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0 INTRODUCTION; Shipping is in fact one of the major driving forces behind the global economy. It is estimated that more than 80% of the world‟s commodities is transported by shipping. The role of shipping and its related activities at the ports is an indispensable tool for the development of any nation. With all the benefits shipping brings its negative impact cannot be discounted. The negative effect of any shipping related activity if left unchecked or overlooked can lead to detrimental economic and environmental impact to any society. Shipping contributes to global pollution via forms such as carbon emissions into the atmosphere and oil spills through ship accidents or bunkering into the marine environment. These forms of pollution are of much global concern. Currently, the issue of aquatic invasive species including the transfer of harmful organisms in ships‟ ballast water and sediments considered as one of the greatest threat to global marine biodiversity and ecosystem has become of great concern. Ships carry ballast water and ballast water carry thousands of marine organisms which are consequently transferred to new areas. Some of these organisms when discharged into a new environment have the capacity to wipe out an entire ecosystem whereby its reversal may be virtually impossible.

The issue thus lies in finding an environmentally friendly and effective and sustainable solution to possibly eliminate or reduce any life forms contained in ballast water on vessels. In order to understand the need for a more structured and effective control of ballast water it is important to appreciate how the current situation is affecting the environment and humans. Ship ballast water is largely responsible for the spread of invasive species. Other factors include incrustations on the hulls of vessels and oil platforms, aquaculture, ornamental aquatic organisms, canal openings, and watercourses transposition. U. C. Oliveira (2008). For the past 120 years water has been used as a means of maintaining stability on vessels when it is without cargo, partially loaded or even sometimes when it‟s completely loaded with cargo. Formerly, ships used to carry solid materials such as sand and stones, but the cost in money and time entailed in loading and discharging great quantities of these materials bar their use in modern ships. B. Baxter (Ed.) Know your own ship 28th edition. Ballast water is carried on vessels to primarily give the ship sufficient immersion to; 1. Compensate for weight loss; 2. Reduce stress and distortion on the ship‟s hull; 3. Provide transverse stability; 4. Ensure efficient propeller and rudder operation and avoid propeller-induced vibration and; 5. Avoid excessive trimming of the stern which gives rise to slamming. Ships normally conduct ballasting or deballasting operations in the ports or in areas adjacent to these where marine organisms mostly thrive. These operations are usually undertaken during loading or discharging of cargoes or fuel supplying. The

volume of ballast water carried varies according to the size of vessel, type of trade and shipping routes. Tankers and bulk carriers account for about 76% of the total ballast water volumes transported globally. Ø. Endresen et al (2004). It is estimated that the shipping industry displaces about 10 billion tons of ballast water annually with an individual ship carrying anything from several hundred litres to more than 130,000 tonnes of ballast water containing between 3,000 and 7,000 species, depending on the size and purpose of the vessel. C. Shine et. al (2000). According to history, scientists first recognized the signs of an alien species introduction after a mass occurrence of the Asian phytoplankton algae Odontella sinensis in the North Sea in 1903. But it was not until the 1970s that the scientific community began reviewing the problem in detail. International Maritime Organisation. Ballast Water Management.

Studies conducted in several countries have shown that small fishes, many species of bacteria and other microbes, planktonic organisms, pathogenic germs, small invertebrates and other spores, eggs and larvae of large species can survive in viable form in ballast water and sediments on ships, even after voyages of several months. When the ballast water or sediment is discharged into coastal waters, some of these new species are able to establish reproductive populations that out-compete native organisms thus multiplying into pest proportions and hence becoming obstinately invasive causing significant damage to the ecosystem, the economy and human health. Dandu Pughuic. (2001)

The spread of invasive species is largely due to the expanded trade and traffic volume over the last few decades. Volumes of seaborne trade continue overall to increase and the problem may not yet have reached its peak. causing the near extinction of anchovy and sprat fisheries. Quantitative data show that the rate of bio-invasions is continuing to increase at an alarming rate. in many cases exponentially. Carlton. there were 103. It is estimated that an introduced marine species invades a new environment somewhere in the world every nine weeks. 1999. with a combined tonnage of 1. In January 2011. The introduction of new species beyond their natural range can cause massive economic and ecological damage that can be wrought by rapid unchecked growth of introduced species in an aquatic ecosystem. it becomes virtually impossible to completely eliminate non-native species. and new areas are being invaded all the time. UNCTAD review of maritime transport.392 seagoing commercial ships in service. The effects in many areas of the world such as the United States and Australia have been devastating. These invaders may disrupt the normal functioning of the ecosystem by out-competing local populations for food. . International Maritime Organisation.396 million dwt as compared to 83. Also the introduction of the European zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) in the Great Lakes between Canada and the United States resulted in expenses of billions of dollars for pollution control and cleaning of fouled underwater structures and water pipes. to outright predation on important native species such as the introduction of the American comb jelly (Mnemiopsis Leidyi) to the Black and Azov Seas. T.544 seagoing ships with a combined tonnage of 799 million dwt. Usually. Ballast Water Management. J.

