstacle

strength is increased by certain amount. Dynamic strain aging may be observed

at diﬀerent strain rate levels and certain range of temperatures. It may occur

either through a directional diﬀusion of the dislocation core atmosphere, at high

strain rates, or through a bulk diﬀusion, at low strain rates (Nemat-Nasser

et al. [43]).

The dynamic strain aging behavior can be described macroscopically as the

sudden increase of the ﬂow stress at certain temperature that normally causes a

decrease in the ﬂow stress curve. In other words, at ﬁxed strain and strain rate,

and with temperature increase, the decreasing ﬂow stress may suddenly begin to

increase at a certain temperature and, after attaining a peak value, may begin

to decrease. This sudden increase and decrease of stress forms a noticeable hump

in the ﬂow stress-temperature curve. The peak value of the ﬂow stress, however,

changes with strain and strain rates. Moreover, the temperature value which

indicates the start of the sudden increase in the ﬂow stress is also strain rate

dependent.

The range of temperature and strain rate where the DSA is displayed diﬀers

from metal structure to another and even from metal to metal within the same

crystal structure. Experimental results of Nemat-Nasser and co-workers on bcc

and fcc metals (Nemat-Nasser and Issacs [41], Nemat-Nasser and Li [42],

Nemat-Nasser and Guo [44] and Cheng and Nemat-Nasser [12]) show that

Niobium exhibits dynamic strain aging at low strain rates only (around 10

−3

s

−1

)

for a temperature range of 450–700 K. On the other hand, the DSA behavior is

not encountered in tantalum, vanadium and OFHC copper at ranges of 10

−3

–

10

5

s

−1

strain rates and 77–1000 K temperatures. For the case of Titanium, the

dynamic strain aging is widely encountered at both low and high strain rates

and suitable temperature ranges. It is concluded that the DSA behavior is strain

rate dependent for all types of metals and it takes place when the deformation

temperature approaches its critical value deﬁned in Eq. (3.15).

320 G. Z. Voyiadjis, F. H. Abed

As addressed by many authors, the thermomechanical modeling of the extra

ﬂow stress produced by the eﬀect of dynamic strain aging is not a straightfor-

ward procedure. However, as cited by Barlat et al. [9], Louat [35] has given

a mathematical expression for the extra ﬂow stress σ

D

as follows:

(3.32) σ

D

= ˆ σ

D

_

1 −exp

_

−(t

w

/t

x

)

2/3

__

,

where ˆ σ

D

is the maximum stress increase produced by the DSA and t

x

is the

relaxation time associated with diﬀusion. Equation (3.32) indicates that the extra

ﬂow stress vanishes as the waiting time t

w

approaches zero. This waiting time

can simply be related to the plastic strain by utilizing Orowan’s equation, after

neglecting the running time of the dislocation between obstacles, as follows

(3.33) t

w

=

¯ mbd ρ

m

˙ ε

p

.

The relaxation time t

x

associated with diﬀusion, on the other hand, is re-

lated to the temperature and the microstructure physical parameters as follows

(Friedel [16], Kubin and Shihab [32]):

(3.34) t

x

=

kTb

2

3WD

(c

1

/πc

o

)

3/2

.

where c

o

and c

1

are the bulk solute volume fraction and the saturation solute

concentration on dislocations respectively, D is the diﬀusion coeﬃcient of solute

atoms, and W is the absolute value of binding energy between the solute and

dislocations. Hence, employing Eqs. (3.32), (3.33) and (3.34) with the DSA be-

ing eﬀective at T → T

cr

, the additional ﬂow stress could suitably be added in

calculating the total ﬂow stress for certain metals.

3.3.2. Deformation twinning behavior. The unusual diﬃculty associated with

identiﬁcation of deformation mechanisms within hcp metals may be attributed

to the fact that these closed-packed crystal structures often exhibit both slip and

twinning during plastic deformation. The presence of twin systems, in certain

cases, becomes necessary in order to maintain the compatibility of polycrystalline

deformation, and it is expected that twinning shear will contribute to the overall

strain. This contribution, however, is still inconsistent and uncertain.

Experiments conducted by Nemat-Nasser et al. [43] investigated commer-

cially pure titanium over a temperature range of 77–1000 K and strain rates of

10

−3

−10

4

s

−1

and showed that deformation twins were observed in most tem-

peratures. Moreover, they illustrated that the density of twins increases with in-

creasing strain rate to 2200 s

−1

, and when the temperature is decreased to 77 K.

Besides, they demonstrated that at 10% true strain and low strain rate, the twins

Effect of dislocation density evolution ... 321

start disappearing as soon as the temperature exceeds a limiting value of 600K.

However, it is shown that the amount of gross deformation produced by twins

is relatively small since the relative atomic movement is limited in deformation

twinning and hence, most of the plastic ﬂow occurs by the motion of the twins

and their intersections. It is concluded, therefore, that though the deformation

of the material undergoes high density of twins at high strain and strain rates,

it does not correlate with a higher ﬂow stress.

Chichili et al. [13], on the other hand, summarized the microstructure

characterization of the room temperature deformation of α-titanium as follows:

(1) the material deformation at low strain rates and low strains is mainly due to

dislocation motion with very few twins; (2) at large strains with the same low

strain rate level, it is noted that the increase of the numbers of twins as well as

a substantial dislocation motion is observed during the deformation; (3) at high

strain rates and small strains, densities of both dislocation motion and twins are

obviously increased; (4) by increasing both strains and strain rates, the twin den-

sity increases even further, with substantial twin-dislocation interactions. It is

concluded, however, that even when the material is heavily twinned, the amount

of plastic deformation contributed by twinning is measured to be much less that

due to dislocations. Consequently, incorporating such eﬀect in the constitutive

modeling of pure titanium is still problematic and inconclusive.

4. Applications, comparisons, and discussions

The proposed constitutive models derived in the previous section for bcc, fcc

and hcp metals are further evaluated by direct comparison to the experimental

results that are mainly provided by Nemat-Nasser and his co-workers for dif-

ferent types of polycrystalline metals conducted at a wide range of strain rates

and temperatures. In this section, the evaluation of the material parameters of

the proposed models is ﬁrst discussed. Applications of these models for predict-

ing the plastic deformation as well as comparisons to experimental results are

then illustrated for three bcc metals (niobium, tantalum and vanadium), one

fcc metal (OFHC copper) and one hcp metal (titanium) over a wide range of

temperatures and strain rates. Finally, numerical identiﬁcation is also presented

for the nano/micro-structural physical quantities used in the deﬁnition of the

proposed models parameters.

4.1. Model parameters evaluation

Various techniques can be used to determine the material parameters of the

proposed models. However, a simple approach is used and similarly applied for

all the proposed models with little variation between the three structural types

of metals as given by Eq. (3.12) and Eq. (3.13) for bcc metals, Eq. (3.21) and

322 G. Z. Voyiadjis, F. H. Abed

Eq. (3.27) for fcc metals, and Eq. (3.30) and Eq. (3.31) for hcp metals. The

evaluation procedure is initiated by studying the stress-temperature relation

at diﬀerent values of plastic strain and at certain strain rate value. Generally,

the ﬂow stress decreases as the temperature increases until a point where the

stress is constant with further increase in temperature. These constant values

represent the athermal part of the ﬂow stress which varies with plastic strain

for the case of bcc and hcp metals, whereas it is strain-independent for the case

of fcc metals. Employing the variation of the athermal ﬂow stress with plastic

strain, the parameters (B and n or

¯

B and k

a

) for bcc and hcp metals models is

calculated using the nonlinear least-squares ﬁt. The Y

a

value, on the other hand,

represents the athermal stress at zero plastic strain or the athermal component of

the initial yield stress. Subtracting the above stress increments (athermal stress)

values from the total ﬂow stress, the thermal component of the ﬂow stress is

then determined.

The thermal component of the ﬂow stress is mainly pertained to the yield

stress for bcc metals and to the plastic hardening for both fcc and hcp metals.

Moreover, the thermal degradation mechanism is captured by selecting proper

values of the exponents p and qthat are chosen here to be 1/2 for the former

and 3/2 for the latter for all kinds of metals used in this study. Once these

exponents are determined for a particular mechanism, they become constants.

Next, the intercepts of the constant slope line plotted between σ

p

th

and T

1/q

at

diﬀerent plastic strains and certain strain rate are employed here to obtain at

zero plastic strain, the threshold stress ˆ σ for bcc models and the parameter Y

d

for fcc and hcp models. On the other hand, the hardening parameter

˜

B or

ˆ

B for

fcc and hcp models are determined using the nonlinear least-square ﬁt technique

for the diﬀerent plastic strain intercept values. Then, for the case of bcc models,

a graph of (1 −(σ

th

/ˆ σ)

p

)

q

vs ln ˙ ε

p

is utilized to determine the parameter β

2

and

the reference plastic strain rate ˙ ε

i

po

. A similar procedure is followed for the case

of fcc and hcp models except that ˆ σ is replaced by Y

d

. Finally, the parameter β

1

or the constant C

1

is then determined after detecting all other stress components

from the total ﬂow stress at diﬀerent plastic strain values using the nonlinear

least-square ﬁt.

4.2. Applications and comparisons

4.2.1. Bcc metals. Three bcc metals are used in this study as applications for

the proposed bcc models: (1) niobium (Nb) is a silvery bcc metal that is used

as an alloying agent in carbon and alloy steels, as it improves the strength of

the alloy; (2) vanadium (V) is a bright white bcc metal, and is soft and ductile

with good structural strength. It is used in the aerospace industry in titanium

alloys; (3) tantalum (Ta) has generated a lot of interest in industry due to its

density, strength and ductility over a wide range of deformation rates and tem-

Effect of dislocation density evolution ... 323

peratures. The material parameters of these bcc metals are determined following

the procedure discussed previously. The experimental data presented by Nemat-

Nasser and Guo [44, 45] is utilized for the case of Nb and V metals, whereas

the parameters of Ta are obtained using the experimental results presented by

Nemat-Nasser and Isaacs [41] and compared also to diﬀerent results oﬀered

by diﬀerent authors. The numerical values of the material parameters deﬁned

by the proposed bcc models are listed in Table 1 for the above-mentioned three

metals obtained using the aforementioned procedure.

It is obvious that the only diﬀerence between the two proposed bcc models Eq.

(3.12) and Eq. (3.13) is with regard to the two diﬀerent deﬁnitions of the plastic

hardening component which is mostly associated to the athermal component of

the ﬂow stress, i.e., independent of temperature and strain rate. Therefore, the

diﬀerences of the plastic ﬂow stress predicted by the proposed two bcc deﬁnitions

emerge only in the athermal component. These diﬀerences may be attributed to

both the errors accumulated using the nonlinear least-square ﬁt and to the dif-

ferent integration results used in calculating the adiabatic heat accumulated

inside the material through the plastic work. Therefore, the predicted stress-

strain curves using the proposed bcc models will depend totally on the accuracy

of determining the hardening parameters which vary from test to test. More-

over, the hardening parameters obtained using certain experimental data will

not necessarily match with the other data set presented by diﬀerent researchers.

Table 1. The proposed bcc models parameters for niobium, vanadium,

and tantalum.

Model Parameters Nb V Ta

Ya (MPa)

¯

B (MPa)

B (MPa)

n

ka

ˆ σ (MPa)

C1

β2 (K

−1

)

˙ ε

i

po

(s

−1

)

q

p

60

415

450

0.25

3.7

1350

0.25

0.000149

7.07 × 10

6

3/2

1/2

60

275

305

0.16

9.9

945

0.1

0.0001392

6.32 × 10

6

3/2

1/2

50

290

330

0.41

2.5

1125

0.5

0.0000937

4.45 × 10

6

3/2

1/2

Figures 4 and 5 show the adiabatic stress strain results for niobium computed

using the present two bcc models at 3300 s

−1

and 8000 s

−1

strain rates respec-

tively. Generally, both the proposed bcc deﬁnitions show very good agreement as

compared to the experimental data presented by Nemat-Nasser and Guo [44,

45] for a wide range of elevated temperatures. In fact, the diﬀerence in the predic-

tions between the two proposed bcc relations for the plastic ﬂow stress is notice-

able at low strains (up to 0.1) and it diminishes with strain increase (up to 0.6).

324 G. Z. Voyiadjis, F. H. Abed

0

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

0.00 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70

TrueStrain

T

r

u

e

S

t

r

e

s

s

(

M

P

a

)

Exp.(Nb,3300/s)

ProposedModel(Eq.27)

ProposedModel(Eq.28)

296K

To=77K

400K

600K

700K

(Eq.3.12)

(Eq.3.13)

Fig. 4. Adiabatic ﬂow stress of niobium predicted using the proposed models and compared

to experimental results (Nemat-Nasser and Guo, [44, 45]) at 3300 s

−1

strain rate

and indicated initial temperatures.

0

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

0.00 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.70

TrueStrain

T

r

u

e

S

t

r

e

s

s

(

M

P

a

)

Exp.(Nb,8000/s)

ProposedModel(Eq. 3.12)

ProposedModel(Eq. 3.13)

To=296K

900K

700K

500K

Fig. 5. Adiabatic ﬂow stress of niobium predicted using the proposed models and compared

to experimental results (Nemat-Nasser and Guo, [44, 45]) at 8000 s

−1

strain rate and

indicated initial temperatures.

The experimental comparison of the adiabatic ﬂow stress for the case of vana-

dium agrees well at the strain rate of 2500 s

−1

and for diﬀerent temperatures

(up to 800 K) as shown in Fig. 6. The agreement, however, is less for the case

of higher strain rate (8000 s

−1

) with a temperature range of 296 K to 700 K

Effect of dislocation density evolution ... 325

(see Fig. 7). This may indicate that assuming a constant value of the parameter

k

a

(i.e., neglecting the eﬀect of temperature and strain rate) produces inaccurate

results in some cases. Furthermore, the prediction of the adiabatic ﬂow stress

at diﬀerent initial temperatures shows more variation between the two proposed

bcc relations for the case of a strain rate of 8000 s

−1

than those obtained at

2500 s

−1

strain rate.

0

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

1000

0.00 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60

TrueStrain

T

r

u

e

S

t

r

e

s

s

(

M

P

a

)

Exp.(V,2500/s)

ProposedModel(Eq.3.12)

ProposedModel(Eq.3.13)

296K

To=77K

400K

500K

800K

600K

Fig. 6. Adiabatic ﬂow stress of vanadium predicted using the proposed models and

compared to experimental results (Nemat-Nasser and Guo [44–45]) at 2500 s

−1

strain rate

and indicated initial temperatures.

0

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

0.00 0.10 0.20 0.40

TrueStrain

Exp.(V,8000/s)

ProposedModel(Eq.3.12)

ProposedModel(Eq.3.13)

To=296K

400K

500K

700K

T

r

u

e

S

t

r

e

s

s

(

M

P

a

)

Fig. 7. Adiabatic ﬂow stress of vanadium predicted using the proposed models and

compared to experimental results (Nemat-Nasser and Guo [44–45]) at 2500 s

−1

strain rate

and indicated initial temperatures.

326 G. Z. Voyiadjis, F. H. Abed

For the case of tantalum, Eq. (3.12) and Eq. (3.13) show almost identical

results when computed at 5000 s

−1

and temperature range of 298 K to 796 K. In

addition, the adiabatic stress strain curves calculated by those two relations show

good correlations with the experimental results provided by Nemat-Nasser and

Isaacs [41] as shown in Fig. 8.

0

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7

S

t

r

e

s

s

(

M

p

a

)

Exp.(Ta,5000/s)

ProposedModel(Eq.3.12)

ProposedModel(Eq.3.13)

To=298K

396K

796K

596K

496K

Fig. 8. Adiabatic ﬂow stress of tantalum predicted using the proposed models and compared

to experimental results (Nemat-Nasser and Isaacs [41]) at 5000 s

−1

strain rate and

indicated initial temperatures.

The results of the model simulations from the above experimental data are

also compared with other sets of experimental data. Fig. 9 shows the temperature

variation of the ﬂow stresses obtained experimentally by Nemat-Nasser and

Isaacs [47] at 0.05 strain and 5000 s

−1

strain rate, Hoge and Mukharjee [18]

at 0.014 strain and 0.0001 s

−1

strain rate and Bechtold [10] at 0.014 strain and

0.00028 s

−1

strain rate as compared with those calculated using the proposed

model (Eq. (3.13)).

The proposed model, with the parameters obtained using the Nemat-Nasser

and Isaacs data, predicts results that agree very well with the data given by Hoge

and Mukharjee. The parameter Y

a

, however, is changed to 133 MPa in order to

get a better agreement with Bechtold [10] data. This change is used to allow

for possible diﬀerences in solute and grain size eﬀects.

Furthermore, the stress variation with strain rates computed using the pro-

posed model Eq. (3.13), are compared with the experimental data presented

by Hoge and Mukharjee [18] at room temperature and with the single crys-

tal data obtained by Mitchell and Spitizig [36] at 373

◦

K temperature and

Mordike and Rudolph [37] at 200

◦

K temperature. The comparisons illus-

trated in Fig. 10 show very good agreement with the experimental results.

Effect of dislocation density evolution ... 327

0

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

0 200 400 600 800 1000

Temperature(K)

S

t

r

e

s

s

(

M

p

a

)

Nemat-Nasser&Issacs(5000/s)

Bechtold(0.00028/s)

Hoge&Mukharjee(0.0001/s)

Proposed Model(Eq.3.13)

Fig. 9. Proposed model results of the temperature variation of the ﬂow stress, for tantalum

Ta, as compared to experimental data obtained by several authors at diﬀerent strain rates.

0

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

0.000001 0.0001 0.01 1 100 10000

StrainRate(1/s)

S

t

r

e

s

s

(

M

p

a

)

Mordike&Rudolph(T=200K)

Hoge&Mukharjee(T=298K)

Mitchell&Spitzig (T=373K)

ProposedModel(Eq.3.13)

Fig. 10. Proposed model results of the strain rate variation of the ﬂow stress, for tantalum

Ta, as compared to experimental data obtained by several authors at diﬀerent temperatures.

The adiabatic stress-strain curves of the plastically deformed specimens pre-

sented here are estimated using Eq. (3.14) where the thermo-mechanical para-

meters are listed in Table 2 for all metals used in this study. The incremental

accumulation of the temperature during the adiabatic process is calculated by

assuming a conversion of 100% plastic work into heat is used for Nb, V and Ta

based on experimental results presented by Nemat-Nasser and Guo [44, 45]

and Nemat-Nasser and Isaacs [41].

328 G. Z. Voyiadjis, F. H. Abed

Table 2. Thermal and Elastic properties for niobium, vanadium, tantalum,

OFHC copper and titanium.