et. The International Maritime Organisation (IMO) has been at the fore-front in tackling ballast water-mediated invasions. estuaries and lagoons. Togo. Al(2000) Unfortunately. Liberia. Angola. Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) results from the consumption of shellfish products contaminated with neurotoxins produced by certain species of phytoplankton (floating microscopic plants) within the group known as dinoflagellates (red tide).In addition to this ballast water has been found to carry the bacteria specie known as Vibrio Cholerae which causes human cholera. stones or shells on sheltered tropical reef flats. It occurs in coastland. Its success is related to its rapid growth rate. São Tomé. Namibia. by avoiding areas in ports where populations of harmful organisms are known to occur. estuaries and marine habitats where it attaches to coral. Hypnea musciformis (hypnea) is red algae. it is present in the coastal waters of Morocco. Currently. Cameroon. when bottom-dwelling organisms may rise in the water column. originally from Trieste in Italy. Congo. In 1997. . Gabon. its member countries adopted voluntary ballast water management guidelines to minimize the risk of spreading invasive species. ability to epiphytize other algae and easy fragmentation (IUCN/SSC/ISSG 2004). 1. Ruiz G. Ghana. Minimising the uptake of organisms during ballasting. in shallow water and in darkness. This red tide is reportedly transported through ballast water and causes die-off in marine organism by similarly attacking their nervous system. The guidelines recommended the following management and control measures. Nigeria. Côte d‟Ivoire. Africa is not left out as marine IAS is a growing problem in the continent‟s coastal waters. and is now distributed throughout the world.

it entails completely emptying ballast tanks and refilling with open-ocean water. Hence. however. Akiyama and others. 4. Undertaking ballast water management procedures. Ship design generally does not allow for complete exchange of ballast and is thus dangerous in certain rough weather conditions. 3. the mid-ocean ballast water exchange is widely considered as an effective management tool to reduce the risk of ballast-mediated invasion. Currently. S. Any marine species taken on at the source port are less likely to survive in the open ocean. Cryer and others. Under the International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships‟ Ballast water and Sediment (BWC 2004).   Non-release or minimal release of ballast water. The sequential method. wind and wave dispersions may carry unwanted organisms from oceanic areas to shallow areas where they may start new invasion. where environmental conditions are different from coastal and port waters. The flow through method.2. 2. A. this method is not a guarantee as ocean current. 1. Avoiding unnecessary discharge of ballast. Nonetheless. which may harbour harmful organisms. implementing the convention remains a challenge. BBC (2004) In Ghana. ports are required to provide adequate reception . it involves pumping open-ocean water into a full ballast tank. including:  Exchanging ballast water at sea. though there is a growing environmental awareness with an interest and concern. Cleaning ballast tanks and removing muds and sediments that accumulates in these tanks on a regular basis. this procedure is being regarded as an interim practice until a viable and sustainable solution is discovered. some water and sediments that remain still have the ability to harbour organisms and bacteria. This procedure involves two methods. Discharge to onshore reception and treatment facilities. replacing it with „clean‟ open ocean water.

facilities to receive ships ballast water and sediments in consistence with international law. The main challenges of compliance and enforcement are the political will to see the environment as a priority area. However. but lack capacity for carrying out the necessary legislative review to enable them to develop compliant domestic regulations to guide environmental performance. the lack of adequate resources for environmental management and the carrying out of compliance and enforcement activities.1 PROBLEM STATEMENT . This is to prevent. Unfortunately. This places the region at risk as there is a high potential of receiving harmful invasive organisms into their ecosystem and besides there is the lack of resources and capacity to implement the new BWC 2004 to address this threat. it can be hardly asserted that the ports in the sub-region are ensuring compliance despite our vulnerability. several ports in the region export bulk commodities and oil and in return receive large amounts of ballast water. al (2005) 1. M. Besides. Harry Barnes-Dabban. The threat from ballast water begins and ends in ports and therefore ports must ensure compliance by ships. reduce or eliminate the transfer of harmful invasive aquatic organisms or pathogens through ballast water. the emergence of new markets under globalization has opened up the ports and shipping routes of the West and Central African (WACAF) region in which Ghana is a major trading partner in the sub-region with its two ports. Chenje et. Corporate Estates & Environment Manager for Ghana Ports & Harbours Authority The country has ratified relevant international marine environmental conventions.

Ballast water exchange involves replacing coastal water with open-ocean water during a voyage. One cannot tell which marine organism may become invasive or not. One of the guidelines provided under the convention. . Also. The IMO in its effort to curb ballast water-mediated invasion adopted the International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships‟ Ballast water and Sediment in 2004. Ghana as well as her other African counterpart faces a number of challenges in ensuring implementation of and compliance with international standards and practice. It has been estimated that the remaining volume of ballast water may carry a significant risk due to the organisms associated with re-suspended sediments in the tanks (International Joint Commission. Unfortunately. 2001).The problem of invasive species on ships has been known for more than two centuries. Other limitations of this procedure are considered on the grounds of safety where ship‟s stability and stresses may be affected by changing ballast at sea. organisms continue to survive in the sediment and residual water in the ballast tanks. However the convention which attempts to regulate the issue on a global basis is yet to be ratified. known as the mid-ocean ballast water exchange which is considered to be highly effective in controlling ballast watermediated invasion is not implementable in rough weather conditions. The most probable solution therefore lies in finding an effective and sustainable means of minimizing intake of or perhaps completely eliminating marine organism in ballast tanks. this method is considered not fully effective.

This study will therefore. tankers which accounts for greater proportions of ballast water discharge across the globe will by all means have their share of negative impact on the Ghanaian marine environment. 1. the challenges faced in implementing and ensuring compliance with these regulations and review existing regulations to reflect modern trends in ballast water management. 1. identify the stakeholders involved in regulating the discharge of ballast water. Review existing regulations to reflect currents trends in ballast water management.As Ghana seeks to rake in much income from the oil and gas sector.3 OBJECTIVES The objectives of this work are as follows: 1.4 JUSTIFICATION The case of invasive alien species is now recognised as one of the four greatest threats to the world‟s oceans besides a. 2. find out the measures being undertaken to curb ballast water. Identify the various stakeholders involved in the control and management of ballast water. Land-based source of marine pollution . Identify the challenges faced in the implementation of and compliance with regulations with respect to ballast water discharge. 3.mediated invasions.

1-6 Scope of study This work will cover the operations of the port of Tema. . Over-exploitation of living marine resource c. Raise much awareness about the discharge of ballast water and its consequences and thus regulate our marine environment with high priority. Assist law and policy makers in their attempt to draw up effective plans to control introduction of IAS and ensure maximum compliance.b. 3. 2. with respect to regulations of discharge of ballast water. Physical destruction and alteration of coastal and marine habitat. Bring to light certain lapses faced in the implantation and compliance of regulation with respect to the marine environment thus recommend probable solutions. This piece of work will absolutely not solve the numerous problems associated with IAS and ballast water management but the completion of this work will be able to 1. Regulatory bodies such as the Ghana Maritime Authority and the Environmental Protection Agency will be taken into consideration.

the objectives. The rationale for adopting certain methods and techniques in data acquisition are explained over here. The final chapter spells out the recommendations suggested by the project and then concludes the whole work.1-7 Organization This project work is organised into five chapters. . The second chapter of this work presents an extensive review of other literature related to ballast water management. Results of the various research findings and interviews are described here in chapter four. Chapter one introduces the topic and presents the background study to the work besides the problem statement that this work seeks to solve. analysing and presenting data and finding relevant to the research problem. The chapter three describes the research method and techniques employed in collecting. justification and scope of study of this work.

Rees and S. BBC. & D. BBC. Akiyama F.imo. Jennifer Mohamed-Katerere. United Kingdom. UNCTAD review of maritime transport 2000 › Home › Our Work › Marine Environment. Ruiz G. American Bureau of Shipping (ABS). Cryer (Producer). T. J. 2000a. Ecol. 2001. S. Rev. Invaders From The Sea [Motion Picture]. Cryer (Directors) (2004). M. Ballast Water Management. Marine Bioinvasions of New England. Invaders From The Sea [Motion Picture]. Sagishima. 10 Harry Barnes-Dabban. International Joint Commission. J. Cryer (Directors) (2004). . Carlton. Rees and S. 1999. Ballast Water Exchange Procedures and their Problems Carlton. Cryer (Producer). Alien Invasive Species and Biological Pollution of the Great Lakes Basin Ecosystem. 2 and 2011 pg.1-8 Reference A. Uetsuhara. Annu. Syst. P. Processes. Report of the Great Lakes Water Quality Board to the IJC. Maritimes (University of Rhode Island Sea Grant). Wonham. & D. Y. Munyaradzi Chenje. 36. Corporate Estates & Environment Manager for Ghana Ports & Harbours Authority S. 31:481-531. Invasion of Coastal Marine Communities in North America: Apparent Patterns. and Biases. Winter 99. Fofonoff. Retrieved from (http://www. International Maritime Organisation. A Hines. Emerging Challenges of INVASIVE ALIEN SPECIES cpt.. United Kingdom.

Extent. Introduced Species in U. (2001). Ballast water. HINES (1997) Global Invasions of Marine and Estuarine Habitats by Non-Indigenous Species: Mechanisms. Coastal Waters: Environmental Impacts and Management Priorities. T. CARLTON. and the movement of commercial oysters are examples of vectors. The main driving force behind the increasing occurrences of alien species invasion is attributed to the expanding global trade and increased human access to every part of the world. Angela Williamson. Today. RUIZ. Virginia. M Ruiz et al. G. ships‟ hulls. A. Considerably. GROSHOLZ. besides ship fouling for the transfer of species around the world by international ocean-going ships. Pew Oceans Commission. Carlton. J. Arlington. Max Aguero. C. T. 2001. N Cohen (1998). T. Al Carlton. Exequiel Gonzalez. JAMES T.S. J. Al (2003) Nicholas Bax. J. according to various studies ballast water is recognized as the largest single vector. (1997). N Bax et. Warren Geeves (2003) . (2001) defined a vector as the physical means or agent by which a species is transported. GREGORY M.2-0 Literature review Marine Invasive species are considered as the second greatest cause of loss to biological biodiversity after habitat destruction. and Consequences. the main vector associated with the chunk of increasing introductions of alien species is ballast water discharges. Carlton. AND ANSON H. EDWIN D. Shine et.