Physical

parameters

Nb V Ta OFHC Cu Ti

ρ (g/cm

3

)

cp (J/g.K)

ζ

µ (GPa)

µo (GPa)

8.57

0.265

1.0

37.0

70.0

6.16

0.498

1.0

45.0

75.0

16.62

0.139

1.0

60.0

90.0

8.96

0.383

0.9

45.0

77.0

4.54

0.523

1.0

43.0

75.0

4.2.2. Fcc metals. The Oxygen-Free High Conductivity (OFHC) copper is used

here as an application for the proposed fcc models to show the temperature

and strain rate variation of the ﬂow stress. OFHC Cu is an important fcc metal

used in the industry due to its high thermal and electrical conductivity and high

ductility combined with low volatility which makes this material indispensable

in the electronics industry. The material parameters of the proposed two fcc

relations (Eq. (3.21) and Eq. (3.27)) are listed in Table 3 which are determined

by following the same procedure explained in the previous section using the

experimental data presented by Nemat-Nasser and Li [42]. Using the same

parameters, the proposed fcc models are further compared to other experimental

data found in the paper by Johnson and Cook [22].

Table 3. The proposed fcc models parameters for OFHC copper.

Model Parameters OFHC Cu

Ya (MPa)

ˆ

B(MPa)

˜

B(MPa)

Y

d

or

ˆ

Y

d

(MPa)

ka

C1

β2 (K

−1

)

˙ ε

i

po

(s

−1

)

q

p

25

1175

990

50

0.9

40

0.0000351

6.97 × 10

6

3/2

1/2

Generally, the adiabatic ﬂow stresses calculated using the proposed fcc re-

lations agree well with most of the experimental data for several strain rates

and initial testing temperature. In Fig. 11, the adiabatic stress-strain calculated

using both relations Eq. (3.21) and Eq. (3.27) predict very good results as com-

pared with the Nemat-Nasser and Li [42] experimental data at 4000 s

−1

strain

rate and diﬀerent initial temperatures (77 K–996 K). Equation (3.27), however,

estimates higher stress values than those calculated by Eq. (3.21) at strains up

to 0.45. These diﬀerences are generally ascribed to the two diﬀerent deﬁnitions

Effect of dislocation density evolution ... 329

used in calculating the hardening stresses. The ﬂow stresses predicted by the pro-

posed fcc relations are further compared to the experimental results conducted

by the same authors at lower and higher strain rates (0.1 s

−1

and 8000 s

−1

) as

shown in Fig. 12. The comparison shows good agreement as well.

0

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

0.00 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00

TrueStrain

T

r

u

e

S

t

r

e

s

s

(

M

P

a

)

Exp.(OFHCCu,4000/s)

ProposedModel(Eq.3.27)

ProposedModel (Eq.3.21)

296K

To=77K

596K

796K

996K

Fig. 11. Adiabatic ﬂow stress of OFHC copper predicted using the proposed models and

compared to experimental results (Nemat-Nasser and Li [42]) at 4000 s

−1

strain rate and

indicated initial temperatures.

0

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

0.00 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00

T

r

u

e

S

t

r

e

s

s

(

M

P

a

)

Exp.(OFHCCu)

ProposedModel(Eq.3.27)

ProposedModel(Eq.3.21

77K,8000/s

296K,8000/s

296K,0.1/s

Fig. 12. Flow stress of OFHC copper predicted using the proposed models and compared to

experimental results (Nemat-Nasser and Li [42]) at strain rates of 8000 s

−1

(adiabatic) and

0.1 s

−1

(isothermal) and indicated temperatures.

330 G. Z. Voyiadjis, F. H. Abed

An assessment of the model parameters determined using the experimental

data by Nemat-Nasser and Li [42] can be made by comparing the adiabatic

stress-strain results with the experimental data found in the paper of Johnson

and Cook [22] as shown in Fig. 13. Overall, the predicted results of Eq. (3.21)

correlate well with the experimental data at strain rates of 451 s

−1

, 449 s

−1

and 464 s

−1

with initial temperatures of 298 K, 493 K and 730 K respectively.

However, Eq. (3.27) overestimates the stress values in most cases. This deviation,

however, is part due to neglecting the temperature and strain rate eﬀects of the

parameter k

a

.

0

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

400

0.00 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40

PlasticStrain

T

r

u

e

S

t

r

e

s

s

(

M

P

a

)

Exp.(OFHCCu)

ProposedModel(Eq.3.27)

ProposedModel(Eq.3.21)

To=298K,451/s

To=493K,449/s

To=730K,464/s

Fig. 13. Adiabatic ﬂow stress of OFHC copper predicted using the proposed models and

compared to experimental results (Johnson and Cook, [22]) at diﬀerent strain rates of and

temperatures.

In the case of copper, the prediction of the adiabatic stress strain curves

predicted by the present model is obtained based on the assumption of conversion

of 90% of the plastic work deformation to heat calculated using the same relation

deﬁned in Eq. (3.14) with the thermo-mechanical parameters listed in Table 2.

4.2.3. Hcp metals. The hcp commercially pure titanium (Cp Ti) used in this

study has an axial ratio of c/a = 1.587, and is strongly plastically anisotropic

as indicated by Nemat-Nasser et al. [43] who conducted both adiabatic and

isothermal testing on both annealed and as received samples at low and high

strain rates and temperatures. The experimental results clearly show that this

material (Ti) is widely aﬀected by the dynamic strain aging phenomenon over

most strain rates and temperatures. At strain rates of 0.001 s

−1

and 0.1 s

−1

, the

DSA eﬀect starts clearly at temperature values of 296 K up to 500 K continuing

Effect of dislocation density evolution ... 331

slightly up to 600 K for the case of isothermal process. At higher strain rates with

adiabatic deformation (2200 s

−1

and 8000 s

−1

strain rates), the appearance of the

DSA eﬀects starts at 400 K temperature continuing up to 1000 K temperature.

As mentioned earlier, the proposed hcp models (Eq. (3.30) and Eq. (3.31)),

which did not take into consideration the dynamic strain aging eﬀects, are possi-

bly not accurate in predicting both the adiabatic and the isothermal ﬂow stresses

in the strain rate and temperature ranges where the DSA eﬀects are active. This

indicates that the ﬂow stresses predicted by the proposed two hcp relations will

more likely underestimate the experimental results in theses ranges. The pro-

posed model parameters for titanium are determined using the experimental

data presented by Nemat-Nasser et al. [43] using a combination of the bcc

and fcc procedures described earlier. These parameters are listed in Table 4. In

fact, the proposed hcp model is derived based on the fact that the plastic defor-

mation behavior of most hcp metals shows a combination of both bcc and fcc

plastic deformation behaviors.

Table 4. The proposed hcp model parameters for titanium.

Model Parameters Ti

Ya (MPa)

ˆ

B (MPa)

˜

B (MPa)

Y

d

or

ˆ

Y

d

(MPa)

ka

C1

β2 (K

−1

)

˙ ε

i

po

(s

−1

)

q

p

¯

B (MPa)

B (MPa)

n

20

2050

2025

115

1.31

0.9

0.0000433

1.95 × 10

7

3/2

1/2

90

85

0.43

Next, assessments of the proposed hcp models are made by comparing the

isothermal stresses predicted using both Eq. (3.30) and Eq. (3.31) to the exper-

imental results by Nemat-Nasser et al. [43] at 0.001s strain rate and diﬀerent

temperatures as shown in Fig. 14. The comparison between the predicted results

and the experimental data shows good agreement at temperature values of 77 K,

673 K and 773 K whereas they underestimate the experimental results at other

temperatures due to the eﬀect of DSA. In Fig. 15, the adiabatic stress-strain

results predicted by the proposed hcp models are compared to the experimental

data at a strain rate of 2200 s

−1

and diﬀerent initial temperatures. Similarly,

the comparison agrees well at temperatures where the DSA is inactive (77 K

and 296 K) whereas, the proposed models predict lower results at temperatures

where the DSA eﬀect is dominating.

332 G. Z. Voyiadjis, F. H. Abed

0

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

0.00 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40

TrueStrain

T

r

u

e

S

t

r

e

s

s

(

M

P

a

)

Exp.(Ti,0.001/s)

ProposedModel(Eq.3.31)

ProposedModel(Eq.3.30

296K

T =77K

473K

673K

773K

Fig. 14. Isothermal ﬂow stress of titanium predicted using the proposed models and

compared to experimental results (Nemat-Nasser et al. [43]) at 0.001 s

−1

strain rate and

indicated temperatures.

0

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

0.00 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40

TrueStrain

T

r

u

e

S

t

r

e

s

s

(

M

P

a

)

Exp.(Ti,2200/s)

ProposedModel(Eq.3.31)

ProposedModel(Eq.3.30)

296K

To=77K

498K

798K

Fig. 15. Adiabatic ﬂow stress of titanium predicted using the proposed models and

compared to experimental results (Nemat-Nasser et al. [43]) at 2200 s

−1

strain rate and

indicated initial temperatures.

The ﬂow stress prediction of the proposed hcp models are further compared

to the experimental results at the strain rate of 0.1 s

−1

for the case of isothermal

Effect of dislocation density evolution ... 333

deformation process and at the 8000 s

−1

strain rate for the case of adiabatic

deformation as shown in Fig. 16. Similar comparison results are concluded for

both strain rates. In comparing the ﬂow stress results predicted by the proposed

two hcp relations, it is found that Eq. (3.31) deviates largely at higher strain

rates predicting higher stress values than those calculated using Eq. (3.30). This

deviation, however, appears noticeably at strain values up to 30%.

0

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

0.00 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40

TrueStrain

Exp.(Ti)

ProposedModel(Eq.3.31)

ProposedModel(Eq.3.30

8000/s,296K

8000/s,498K

0.1/s,798K

0.1/s,598K

0.1/s, 473K

Fig. 16. Flow stress of titanium predicted using the proposed models and compared to

experimental results (Nemat-Nasser et al. [43]) at strain rates of 0.01 s

−1

(isothermal) and

8000 s

−1

(adiabatic) and indicated temperatures.

For the case of titanium, a 100% of the plastic work generated during the

deformation process under diﬀerent strain rates is converted to heat as given

by Nemat-Nasser et al. [43]. The temperature accumulation during the plastic

deformation is, therefore, calculated using Eq. (3.14) with the thermo-mechanical

parameters for Ti given in Table 2.

4.3. Discussions

In investigating the proposed bcc, fcc and hcp models, the deﬁnition of the

thermal component of the ﬂow stress is nearly the same for all kinds of metals.

However, the model parameters values and accordingly the physical quantities

diﬀer from metal to metal. In addition, it is found that the thermal stress for

all bcc metals used in this study is independent of strain. That is to say, the

eﬀect of the parameter β

1

which represents the eﬀect of the evolution of the

334 G. Z. Voyiadjis, F. H. Abed

mobile dislocation density that is thermally aﬀected through Orowan’s equation

is almost negligible. This, however, supports the experimental observations which

indicate that the thermal stresses for most bcc metals are strain-independent and

mainly controlled by the yield stress. This behavior can be interpreted physically

as the resistance of the initial dislocation motion by the Peierls barriers. On the

other hand, the thermal component of the ﬂow stress for fcc metals depends

mainly on the strain through the evolution of the mobile dislocation density

deﬁned by the parameter β

1

and also through the evolution of the remaining

part (mainly forest) of the dislocation density introduced through the hardening

parameters deﬁnitions given by Eq. (3.22) or Eq. (3.28). For the case of hcp

metals, the strain dependence of the thermal stresses is introduced only through

the hardening parameters, whereas the eﬀect of β

1

is very small and can be

neglected. Figure 17 shows the thermal component of the ﬂow stresses as varying

with the plastic strain using the proposed models for V, Nb, Ta, Ti and OFHC

Cu at strain rate and temperature values of 8000 s

−1

and 296 K respectively.

8000/s,296K

0

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4

PlasticStrain

T

h

e

r

m

a

l

S

t

r

e

s

s

(

M

P

a

)

Nb

V

Ta

OFHCCu

Ti

Fig. 17. Strain variations of the thermal stresses for several metals using the proposed

models at 8000 s

−1

strain rate and 296 K

◦

temperature.

The consequence of the variation of the parameter β

1

with plastic strain for

fcc metals is observed in determining the values of the critical temperature (T

cr

)

that become strain-dependent as well. In contrast, the critical temperature for

bcc and hcp metals does not depend on plastic strain. In fact, T

cr

is deﬁned

as the highest temperature value that corresponds to the minimum thermal

stresses (zero thermal stress) observed during the degradation process of the

Effect of dislocation density evolution ... 335

ﬂow stress as the material temperature increases. Figure 18 shows the strain

rate variation of T

cr

calculated using Eq. 3.14 for the ﬁve metals used in this

study at 0.1 plastic strain. It is found that T

cr

values increase with strain rates

increase. Also, the critical temperature values for OFHC Cu and Ti are higher

than those obtained for the three bcc metals. This disparity may be attributed

to the variation of the reference plastic strain rate ˙ ε

i

po

values and also to the

diﬀerent β

2

values that is mainly related to the Gibbs free energy G

o

. Since ˙ ε

i

po

values for all metals used in this study are approximately of the same order,

the value of G

o

is considered the major factor that aﬀects the variation of T

cr

values from one metal to another at a ﬁxed strain rate. The higher the activation

energy values (around 2.4, 2.0, 0.92, 0.62, 0.58 eV/atom for Cu, Ti, Ta, V, and Nb

respectively) needed to overcome the barriers, the higher the critical temperature

values achieved. Actually, the thermal stress is interpreted as the resistance of

the barriers to the dislocation movement, thus, the barriers that need higher

activation energy to be overcome require also higher temperature to produce

this thermal energy until the resistance of these barriers has vanished which

indicates zero thermal stresses.

PlasticStrain=0.1

0

500

1000

1500

2000

2500

3000

3500

4000

4500

5000

0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10 100 1000 10000

StrainRate(1/s)

C

r

i

t

i

c

a

l

T

e

m

p

e

r

a

t

u

r

e

T

c

r

(

K

)

OFHCCu

Ti

Nb

V

Ta

Fig. 18. Critical temperatures predicted by the proposed models for several metals at 10%

strain and diﬀerent strain rates.

In general, most metals contain initial amount of dislocations which are nat-

urally excited or generated through the manufacture process. These dislocation

densities, however, help metals to deform plastically until a level where no further

dislocations generation are allowed, which indicates that the saturation limit of

dislocation densities is reached. The initial and saturated values of the dislo-

336 G. Z. Voyiadjis, F. H. Abed

cation densities, however, diﬀer from metal to metal. The numerical values of

the physical nano- and micro-quantities used in deﬁning the proposed models

that are obtained for the indicated metals are listed in Table 5. Although these

quantities are deﬁned based on the model parameters that are ﬁtted experimen-

tally, their values are found to be reasonable when compared to those available

in the literature. The initial dislocation density values are ﬁxed and set around

5×10

12

m

−2

for the case of bcc metals and little higher for fcc and hcp metals.

Consequently, the saturated values of these dislocation densities are found to be

of the order of 10

15

m

−2

for all metals. In fact, the eﬀect of initial dislocation

density enters the proposed models through the thermal component of the ﬂow

stress. This eﬀect, however, is expected to be higher for bcc metals than other

metal structures due to the fact that the thermal stress of bcc metals is nearly

related to the yield stress (Peierls stress) and not aﬀected by the dislocation

density evolution with plastic strain. That is to say, the yielding strength is

less when the material contains high initial dislocation density and vice versa.

Once the material yields, the evolution of dislocation density along with the ini-

tial dislocation density contribution plays a crucial role in determining the ﬂow

stress and particularly the thermal stress as in the case for most fcc metals and

slightly less for hcp metals. Figure 19 shows, for all metals presented here, the

variation eﬀect of initial dislocation density generated inside the material on the

ﬂow stress at 298 K and 8000 s

−1

temperature and strain rate‘respectively. It is

obvious that the ﬂow stress decreases with the increase of the originated (initial)

dislocation density. The decreasing slopes for bcc metals are higher than those

for hcp and fcc metals which supports the above-mentioned argument.

Table 5. Numerical values for the physical quantities used in deriving the

proposed models parameters for Nb, V, Ta, OFHC Cu and Ti.

Physical parameters Nb V Ta OFHC Cu Ti

Go (eV/atom)

b (Å)

vo (m/sec)

ρmi (m

−2

)

ρ

fi

(m

−2

)

ρs (m

−2

)

Ao (m

2

)

Dg (mm)

A

′

o (m

2

)

A

′′

o (m

2

)

0.58

3.3

8.57 × 10

3

5 × 10

12

2 × 10

12

4.5 × 10

15

26b

2

0.013

–

–

0.62

3.1

8.3 × 10

3

4.9 × 10

12

2 × 10

12

1.5 × 10

15

27b

2

0.016

–

–

0.92

2.9

7.71 × 10

3

4.1 × 10

12

2 × 10

12

1.1 × 10

15

27b

2

0.0375

–

–

2.4

2.5

3.97 × 10

3

1.4 × 10

13

1.1 × 10

13

6.1 × 10

15

–

0.073

585b

2

30b

2

2.0

3.0

5.1 × 10

3

2.55 × 10

13

2.69 × 10

13

9.0 × 10

15

–

0.125

321b

2

18b

2

It is interesting to note that the Helmholtz free energy values for fcc metals

are higher than those found for bcc metals which indicates that the dislocation in-

teraction mechanism necessitates higher activation energy than the Peierls mech-

Effect of dislocation density evolution ... 337

0

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

1000

1.E+12 1.E+13 1.E+14

InitialDislocationDensity(m-2)

F

l

o

w

S

t

r

e

s

s

(

M

P

a

)

8000/s,298K

PlasticStrain=0.1

Nb

OFHCCu

Ti

V

Ta

Fig. 19. Initial dislocation density variation of the ﬂow stress, for several metals, computed

at 8000 s

−1

strain rate and 298 K

◦

temperature.

anism in overcoming the short-range barriers. Consequently, the waiting time

needed by the dislocation to overcome an obstacle is less for bcc [t

w

= O(10

−12

s)]

than those required for fcc metals [t

w

= O(10

−11

s)] (Kocks et al. [28]). There-

fore, the reference velocity v

o

= d ∼ b/t

w

values of fcc metals are less than the

ones obtained for bcc metals as illustrated in Table 5. Moreover, the average

values of the Burger vector are chosen to be around 3.3, 3.1, 2.9, 2.5 and 3.0Å

for Nb, V, Ta, OFHC Cu and Ti respectively.

In the proposed models, the following typical values of 1.5 and 0.5 for the

exponents p and q respectively are used for all metals. Unfortunately, the value

of ˆ σin the thermal component of the bcc ﬂow stress is sensitive to the choice of

p which characterizes the tail of the obstacle. This sensitivity, however, is less

for the case of fcc and hcp metals in obtaining the parameters and Y

d

. In fact,

ˆ σ represents a parameter which refers to a state of zero Kelvin temperature. It

should be noted here that the determination procedure of the proposed bcc, fcc

and hcp model parameters is simple and straightforward. However, more caution

is required in the numerical techniques used in obtaining the hardening para-

meters that produce not only the hardening stresses but also the temperature

evolving with the plastic work.