although corrosion can further enlarge these openings and the plates sometimes fall off which could permit entry of larger organisms. Baxter (Ed. Ballast water is employed when the vessel is at less than maximum cargo load. Also. 2. or after discharging a portion of the cargo before continuing on to the next port. 1. depending on the type of vessel. The function of the strainer plates is to prevent damage to the ship's pumps and from objects that . B. either during a transit to load cargo. Provide transverse stability. These intakes are typically covered with grates or strainer plates with openings of about half an inch or larger. Ballast water enters a ship through intakes located below the water line. Reduce stress and distortion on the ship‟s hull. Therefore. Avoid excessive trimming of the stern which gives rise to slamming. Compensate for weight loss.Ballast water is carried on vessels to primarily give the ship sufficient immersion to.. 3. 2000). 4.) Know your own ship 28th edition. 5. 1995 in Tzankova. it is often discharged in order to raise the ship when entering shallower ship channel areas. The volume of ballast normally carried varies. For example bulk carriers could have ballast capacities ranging from 211 MT to 47 000 MT whiles ballast capacities for tankers could also range from 1500 MT to 28 000 MT. ballast waters can often be a mix of waters from many ports (Carlton et al. Ensure efficient propeller and rudder operation and avoid propeller-induced vibration and.

. This is known as “unpumpable” ballast or dead water. Ships are said to be "in ballast" when they carry ballast and no cargo. perhaps tens or even hundreds of thousands of gallons. Australia. reveal a remarkable array of living marine organisms. although some bulk carriers and tankers may carry ballast water in their cargo holds ("unsegregated" tanks). and Hong Kong. may remain in ballast tanks after the pumps have lost suction. it may be quite substantial to a biologist concerned with the potential for transporting marine species. Ballast water is generally carried in several different compartments on board ship.S. However a substantial amount of water. and while the amount involved may seem insignificant to a mariner concerned with ship operations. although when present and in good condition they would incidentally serve to prevent the introduction of large organisms into ballast tanks.. water may be taken on or discharged either by pumping or by gravitational flow. Wales. Depending on the level of the tank relative to the water surface. Scotland. Carlton 2001 stated that “Studies in the U. Germany. they may be described as having "no ballast on board" (NOBOB). When ships have pumped out all the ballast water that they can.might otherwise be drawn in. Although the use of ballast water is very essential for the safe operation of a vessel. Ships loaded with cargo may also carry considerable quantities of ballast water. and "in cargo" when they carry some cargo. representing all of the major and most of the smaller groups of life. it is simply inevitable to draw in potential invasive alien species along with ballast water. often containing a high concentration of sediment. often in tanks set aside for that purpose (called "segregated or "dedicated ballast tanks).

11 N. Al (2003) observed that at any given moment some 10. Other species live permanently as adult organisms in the water. stages. ecology. and appears to out-compete and hybridize with its close relatives on the US west coast. bryozoans. or dispersal. economy and human health. mussels. becoming bottom-dwelling organisms as adults. dinoflagellates. jellyfish. oysters. clams. snails.000 different species could be transported between bio-geographic regions in ballast tanks. smothering and overgrowth. These include sea anemones. These include diatoms. causing genetic dilution. worms. the Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus Galloprovincialis) is dispersed with ballast water and by fouling ship hulls. barnacles. copepods. decreased habitat availability for native species. sea urchins. seaweeds. It has displaced several South African native mussel species. and many others.” PG. and is now well established intemperate regions around the globe. many others.Many species are in their larval. Bax ET. For example. IMPACT OF INVASIVE ALIEN SPECIES Invasive species are well noted for their impact on the environment. sea squirts. Certain viruses and bacteria that cause human epidemic cholera have also been detected in ballast water. crabs. . parasites and disease. as well as hybridisation. Environmental impacts include loss of native biodiversity due to preying on or competing with native species.

Food and Drug Administration then sampled the ballast water of 19 ships arriving in Gulf of Mexico ports from Latin America and found the South American epidemic strain of cholera in 5 of them. Red tides may kill fish or invertebrates by clogging their gills. S. The water hyacinth takes up large quantities of vital nutrients from the water and inhibits the growth of native plants. The deterioration of the water way threatens clean drinking water and thus has an impact on human health. and overgrowth of aquifers and smothering of beaches.Changes to ecosystem function include changes in nutrient cycles and decreased water quality. as well as parasites and disease. producing discolorations of the sea known as red tides. When the water hyacinth dies it sinks to the bottom of the water body. thus causing the water to become eutrophic due to the release of all the nutrients taken up. In Africa and South East Asia there is a number of problems caused by the IAS of water hyacinth. Alabama. During the 1991 South American cholera epidemic the bacterium that causes cholera (Vibrio cholerae)was discovered in oysters and fish in Mobile Bay. The plant causes the lowering of dissolved oxygen levels and thus reducing the amount of fish able to live in the water ways. and some produce human neurotoxins that accumulate in clams or mussels. The spread of toxic phytoplankton and increasing occurrence of harmful algal blooms are of significant health concern. Impacts to human health and wellbeing include decreased recreational opportunities. . These microscopic organisms can become phenomenally abundant. The dense mats of these plants clog waterways with their ability to take over entire lakes and rivers. This has an impact on the fishing and shipping industry. Toxic dinoflagellates have been introduced in ballast sediments to some and perhaps several countries around the Pacific Ocean. The U. sickening and sometimes killing the people that eat them.