In the proposed model, two diﬀerent deﬁnitions for the hardening stresses

are presented. The ﬁrst deﬁnition is derived based on experimental observations

which indicate that the ﬁtting of the hardening stresses can be achieved using

338 G. Z. Voyiadjis, F. H. Abed

the power law deﬁnition. On the other hand, the second deﬁnition of the hard-

ening parameters is derived using the concept of dislocation density evolution

with plastic strain. Both deﬁnitions are used in predicting the isothermal and

adiabatic ﬂow stresses and compared with the available experimental data. It

is found that the power-law deﬁnition of the plastic hardening stresses predicts

more accurate results than the other deﬁnition in most experimental compar-

isons at diﬀerent strain rates and temperatures. Actually, the deviation of the

predicted results may be attributed to the use of constant values for the para-

meter k

a

assumed in the derivation of the proposed model.

For the bcc metals presented here, it is found that the dynamic strain ag-

ing activates when the temperature reaches its critical values. In this stage,

dislocations require higher temperatures to overcome the obstacle which con-

sequently increases the waiting time of these dislocations before the obstacle.

This, in turn, helps in activating the dynamic strain aging by strengthening the

obstacles through the diﬀusion process of the atoms and accordingly, increas-

ing suddenly the ﬂow stress throughout the deformation process. On the other

hand, the dynamic strain aging eﬀect is observed in titanium over a wide range

of temperatures and at all strain rates. It is found that the DSA phenomenon

activates at diﬀerent temperature depending on the strain rate values. These

temperature values increase as the strain rates increase. In the case of OFHC

copper, however, the dynamic strain aging is not observed for most of the strain

rates and temperatures used in the presented experimental comparisons. The

eﬀect of DSA on the plastic ﬂow simulation along with the strain rate and tem-

perature dependence of the dislocation annihilation factor k

a

will be discussed

in a forthcoming paper by the authors.

5. Conclusions

The eﬀect of dislocation density evolution with plastic strain is incorporated

in modeling the thermo-mechanical response of diﬀerent structure types of met-

als. The proposed models are derived basing on the concept of thermal activation

energy as well as the dislocation interaction mechanisms. Two diﬀerent deﬁni-

tions for modeling the hardening stresses are employed using the least-square

technique. The ﬁrst deﬁnition uses the experimental power law ﬁtting, whereas

the second one is derived using the plastic strain evolution of the dislocation

density. The simulation of the adiabatic and isothermal plastic ﬂow stresses for

diﬀerent bcc, fcc and hcp metals is achieved at low and high strain rates and tem-

peratures. The predicted results, generally, show good agreement as compared

with diﬀerent experimental results conducted by several authors for niobium,

vanadium and tantalum for bcc metals, titanium for hcp metal and OFHC cop-

per for fcc metal.

Effect of dislocation density evolution ... 339

In bcc metals, the thermal yield stress, due to the short-range barriers (Peierls

barriers), shows strong dependence on the strain rate and temperature while the

plastic strain hardening which represents the athermal stress is independent of

them. On the contrary, the thermal stress in fcc metals is strongly dependent on

the plastic strain due to domination of the dislocation intersections on the mech-

anisms behavior of the thermal activation analysis. For the case of hcp metals,

the thermo-mechanical behavior shows a combination between the plastic defor-

mation behavior of both bcc and fcc structures. Thus, the thermal component

as well as the athermal component of the ﬂow stress for the proposed hcp model

strongly depends on the plastic strain. Besides, both yielding and hardening

stresses are strain rate and temperature-dependent.

The dynamic strain aging phenomenon is clearly encountered in titanium for

most temperatures and strain rates while it activates only at low strain rates

and over a narrow range of high temperatures for most bcc metals. For OFHC

copper, the DSA eﬀect is not observed for the present temperature and strain

rate range of experimental data. In fact, the dynamic strain aging encountered in

some metals at certain temperatures is strain rate dependent. Its eﬀect, however,

is not included in the present modeling where the dislocation movement as well

as the dislocation evolution controls the plastic deformation in the absence of

diﬀusion and creep.

It is concluded from the stress-strain prediction of the proposed bcc models

that the eﬀect of the parameter β

1

which represents the evolution of the thermally

aﬀected part of the mobile dislocation density is almost negligible. That is the

evolution of the mobile and forest dislocation density is related to the athermal

part of the ﬂow stress. In contrast, the mobile dislocation density evolution

through the parameter β

1

as well as the forest dislocation density evolution

through the hardening parameters shows considerable dependence on the thermal

stresses of OFHC copper. In titanium, on the other hand, the eﬀect of β

1

on the

thermal stresses is very small which indicates that the strain dependence of the

thermal stresses is ascribed to the hardening stress that is mainly generated

through the evolution of the forest dislocation density.

Acknowledgment

The authors acknowledge the ﬁnancial support under grant number M67854-

03-M-6040 provided by the Marine Corps Systems Command, AFSS PGD, Quan-

tico, Virginia. They thankfully acknowledge their appreciation to Howard "Skip"

Bayes, Project Director. The authors also acknowledge the ﬁnancial support

under grant number F33601-01-P-0343 provided by the Air Force Institute of

Technology, WPAFB, Ohio.

340 G. Z. Voyiadjis, F. H. Abed

References

1. Abed, F.H., Voyiadjis, G.Z., Plastic deformation modeling of AL-6XN stainless steel at

low and high strain rates and temperatures using a combination of bcc and fcc mechanisms

of metals, Accepted in International Journal of Plasticity, 21, 1618–1639, 2004.

2. Aifantis, E.C., The physics of the plastic deformation, International Journal of Plastic-

ity, 3, 211–247, 1987.

3. Ashby, M.F., The deformation of plasticity non-homogenous alloys, Philosophical Mag-

azine 21, 399–424, 1970.

4. Ashby, M.F., Frost, H.J., The Kinematics of inelastic deformation above 0K

o

, [in:]

Argon, A.S. [Ed.], Constitutive Equations of Plasticity., 117, 1975.

5. Armstrong, R.W., Ramachandran, V., Zerilli, F.J.,[in:] Materials for Advanced

Technology System, Indian Institute of Metals Symposium, India 1993.

6. Bammann, D.J., Aifantis, E.C., On a proposal of continuum with microstructure, Acta

Mechanica 45, 91–125, 1982.

7. Bammann, D.J., Aifantis, E.C., A model for ﬁnite-deformation plasticity, Acta Me-

chanica 69, 97–117, 1987.

8. Bammann, D.J., A model of crystal plasticity containing a natural length scale, Material

Sciences and Engineering A309–310, 406–410, 2001.

9. Barlat, F., Glazov, M.V., Brem, J.C., Lege, D.J., A simple model for disloca-

tion behavior, strain and strain rate hardening evolution in deforming aluminum alloys,

International journal of Plasticity, 18, 919–939, 2002.

10. Bechtold, J.H., Acta Metallurgica. 3, 249, 1955.

11. Bell, J.F., Crystal plasticity, Philosophical Magazine 11, 1135–1145, 1965.

12. Cheng, J., Nemat-Nasser, S., A model for experimentally-observed high strain rate

dynamic strain aging in titanium, Acta Materialia. 48, 3131–3144, 2000.

13. Chichili, D., Ramesh, K., Hemker, K., The high-strain response of Alpha titanium:

experimental, deformation mechanisms and modeling, Acta Materialia. 46, 1025–1043,

1998.

14. Christian, J.W., Some surprising features of the plastic deformation of body-centered

cubic metals and alloys, Metallurgical Transactions A14, 1237–1256, 1983.

15. Follansbee, P.S., Regazzoni, G., Kocks, U.F., Transition to drag-controlled defor-

mation in copper at high strain rates, Institute of Physics Conference Series. 70, 71–80,

1984.

16. Friedel, J., Dislocations, Pergamon Press Oxford 1964.

17. Hirth, J.P., Nix, W.D., An analysis of the thermodynamics of dislocation glide, Physica

Status Solidi. 35, 177–188, 1969.

18. Hoge, K., Mukhejee, K., The temperature and strain rate dependence of the ﬂow stress

of tantalum, Journal of Material Science. 12, 1666–1672, 1977.

19. Gillis, P.P., Gilman, J.J., Dynamical dislocation theory of crystal plasticity, Journal

of Applied Physics. 36, 3370–3380, 1965.

Effect of dislocation density evolution ... 341

20. Gracio, J.J., Eﬀect of grain size on substructural evolution and plastic behavior of copper,

Material Science and Engineering, A118, 97–105, 1989.

21. Jassby, K.M., Vreeland, T., An experimental study of mobility of edge dislocations in

pure copper single crystals, Philosophical Magazine 21, 1147–1159, 1970.

22. Johnson, G., Cook, W., Fracture characteristics of three metals subjected to various

strains, strain rates, temperatures and pressures, Engineering Fracture Mechanics. 21,

31–48, 1988.

23. Kapoor, R. and Nemat-Nasser, S., Determination of temperature rise during high

strain rate deformation, Mechanics of Materials. 27, 1–12, 1998.

24. Kelly, J.M., Gillis, P.P., Continuum descriptions of dislocations under stress rever-

sals, Journal of Applied Physics. 45, 1091–1096, 1974.

25. Klepaczko, J.R., Modeling of structural evolution at medium and high strain rates, FCC

and BCC metals, [in:] Constitutive Relations and Their Physical Basis. Roskilde, Denmark

387–395, 1987.

26. Klepaczko, J.R., A general approach to rate sensitivity and constitutive modelin of fcc

and bcc metals, In Impact Eﬀects of Fast Transient Loading, A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam

3–10, 1988.

27. Klepaczko, J.R., Rezaig, B., A numerical study of adiabatic shear bending in mild steel

by dislocation mechanics based constitutive relations, Mechanics of Materials, 24 125–139,

1996.

28. Kocks, U.F., Argon, A.S., Ashby, M.F., Thermodynamics and kinetics of slip,

Progress in Materials Science, 19, Pergamon, Oxford 1975.

29. Kocks, U.F., Realistic constitutive relations for metal plasticity, Material Science and

Engineering, A317, 181–187, 2001.

30. Kubin, L.P., Reviews on the Deformation Behavior of Materials, 4, 181–275, 1982.

31. Kubin, L.P., Estrin, Y., Evolution for dislocation densities and the critical conditions

for the Portevin-le Chatelier eﬀect, Acta Metallurgical Materialia, 38, 697–708, 1990.

32. Kubin, L.P., Shihab, K., The rate dependence of the Portevin-Le Chatelier eﬀect, Acta

Metallurgica, 36, 2707–2718, 1988.

33. Lennon, A.M., Ramesh, K.T., The inﬂuence of crystal structure on the dynamic be-

havior of materials at high temperatures, International journal of Plasticity, 20, 269–290,

2004.

34. Li, J.C., Kinetics and dynamics in dislocation plasticity, Dislocation Dynamics, McGraw-

Hill, 87–116, 1968.

35. Louat, N., On the theory of the Portevin-Le Chatelier eﬀect, Scripta Metallurgica, 15,

1167-1170, 1981.

36. Mitchel, T.E., Spitzig, W.A., Three-stage hardening in tantalum single crystals, Acta

Metall., 13, 1169–1179, 1965.

37. Mordike, B.L., Rudolph, G., Three-stage hardening in tantalum deformed in compres-

sion J. Mater. Sci., 2, 332–338, 1967.

38. Nabarro, F.R.N., Basinski, Z.S., Holt, D.B., The plasticity of pure single crystals,

Advances in Physics, 13, 193–323, 1964.

342 G. Z. Voyiadjis, F. H. Abed

39. Nadgornyi, E.M., Dislocation dynamics and mechanical properties of crystals, Progress

in Materials Science, 31, 473–510, 1988.

40. Nemat-Nasser, S. and Li, Y., Flow Stress of F. C.C. Polycrystals with Application to

OFHC Cu,, Acta Materialia, 46 565–577, 1998.

41. Nemat-Nasser, S., Isaacs, J., Direct measurement of isothermal ﬂow stress of metals

at elevated temperatures and high strain rates with application to Ta and Ta-W alloys,

Acta Metallurgica, 45, 907–919, 1997.

42. Nemat-Nasser, S. and Li, Y., Flow Stress of F. C.C. Polycrystals with Application to

OFHC Cu, Acta Materialia, 46, 565–577, 1998.

43. Nemat-Nasser, S., Guo, W., Cheng, J., Mechanical properties and deformation mech-

anisms of a commercially pure titanium, Acta Materialia, 47, 3705–3720, 1999.

44. Nemat-Nasser, S. and Guo, W., Flow stress of commercially pure niobium over a broad

range of temperature and strain rates, Material Science Engineering. A284, 202–210, 2000.

45. Nemat-Nasser, S. and Guo, W., High strain rate response of commercially pure vana-

dium, Mechanics of Materials 32, 243–260, 2000.

46. Nemat-Nasser, S., Guo, W. and Kihl, D., Thermomechanical response of AL-6XN

stainless steel over a wide range of strain rates and temperatures, Journal of Mechanics

and Physics Solids, 49, 1823–1846, 2001.

47. Orowan, E., Discussion in Symposium on internal stresses in metals and alloys. Institute

of Metals, London, 451, 1948.

48. Rusinek, A. Klepaczko, J.R., Shear testing of a sheet steel at wide range of strain

rates and a constitutive relation with strain-rate and temperature dependence of the ﬂow

stress, International Journal of Plasticity, 17, 87–115, 2001.

49. Sackett, S.J., Kelly, J.M., Gillis, P.P., A probabilistic approach to polycrystalline

plasticity, Journal of Franklin Institute, 304, 33–63, 1977.

50. Stein, D.L., Low, J.R., Mobility of edge dislocations in silico-iron crystals, Journal of

Applied Physics. 31, 362–369, 1960.

51. Tanner, A., McGinty, R., McDowell, D., Modeling temperature and strain rate

history eﬀects in OFHC Copper, International Journal of Plasticity, 15, 575–603, 1999.

52. Taylor, G.I.,Plastic strain in metals, Journal of Inst. Metals, 62, 307–324, 1938.

53. Taylor, G., Thermally-activated deformation of bcc metals and alloys, Progress in Ma-

terial Science, 36, 29–61, 1992.

54. Vitek, V., Duesbury, M.S., Plastic anisotropy in bcc transition metals, Acta Materialia,

46, 1481–1492, 1998.

55. Voyiadjis, G.Z., Abed, F.H., Microstructural based models for bcc and fcc metal with

temperature and strain rate dependency, Mechanics of Materials, 37, 355–378, 2005.

56. Vreeland, T., Jassby, K.M., Temperature dependent viscous drag in close-packed met-

als, Material Science and Engineering, 7, 95–103, 1971.

57. Yoo, M.H., Morris, J.R., Ho, K.M., Agnew, S.R., Nonbasal deformation modes of

hcp metals and alloys: role of dislocation source and mobility, Metallurgical Materialia

Transaction, 33, 813–822, 2002.

Effect of dislocation density evolution ... 343

58. Zaiser, M., Glazov, M., Lalli, L.A., Richmond, O., On the relations between strain

and strain-rate softening phenomena in some metallic materials: a computational study,

Journal of Computational Material Science, 15, 35–49, 1999.

59. Zerilli, F.J., Armstrong, R.W., Dislocation-mechanics-based constitutive relations

for material dynamics calculation, Journal of Applied Physics, 5, 1816–1825, 1987.

60. Zerilli, F.J., Armstrong, R.W., The eﬀect of dislocation drag on the stress-strain

behavior of fcc metals, Acta Metallurgical and Materialia, 40, 1803–1808, 1992.

61. Zhao, M., Slaughter, W.S., Li, M., Mao, S.X., Material-length-scale-controlled

nano-indentation size eﬀects due to strain gradient plasticity, Acta Materialia, 51, 4461–

4469, 2003.

Received November 26, 2004.

300

G. Z. Voyiadjis, F. H. Abed

or past an obstacle require surmounting of the energy barrier by a combination of applied stress and thermal activation. Thus, at the microscale level, the mechanisms associated with dislocation motion and dislocation multiplication, the statistics of mobile dislocation populations, the nature and the statistics of obstacle distributions and the relationship between the externally imposed plastic strain rate and the dislocation kinetics, determine the form of the macroscopic plastic response. Moreover, the crystal lattice conﬁguration plays a crucial role in determining the eﬀect of thermal activation on the mechanical response of relatively pure metals which are mainly classiﬁed into three common crystal types; body-centered cubic (bcc), face-centered cubic (fcc) and hexagonal-closepacked (hcp). Each of these three crystal structures exhibits a characteristic thermomechanical behavior which is associated with the available slip systems and symmetries as well as with the nature of dislocation cores. Good reviews of plastic deformation in diﬀerent crystal structure types of metals are provided by Kubin [30], Christian [14], Taylor [53], Vitek and Duesbury [54], Chichili et al. [13], Nemat-Nasser et al. [44] and Lennon and Ramesh [33]. A great deal of eﬀort has been made in understanding the inﬂuence of temperature and strain rate on the ﬂow stress of diﬀerent structure types of metals. This understanding, however, is essential for the modeling and analysis of numerous processes including high-speed machining, impact, penetration and shear localization. Recently, considerable progress has been made in understanding the role of rate controlling dislocation mechanisms on the temperature and strain rate dependence of the ﬂow stress for metals and alloys. Hoge and Murkherjee [18] studied the eﬀect of both temperature and strain rates on the lower yield stress of tantalum as a bcc metal and proposed a model incorporating the combined operation of the Peierls’ mechanism and dislocation drag process. Zerilli and Armstrong [59] used dislocation mechanics concept to develop a constitutive model that accounts for strain, strain rate and temperature in a coupled manner, which can be incorporated in computer codes for applications related to dynamic loading conditions. Their model considers two diﬀerent forms for the two diﬀerent classes of metals (bcc and fcc). The rational for the diﬀerences in the two forms mainly depends on the dislocation characteristics for each particular structure. Bcc metals show stronger dependence of the yield stress on temperature and strain rate while in the case of fcc metals the yield stress is mainly aﬀected by strain hardening. In other words, the cutting of dislocation forests is the principal mechanism in fcc metals, while in bcc metals; the overcoming of Peierls-Nabarro barriers is the principal mechanism. Zerilli–Armstrong (Z–A) model has been derived based on the concept of thermal activation analysis for overcoming local obstacles to dislocation motion. This model has been widely used in many computer codes from which its material parameters, as ﬁrst believed, are physically interpreted. Very recently, Voyiadjis and Abed [55]) explained that the phys-

Effect of dislocation density evolution ...

301

ical deﬁnitions of the Z–A model parameters are, in fact, not accurate because of the assumption made by using the expansion ln(1 + x) ≃ x in the model derivation. This expansion, however, is valid only for values x ≪ 1.0, whereas the deﬁnition of the variable x given by Z–A model indicates that its numerical value increases and approaches the value of one with strain rate and temperature increase. This, in turn, makes the Z–A parameters lose their physical meaning when they are used in high temperature and strain rate applications. In other words, by using the above-mentioned expansion, the Z–A model derivation was directed to match the experimental evidence which shows that the temperature degradation of the ﬂow stress can be ﬁtted using an exponential form (see the paper of Voyiadjis and Abed [55] for more details). Klepaczko [25, 26] derived a constitutive model that is based on a consistent approach to the kinetics of macroscopic plastic ﬂow of metals with bcc and fcc structures. His constitutive formalism was applied utilizing one state variable which is the total dislocation density and assuming that plastic deformation in shear is the fundamental mode in metal plasticity. Furthermore, he assumed that at constant microstructure, the ﬂow stress consists of two components: the internal stress and the eﬀective stress. The internal stress is developed by the long-range strong obstacles to dislocation motion whereas the eﬀective stress is due to thermally activated short-range obstacles. Unlike most experimental observations and theoretical interpretations, Klepaczko pointed out that for certain bcc or fcc metals, athermal and thermal ﬂow stress components that are pertained to the resistance of long and short range barriers respectively are strain rate and temperature-dependent. Klepaczko and his co-workers (Klepaczko and Rezaig [27] and Rusinek and Klepaczko [48]) have successfully evaluated the material parameters of the derived constitutive model for diﬀerent bcc and fcc metals and they were able to study the adiabatic shear banding in mild steel numerically. Nemat-Nasser and his co-workers (e.g., Nemat-Nasser and Isaacs, [41], Nemat-Nasser and Li [42] Nemat-Nasser et al. [43] and Nemat-Nasser and Guo [44, 45]) developed an experimental technique measuring the ﬂow stress of diﬀerent bcc, fcc and hcp metals and alloys over a broad range of strains, strain rate and temperatures in uniaxial compression. Some of their experimental results are, actually, used in this work for models evaluation and comparisons. They also presented a constitutive model that characterizes the plastic deformation of diﬀerent metals and alloys using the thermal activation concept and assuming constant dislocation density throughout the deformation process. That is neither the plastic strain evolution of dislocation density nor the rate multiplication of the dislocation density evolution is considered. Voyiadjis and Abed [55] incorporated the production rate of dislocation density in modeling the plastic ﬂow stress for both bcc and fcc metals using

302

G. Z. Voyiadjis, F. H. Abed

the concept of thermal activation analysis as well as the dislocation interaction mechanisms. Some of their models parameters are physically derived and related to the micro-structural quantities. Others, on the other hand, are deﬁned empirically based on the experimental results. It was concluded that the contribution of mobile dislocation density rate to the plastic deformation modeling shows considerable eﬀect on the prediction of the ﬂow stress, particularly in the case of high strain rates and temperatures. Furthermore, Abed and Voyiadjis [1] used a combination of their bcc and fcc models in characterizing the thermomechanical behavior of AL-6XN stainless steel over a wide range of temperatures and strain rates. In this paper, the eﬀect of plastic strain evolution of dislocation density is utilized in determining the plastic ﬂow stress of three major categories of metal structures: body centered cubic (bcc), face centered cubic (fcc), and hexagonal close packed (hcp) over a wide range of temperatures and strain rates. The proposed constitutive models are derived based on the concept of thermal activation analysis, dislocation interaction mechanisms, experimental observations, and the additive decomposition of ﬂow stress to thermal and athermal components. In Sec. 2, the role of dislocation dynamics inside the crystal lattice in determining the general form of the thermal plastic stress is investigated using the well-known Orowans’ [47] relation that considers the plastic deformation as a dynamic process obtained by the motion of dislocations with an average velocity. In turn, the plastic shear strain rate at the microscale is related to the plastic strain rate tensor at the macroscale using the expression postulated by Bamman and Aifantis [6]. Moreover, the evolution of dislocation density with plastic strain given by Klepaczko [25] is also utilized in the derivation process of the proposed modeling. In Sec. 3, a constitutive description is presented in order to understand the plastic deformation behavior of bcc, fcc and hcp metals considering the experimental observations as well as the physical basis of the microsturctures inside the material. Both the thermal and athermal components of the ﬂow stress are physically derived and all the models parameters are related to the nano and micro-structure quantities. The hardening stresses are characterized using two diﬀerent deﬁnitions of hardening parameters for each metal structure. Finally, the dynamic strain aging and the twinning phenomena encountered in some polycrystalline metals at certain range of strain rates and temperatures are brieﬂy discussed. In Sec. 4, the determination procedure of the proposed bcc, fcc and hcp models parameters is presented. Applications of the proposed models to niobium, vanadium, and tantalum for bcc metals, OFHC copper for fcc metals and titanium for hcp are then performed and compared to available experimental results at low and high strain rates and temperatures. Furthermore, discussions

the following expression is postulated (Bamman and Aifantis. A theoretical description of plasticity should aim at relating the macroscopic deformation behavior at both the intrinsic properties of the deforming material and the externally imposed deformation conditions. 2. in principle. Moreover. moved and stored during the inelastic deformation.3) 1 Mij = (ni ⊗ νj + νi ⊗ nj ). 2 where n denotes the unit normal on the slip plane and ν denotes the unit vecˆ ˆ tor in the slip direction.1) γ p = bρm v. In turn. Equation (2. ˙ij where Mij is the symmetric Schmidt orientation tensor which is deﬁned as follows: (2.Effect of dislocation density evolution . On the microscopic scale. Dislocation dynamics in crystals under plastic deformation The plastic behavior of metals can be determined by investigating the dislocation dynamics of their crystals. the constitutive description must. the variation of the Schmidt tensor is ignored .2) indicates that the climb processes were neglected and plastic incompressibility was assumed since the orientation ten˙ sor Mij is traceless. 5. Conclusions are then given in Sec.2) εp = γ p Mij . multiplication and interaction of these dislocations. Thus. In many cases. conclusions about the macroscopic deformation behavior can be obtained by investigating the temperature and strain rate dependence of the ﬂow stress of pure bcc and fcc metals considering the properties of single dislocations (Zaiser et al. 303 of the model prediction results along with quantiﬁcation of the nano and microquantities are presented. ˙ where ρm is the mobile dislocation density and b is the Burgers vector. starting from the determination of the single dislocation properties on an atomistic scale and proceeding up to the characterization of the macroscopic material properties. motion and interactions between dislocations.. [6]): (2. Orowan [47] recognized the plastic deformation as a dynamic process by suggesting that the plastic shear strain rate is obtained by the motion of dislocations with an average velocity v such that: (2. In relating the plastic shear strain rate at the microscale to the plastic strain rate tensor at the macroscale. bridge the entire hierarchy of length scales. [58]). the plastic ﬂow of crystalline materials is controlled by the generation. which are generated.. the most important features that should serve as constituent elements of an appropriate theory of crystal plasticity are the motion.

Klepaczko [25] showed that the growth of dislocation density is nearly linear with regard to the deformation in the ﬁrst steps of the hardening process. the following simple relation for the evolution of the total dislocation density ρ was presented (Klepaczko. Kubin and Estrin [31]. (2.2). Therefore.1) should be subject to reﬁnement. that is to say of the dislocation density. independently of the temperature.304 G. Klepaczko [25]. however. [25]): (2. [9]. Abed either by considering that plasticity at the macroscale incorporates a number of diﬀerently oriented grains into each continuum point and therefore an average value is assumed or by being the product of two “ﬁrst order” terms (Aifantis [2] Bammann and Aifantis [7]). Voyiadjis and Abed [55] utilized this concept in the derivation of their constitutive models for both bcc and fcc metals. Substituting Eq. (2.4) εp = ˙ 2 p p ε ε = mb ρm v ˙ ˙ ¯ 3 ij ij where m = (2Mij Mij /3)1/2 can be interpreted as the Schmidt orientation fac¯ tor. Based on this hypothesis. F. It should be noted that both the mobility v and the concentration ρm of dislocations increase with increasing external forces (stresses). Nadgornyi [39] showed that one can (and often should) use the dislocation rate as well as the dislocation velocity interchangeably if one considers plastic deformation quantitatively. This is followed by a recombination of the dislocations that is assumed to be proportional with the probability of dislocation meeting. H. Z. dεp where M = 1/bl is the multiplication factor. For the present work. Bammann [8] and Barlat et al. Voyiadjis. only the dislocation velocity is considered and rather than incorporating the dislocation rate (dρ/dt). Consequently. the equivalent plastic strain rate εp at ˙ the macroscale is deﬁned in terms of the mobile dislocation density and dislocation velocity as follows: (2. the meaning of the quantities deﬁned in Eq. (2. ρi is the initial dislocation density encountered in the material due to the manufacture process or by nature. the accumulation of dislocation density from its initial values until reaching its saturated level is considered.1) into Eq. l is the dislocation mean free path.5) dρ = M − ka (ρ − ρi ). and ka is the dislocation annihilation factor which may depend on both the temperature and strain rate. we consider the variation of the mobile dislocation density with the plastic strain (dρ/dεp ). The accumulation process of material dislocation density during the plastic deformation was investigated extensively by many authors (see for example. Klepaczko and Rezaig [27] .

it is determined through thermal activation by overcoming local obstacles to dislocation motion.7) where k is the Boltzmann’s constant. however. and to the dynamic recovery (λ4 ). dεp b where the constant coeﬃcients λi are related to the multiplication of mobile dislocations (λ1 ). [49]). (2. is postulated (Bammann and Aifantis [6]): (2. The dislocations are assumed to move in a periodic potential and the average dislocation velocity v is determined by the thermodynamic probability of achieving suﬃcient energy temperature T to move past a peak in the potential. 305 showed that for mild steels. In this study. In fact. The reference dislocation velocity vo represents the peak value where the temperature reaches or exceeds the melting point. dεp b b dρf λ3 1/2 = λ2 ρm + ρf − λ4 ρf . where tw .6) ρs = ρi + M .. Kubin and Estrin [31] proposed the following set of two coupled diﬀerential equations to describe both the forest ρf and mobile ρm dislocation density evolutions with plastic strain using the same above-mentioned concepts: dρm λ1 λ3 1/2 = 2 − λ2 ρm − ρf . which leads to the following deﬁnition of the saturated dislocation density ρs (2. Li [34] and Hirth and Nix [17]).0 may change with ρ and temperature (Kelly and Gillis [24] Sackett et al. that at saturation. the fraction f represents only the part of the mobile dislocation density that is thermally aﬀected through Orowan’s equation as will be discussed later. In other words.. and T is the absolute temperature. ka The mobile dislocation density is related to the total dislocation density ρ by the linear relation (ρm = f ρ). their mutual annihilation and trapping (λ2 ). It should be kept in mind however.Effect of dislocation density evolution . it can be shown that the constant value of the fraction f gives satisfactory quantitative results for most metals (Klepaczko and Rezaig [27]). where the fraction f ≤ 1. The following general expression. Many expressions deﬁning the dislocation speed for thermally activated dislocation glides may be found in the literature (Stein and Low [50] Gillis and Gilman [19]. their immobilization through interaction with forest dislocations (λ3 ).8) v = vo exp − G kT . It is deﬁned by vo = d/tw . both M and ka could be assumed constant at not so high strain rates and up to the temperature where the annihilation micromechanisms (recovery) start to be more intense. the slope dρ/dεp approaches the value of zero.

According to Kocks [29] the typical values of the constant q are 3/2 and 2 that is equivalent to a triangular obstacle proﬁle near the top. however. Its order of magnitude can. (2. σ is the threshold stress at which the ˆ dislocations can overcome the barriers without the assistance of thermal activation (σth = σ where G = 0. (2. ka ρmi β2 = k Go β1 = k ln 1 + C1 1 − exp(−ka εp ) Go .14) C1 = f M . The shear stress-dependent free energy of activation G may depend not only on stress but also on the internal structure. and p and q are constants deﬁningthe shape of the ˆ short-range barriers. (2.11) ¯ εi = mb vo ρmi . the typical values of the constant p are 1/2 and 2/3 which characterizes the tail of the obstacle. Substituting Eq.306 G.10) σth εp ˙ = σ 1 − β1 (εp )T − β2 T ln i ˆ εpo ˙ 1/q 1/p .12) and (2.8) for the dislocation velocity into Eq. On the other hand. H. be anywhere between 106 and 109 s−1 which characterizes the highest rate value a material may reach as related to the reference (highest) dislocation velocity vo . F. where Go is the reference Gibbs energy. where εi represents the reference equivalent plastic strain rate in its initial ˙po stage while related to the initial mobile dislocation.9).0). Voyiadjis. [28] suggested the following deﬁnition to relate the activation energy G to the thermal ﬂow stress σth : (2.4) and making use of Eq.5) for the dislocation density evolution (after performing proper integration) and Eq. Z.13) where (2.9) G = Go 1 − σth σ ˆ p q . Abed represents the time that a dislocation waits at an obstacle and d is the average distance the dislocation moves between the obstacles. the general relation of the thermal ﬂow stress for polycrystalline materials (metals) is deﬁned as follows: (2. Kocks et al. (2. ˙po The parameters β1 and β2 are deﬁned as follows: (2. (2.

fcc. Therefore. the ﬁnal deﬁnition of thermal stress as well as athermal stress diﬀers from metal to metal. Nemat-Nasser and Isaacs [41] and Nemat-Nasser et al. which cannot be overcome by introducing thermal energy through the crystal. 3.15) σ = σth + σa .Effect of dislocation density evolution . Moreover. the thermal plastic ﬂow pertains totally to the yield stress. (2. the ﬂow stress of any type of metals (σ = (3σij σij /2)1/2 of the von Mises type) will be additively decomposed into two major components. two types of obstacles are encountered that try to prevent dislocation movements through the lattice. depending. short-range and long-range barriers. face-centered cubic (fcc). Its value. Zerilli and Armstrong [59]. and hexagonal . average values of the quantities M and ka are considered (Kubin and Estrin. the long-range barriers are due to the structure of the material. In turn. In understanding quantitatively the deformation behavior of metals. in consequence. constitutive relations will be proposed for diﬀerent types of metals applicable to high strain rates and temperatures. any constitutive modeling of crystalline materials like metals should consider the physical basis of the microstructure inside the material as well as the experimental observation during the plastic deformation. Although Eq. 307 It is worthwhile to mention here that β1 is not constant and rather increases with plastic strain increase. is assumed constant in order to simplify the determination procedure of the model parameters. however. In the following section. On the other hand. which represents the mobile portion amount of the total dislocation density. which is the case at high strains. the athermal stress σa and the thermal stress σth (2. attains the maximum when the mobile part of the total dislocation density reaches its saturated level (ρm = ρms ). and hcp) and on the experimental observations.10) represents the general relation of the thermal stress. The above assumption of additive decomposition for the formulation of the ﬂow stress has been proved experimentally and is used by several authors (see for example. on both the microstructure crystal shape (bcc.. On the other hand. [31]). In fact. In this work. body-centered cubic (bcc). β1 vanishes as the plastic strain approaches zero and. The short-range ones are due to dislocations trapping (forest) which can be overcome by introducing thermal energy through the crystal. metals can generally be classiﬁed into three major types. However. deforming a metal beyond its elastic limit activates and moves its dislocations through the crystal.. Constitutive modeling of polycrystalline metals Based on their crystal structure. a constitutive description is required. [43]). the fraction f .

has its own behavior coupled to strain rate and temperature.g. Z. however. 3. the variation of the stress-strain curves appear only on the yielding point whereas the hardening curves are almost identical (e. tantalum. Voyiadjis.40 True Strain 0.20 0. Abed close-packed (hcp). F. In this section. 45].00 0. at 2500 s−1 strain rate given by Nemat-Nasser and Guo [44.10 0. see Fig. On the other hand. 1 for the case of vanadium).1. Each type of metal.70 Fig. 2. The thermal stress of bcc metals may be interpreted physically as the resistance of the dislocation motion by the Peierls barriers (short-range barriers) provided by the lattice itself. the temperatures and strain rates are considered in the range where dynamic strain aging (DSA) is not eﬀective. niobium and vanadium show strong dependence of the yield stress on the strain rate and temperature. Moreover.30 0. 1000 Vanadium.60 0. H. at a given strain rate and diﬀerent temperatures or at a given temperature and several strain rates. the thermal component of the ﬂow stress for .500 s-1 800 True Stress (MPa) T0 = 77K 600 296K 400K 500K 600K 800K 400 200 0 0.308 G. The crystal structure and the atom distribution inside the lattice play a crucial role in controlling the dislocation generation and movement during plastic deformation. Adiabatic ﬂow stress of vanadium for indicated initial temperatures. the role of solute/dislocation interaction in metals is not included in this study and therefore.50 0. modeling of the plastic ﬂow is presented for the aforementioned types of metals using the thermal activation energy principle combined with systematic experimental observations investigated by many authors. 1. whereas the plastic hardening is hardly inﬂuenced by temperature. That is. This indicates that the thermal component of the ﬂow stress is mainly controlled by the yield stress and nearly independent of the plastic strain. such as pure iron. Body centered cubic (BCC) metals Experimental observations of most bcc metals.