were discovered in the Great Lakes. interference with fisheries (e. damage to infrastructure (e. and $6 million for a power plant. and covering beaches with sharp-edged mussel shells and rotting mussel flesh.5 million for a single factory. clean up or control. The aim of ballast water management is therefore to prevent or reduce further introductions of alien aquatic species into the marine environment. attaching in enormous numbers to ship and boat hulls.The mussels have caused expensive problems. marine structures and navigational buoys. U. the various management and control measures being proposed or yet to be implemented are now yet to have a global impact with respect to the scale of . with maximum reported costs through 1995 of $600. The average cost of damages from this invasion has been estimated at $360.g.g. (Dreissena polymorpha).Economic impacts can result from interference with biological resources that support fishing and mariculture (e. European zebra mussels.000 for one shipping company. through fouling) and costs of treatment. S of A in the late 1980s. However.00O/year for nuclear power plants. blocking the pipes that deliver water to cities and factories and cooling water to nuclear-and fossil fuel-fired power plants. $3. disruption to tourism. 2-1 MANAGEMENT OF BALLAST WATER Identifying the vectors or pathways of invasive alien species is a significant step in reducing further introductions.g.00O/year for affected cities and industries and $825. $1.7 million for a water treatment facility. collapse of fish stocks). fouling of gears). The next step is then to find practical and effective means to reduce or utterly prevent any new introductions.

and load only open-ocean water in the ballast tanks. Coastal Waters. The IMO in its International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships' Ballast Water and Sediments. either singularly or in combination. 2001b. i. J. chemical and mechanical means on board vessels. October. the ship would then release into coastal waters only open-ocean organisms. Carlton. or avoid the uptake or discharge of Harmful Aquatic Organisms and Pathogens within Ballast Water and Sediments. Report prepared for the Pew Oceans Commission. Mid-Ocean Ballast Exchange Ballast water exchange is presently considered as the single most practical method for ballast water management. or at least not to thrive. render harmless. “Ballast Water Management” means mechanical. there are mainly two practical measures being undertaken in the management of ballast water. in the coastal zone or to compete effectively with organisms adapted to coastal conditions. The mid-ocean ballast water exchange and ii. and biological processes. physical. The primary purpose of a mid-ocean exchange is to remove the coastal water containing coastal organisms. On arriving at its destination. to remove. Cohen. 2001. These are the.T. N. Introduced species in U. 1998.S. A. Currently. Such organisms are not expected to survive. Ships' Ballast Water . 2004 sets out the definition of ballast water management which states that. chemical.expanding international trade and travel multiplying the introduction of species into the environment. Treatment of ballast water by physical.

It is very practical and currently both administrations and port states base on the convention in place to ensure the proper execution of the exchange procedure. According to the regulation B-4 of the ballast water convention. Ballast water exchange can be accomplished by three main methods i) Sequential method – A process by which a ballast tank intended for the carriage of water ballast is first emptied and then refilled with replacement ballast water to achieve at least a 95% volumetric exchange. Regulation D-2 of the convention also requires that ships performing ballast water exchange shall do so with an efficiency of at least 95 per cent volumetric exchange of Ballast Water. At least three times the tank volume is to be pumped through the tank. iii) Dilution method – A process by which replacement ballast water is filled through the top of the ballast tank intended for the carriage of water ballast with simultaneous . Richmond CA. ii) Flow-through method – A process by which replacement ballast water is pumped into a ballast tank intended for the carriage of water ballast. San Francisco Estuary Institute.and the Introduction of Exotic Organisms into the Sun Francisco Estuary: Current Status of the Problem and Options for Management. allowing water to flow through overflow or other arrangements. it states that ships shall conduct such ballast water exchange at least 200 nautical miles from the nearest land and in water at least 200 metres in depth. These measures provide a very substantive way of reducing further introductions of marine species when adhered to.

96-100% efficient exchange of water in 3 deck tanks and based on mean salinity some coastal zooplankton remained at less than one organism per m3. the cost of this procedure was relatively low compared to other potential forms of treatment. American Bureau of Shipping. . 2-1-1 Sequential Method The sequential method entails completely emptying ballast tanks of the coastal waters and refilling with ocean water. Adapted from the American Bureau of Shipping. Guide for Ballast Water Exchange. According to a report made by the Pacific Ballast Water Group. Emptying of certain tanks may lead to significantly reduced stability. A. 2-1-2 Flow through/Dilution method The flow through and the dilution method are both generally referred to as the pump through method. July 2010.90% of the ballast water is exchanged when this method is conducted properly. higher vessel structural stresses. At least three times the tank volume is to be pumped through the tank.discharge from the bottom at the same flow rate and maintaining a constant level in the tank throughout the ballast exchange operation. high sloshing pressures and/or reduced forward drafts which may then increase the probability of bow slamming. Researchers found that 70 .N Cohen 1998 observed from experimental exchanges.

and Paul Westlake stated that care is needed in the application of the flow through method which could result in the resizing of pumps due to the increased resistance and higher workload. However. It therefore eliminates concerns of exceeding shear force and bending moment limits and concerns related to shallow forward and aft drafts and extreme trims. over-pressurization leading to structural damage and icing on deck in sub-zero temperature conditions. Hasan Ocakli. hull girder stress and vessel attitude. forcing existing ballast water out through an overflow or other arrangement. with the ship in port .The flow-through method involves pumping replacement ballast water into the bottom of a full ballast tank. replacement ballast water is filled through the top of the ballast tank and simultaneously discharged from the bottom at the same flow rate while maintaining a constant level in the tank throughout the exchange operation. Katherine Mazdon. Both methods are relatively of low cost compared to other potential treatment methods according to the Pacific Ballast Water Group. it takes between 3-4 days to complete ballast water exchange during the flow through method. fitting of new pumping and piping systems. ABS BWE Guide July 2010 In the dilution method. N Cohen (1998) observed from experimental ballast water exchanges that the flow through method in combined double-bottom and topside tanks. A. An investigation conducted by Lefteris Karaminas. ABS BWE Guide July 2010 The American Bureau of Shipping recognizes that the flow-through method as well as the dilution method do not typically alter stability.

when conducted according to current requirements. and 95% of dead plankton and 96% of water by replacing 3 tank volumes. DRAKE. ballast water exchange procedures can be extremely significant in reducing ballast water-mediated invasions if properly conducted. with the ship at sea. Theoretically. focusing on changes in the concentration of zooplankton. eliminated 70% of dead plankton by replacing I tank volume. but did not evaluate efficacy for phytoplankton. AND DAVID M. Based on experiments. The outcome of the result failed to prove either the effectiveness or the counter-productivity of ballast water exchange. The experiments included both methods of exchange and a range of vessel types. the Smithsonian Environmental Research Centre (SERC) found that BWE can be highly effective. observations. removing on average 88-99% of the original coastal water and 80-95% of coastal planktonic organisms from ballast tanks (compared to control tanks). aimed at reducing new introductions. LODGE (2007) used a theoretical modelling to determine the efficacy of ballast water exchanges after the procedure had become mandatory for ships entering the North American Great Lakes. eliminated 75% of dead plankton by replacing 3 tank volumes. N Cohen (1998) considered the various procedures which may be conducted for ballast water exchange. A. 88% of water (estimated with dye) by replacing 2 tank volumes. The work was based on various experiments and . CHRISTOPHER COSTELLO.(static conditions). JOHN M. The research did not also specify the type of procedure involved such as the flow through method or the sequential method but rather on a more general basis.

Treatment systems must be tested and approved in accordance with the relevant IMO Guidelines. A.However. Most regulations on exchange procedures such as the Ballast Water Exchange Guide by ABS. 2-2 Ballast Water Treatment Systems Ballast water treatment systems are being regarded as the most effective and efficient processes in the reduction of invasive species. Due to the numerous limitations and risks associated with the various exchange procedures. Al conducted their experiments and observation based on modelling. All of the above procedures cannot be carried out in rough weather conditions on the open ocean which can extremely limit its effectiveness. N Cohen (1998) and Costello et. Regulation D-2 of the Ballast Water Convention sets out the performance standard ballast water treatment systems must meet. The requirement for ballast water treatment has arisen from the requirements of regulation D-2 of the Convention. most ships are not suitably designed to carry out any of the exchange procedures as required by IMO. See table below for performance standard according to the regulation D-2. there have been proposals and works to develop treatment systems both onshore and offshore. However. measures to ensure a vessel has conducted up to 95% exchange of the ballast water in the open-ocean with very less life form in the ballast tanks can become challenging with respect to finding out which organisms were eliminated and which remained. currently. It is clear that these procedures are not as efficient as already noted by the IMO and that these procedures are being regarded as an interim practice. . Canada‟s Ballast Water Control and Management Regulations required a 95% volumetric exchange of all ballast water with the objective of significantly reducing any forms of life existing in the ballast tanks.

10-50 μm Toxicogenic < 10 cells / ml Vibrio cholera (O1 and O139) < 1 cfu* / 100 ml Escherichia coli < 250 cfu* / 100 ml Intestinal Enterococci Table 1. >50 μm in minimum dimension REGULATION < 10 cells / m3 Plankton.In response to this. . industry stakeholders and research laboratories are already joining forces in the development and testing of promising Ballast Water Treatment (BWT) technologies. ORGANISM CATEGORY Plankton. administrations. most of these technologies are yet to be approved and implemented for both onshore and offshore. However.0 IMO „D2‟ standards for discharged ballast water * Colony forming unit < 100 cfu* / 100 ml Adapted from the Lloyds Register (February 2010) Ballast Water Treatment Technology – Current Status.