It is also necessary to have G proportional to µ(G ∝ µb3 ) in order for the activation work done by the applied forces during the activation event to be independent of material properties (Kocks [29]).1) σo = mGo . both at zero temperature. ˆ where αo is a constant which represents the portion of the shear modulus µo contributed to the activation energy.1) with a proper proportional relation of the reference Gibbs energy to the shear modulus. (3. at this temperature. Ao b where b is the magnitude of the Burgers vector and m is the orientation factor √ that relates the shear stress to the normal stress. it is found for most bcc metals that the eﬀect of the variation of β1 (or variation of mobile dislocation density) on the thermal ﬂow stress is practically negligible as will be shown in the application section.2) σ = mαo µo b2 /Ao . an additional component of stress Ya is used that is independent of plastic strain and temperature (athermal yield stress component) and related to the internal microstructure quantities that are independent of plastic strain (e. grain diameter Dg ).. σ = mτ where m = 3 for the case of the von Mises ﬂow rule.g. It should be mentioned here that the ﬂow stress at a given temperature.. at zero Kelvin temperature. is proportional to an appropriate shear modulus. the parameter σ ˆ can be related to the strain-independent internal structure as follows: (3. Klepaczko [26] proposed a deﬁnition for the stress intensity as related to the shear modulus and the magnitude of the Burgers vector from which the athermal yield stress is ﬁnally deﬁned as follows: (3. For bcc metals. comes out from the fact that the plastic hardening is essentially allotted to the athermal part of the ﬂow stress which is primarily accomplished through the relatively temperature-insensitive long-range barriers. This behavior. For most metals. Utilizing Eq. (2. . the thermal stress (σo ) to the reference Gibbs energy (Go ) and dislocation activation area (Ao ) as follows: (3. 309 such metals can be determined using the same expression deﬁned in Eq.Effect of dislocation density evolution . T . the activation area Ao may be considered to be constant in accordance with the intrinsic Peierls stress. Zerilli and Armstrong [59] related.10). actually. This component is deﬁned as the product of microstructural stress intensity and the inverse square root of the average grain diameter. µ. In fact.3) Ya = α1 µ b Dg 1/2 where α1 is the interaction constant showing the contribution of the above mechanism to the athermal stress.

ka Relating the shear stress to the normal stress by σ = mτ .4) √ τ = αµ b ρ.2 for fcc metals and about 0. This experimental observation can be physically justiﬁed by using alternative explanation for the total dislocation density. and consequently contributes to the athermal ﬂow stress part. In fact.5) instead of ρ in Eq. (3. The plastic strain evolution of the eﬀective total dislocation density can be deﬁned. Z.5) ρ= ¯ M (1 − exp(−ka εp )) .4).4) can be derived by several methods. [43]). F. Ashby [3] split the diﬀerence of α values in assuming that α = 0. (3. Thus. (2.6) ¯ σa = Ya + B(1 − exp(−ka εp ))1/2 . and substituting ρ ¯ deﬁned by Eq. one has the athermal ﬂow stress in the following form: (3. in terms of the internal physical quantities as follows: (3. the athermal ﬂow stress of bcc metals may be given as (3.310 G. where α is an empirical coeﬃcient taken to be 0. which is independent of temperature. Voyiadjis.7) ¯ B = mαµb (M/ka )1/2 . [38]. In other words. This assumption is observed experimentally and used by many authors (see for example Zerilli and Armstrong [59] and Nemat-Nasser et al. Abed The ﬁnal component of the bcc ﬂow stress is attributed to the hardening stress. the plastic hardening for pure bcc metals may be evaluated from an assumed power law dependent on strain. who pointed out that Eq. after solving the diﬀerential equation Eq. the total dislocation density may also be deﬁned as the . Alternatively.3 for most metals. (3.4 for bcc metals as given by Nabarro et al.8) σa = Ya + Bεn p where B and n are the hardening parameters. H. both the mobile dislocation density and immobile (forest) dislocation density should be considered in the evolution (accumulation) relations for the case of large strain problems (up to 50%). the hardening component of the ﬂow stress is related to the eﬀective total dislocation density (¯ = ρ − ρi ) where ρi is the initial dislocation density encountered ρ originally inside the material. Therefore.5). The dislocation model of Taylor [52] gives the shear ﬂow stress τ in terms of the total dislocation density ρ as (3. ¯ where B is the hardening parameter deﬁned as (3.

are not explicitly deﬁned as in the case of those given by Eq. ¯ p Although the above equation (Eq. [61]: (3. In turn.9) ργ = ργ + ργ .. By substituting Eq. Eq.6) or by using the empirical relation. b ρs = σref εN . in general. the power-law hardening parameters can be related to the eﬀective statistically stored dislocation density ρs for the ¯ case of uniform plastic straining (¯g ≃ 0) as follows: ρ (3.Effect of dislocation density evolution . which are stored in order to maintain the continuity (compatibility) of various components of the material. which are stored by trapping each other in a random way.10) ˆχ ρg = f . s g where the exponent γ is a material parameter.10) into Eq.11) √ σref εN = mαµb ρs . The coeﬃcients σref and N represent the material parameters for the assumed power-law hardening rule. The function f constant when the strain-gradient ﬁeld is uniform. 311 interaction between the density ρs for statistically stored dislocations.10) may be used for the deﬁnition of both the eﬀective statistically stored dislocation density ρs and the eﬀective geometrically necessary dislocation den¯ sity ρg except that they are related to the plastic strain and the plastic strain ¯ gradient respectively. (3. (3. (3. the athermal hardening stress may be estimated either by using the physically derived relation given by Eq. however. i. .. Based on that. (3. however. It is obvious from the above deﬁnitions of both dislocation densities that the geometrically necessary dislocation density ρg is related to the strain gradient whereas the statistically stored dislocation density ρs is related to the strain hardening as follows (Zhao et al.8). Eq. the hardening parameters B and n.6). (3. the presence of geometrically necessary dislocations will accelerate the rate of statistical storage and that the value of γ = 1 should provide a lower limit on the eﬀective total dislocation density.e. obtained through experimental observations.9). (3. (3. mαµb ˆ where χ is a suitable form of the third-order strain gradient tensor and f is ˆ. [61] argued that the value of γ should be less than or equal to 1 in order to properly estimate the eﬀective total dislocation density. (3. Zhao et al. becomes a function of higher order gradients of strain. and density ρg for geometrically necessary dislocations.11)) rationalizes the power-law hardening rule by relating it to the internal physical quantities. Ashby [3] pointed out that.

9.12) or Eq. in the T vs σ curve.13) is non-negative. H. F. To ) deformation. In this work.13) σ = Ya + Bεn p εp ˙ + σ 1 − β1 (εp )T − β2 T ln i ˆ εpo ˙ 1/q 1/p 1/q 1/p The above relations may be used to predict the stress-strain curves for both isothermal and adiabatic plastic deformations. through one of the following relations: (3. the temperature T is calculated incrementally by assuming that the majority of the plastic work is converted to heat: εp (3. It should be noted that the thermal component of the ﬂow stress given by the last term in the right-hand side of Eq. The critical temperature.14) ζ T = To + cp ρ σdεp . The Taylor–Quinney empirical constant ζ is often assigned the value of 0. Z. (3. (3.14) may be solved numerically or can be integrated without introducing any noticeable errors by either using the mean value theorem or the simple Euler method. deﬁnes the starting point of the constant stress which represents the athermal component of the ﬂow stress.12) ¯ σ = Ya + B (1 − exp(−ka εp ))1/2 εp ˙ + σ 1 − β1 (εp )T − β2 T ln i ˆ εpo ˙ and (3. is strain rate dependent and is deﬁned as follows: . the term between the brackets on the right-hand side should be set equal to zero when the temperature exceeds the critical value.15). [23]).14) is used for all types of metals to determine the evolution of temperature with plastic strain throughout the adiabatic deformation. the total ﬂow stress for bcc metals may be calculated. recent tests have indicated that this parameter may vary with plastic strain (for more details see the work of Kapoor and Nemat-Nasser. the temperature T remains constant during the plastic (representing the initial testing temperature. Eq. Voyiadjis. However. Equation (3. This critical value. In the adiabatic case of deformation. after making use of the concept of additive decomposition in Eq. (2. 0 Here ρ is the material density and cp is the speciﬁc heat at constant pressure. For the case of isothermal deformation. (3. however. Thus.312 G. Abed Accordingly. heat inside the material increases as plastic strain increases and therefore.

600 OFHC Copper. 313 (3. On this basis.Effect of dislocation density evolution . 2. depending on the corresponding temperature (see Fig. for a certain strain rate and various temperatures. That is to say. Face centered cubic (FCC) metals In the case of fcc metals. like copper and aluminum.000/s 500 True Stress (MPa) To = 296K 400 596K 300 796K 996K 200 100 0 0. The eﬀect of mobile dislocation density is introduced to the ﬂow stress by utilizing Orowan’s equation as derived in the previous section.00 0. Experimental observations validate the plastic strain dependence of strain rate and temperature for most fcc metals (NematNasser and Li [40]. Additionally..15) Tcr = εp ˙ β1 − β2 ln i εpo ˙ −1 . Tanner et al. for the thermal activation analysis behavior. the mechanisms of thermal activation analysis are dominated and controlled by the emergence and evolution of a heterogeneous microstructure of dislocations (mobile) as well as the long-range interactions between dislocations (forest). 3.60 True Strain 0. the parameter β 1 plays a signiﬁcant role in characterizing the eﬀect of dislocations movement on the thermal ﬂow stress during the thermal plastic deformation. the adiabatic stress vs strain plots clearly show that all curves start approximately from the same point (initial yielding) and each curve hardens diﬀerently from each other. the eﬀect of dislocation .40 0. 4. [51].20 Fig.80 1.00 1.20 0. That is. Lennon and Ramesh [33]). the thermal activation is strongly dependent on the plastic strain. That is.. the increase in the yield point with a decrease in temperature is highly dependent on the strainhardened states for fcc metals. 2 for the case of OFHC Copper). at 4000 s−1 strain rate given by Nemat-Nasser and Li [42].2. Adiabatic ﬂow stress of OFHC copper for indicated initial temperatures.

in consequence. (3.16) V = Ab = db2 /2. p Comparing Eq. introducing thermal energy will facilitate dislocations in overcoming these types of obstacles and.0 Kelvin temperature and any strain value is related to both the dislocation densities and strain by the relation given by several authors (see for example Bell [11]) (3. On this basis. determined by dislocation intersections. Gracio [20] has speculated that in copper. the distance d between dislocation intersections and consequently the activation volume play an additional crucial role in determining an appropriate formulation introducing the eﬀect of plastic strain on the thermal component of the material ﬂow stress. Voyiadjis and Abed [55]): (3.18) ′ ′′ σo ≃ σo (b/d) ≃ σo εn . (2.314 G. (3. and employing the argument given by Eqs.19) clearly shows that the activation area decreases as the plastic strain evolves which indicates that the value of the activation area is the highest . F. the activation area Ao for fcc metals.18) with Eq.e. the activation volume V can be related to the distance between dislocation intersections as follows (Zerilli and Armstrong [59]. When dislocation patterns (i. Therefore. Thus.16) and (3. provide hardening to the thermal ﬂow stress. cell) are formed. where A is the activation area. Abed intersection mechanisms (mobile and forest) on the ﬂow stress can be described as follows. the sources of mobile dislocations become numerous in the cell walls. After deformation. when the plastic strain increases. the forest dislocation densities as well as the plastic strain are related to the distance d through the relationship (Kubin and Estrin [31]) (3. In fact.17) 1/2 d ∼ 1/εp and ρf ∼ 1/d2 .19) or A−1 = A′ −1 εp o o 1/2 −1/2 Equation (3. H. is proportional to the inverse square root of plastic strain (and vice versa) as follows (Zerilli and Armstrong [59]): Ao = A′ εp o (3.17). the mean free path decreases and consequently. the distance between dislocation intersections decreases. Z.10) for the case of zero Kelvin temperature. Therefore. which become the major obstacle for a mobile dislocation. The multiple slip-crystal ﬂow stress for fcc metals at T = 0. dislocations tend to be trapped on the next cell wall forming a forest of dislocations. Voyiadjis.

23) σth → Yd 1 − εi ˙po k T ln Go εp ˙ 1/q 1/p . as well as plastic strain. at a given plastic strain value. o It can be seen in Eq.21) shows that when the plastic strain approaches the limit zero (εp → 0.drag eﬀects on the movement of material dislocations.1) and since σo = σ at T = 0. (3. however. is a ﬁnite quantity. o p −1 −1 Substituting Eq. . Moreover.3). which is not the case as deﬁned in Eq. (3.Effect of dislocation density evolution . incorporating the electron. (3.15). On the other hand. the thermal ˆ component of the present constitutive equation for the case of fcc metals will incorporate the coupling of temperature.. and deﬁned for the case of fcc metals as follows: o (3.. (2. Using the additive decomposition given in Eq. In fact. (3. the athermal component of fcc ﬂow stress is independent of the plastic strain and it pertains totally to the initial yield stress and is related to the internal structure (grain diameter) as in the case of bcc metals Eq. whereas the ˜ hardening parameter B is given as: (3. (3. 315 at the initial stage of plastic deformation (εp = 0).20) guided us in introducing an additional component to the thermal ﬂow stress. This phenomenon is encountered mainly in fcc and hcp metals at the regions where the plastic strains approach zero with relatively high strain rates (Jassby and Vreeland [21] and Zerilli and Armstrong [60]).21) ˜ 1/2 σ = Ya + Bεp + Yd εp ˙ 1 − β1 (εp )T − β2 T ln i εpo ˙ 1/q 1/p . Ya is constant. the thermal stress preserves the same trend shown in bcc metals including that constants p and q are falling in the same range as those given before. In this work.19) since it will tend to inﬁnity when the plastic strain is zero. the modiﬁcation of the activation energy deﬁnition given in Eq. the deﬁnition of the initial activation area is modiﬁed by incorporating a ﬁnite initial activation area A′ .0). the total ﬂow stress may then be deﬁned for the case of fcc metals as: (3. thus. An examination of Eq.and phonon. (3. therefore.20) A−1 = A′ o + A′′ o ε1/2 .22) ˜ B = mαo µo b2 /A′′ . there is no strain rate and temperature eﬀect on the initial yield stress and.21) that. strain rate. where the parameters Ya and β i are the same as deﬁned previously. The initial activation area.20) into Eq. (3. the solution for the thermal stress approaches the limiting value (3.

17) as follows: (3. εp ˙ × 1 − β1 (εp )T − β2 T ln i εpo ˙ 1/q 1/p . [15]. (3. (3. Substituting Eq.23) is a decreasing function of temperature whereas it increases with the increase of the strain rate. (3. ˆ ˆ where the hardening parameter B and the drag-stress component Yd are deﬁned by the following two relations: (3. Abed where the parameter Yd may be considered as the resultant drag-stress at the reference velocity ε = εo and/or zero Kelvin temperature T = 0 deﬁned as ˙ ˙ (3.24) Yd = mαo µo b2 /A′ . Armstrong et al. ρf = ρf i + f ka ¯ where f denotes the forest dislocation density fraction of the total dislocation density. where m is a constant and the evolution of forest dislocation density with plastic ˜ hardening may be deﬁned after making use of Eq.2) and utilizing Eq.26) ¯M (1 − exp(−ka εp )) . Nemat-Nasser and Li [40] and Nemat-Nasser et al. however. o It’s obvious that the drag-stress component given by Eq. F. [5] have noted that the strong upturn in ﬂow stress at high strain rates signiﬁes a strong decrease in the activation area A.16) and (3.25) Ao = bd/2 ≃ mbρf ˜ −1/2 . coincides with the experimental results and observations found in the literature (see Vreeland and Jassby [56] and Follansbee et al. (3. the hardening parameter Bεn given in Eq. the plastic ﬂow stress of fcc metals can alternatively be determined using the following relation: (3.26). ˆ .28) (3. Voyiadjis. approaching atomic dimensions. [46]).316 G.21) can alternatively p be derived by a more accurate method by relating the activation area to the forest dislocation density after utilizing both Eqs. (3. Such a behavior. (2.5) as follows: (3. H.25) into Eq.29) ˆ B = mαo µo b ˆ ¯M f .27) ˆ ˆ σ = Ya + Yd + B (1 − exp(−ka εp ))1/2 . Z. ˜ Actually. (3. indicative of strongly reduced intersection spacing leading to the dislocation density increase. ka √ ˆ Yd = mαo µo b ρf i . In this regard.

21) with a power low hardening stress component or Eq. In fact. often associated with changes in deformation modes which. Although the crystal structure of hcp metals is close-packed like fcc metals. hcp materials often show strong temperature-dependent behavior. Its alloys are considered to be the most increasingly used hcp metals in structural applications at low and high strain rate of loading. the critical temperature of fcc metals is both strain and strain rate-dependent and is deﬁned in the same way as that given in Eq. Since each hcp metal has its own mechanical behavior depending on the internal structure (a/c ratio) and slip plane and direction. As a ﬁnal point. However. as follows: (3. the von Mises criterion (Yoo et al. like titanium and zirconium. aﬀect both the polycrystalline ductility and dynamic recrystallization. can be determined by addressing the structure and energies of dislocation cores and planer defects. (3. tends to fall somewhere between that of the fcc and bcc metals. the macroscopic thermomechanical behavior of hcp metals in general and titanium in particular. including twin boundaries and stacking faults.15).27) with a more accurate physical interpretation of hardening stress. however. (3. Hexagonal Close-Packed (HCP) Metals The mechanical behavior of hcp metals. The plastic ﬂow stress for bcc metals is then deˆ ˜ termined using either Eq. [57]).Effect of dislocation density evolution . In this regard. different hcp materials have dramatically diﬀerent mechanical properties which make the modeling of the plastic ﬂow of hcp metals very complicated and not unique over broad temperature and strain rate ranges.30) σ = Ya + Bεn p + ˜ 1/2 Bεp + Yd εp ˙ 1 − β1 (εp )T − β2 T ln i εpo ˙ 1/q 1/p . (3. 317 where m = m/m is a constant. 3.3. for instance. the evolution of the adiabatic temperature for fcc metals is simulated using the same evolution relation given in Eq. (3. it shows plastic anisotropy and lacks the symmetry needed to be suﬃcient in satisfying.14). Observations of the experimental stress-strain results of titanium under high strain rates and elevated temperatures indicated that not only is the yield stress strongly dependent on temperature and strain rates but the strain hardening also changes with temperatures. the authors choose to concentrate in this study only on the thermal plastic deformation behavior of titanium. as shown in Fig.. Both relations. 3. correlate properly with the experimental results. Moreover.. Thus. Figure 3 implies that thermal activation has the eﬀect of both lowering the yield stress and decreasing the eﬀect of strain hardening. in turn. the plastic ﬂow stress of hcp metals is related to temperature and strain rates assuming that the plastic ﬂow is mainly accounted for by dislocation motion and intersections.

F.30) and Eq. 1000 Titanium Strain Rate = 2200/s To = 77K 296K 398K 498K 598K 698K 798K True Stress (MPa) 800 600 400 200 0 0 0. [43]. any constitutive relation that deals with the thermomechanical response of titanium should consider not only the role of dislocation activities (dislocation motion and intersections) but also the role of dynamic strain aging as a major event with the role of deformation twinning being uncertain. at 2200 s−1 strain rate given by Nemat-Nasser et al.318 G. showed that the high density of twins does not necessarily correlate with a higher ﬂow stress.2 True Strain 0. Voyiadjis.1 0. 3. (3. Abed or (3. the experimental study of Nemat-Nasser et al. On the other hand. [13] on α-Ti indicated that twin-dislocation intersections play an important role in strain hardening at room temperature and for strain rates ranging from 10−5 to 102 s−1 . Z. Accordingly. they illustrated that the dynamic strain aging takes place at both low and high strain rates and for a wide range of temperatures. In contrast.3 0. . Recent research by Chichili et al.5 Fig.4 0. H. The ﬁrst two terms in Eq. with strains exceeding 40%. (3.31) ¯ σ = Ya + B (1 − exp(−ka εp ))1/2 ˆ + B (1 − exp(−ka εp ))1/2 + Yd 1200 εp ˙ 1 − β1 (εp )T − β2 T ln i εpo ˙ 1/q 1/p . Adiabatic ﬂow stress of titanium for indicated initial temperatures. [43] for the plastic ﬂow of commercially pure titanium at strain rates from 10−3 to 103 s−1 and temperatures from 77 to 1000 K.31) represent the athermal part of the ﬂow stress whereas the third term represents the thermal coupling of plastic hardening and yield stress to the ﬂow stress.