Ultrasound or cavitation disinfection methods • deoxygenation is achieved by reducing the partial pressure of oxygen in the space above the water with an inert gas injection or by means of a vacuum which asphyxiates the micro-organisms. by virtue of the pores in the filtering material being smaller than the size of the particle or organism). i. from the ballast water. are also physico-chemical .e. including the larger suspended micro-organisms. either by sedimentation (allowing the solids to settle out by virtue of their own weight). filtration medium or stacks of special grooved disks. 2-2-1 Ballast Water Treatment Techniques Filtration Filtration is an environmentally sound technique for the control of ballast water organisms that works by capturing organisms and particles as water passes through a porous screen. or by surface filtration (removal by straining. solid-liquid separation. Disinfection.There are two generic types of process technology used in ballast water treatment: I. refers to the separation of suspended solid material. This process removes and/or inactivates micro-organisms using one or more of the following methods: • • chemical inactivation of the microorganism physicochemical inactivation by irradiation with ultraviolet light. which denatures the DNA of the micro-organism and therefore prevents it from reproducing. II.

Such filters are the most widely used solid-liquid separation process employed in ballast water treatment.19$ per ton of ballast water (including capital cost). costing an estimated $0. Filtration is relatively expensive. and their effective operation relates mainly to the flow capacity attained at a given operating pressure. such as Ultra Violet disinfection. Treatment facilities require IMO approval for the use of chemicals referred to as Active Substances (AS). Lloyds Register (2010) Hydrocyclone technology is also used as an alternative to filtration. 2-3-1 Disinfection A number of different chemicals (biocides) or chemical processes have been employed in the treatment of ballast water. and it is the balance between flow.06–0. .Removal of larger organisms such as plankton by filtration requires a filter of equivalent mesh size between 10 and 50μm. operating pressure and cleaning frequency that determines the efficacy of the filtration process. providing enhanced sedimentation by injecting the water at high velocity to impart a rotational motion which creates a centrifugal force which increases the velocity of the particle relative to the water. These processes are often proposed as a first step to be followed by additional treatment. Lloyds Register (2010) Both hydrocyclone technology and filtration are effective for larger particles. This force causes the heavier particles to move to the outside where they are captured by a weir-like feature near the discharge point. Maintaining the flow normally requires that the filter is regularly cleaned.

Other AS include.The efficacy of these chemical processes varies according to the conditions of the water such as pH. Menadione. Peracetic acid and Hydrogen Peroxide are infinitely soluble in water. is dosed at quite high levels and requires considerable storage facilities. Chlorine is relatively inexpensive and virtually ineffective against cysts. It is under the proprietary name Seakleen®. However this reagent is relatively expensive. Use of Chlorine concentrations in eliminating marine life contained in ballast water.000 ppm) were effective in eliminating dinoflagellates cysts when delivered only at high concentrations (2mg/l).000 ppm of free chlorine) and hydrogen peroxide (tested at 100-60. II. A. produce few harmful by-products and are relatively stable. Acrolein® Glutaraldehyde Cohen. most significantly. These Active Substances include. although this presents a hazard since the reagents used are chemically hazardous. Ozone yields far fewer harmful by-products. V. . but requires relatively complex equipment to both produce and dissolve it into the water. N (1998) observed from laboratory experiments that biocides such as chlorine (tested at 10-2. temperature and. is unusual in that it is a natural product (although produced synthetically for bulk commercial use) and is relatively safe to handle. III. the most prominent being bromate. the type of organism. Chlorine dioxide is normally produced in situ. or Vitamin K. IV. Chlorine also leads to undesirable chlorinated by-products. I. particularly chlorinated hydrocarbons and trihalomethanes.

Discharge of these chemicals could have detrimental effects on the marine environment with related health risks. The use of biocides can be very effective in achieving the required levels of organisms. corrosiveness. including lack of adequate storage space on ships. The removal of water turbidity (i. it may not be effective for larger organisms. but expensive equipment and a substantial supply of power was needed.e. The process employs amalgam lamps surrounded by a quartz sleeve which can provide UV light at different wavelengths and intensities. For that reason. and its effectiveness is reduced in water containing suspended matter. Nonetheless. some biocides (chlorine. algae and fungi. reduced effectiveness in water with sediment or organic material. Lloyd Register (2010) . and concerns about discharging chlorinated water into the environment. UV is generally considered to be practical only after some form of filtration system. cloudiness) is therefore essential for effective operation of the While UV kills bacteria and other micro-organisms. The process relies on good UV transmission through the water and hence needs clear water and unfouled clean quartz sleeves to be effective. cysts and spores. However these treatment plants are very expensive to build and operate.It was however realized that some of these chemicals may be non-feasible for other reasons as well. Physical disinfection Ultraviolet radiation. copper and silver ions) can be electrolytically generated from seawater.