(3. the obstacle strength is increased by certain amount.Effect of dislocation density evolution . after attaining a peak value. (3. This sudden increase and decrease of stress forms a noticeable hump in the ﬂow stress-temperature curve. and with temperature increase. The eﬀect of dynamic strain aging on the ﬂow stress of metals. vanadium and OFHC copper at ranges of 10−3 – 105 s−1 strain rates and 77–1000 K temperatures.. In other words. at low strain rates (Nemat-Nasser et al. It may occur either through a directional diﬀusion of the dislocation core atmosphere. changes with strain and strain rates. Moreover. For the case of Titanium. A brief description of twinning and DSA behaviors is presented in the following sections. Dynamic strain aging may be observed at diﬀerent strain rate levels and certain range of temperatures. It is concluded that the DSA behavior is strain rate dependent for all types of metals and it takes place when the deformation temperature approaches its critical value deﬁned in Eq. Experimental results of Nemat-Nasser and co-workers on bcc and fcc metals (Nemat-Nasser and Issacs [41].. the dynamic strain aging is widely encountered at both low and high strain rates and suitable temperature ranges. nevertheless. 3. Dynamic strain aging (DSA). is of considerable current interest to the authors and an extensive study of this phenomenon is going to be presented in a forthcoming paper. The dynamic strain aging behavior can be described macroscopically as the sudden increase of the ﬂow stress at certain temperature that normally causes a decrease in the ﬂow stress curve.15). however. or through a bulk diﬀusion. the temperature value which indicates the start of the sudden increase in the ﬂow stress is also strain rate dependent. The activation of DSA takes place when the aging time is equal to the waiting time of these dislocations and therefore. Nemat-Nasser and Guo [44] and Cheng and Nemat-Nasser [12]) show that Niobium exhibits dynamic strain aging at low strain rates only (around 10−3 s−1 ) for a temperature range of 450–700 K. the decreasing ﬂow stress may suddenly begin to increase at a certain temperature and. Nemat-Nasser and Li [42]. however.1.30) is limited to temperature and strain ranges where both twinning and dynamic strain aging is not activated. 319 In this study.3. The dynamic strain aging can be interpreted physically as the diﬀusion of solutes atoms to the mobile dislocations that are temporarily trapped at an obstacle for a certain amount of time before they jump to another obstacle. the plastic ﬂow relation deﬁned in Eq. the DSA behavior is not encountered in tantalum. On the other hand. may begin to decrease. The range of temperature and strain rate where the DSA is displayed diﬀers from metal structure to another and even from metal to metal within the same crystal structure. [43]). at ﬁxed strain and strain rate. The peak value of the ﬂow stress. . at high strain rates.

3W D where co and c1 are the bulk solute volume fraction and the saturation solute concentration on dislocations respectively. This contribution.33) tw = mbd ρm ¯ . D is the diﬀusion coeﬃcient of solute atoms. F. on the other hand. Besides. Equation (3.32). Experiments conducted by Nemat-Nasser et al. (3.32) indicates that the extra ﬂow stress vanishes as the waiting time tw approaches zero. where σD is the maximum stress increase produced by the DSA and tx is the ˆ relaxation time associated with diﬀusion. in certain cases. Z. and when the temperature is decreased to 77 K.33) and (3. [9]. However.34) with the DSA being eﬀective at T → Tcr . the twins 3. they demonstrated that at 10% true strain and low strain rate. The unusual diﬃculty associated with identiﬁcation of deformation mechanisms within hcp metals may be attributed to the fact that these closed-packed crystal structures often exhibit both slip and twinning during plastic deformation. however. [43] investigated commercially pure titanium over a temperature range of 77–1000 K and strain rates of 10−3 −104 s−1 and showed that deformation twins were observed in most temperatures.3. εp ˙ The relaxation time tx associated with diﬀusion. Hence. they illustrated that the density of twins increases with increasing strain rate to 2200 s−1 .32) σD = σD 1 − exp −(tw /tx )2/3 ˆ . . Moreover. Louat [35] has given a mathematical expression for the extra ﬂow stress σD as follows: (3. the thermomechanical modeling of the extra ﬂow stress produced by the eﬀect of dynamic strain aging is not a straightforward procedure.34) tx = kT b2 (c1 /πco )3/2 . Deformation twinning behavior. is related to the temperature and the microstructure physical parameters as follows (Friedel [16]. Kubin and Shihab [32]): (3. after neglecting the running time of the dislocation between obstacles. Abed As addressed by many authors. becomes necessary in order to maintain the compatibility of polycrystalline deformation. and it is expected that twinning shear will contribute to the overall strain. is still inconsistent and uncertain. employing Eqs. (3. as cited by Barlat et al.2. and W is the absolute value of binding energy between the solute and dislocations.320 G. H. the additional ﬂow stress could suitably be added in calculating the total ﬂow stress for certain metals. as follows (3. Voyiadjis. The presence of twin systems. This waiting time can simply be related to the plastic strain by utilizing Orowan’s equation.

21) and . fcc and hcp metals are further evaluated by direct comparison to the experimental results that are mainly provided by Nemat-Nasser and his co-workers for different types of polycrystalline metals conducted at a wide range of strain rates and temperatures. the amount of plastic deformation contributed by twinning is measured to be much less that due to dislocations. [13]. that even when the material is heavily twinned. on the other hand. with substantial twin-dislocation interactions. comparisons. It is concluded. In this section. it does not correlate with a higher ﬂow stress. and discussions The proposed constitutive models derived in the previous section for bcc. it is noted that the increase of the numbers of twins as well as a substantial dislocation motion is observed during the deformation.12) and Eq. 4. Finally. however. most of the plastic ﬂow occurs by the motion of the twins and their intersections. Chichili et al. tantalum and vanadium). However. (3. the twin density increases even further. Consequently. the evaluation of the material parameters of the proposed models is ﬁrst discussed. Model parameters evaluation Various techniques can be used to determine the material parameters of the proposed models. that though the deformation of the material undergoes high density of twins at high strain and strain rates. one fcc metal (OFHC copper) and one hcp metal (titanium) over a wide range of temperatures and strain rates. (3. (3.1. therefore.. 321 start disappearing as soon as the temperature exceeds a limiting value of 600K.. incorporating such eﬀect in the constitutive modeling of pure titanium is still problematic and inconclusive. a simple approach is used and similarly applied for all the proposed models with little variation between the three structural types of metals as given by Eq.Effect of dislocation density evolution . (3) at high strain rates and small strains.13) for bcc metals. Applications. summarized the microstructure characterization of the room temperature deformation of α-titanium as follows: (1) the material deformation at low strain rates and low strains is mainly due to dislocation motion with very few twins. (4) by increasing both strains and strain rates. 4. it is shown that the amount of gross deformation produced by twins is relatively small since the relative atomic movement is limited in deformation twinning and hence. numerical identiﬁcation is also presented for the nano/micro-structural physical quantities used in the deﬁnition of the proposed models parameters. However. Eq. densities of both dislocation motion and twins are obviously increased. (2) at large strains with the same low strain rate level. Applications of these models for predicting the plastic deformation as well as comparisons to experimental results are then illustrated for three bcc metals (niobium. It is concluded.

Z. The evaluation procedure is initiated by studying the stress-temperature relation at diﬀerent values of plastic strain and at certain strain rate value. Voyiadjis. on the other hand.322 G. the parameter β1 ˆ or the constant C1 is then determined after detecting all other stress components from the total ﬂow stress at diﬀerent plastic strain values using the nonlinear least-square ﬁt. 4. p Next.27) for fcc metals.2. H. the thermal degradation mechanism is captured by selecting proper values of the exponents p and qthat are chosen here to be 1/2 for the former and 3/2 for the latter for all kinds of metals used in this study. (3. (3. the parameters (B and n or B and ka ) for bcc and hcp metals models is calculated using the nonlinear least-squares ﬁt. (3. Applications and comparisons Three bcc metals are used in this study as applications for the proposed bcc models: (1) niobium (Nb) is a silvery bcc metal that is used as an alloying agent in carbon and alloy steels. Subtracting the above stress increments (athermal stress) values from the total ﬂow stress. The thermal component of the ﬂow stress is mainly pertained to the yield stress for bcc metals and to the plastic hardening for both fcc and hcp metals. they become constants. (3) tantalum (Ta) has generated a lot of interest in industry due to its density. as it improves the strength of the alloy. Abed Eq. On the other hand. Moreover. F. a graph of (1 − (σth /ˆ )p )q vs ln εp is utilized to determine the parameter β2 and σ ˙ the reference plastic strain rate εi .2. Bcc metals. A similar procedure is followed for the case ˙po of fcc and hcp models except that σ is replaced by Yd . the ﬂow stress decreases as the temperature increases until a point where the stress is constant with further increase in temperature. The Ya value. Then. Once these exponents are determined for a particular mechanism. . for the case of bcc models. Generally. It is used in the aerospace industry in titanium alloys. the intercepts of the constant slope line plotted between σth and T 1/q at diﬀerent plastic strains and certain strain rate are employed here to obtain at zero plastic strain. represents the athermal stress at zero plastic strain or the athermal component of the initial yield stress. and Eq. the threshold stress σ for bcc models and the parameter Yd ˆ ˜ ˆ for fcc and hcp models.1. and is soft and ductile with good structural strength.31) for hcp metals. the thermal component of the ﬂow stress is then determined. Finally. the hardening parameter B or B for fcc and hcp models are determined using the nonlinear least-square ﬁt technique for the diﬀerent plastic strain intercept values.30) and Eq. Employing the variation of the athermal ﬂow stress with plastic ¯ strain. whereas it is strain-independent for the case of fcc metals. These constant values represent the athermal part of the ﬂow stress which varies with plastic strain for the case of bcc and hcp metals. (2) vanadium (V) is a bright white bcc metal. strength and ductility over a wide range of deformation rates and tem4.

000149 7. In fact. Table 1..9 945 0. 45] is utilized for the case of Nb and V metals. and tantalum. 45] for a wide range of elevated temperatures. the diﬀerence in the predictions between the two proposed bcc relations for the plastic ﬂow stress is noticeable at low strains (up to 0.25 0.. The numerical values of the material parameters deﬁned by the proposed bcc models are listed in Table 1 for the above-mentioned three metals obtained using the aforementioned procedure.07 × 106 3/2 1/2 V 60 275 305 0..32 × 106 3/2 1/2 Ta 50 290 330 0. whereas the parameters of Ta are obtained using the experimental results presented by Nemat-Nasser and Isaacs [41] and compared also to diﬀerent results oﬀered by diﬀerent authors.6). . the hardening parameters obtained using certain experimental data will not necessarily match with the other data set presented by diﬀerent researchers. independent of temperature and strain rate. The experimental data presented by NematNasser and Guo [44.13) is with regard to the two diﬀerent deﬁnitions of the plastic hardening component which is mostly associated to the athermal component of the ﬂow stress.45 × 106 3/2 1/2 Figures 4 and 5 show the adiabatic stress strain results for niobium computed using the present two bcc models at 3300 s−1 and 8000 s−1 strain rates respectively. the diﬀerences of the plastic ﬂow stress predicted by the proposed two bcc deﬁnitions emerge only in the athermal component.1) and it diminishes with strain increase (up to 0. It is obvious that the only diﬀerence between the two proposed bcc models Eq. Therefore. i.0000937 4. the predicted stressstrain curves using the proposed bcc models will depend totally on the accuracy of determining the hardening parameters which vary from test to test. Model Parameters Ya (MPa) ¯ B (MPa) B (MPa) n ka σ (MPa) ˆ C1 β 2 (K−1 ) εi (s−1 ) ˙po q p Nb 60 415 450 0.7 1350 0. The proposed bcc models parameters for niobium. Generally. 323 peratures. both the proposed bcc deﬁnitions show very good agreement as compared to the experimental data presented by Nemat-Nasser and Guo [44. Moreover.0001392 6. These diﬀerences may be attributed to both the errors accumulated using the nonlinear least-square ﬁt and to the different integration results used in calculating the adiabatic heat accumulated inside the material through the plastic work.5 1125 0. (3.e.25 3.Effect of dislocation density evolution . The material parameters of these bcc metals are determined following the procedure discussed previously.1 0. vanadium.16 9.5 0.12) and Eq. Therefore.41 2. (3.

00 Exp. Adiabatic ﬂow stress of niobium predicted using the proposed models and compared to experimental results (Nemat-Nasser and Guo.70 Fig. H. 45]) at 8000 s−1 strain rate and indicated initial temperatures.10 0.50 0. 3.27) (Eq.12) (Eq. 4.00 0.28) 1000 True Stress (MPa) 800 To = 77K 296K 400K 600K 700K 600 400 200 0 0. Z. 6. F. Voyiadjis. however. 3. 8000/s) Proposed Model (Eq.20 0. 3.324 1200 G. Adiabatic ﬂow stress of niobium predicted using the proposed models and compared to experimental results (Nemat-Nasser and Guo. The experimental comparison of the adiabatic ﬂow stress for the case of vanadium agrees well at the strain rate of 2500 s−1 and for diﬀerent temperatures (up to 800 K) as shown in Fig.20 0. 5. 800 700 600 True Stress (MPa) 500K 700K 900K To = 296K 500 400 300 200 100 0 0.30 True Strain 0. is less for the case of higher strain rate (8000 s−1 ) with a temperature range of 296 K to 700 K .60 0.13) Proposed Model (Eq. 3. 3300/s) Proposed Model (Eq. (Nb. [44.40 True Strain 0.13) 0.70 Fig. Abed Exp. (Nb. 45]) at 3300 s−1 strain rate and indicated initial temperatures.10 0. The agreement. [44.12) Proposed Model (Eq.30 0.

(V. .00 296K 400K 500K 600K 800K To = 77K Exp.20 0.12) Proposed Model (Eq. 1000 900 800 True Stress (MPa) 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 0. This may indicate that assuming a constant value of the parameter ka (i.12) Proposed Model (Eq.40 Fig.30 True Strain 0.3.3.10 0. the prediction of the adiabatic ﬂow stress at diﬀerent initial temperatures shows more variation between the two proposed bcc relations for the case of a strain rate of 8000 s−1 than those obtained at 2500 s−1 strain rate.e. 8000/s) Proposed Model (Eq.13) 0. (V.60 Fig.Effect of dislocation density evolution .00 Exp.3. 7). 700 600 True Stress (MPa) 500 400 700K To = 296K 400K 500K 300 200 100 0 0.. Furthermore..3. Adiabatic ﬂow stress of vanadium predicted using the proposed models and compared to experimental results (Nemat-Nasser and Guo [44–45]) at 2500 s−1 strain rate and indicated initial temperatures. 6.40 0.10 0.20 True Strain 0. 325 (see Fig.. 7. neglecting the eﬀect of temperature and strain rate) produces inaccurate results in some cases.13) 0. 2500/s) Proposed Model (Eq. Adiabatic ﬂow stress of vanadium predicted using the proposed models and compared to experimental results (Nemat-Nasser and Guo [44–45]) at 2500 s−1 strain rate and indicated initial temperatures.50 0.

The parameter Ya .7 Fig. 9 shows the temperature variation of the ﬂow stresses obtained experimentally by Nemat-Nasser and Isaacs [47] at 0. Z. 10 show very good agreement with the experimental results.2 0.0001 s−1 strain rate and Bechtold [10] at 0. with the parameters obtained using the Nemat-Nasser and Isaacs data. are compared with the experimental data presented by Hoge and Mukharjee [18] at room temperature and with the single crystal data obtained by Mitchell and Spitizig [36] at 373◦ K temperature and Mordike and Rudolph [37] at 200◦ K temperature. Fig. The proposed model.13)).05 strain and 5000 s−1 strain rate.3.13). Abed For the case of tantalum. Voyiadjis.4 0. The comparisons illustrated in Fig.5 0. (Ta.6 0. .00028 s−1 strain rate as compared with those calculated using the proposed model (Eq.12) Proposed Model (Eq. predicts results that agree very well with the data given by Hoge and Mukharjee. (3.12) and Eq. 8. To = 298K 396K 496K 596K 796K Exp. In addition. (3.326 G. F. (3.014 strain and 0. the adiabatic stress strain curves calculated by those two relations show good correlations with the experimental results provided by Nemat-Nasser and Isaacs [41] as shown in Fig. 800 700 600 Stress (Mpa) 500 400 300 200 100 0 0 0.1 0.014 strain and 0. This change is used to allow for possible diﬀerences in solute and grain size eﬀects.13) The results of the model simulations from the above experimental data are also compared with other sets of experimental data. however. Eq.3.13) show almost identical results when computed at 5000 s−1 and temperature range of 298 K to 796 K. the stress variation with strain rates computed using the proposed model Eq. Furthermore. 8. (3. 5000/s) Proposed Model (Eq. H. Hoge and Mukharjee [18] at 0. is changed to 133 MPa in order to get a better agreement with Bechtold [10] data.3 0. Adiabatic ﬂow stress of tantalum predicted using the proposed models and compared to experimental results (Nemat-Nasser and Isaacs [41]) at 5000 s−1 strain rate and indicated initial temperatures.

000001 Mordike & Rudolph (T=200K) Hoge & Mukharjee (T=298K) Mitchell & Spitzig (T=373K) Proposed Model (Eq. (3.13) 327 Fig. Proposed model results of the temperature variation of the ﬂow stress.00028/s) Hoge & Mukharjee (0.14) where the thermo-mechanical parameters are listed in Table 2 for all metals used in this study.. 9.Effect of dislocation density evolution . as compared to experimental data obtained by several authors at diﬀerent temperatures. 800 700 600 Stress (Mpa) 500 400 300 200 100 0 0. Proposed model results of the strain rate variation of the ﬂow stress.3. 10. The adiabatic stress-strain curves of the plastically deformed specimens presented here are estimated using Eq. for tantalum Ta. 45] and Nemat-Nasser and Isaacs [41].0001 0. V and Ta based on experimental results presented by Nemat-Nasser and Guo [44..0001/s) Proposed Model (Eq. for tantalum Ta.13) 0.01 1 Strain Rate (1/s) 100 10000 Fig.3. as compared to experimental data obtained by several authors at diﬀerent strain rates. . 800 700 600 Stress (Mpa) 500 400 300 200 100 0 0 200 400 600 Temperature (K) 800 1000 Nemat-Nasser & Issacs (5000/s) Bechtold (0. The incremental accumulation of the temperature during the adiabatic process is calculated by assuming a conversion of 100% plastic work into heat is used for Nb.

0 60. 4.62 0.57 0.K) ζ µ (GPa) µo (GPa) Nb 8. In Fig. (3. Voyiadjis. Fcc metals.0 45. Abed Table 2. (3. Using the same parameters. H. These diﬀerences are generally ascribed to the two diﬀerent deﬁnitions . vanadium.9 45.383 0. the adiabatic ﬂow stresses calculated using the proposed fcc relations agree well with most of the experimental data for several strain rates and initial testing temperature.0 37.0 75.139 1.0 The Oxygen-Free High Conductivity (OFHC) copper is used here as an application for the proposed fcc models to show the temperature and strain rate variation of the ﬂow stress. tantalum. estimates higher stress values than those calculated by Eq.21) at strains up to 0. (3.265 1. the proposed fcc models are further compared to other experimental data found in the paper by Johnson and Cook [22]. (3. Physical parameters ρ (g/cm3 ) cp (J/g.27) predict very good results as compared with the Nemat-Nasser and Li [42] experimental data at 4000 s−1 strain rate and diﬀerent initial temperatures (77 K–996 K).21) and Eq. however.97 × 106 3/2 1/2 Generally.328 G.498 1.0 77. Equation (3.2. F. OFHC copper and titanium.96 0. Thermal and Elastic properties for niobium.0 V 6. Model Parameters Ya (MPa) ˆ B(MPa) ˜ B(MPa) ˆ Yd or Yd (MPa) ka C1 β2 (K−1 ) εi (s−1 ) ˙po q p OFHC Cu 25 1175 990 50 0.0000351 6.9 40 0.27).523 1.0 OFHC Cu 8.21) and Eq.16 0.0 Ta 16. the adiabatic stress-strain calculated using both relations Eq.0 70. 11. Table 3.0 75.27)) are listed in Table 3 which are determined by following the same procedure explained in the previous section using the experimental data presented by Nemat-Nasser and Li [42]. (3. The proposed fcc models parameters for OFHC copper. OFHC Cu is an important fcc metal used in the industry due to its high thermal and electrical conductivity and high ductility combined with low volatility which makes this material indispensable in the electronics industry. The material parameters of the proposed two fcc relations (Eq. Z.54 0.45.0 43.2.0 Ti 4.0 90.

. 4000/s) Proposed Model (Eq.60 True Strain 0. 12.Effect of dislocation density evolution .40 0.60 0.1/s 77K.3.27) Proposed Model (Eq.80 1. Adiabatic ﬂow stress of OFHC copper predicted using the proposed models and compared to experimental results (Nemat-Nasser and Li [42]) at 4000 s−1 strain rate and indicated initial temperatures.00 296K Exp.00 296K.3.80 1. The comparison shows good agreement as well. 0.1 s−1 (isothermal) and indicated temperatures. Flow stress of OFHC copper predicted using the proposed models and compared to experimental results (Nemat-Nasser and Li [42]) at strain rates of 8000 s−1 (adiabatic) and 0. 8000/s Fig. The ﬂow stresses predicted by the proposed fcc relations are further compared to the experimental results conducted by the same authors at lower and higher strain rates (0.27) Proposed Model (Eq. (OFHC Cu.20 0.1 s−1 and 8000 s−1 ) as shown in Fig. . 800 700 True Stress (MPa) 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 0.20 0. 12.40 0. 8000/s 296K. 11.00 Fig.3.3. 800 700 True Stress (MPa) 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 0.21 0.00 Exp. 329 used in calculating the hardening stresses.. (OFHC Cu) Proposed Model (Eq.21) To = 77K 596K 796K 996K 0.

27) Proposed Model (Eq.21) correlate well with the experimental data at strain rates of 451 s−1 . . Adiabatic ﬂow stress of OFHC copper predicted using the proposed models and compared to experimental results (Johnson and Cook. At strain rates of 0. 493 K and 730 K respectively. Z.3. the predicted results of Eq. (3. [22]) at diﬀerent strain rates of and temperatures. This deviation.20 Plastic Strain 0. In the case of copper.21) To = 298K.3.00 0. The hcp commercially pure titanium (Cp Ti) used in this study has an axial ratio of c/a = 1. The experimental results clearly show that this material (Ti) is widely aﬀected by the dynamic strain aging phenomenon over most strain rates and temperatures.30 0.3. (3.40 Fig. H.27) overestimates the stress values in most cases. the DSA eﬀect starts clearly at temperature values of 296 K up to 500 K continuing 4. 13. Eq. 13. (3.10 0. 400 350 True Stress (MPa) 300 250 200 To = 730K.1 s−1 . [43] who conducted both adiabatic and isothermal testing on both annealed and as received samples at low and high strain rates and temperatures.587. (OFHC Cu) Proposed Model (Eq. and is strongly plastically anisotropic as indicated by Nemat-Nasser et al. F. Hcp metals. the prediction of the adiabatic stress strain curves predicted by the present model is obtained based on the assumption of conversion of 90% of the plastic work deformation to heat calculated using the same relation deﬁned in Eq.14) with the thermo-mechanical parameters listed in Table 2. Overall. 451/s 150 100 50 0 0.001 s−1 and 0. however.330 G. 46 4/s To = 493K. 449 s−1 and 464 s−1 with initial temperatures of 298 K. Voyiadjis. 449 /s Exp. Abed An assessment of the model parameters determined using the experimental data by Nemat-Nasser and Li [42] can be made by comparing the adiabatic stress-strain results with the experimental data found in the paper of Johnson and Cook [22] as shown in Fig. However. is part due to neglecting the temperature and strain rate eﬀects of the parameter ka .2.

43 Next. (3. Table 4. (3. assessments of the proposed hcp models are made by comparing the isothermal stresses predicted using both Eq. (3.Effect of dislocation density evolution .31 0. Model Parameters Ya (MPa) ˆ B (MPa) ˜ B (MPa) ˆ Yd or Yd (MPa) ka C1 β2 (K−1 ) εi (s−1 ) ˙po q p ¯ B (MPa) B (MPa) n Ti 20 2050 2025 115 1. (3.0000433 1. the proposed hcp models (Eq. The comparison between the predicted results and the experimental data shows good agreement at temperature values of 77 K.31) to the experimental results by Nemat-Nasser et al. 673 K and 773 K whereas they underestimate the experimental results at other temperatures due to the eﬀect of DSA.30) and Eq. These parameters are listed in Table 4. [43] using a combination of the bcc and fcc procedures described earlier. the adiabatic stress-strain results predicted by the proposed hcp models are compared to the experimental data at a strain rate of 2200 s−1 and diﬀerent initial temperatures. 15.30) and Eq. The proposed model parameters for titanium are determined using the experimental data presented by Nemat-Nasser et al. 14. the proposed models predict lower results at temperatures where the DSA eﬀect is dominating. the comparison agrees well at temperatures where the DSA is inactive (77 K and 296 K) whereas..95 × 107 3/2 1/2 90 85 0.. In Fig. are possibly not accurate in predicting both the adiabatic and the isothermal ﬂow stresses in the strain rate and temperature ranges where the DSA eﬀects are active. As mentioned earlier. 331 slightly up to 600 K for the case of isothermal process.001s strain rate and diﬀerent temperatures as shown in Fig.31)). . The proposed hcp model parameters for titanium. the proposed hcp model is derived based on the fact that the plastic deformation behavior of most hcp metals shows a combination of both bcc and fcc plastic deformation behaviors.9 0. At higher strain rates with adiabatic deformation (2200 s−1 and 8000 s−1 strain rates). In fact. the appearance of the DSA eﬀects starts at 400 K temperature continuing up to 1000 K temperature. Similarly. [43] at 0. which did not take into consideration the dynamic strain aging eﬀects. This indicates that the ﬂow stresses predicted by the proposed two hcp relations will more likely underestimate the experimental results in theses ranges.

00 0.10 0.001 s−1 strain rate and indicated temperatures. 1200 Exp.3.00 0.30 T = 77K 1000 True Stress (MPa) 800 600 296K 400 473K 200 673K 773K 0 0.10 0.332 1200 G. (Ti.20 True Strain 0. 2200/s) Proposed Model (Eq. 0. H. (Ti. [43]) at 2200 s−1 strain rate and indicated initial temperatures. 14. The ﬂow stress prediction of the proposed hcp models are further compared to the experimental results at the strain rate of 0.20 True Strain 0.30 0.31) Proposed Model (Eq.30) To = 77K 1000 True Stress (MPa) 296K 498K 798K 800 600 400 200 0 0. 15. Adiabatic ﬂow stress of titanium predicted using the proposed models and compared to experimental results (Nemat-Nasser et al. Z.40 Fig.31) Proposed Model (Eq.001/s) Proposed Model (Eq.30 0.3.1 s−1 for the case of isothermal .40 Fig. Isothermal ﬂow stress of titanium predicted using the proposed models and compared to experimental results (Nemat-Nasser et al. F. [43]) at 0. Abed Exp.3.3. Voyiadjis.

calculated using Eq.1/s. (Ti) Proposed Model (Eq. 473K 0.40 Fig.1/s. 598K 0. 498K Exp.01 s−1 (isothermal) and 8000 s−1 (adiabatic) and indicated temperatures. (3. 16. In addition. [43]. however. Discussions In investigating the proposed bcc.. This deviation.. (3. the model parameters values and accordingly the physical quantities diﬀer from metal to metal.3.31) Proposed Model (Eq.3. [43]) at strain rates of 0.31) deviates largely at higher strain rates predicting higher stress values than those calculated using Eq.20 True Strain 0. the deﬁnition of the thermal component of the ﬂow stress is nearly the same for all kinds of metals. 296K 0.10 0. However. 16.00 0. it is found that the thermal stress for all bcc metals used in this study is independent of strain. Flow stress of titanium predicted using the proposed models and compared to experimental results (Nemat-Nasser et al. appears noticeably at strain values up to 30%. 4.30 8000/s. The temperature accumulation during the plastic deformation is.3. therefore. (3. In comparing the ﬂow stress results predicted by the proposed two hcp relations. a 100% of the plastic work generated during the deformation process under diﬀerent strain rates is converted to heat as given by Nemat-Nasser et al.30). 333 deformation process and at the 8000 s−1 strain rate for the case of adiabatic deformation as shown in Fig.30 0. Similar comparison results are concluded for both strain rates.14) with the thermo-mechanical parameters for Ti given in Table 2. it is found that Eq.Effect of dislocation density evolution . fcc and hcp models.1/s. 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 0. That is to say. 798K 8000/s. For the case of titanium. the eﬀect of the parameter β1 which represents the eﬀect of the evolution of the .

25 Plastic Strain 0. however. Z. (3. Voyiadjis. The consequence of the variation of the parameter β1 with plastic strain for fcc metals is observed in determining the values of the critical temperature (Tcr ) that become strain-dependent as well.15 0. the thermal component of the ﬂow stress for fcc metals depends mainly on the strain through the evolution of the mobile dislocation density deﬁned by the parameter β1 and also through the evolution of the remaining part (mainly forest) of the dislocation density introduced through the hardening parameters deﬁnitions given by Eq.2 0. For the case of hcp metals. whereas the eﬀect of β1 is very small and can be neglected.22) or Eq. Ta.05 0. 1200 8000/s. H. In fact. Ti and OFHC Cu at strain rate and temperature values of 8000 s−1 and 296 K respectively. (3. Tcr is deﬁned as the highest temperature value that corresponds to the minimum thermal stresses (zero thermal stress) observed during the degradation process of the . 17. the critical temperature for bcc and hcp metals does not depend on plastic strain. This.1 0. Nb. Strain variations of the thermal stresses for several metals using the proposed models at 8000 s−1 strain rate and 296 K◦ temperature. On the other hand. 296K 1000 Thermal Stress (MPa) Ti 800 600 Ta 400 V 200 OFHC Cu Nb 0 0 0. Figure 17 shows the thermal component of the ﬂow stresses as varying with the plastic strain using the proposed models for V. Abed mobile dislocation density that is thermally aﬀected through Orowan’s equation is almost negligible. supports the experimental observations which indicate that the thermal stresses for most bcc metals are strain-independent and mainly controlled by the yield stress.28).334 G. This behavior can be interpreted physically as the resistance of the initial dislocation motion by the Peierls barriers. In contrast. F.4 Fig.3 0. the strain dependence of the thermal stresses is introduced only through the hardening parameters.35 0.

which indicates that the saturation limit of dislocation densities is reached. however. 0. Ti.Effect of dislocation density evolution . Critical temperatures predicted by the proposed models for several metals at 10% strain and diﬀerent strain rates. the critical temperature values for OFHC Cu and Ti are higher than those obtained for the three bcc metals.. Since εi ˙po values for all metals used in this study are approximately of the same order. The initial and saturated values of the dislo- .14 for the ﬁve metals used in this study at 0.62.58 eV/atom for Cu. thus. most metals contain initial amount of dislocations which are naturally excited or generated through the manufacture process.4. 2. 335 ﬂow stress as the material temperature increases.1 plastic strain.. The higher the activation energy values (around 2.1 0. the thermal stress is interpreted as the resistance of the barriers to the dislocation movement. help metals to deform plastically until a level where no further dislocations generation are allowed. It is found that Tcr values increase with strain rates increase.0.01 0. In general.92. and Nb respectively) needed to overcome the barriers.001 V Nb Ta OFHC Cu Ti Plastic Strain = 0. This disparity may be attributed to the variation of the reference plastic strain rate εi values and also to the ˙po diﬀerent β2 values that is mainly related to the Gibbs free energy Go . 5000 4500 Critical Temperature Tcr (K) 4000 3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 0. the value of Go is considered the major factor that aﬀects the variation of Tcr values from one metal to another at a ﬁxed strain rate. Actually. the barriers that need higher activation energy to be overcome require also higher temperature to produce this thermal energy until the resistance of these barriers has vanished which indicates zero thermal stresses. 3. These dislocation densities. the higher the critical temperature values achieved. Ta. 0. V. Also. 0.1 1 10 Strain Rate (1/s) 100 1000 10000 Fig. Figure 18 shows the strain rate variation of Tcr calculated using Eq. 18.

1 × 103 2.5 × 1015 27b2 0.125 321b2 18b2 It is interesting to note that the Helmholtz free energy values for fcc metals are higher than those found for bcc metals which indicates that the dislocation interaction mechanism necessitates higher activation energy than the Peierls mech- .1 8. Voyiadjis.97 × 103 1. Ta. The numerical values of the physical nano. their values are found to be reasonable when compared to those available in the literature. diﬀer from metal to metal.3 × 103 4.0375 – – OFHC Cu 2.71 × 103 4. however.1 × 1013 6. for all metals presented here. In fact.336 G.5 × 1015 26b2 0. OFHC Cu and Ti. That is to say. Abed cation densities. This eﬀect. Z.3 8. Physical parameters Go (eV/atom) b (Å) vo (m/sec) ρmi (m−2 ) ρf i (m−2 ) ρs (m−2 ) Ao (m2 ) Dg (mm) A′ o (m2 ) A′′ o (m2 ) Nb 0.0 3.58 3.0 5. The initial dislocation density values are ﬁxed and set around 5×1012 m−2 for the case of bcc metals and little higher for fcc and hcp metals. F. Once the material yields.013 – – V 0. the evolution of dislocation density along with the initial dislocation density contribution plays a crucial role in determining the ﬂow stress and particularly the thermal stress as in the case for most fcc metals and slightly less for hcp metals. V.073 585b2 30b2 Ti 2. Figure 19 shows.1 × 1015 27b2 0.5 3. the yielding strength is less when the material contains high initial dislocation density and vice versa.9 × 1012 2 × 1012 1.1 × 1015 – 0.57 × 103 5 × 1012 2 × 1012 4.016 – – Ta 0.55 × 1013 2. Although these quantities are deﬁned based on the model parameters that are ﬁtted experimentally.0 × 1015 – 0.9 7.4 × 1013 1. Consequently.1 × 1012 2 × 1012 1.and micro-quantities used in deﬁning the proposed models that are obtained for the indicated metals are listed in Table 5. H.4 2.62 3. however. Table 5.69 × 1013 9. The decreasing slopes for bcc metals are higher than those for hcp and fcc metals which supports the above-mentioned argument.92 2. the saturated values of these dislocation densities are found to be of the order of 1015 m−2 for all metals. the variation eﬀect of initial dislocation density generated inside the material on the ﬂow stress at 298 K and 8000 s−1 temperature and strain rate‘respectively. the eﬀect of initial dislocation density enters the proposed models through the thermal component of the ﬂow stress. Numerical values for the physical quantities used in deriving the proposed models parameters for Nb. It is obvious that the ﬂow stress decreases with the increase of the originated (initial) dislocation density. is expected to be higher for bcc metals than other metal structures due to the fact that the thermal stress of bcc metals is nearly related to the yield stress (Peierls stress) and not aﬀected by the dislocation density evolution with plastic strain.

[28]). 19. OFHC Cu and Ti respectively. two diﬀerent deﬁnitions for the hardening stresses are presented.1. computed at 8000 s−1 strain rate and 298 K◦ temperature.1 337 1. the value of σ in the thermal component of the bcc ﬂow stress is sensitive to the choice of ˆ p which characterizes the tail of the obstacle.Effect of dislocation density evolution . 298K Plastic Strain = 0. The ﬁrst deﬁnition is derived based on experimental observations which indicate that the ﬁtting of the hardening stresses can be achieved using . fcc and hcp model parameters is simple and straightforward. the waiting time needed by the dislocation to overcome an obstacle is less for bcc [tw = O(10−12 s)] than those required for fcc metals [tw = O(10−11 s)] (Kocks et al. the reference velocity vo = d ∼ b/tw values of fcc metals are less than the ones obtained for bcc metals as illustrated in Table 5.5 and 0. Therefore. This sensitivity.9. Initial dislocation density variation of the ﬂow stress. 2. more caution is required in the numerical techniques used in obtaining the hardening parameters that produce not only the hardening stresses but also the temperature evolving with the plastic work. 1000 900 800 Flow Stress (MPa) 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 1. for several metals. the average values of the Burger vector are chosen to be around 3. σ represents a parameter which refers to a state of zero Kelvin temperature.5 and 3. In the proposed models. 2. Ta.E+13 Initial Dislocation Density (m-2) 1. Consequently. V. It ˆ should be noted here that the determination procedure of the proposed bcc. In the proposed model. however.. In fact. the following typical values of 1. 3.0Å for Nb.3. anism in overcoming the short-range barriers. is less for the case of fcc and hcp metals in obtaining the parameters and Yd .5 for the exponents p and q respectively are used for all metals. Moreover.E+12 OFHC Cu Nb Ta V Ti 8000/s . Unfortunately. However.E+14 Fig..

fcc and hcp metals is achieved at low and high strain rates and temperatures. Both deﬁnitions are used in predicting the isothermal and adiabatic ﬂow stresses and compared with the available experimental data. The ﬁrst deﬁnition uses the experimental power law ﬁtting. it is found that the dynamic strain aging activates when the temperature reaches its critical values. helps in activating the dynamic strain aging by strengthening the obstacles through the diﬀusion process of the atoms and accordingly. dislocations require higher temperatures to overcome the obstacle which consequently increases the waiting time of these dislocations before the obstacle. Voyiadjis. Two diﬀerent deﬁnitions for modeling the hardening stresses are employed using the least-square technique. Z. the dynamic strain aging eﬀect is observed in titanium over a wide range of temperatures and at all strain rates. the deviation of the predicted results may be attributed to the use of constant values for the parameter ka assumed in the derivation of the proposed model. whereas the second one is derived using the plastic strain evolution of the dislocation density. . H. the second deﬁnition of the hardening parameters is derived using the concept of dislocation density evolution with plastic strain. the dynamic strain aging is not observed for most of the strain rates and temperatures used in the presented experimental comparisons. In this stage. It is found that the power-law deﬁnition of the plastic hardening stresses predicts more accurate results than the other deﬁnition in most experimental comparisons at diﬀerent strain rates and temperatures. The eﬀect of DSA on the plastic ﬂow simulation along with the strain rate and temperature dependence of the dislocation annihilation factor ka will be discussed in a forthcoming paper by the authors. F. 5. vanadium and tantalum for bcc metals. Actually. show good agreement as compared with diﬀerent experimental results conducted by several authors for niobium. The simulation of the adiabatic and isothermal plastic ﬂow stresses for diﬀerent bcc.338 G. The predicted results. For the bcc metals presented here. On the other hand. These temperature values increase as the strain rates increase. Conclusions The eﬀect of dislocation density evolution with plastic strain is incorporated in modeling the thermo-mechanical response of diﬀerent structure types of metals. In the case of OFHC copper. Abed the power law deﬁnition. titanium for hcp metal and OFHC copper for fcc metal. generally. It is found that the DSA phenomenon activates at diﬀerent temperature depending on the strain rate values. This. however. The proposed models are derived basing on the concept of thermal activation energy as well as the dislocation interaction mechanisms. increasing suddenly the ﬂow stress throughout the deformation process. in turn. On the other hand.