concerns include thermal stresses to the vessel and thermal pollution from discharging heated ballast water. . San Francisco Estuary Institute. Until further testing and research is completed. 1998. it was observed that the efficacy of ballast water treatment systems was better than the IMO D-2 standards according to researchers from the Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research. Other physical treatments methods available include. energy requirements and equipment durability. Ships' Ballast Water and the Introduction of Exotic Organisms into the San Francisco Estuary: Current Status of the Problem and Options for Management. Heat treatment. Overall. Richmond CA. In addition to issues of cost and space. Cohen. mechanical damage. Calculations for one bulk carrier indicate that to sufficiently heat its 12 million gallons of ballast water would require 45-90 megawatts of power in addition to the 20 megawatts available as waste heat. this is still a new technology and there are potential challenges with large-scale operations related to consistent application. its use as a viable secondary treatment is unable to be assessed.Ultrasound.90 seconds will kill many species of dinoflagellate cysts. N. However. A. magnetic treatment and electrocution. Laboratory tests have shown that heating water to 40-45° C (104-1 13° F) for 30. this approach has shown potential to be a very effective secondary treatment technology. or 2-4 times the power generated by the ship's main engine. It can produce extreme pressure and temperature change to destroy microorganisms and bacteria.

often to nearly undetectable values. b. however feasibility studies conducted for the Canadian and Australian governments estimated costs for on-shore treatment approaches that compared favourably with other treatments. most of these treatment facilities discussed above could also be undertaken on land. The port authorities could operate and maintain the facilities and could monitor them routinely to determine the treatment extent and effectiveness. N Cohen (1998) A. On. in comparison to potentially difficult operating conditions on board the ship. Operations onshore allow better control of the treatment.shore treatment remains another viable approach in effectively controlling introduced species. various ballast water management procedures and treatment facilities were basically experimented and implemented with on-board approaches. A. there has been less study of on-shore treatment of ballast water than of on-board treatment and ballast exchange.N Cohen (1998) compared both on-shore and on board approaches with respect to their advantages and disadvantages and found that the advantages of on. Nevertheless.The numerical abundance of the viable organisms as indicated in the BWM Convention as well as the number of other (phyto)plankton declined substantially. . Stemming the tide (1996) mentions that the main advantages of onshore treatment are: a.Shore Treatment Although.shore approach outweighed on-board approach. On.

removing many tough life stages (cysts and spores).. Marine Board. Committee on Ships’ Ballast Operations. as well as it may be done on board the ship. D. Cohen (1998) cited the following advantages: a. Higher safety for the crew. Commission on Engineering And Technical Systems. d. Washington. Methods similar to filtration can be applied to on-land stations. d. Onshore treatment plants can merge the treatment alternatives in order to ensure better efficiency in the process. Stemming the tide. National Research Council. UV that are cheaper and more efficient. and it can combine methods such as biocides. c. Additional room in the vessel (especially in the engine room) is not required.c. National Academy Press.C. 1996. under the control of an appropriate authority. and there is no new facilities or modifications of the original design. since there is no contact with toxic components of treatments on board. as well as organisms and inorganic sediments. . as well as lower corrosion problems and structural stress due to temperature variations in some methods. b. Ballast water can be treated with sewage disinfection station in the vicinity of the port or of the municipal. 1996. the ship energy consumption is not increased. The waste coming from the treatment process can be eliminated in an environmentally acceptable manner. Controlling introductions of nonindigenous species by ships’ ballast water.

the authors also mention the main disadvantages of treatment facilities on land. the ship‟s operators would probably rather this option than facilities onshore. thus limiting the economic viability of such facilities. (2007) mentions the advantages as follows: a. Delays in shipping may occur when the capacity of the ships ballast tanks exceed the capacity of the treatment plan (including storage tanks). 2007. and each ship would have to change its own ballast water pumping system. with treated water. Gollasch et al. The largest ports would need multiple units to receive ballast water. the onshore treatment of ballast water of tankers is an example of the possibility of developing a standardized system in ports. If vessels were able to exchange ballast water at sea. Critical review of the IMO international convention on the management of ships’ ballast water and sediments. c.e. ports and vessels that must carry clean ballast water. Harmful Algae 6: 585–600. if there is no possibility of using hoses to connect to the ballast tanks. Demand of pipe connection between the treatment plants and all the berths. Currently. et al. Gollasch S.. Stations on-land can supply. such as: a. so that any ship is able to load and unload. . However. b. b. Thus. Pumping systems in all petroleum terminals are standardized. the same concept of standardized oil pipelines can be applied in ballast water systems development. The method can provide an economy of scale in construction and operation of on-shore stations in contrast with the number of devices required on ships to handle the same amount of ballast water..

. At the same time a lot of heat from exhaust gases would be released inefficiently into the atmosphere. which may contribute to the bioinvasion Despite these drawbacks. A Study of Ballast Water Treatment Applied on Iron Ore Ports in Brazil Using Discrete Simulation. Hernani Luiz Brinati and Edson Felipe Trevis. e. The ballast water discharged by the vessel to diminish its draft while entering into an access channel might not be treated. the treatment on land remains a feasible alternative within a range of options currently available to treat ballast water. Presented at the WMU. provided that the criteria for safety. Newton Narciso Pereira. Despite the efficacy of these technological applications there are global concerns about the high energy demands required to operate ballast water treatment facilities. practical and profitable operations are considered. technical feasibility. Rui Carlos Botter.d. High cost of land acquisition for implementation of storage systems. environmental acceptability. These huge energy consumptions would impact the environment with additional greenhouse gas pollution as well as an economic impact due to the increase of daily consumption of diesel or fuel oil.