They thankfully acknowledge their appreciation to Howard "Skip" Bayes. For OFHC copper. The authors also acknowledge the ﬁnancial support under grant number F33601-01-P-0343 provided by the Air Force Institute of Technology. Besides. Project Director. Quantico. The dynamic strain aging phenomenon is clearly encountered in titanium for most temperatures and strain rates while it activates only at low strain rates and over a narrow range of high temperatures for most bcc metals. On the contrary. the DSA eﬀect is not observed for the present temperature and strain rate range of experimental data. Its eﬀect. 339 In bcc metals. Ohio. For the case of hcp metals. shows strong dependence on the strain rate and temperature while the plastic strain hardening which represents the athermal stress is independent of them. the eﬀect of β1 on the thermal stresses is very small which indicates that the strain dependence of the thermal stresses is ascribed to the hardening stress that is mainly generated through the evolution of the forest dislocation density.. the thermo-mechanical behavior shows a combination between the plastic deformation behavior of both bcc and fcc structures. the mobile dislocation density evolution through the parameter β1 as well as the forest dislocation density evolution through the hardening parameters shows considerable dependence on the thermal stresses of OFHC copper. the thermal yield stress.. is not included in the present modeling where the dislocation movement as well as the dislocation evolution controls the plastic deformation in the absence of diﬀusion and creep. It is concluded from the stress-strain prediction of the proposed bcc models that the eﬀect of the parameter β1 which represents the evolution of the thermally aﬀected part of the mobile dislocation density is almost negligible. the dynamic strain aging encountered in some metals at certain temperatures is strain rate dependent. both yielding and hardening stresses are strain rate and temperature-dependent.Effect of dislocation density evolution . Acknowledgment The authors acknowledge the ﬁnancial support under grant number M6785403-M-6040 provided by the Marine Corps Systems Command. That is the evolution of the mobile and forest dislocation density is related to the athermal part of the ﬂow stress. In contrast. due to the short-range barriers (Peierls barriers). the thermal component as well as the athermal component of the ﬂow stress for the proposed hcp model strongly depends on the plastic strain. Virginia. on the other hand. however. In fact. AFSS PGD. . WPAFB. the thermal stress in fcc metals is strongly dependent on the plastic strain due to domination of the dislocation intersections on the mechanisms behavior of the thermal activation analysis. Thus. In titanium.

A simple model for dislocation behavior.C. Abed. Hoge. P. 1618–1639. M. Indian Institute of Metals Symposium..D. J. 15. Regazzoni. A model for ﬁnite-deformation plasticity. 17. G.. D.S.. Bechtold. 1982. Constitutive Equations of Plasticity. F. [in:] Argon.. D. H. 4. 117. 35. India 1993. 1969. Bammann.....J.. 1987.]. Bammann. 21... Armstrong. Nix. 1135–1145. E. 12. The physics of the plastic deformation. 91–125. 6. International journal of Plasticity. 1983.. 1965. Acta Mechanica 45. J.F.J. Christian. Journal of Applied Physics. 406–410. Transition to drag-controlled deformation in copper at high strain rates.W.. . Brem. Dislocations. 5. On a proposal of continuum with microstructure.[in:] Materials for Advanced Technology System. Aifantis. J... 3... Mukhejee. Glazov. 919–939. 48. 2000.Z. The Kinematics of inelastic deformation above 0Ko . V. The deformation of plasticity non-homogenous alloys. J. Metallurgical Transactions A14. 2004. K. Ramesh.C. 399–424. Aifantis. Gillis. Journal of Material Science. deformation mechanisms and modeling. Hemker. 2001....J. Ashby.. 1237–1256. 3. The temperature and strain rate dependence of the ﬂow stress of tantalum. 3. An analysis of the thermodynamics of dislocation glide.F. A... Material Sciences and Engineering A309–310. 211–247. Abed References 1. G.. Zerilli. 14. Hirth. International Journal of Plasticity. 7.340 G. 8. K.. 71–80.P. 46. 18.. Lege.. Bammann. Acta Metallurgica. Friedel. J. 1984.C. Philosophical Magazine 11.. Chichili. 97–117. Barlat. M.J. Gilman. S. Acta Mechanica 69. D. J.H. 1977. strain and strain rate hardening evolution in deforming aluminum alloys. 3370–3380. Frost. 1970. 9. Kocks. 13.F. K. 12. R. K. F. 1998. E.W. M. 16..C.J. 2002. Crystal plasticity. Ashby. 1955. Plastic deformation modeling of AL-6XN stainless steel at low and high strain rates and temperatures using a combination of bcc and fcc mechanisms of metals.. Institute of Physics Conference Series. Some surprising features of the plastic deformation of body-centered cubic metals and alloys... Follansbee. Ramachandran. 1987. A model for experimentally-observed high strain rate dynamic strain aging in titanium. 1965. J..H. 11. Acta Materialia. 177–188. 70. Acta Materialia.V.J... Physica Status Solidi. 18. J. Dynamical dislocation theory of crystal plasticity. Cheng. Voyiadjis. 1666–1672.F. 3131–3144. U. A model of crystal plasticity containing a natural length scale. Bell. Aifantis. W. P.. E. Z. Pergamon Press Oxford 1964. The high-strain response of Alpha titanium: experimental. 36. 10. 2.. 19. D. Voyiadjis. Philosophical Magazine 21. F. 1975.P. 1025–1043. Nemat-Nasser. H. D. [Ed. Accepted in International Journal of Plasticity.J.S. 249. F.

Continuum descriptions of dislocations under stress reversals. McGrawHill. T. Dislocation Dynamics. K.. 1988.. [in:] Constitutive Relations and Their Physical Basis. J. On the theory of the Portevin-Le Chatelier eﬀect. Fracture characteristics of three metals subjected to various strains. Mechanics of Materials.S. 37.R.M.. 28. J. 31.T. Kinetics and dynamics in dislocation plasticity. 21. Louat. In Impact Eﬀects of Fast Transient Loading. Klepaczko.... The inﬂuence of crystal structure on the dynamic behavior of materials at high temperatures. 332–338. Three-stage hardening in tantalum deformed in compression J.F. P. 21. Jassby. B. Kelly. Rezaig. Basinski. The rate dependence of the Portevin-Le Chatelier eﬀect.L. B. L. Pergamon.. Acta Metall. G. Thermodynamics and kinetics of slip. 38. Progress in Materials Science. U. Klepaczko. 1167-1170. 1988. 20.. Shihab. 1998. Rudolph. Material Science and Engineering. Material Science and Engineering. Kubin. N. A. Eﬀect of grain size on substructural evolution and plastic behavior of copper.M. 1169–1179. 1989. 97–105.P.. 27.. 13. Sci. W. 1987. J. 1964. M.. Rotterdam 3–10. 13.P.E. Modeling of structural evolution at medium and high strain rates.. 341 20..C. Spitzig. 36. A numerical study of adiabatic shear bending in mild steel by dislocation mechanics based constitutive relations. Klepaczko. Three-stage hardening in tantalum single crystals. 22. 1981. A. 1970. Roskilde. 269–290. U. 2.P. Nabarro. 697–708. 27. Engineering Fracture Mechanics. 19... 1091–1096. Mordike. Evolution for dislocation densities and the critical conditions for the Portevin-le Chatelier eﬀect. W.. FCC and BCC metals. Ramesh. 4. Johnson. J.F.P.. 1965.A. Realistic constitutive relations for metal plasticity. 29. Philosophical Magazine 21.. The plasticity of pure single crystals. 1968. S. temperatures and pressures.F. R. D. Holt.M. Scripta Metallurgica. 87–116.S. Gillis. International journal of Plasticity. T.R. Argon. A general approach to rate sensitivity and constitutive modelin of fcc and bcc metals. 193–323. Acta Metallurgica.. F.. 1967. Balkema. 2001. Kubin.......R. 15. 33. 24 125–139. 32. Determination of temperature rise during high strain rate deformation. 1974.. A.R. 26. Kocks. Denmark 387–395. Gracio. 38. 31–48.N. Acta Metallurgical Materialia. K. L.. Mater. 35. A317. Journal of Applied Physics. 1990. 24. Z.Effect of dislocation density evolution . 1982. strain rates.. Ashby. Kocks.. 181–275. 1147–1159. 36.A. Lennon. Vreeland. Kapoor. Mechanics of Materials.. G. K. An experimental study of mobility of edge dislocations in pure copper single crystals. Estrin. Li.. 2004. Kubin.. 23. 181–187.J.B. J. A118.. 45. 2707–2718. 30. 1988. L. . 1996. Oxford 1975. Mitchel. 25. J. Reviews on the Deformation Behavior of Materials. Cook. Y. and Nemat-Nasser. 1–12. 34. Advances in Physics...

Gillis. 304. Nemat-Nasser. Taylor.C. W. 62.. Stein. 1948. 53. Isaacs. 56. G. S. Jassby. 47. Plastic anisotropy in bcc transition metals. Flow stress of commercially pure niobium over a broad range of temperature and strain rates. M... Polycrystals with Application to OFHC Cu. 31. Abed 39.. Vitek. Guo. 1938. Discussion in Symposium on internal stresses in metals and alloys.. Journal of Inst. Taylor. V.. Acta Materialia. 2005. Nonbasal deformation modes of hcp metals and alloys: role of dislocation source and mobility. 49. C. Journal of Mechanics and Physics Solids.. Ho. G. C.342 G. and Li.R. 33–63. J.S. F.. 473–510... 1999. and Li. 42. E. W. 52. A284. J.J. Duesbury. A.M. 1998. Klepaczko.. 1997.R. Temperature dependent viscous drag in close-packed metals. 41. 243–260.Z. S. Kelly.. Voyiadjis. R. 362–369.. 54. S. Thermomechanical response of AL-6XN stainless steel over a wide range of strain rates and temperatures. 2000. P. Flow Stress of F. 29–61. and Kihl. Mechanical properties and deformation mechanisms of a commercially pure titanium. 1998. Shear testing of a sheet steel at wide range of strain rates and a constitutive relation with strain-rate and temperature dependence of the ﬂow stress.R.. Z. D. 95–103. Orowan. 55. Institute of Metals. 46. Vreeland. 813–822. 907–919.. Cheng.R. S. K.C. Nemat-Nasser. 1988. 57. 307–324. 2000. A probabilistic approach to polycrystalline plasticity. S. Polycrystals with Application to OFHC Cu.. Mechanics of Materials... Morris. 36. 1992. Mobility of edge dislocations in silico-iron crystals. 355–378. 1960. 47. 46.M. E. 33. Y.. 2001. Acta Metallurgica. Abed. Guo. F. 565–577. G. T. Yoo. International Journal of Plasticity.P. 87–115.H. Y.M..Plastic strain in metals. 1823–1846. 46 565–577. 1971. 45. 451. 15. D.. Journal of Franklin Institute. Progress in Materials Science. Metallurgical Materialia Transaction. 37.. 2001. Thermally-activated deformation of bcc metals and alloys.L. Modeling temperature and strain rate history eﬀects in OFHC Copper.. 43. Low.M. 1998. 50. Agnew. Tanner... Journal of Applied Physics. J. Rusinek. Microstructural based models for bcc and fcc metal with temperature and strain rate dependency. 48. 1977. Metals. Nemat-Nasser. 45. London. 17. International Journal of Plasticity. J. Nemat-Nasser. 31. Acta Materialia. S.. Dislocation dynamics and mechanical properties of crystals.. 40. J.I. D. S. . 3705–3720. High strain rate response of commercially pure vanadium. W. Material Science Engineering. 46.H. 202–210. Nadgornyi. S. Sackett.. Voyiadjis. 2002. 1999. J.. M. 1481–1492. Acta Materialia. Nemat-Nasser. 49.. Nemat-Nasser... and Guo. A. Direct measurement of isothermal ﬂow stress of metals at elevated temperatures and high strain rates with application to Ta and Ta-W alloys. 51.. 575–603. W. McGinty. Flow Stress of F. Mechanics of Materials 32. 7. Nemat-Nasser. 44. Material Science and Engineering.. Acta Materialia.. and Guo. S. H. McDowell. K. Progress in Material Science.

Mao. . L.J..S. Armstrong. The eﬀect of dislocation drag on the stress-strain behavior of fcc metals.. M.. 15. 5..X.. Li. O.W. 2003. Journal of Computational Material Science. 1987. 1816–1825.Effect of dislocation density evolution . Acta Materialia. 1999. Zerilli... 35–49. 51...J.. 1992. S. M. Received November 26. Zhao. M. Slaughter... R. W.W. 343 58.. Zerilli. Dislocation-mechanics-based constitutive relations for material dynamics calculation. Material-length-scale-controlled nano-indentation size eﬀects due to strain gradient plasticity. Journal of Applied Physics. F. Glazov. 4461– 4469. Zaiser. 2004. Lalli. 60.A. M. Armstrong. 40. F. 59. 61. Richmond. R. On the relations between strain and strain-rate softening phenomena in some metallic materials: a computational study.. 1803–1808. Acta Metallurgical and Materialia.

- Prediction of available rotation capacity and ductility of wide-flange beams.pdfUploaded bySkerdi Muco
- Mat 024 TheoryUploaded byprasadmehta
- Presentation Workshop JR Klepaczko 2009 Effect of strain rate on ductile fractureUploaded byRyszard B. Pecherski
- Breakage Analysis of Aluminum Wire Rod in Drawing OperationUploaded byIRJET Journal
- Crystal Imperfections- DislocationsUploaded byTan Teck Keng Adrian
- NHPC Intern ReportUploaded byVijay Nehra
- Crystal Imperfection CH 4Uploaded bymaxxolimous
- Elastic-plastic Collapse of a Cylindrical Pipe under External Rigid Body LoadingUploaded byDan Wolf
- Validation of Simple Shear Tests for Parameter IdeUploaded byNguyễn Văn Thường
- 00 Xue 2007 PhD Thesis R3Uploaded byostrocha
- Lecture3 (1) AssignUploaded byMuket Agmas
- Mechanism of the Koehler Dislocation Multiplication ProcessUploaded bykelsiu1
- CRACK PROPAGATION FOR CONCRETE FLAT PLATES USING XFEM METHODUploaded byStevenson Mendonça
- Metallurgy CurriculumUploaded byhsemarg
- OTC 20197 Templeton FEA of Conductor Seafloor InteractionUploaded bytt3340
- Module Descriptor.pdfUploaded bySam Rutherford
- Friction CuttingUploaded byfemdi
- PV Lab ReportUploaded byBen Heo
- Project PptUploaded bySrikanth Desai
- AbstractUploaded byrenagates
- Simulation Inelastic Cyclic Buckling Behavior Steel Box SectionsUploaded byAlan Jalil
- DuggsUploaded byDhruv Duggal
- Plastic Behaviour of Structural SteelUploaded byNayan Fatania

- Atomistic Simulations of Dislocations and DefectsUploaded byMukhammad Ilham Irmansyah
- Teaching+with+CES+EduPack (6).pdfUploaded byDaniel L. Lievano
- Determination of Residual Stress Distributions in AutofrettaUploaded bykudariavi
- Askaynak ProductsUploaded bycanpoyrazsag
- PED annexUploaded byDavid Kuakamchad
- Development in Steel Roadway SupportUploaded byKrolina Caicedo
- Tensile TestUploaded byvinaykumaryadav
- Parameters Influencing Bond Strength of Rebars in RCCUploaded bypankaj_97
- 0263-8231%2885%2990030-8Uploaded bysagar1503
- Zhong Et Al. - 2011 - Experimental Investigation Between Rolling Contact Fatigue and Wear of High-speed and Heavy-haul Railway and SelecUploaded byJay Srivastava
- Mirzaei-FractureMechanicsLecture.pdfUploaded bykoohestani_afshin
- StruCAD3D ImportUploaded byAmin Kotb
- Shear Moment Interaction for Design of Steel Beam-To-column ConnectionsUploaded byChe' Smit
- Flow Forming Of Tubes-A ReviewUploaded bydr_kh_ahmed
- girthpvp96tUploaded bySaam Sasanian
- IscorUploaded byYogesh Gupta
- 2014 FSAE Structural Equivalency Spreadsheet V1.2 (1)Uploaded bymainali_1992
- Shear Rate Has Greater Influence on Cement Slurry PropertiesUploaded byAhmad Waisul Qorni
- SAE J454.pdfUploaded byDouglas Rodrigues
- Mechanical Properties (Strain-Stress)Uploaded byAya Dear
- CSiXRevit_2017_Manual.pdfUploaded byمنير أحمد
- Composite Materials DesignUploaded byGihanFernando
- The Theory of Penetration Failure in Compact SoilsUploaded byNima Fazel
- MosUploaded byAshok Pradhan
- 19206_DPPS.pdfUploaded byGarcia C L Alberto
- C-Mold GuideUploaded byGuery Saenz
- Caracteristicas de Celda de CargaUploaded byTecnelco Ltda
- Skin PassUploaded byamanciotrajano
- Mechanical Properties of MetalsUploaded byKamalesh Singh
- Tablas Tuberia XtUploaded byArcadio Bahena