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# CALCULATIONS & SPECIFICATIONS

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Collapse Strength Calculations

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The following collapse formulae provide the user practical tools to estimate collapse strengths of various types of casing and screen. It is important that one pays particular attention to the material and manufacturing standards for the casing and screen specified so that acceptable tolerances are considered and adequate safety factors applied. Collapse Strength of Steel Casing: Timoshenko's Formula, shown below, is commonly accepted to be the most accurate method available for estimating the collapse strength of steel pipe with diameter/thickness ratios common to those used in the construction of water wells.

Where: Pcr = Theoretical collapse strength of a perfectly round tube

Modifications of the formula above can provide an estimate for the collapse strength of shutter screen. Factors which determine the extent of increased strength include: the thickness/diameter ratio.3) Do = Outside diameter of casing (inches) t = Wall thickness (inches) S = Yield strength (mild steel = 35.000 psi) e = ellipticity.01 Perform Calculation Collapse Strength of Shutter Screen: Shutter Screen. and number of perforations. actually has a greater collapse strength than casing of the same diameter and wall thickness due to the corrugating effect of the louvers. As a result. Ps = Pe 1.60 Where: Pe = Collapse pressure with ellipticity (psi) Ps = Collapse pressure of Standard shutter screen (psi) Pf = Collapse pressure of Ful Flo shutter screen (psi) Psf = Collapse pressure of Super Flo shutter screen (psi) Perform Calculation .35 Psf = Pe 1. frequently assumed as 0. slot length.20 Pf = Pe 1. shutter screen's collapse strength is up to 60% stronger than the pipe from which it was made. sometimes referred to as Louver Screen.Where: Pe = Collapse pressure with ellipticity (psi) E = Young's Modulus for Steel (3x107) u = Poisson's Ratio (0. slot size.

size.33) Do = Outside diameter of pipe (inches) . shape.Collapse Strength of Continuous Slot Screen: Collapse strength of continuous slot screen is dependent on diameter of the screen. Where: Pc = Collapse pressure of PVC pipe (psi) E = Young's Modulus for PVC (4x105) u = Poisson's Ratio (0. and the slot size. Where: I = Moment of Inertia (in)4 Where: Pcs = Collapse pressure of continuous slot screen (psi) E = Young's Modulus for Steel (3x107) w = Width of wire on external face (inches) s = Slot width of screen (inches) D = Mean diameter of the screen (inches) h = Wire height (inches) b = Width of minor base of wire (inches) Perform Calculation Collapse Strength of PVC Pipe: The following is the ASTM F 480 formula for determining the collapse strength of PVC pipe manufactured in accordance with said standards. The following formula can be used to estimate the collapse strength of continuous slot screen. and material type of wire used in its manufacture.

is more conservative than the ASTM formula. However. Weight Calculations Weight of a Blank Casing: Weight of a blank casing. As the temperature rises. PVC working strength decreases by approximately 0.68.5 psi per degree Fahrenheit above 70°F. Where: W = Weight of casing (lbs/ft) Do = Outside diameter of casing (inches) t = Wall thickness (inches) m = Variable for casing material: Carbon Steel = 10. it may provide a more accurate estimate of actual collapse strength.04 Perform Calculation . Perform Calculation Physical properties of PVC vary with temperature. Obviously. or pipe.93. PVC = 2. much care must be taken during cementing operations or in other high temperature environments. This formula. can be found using the following formula. since most PVC materials are made to minimum allowable wall thickness rather than nominal sizes. The values obtained with these formulas are consistent with a temperature of 70°F. Stainless Steel = 10.t = Wall thickness (inches) Perform Calculation Another formula used to determine the collapse strength of PVC is shown below.

14159 Perform Calculation Yield Strength Shutter Screen: For shutter type screen.14159 . this formula can be modified as shown here: Where: Ysp = Yield point of slotted pipe or shutter screen (lbs) Yp = Yield point of casing (lbs) from above l = Slot length perpendicular to the axis of the pipe (inches) n = Number of circumferential slots Do = Outside diameter of casing (inches) t = Wall thickness (inches) = pi or 3. This calculation is used to evaluate suitability of use relative to expected loads.Yield Strength Calculations Users must determine the yield strength for casing and screen. Yield Strength of Steel Casing: (ignoring buoyant forces) is determined by the following formula: Where: Yp = Yield point of casing (lbs) S = Yield strength (mild steel = 35.000 psi) Do = Outside diameter of casing (inches) t = Wall thickness (inches) = pi or 3. This measures the point at which the casing or screen will be damaged by deformation due to the stress of the hanging weight.

5) = pi or 3. Then multiply the percentage by 12 inches per foot. first you must calculate the percentage of open area of the screen. then use that result to calculate the flow. This is accomplished with the formula shown here: Where: Ycs = Yield point of continuous slot screen (lbs) S = Yield strength (mild steel = 35.000 psi) r = Radius of rods or diameter/2 (inches) n = Number of rods j = Joint efficiency of connection between screen and weld ring (generally assumed to be 0.8: Calculation of percent of open area: . and the conversion constant of 4. This establishes the "safe hanging weight" of the screen. by the outside diameter.14159 Perform Calculation Area/Flow Calculations Well Production at AWWA Standard of 1.5 feet per second: To calculate the flow in gallons per minute per foot of screen.70) sf = Safety factor (assumed for this example at 0.Perform Calculation Yield Strength of Continuous Slot Screen: For continuous slot screen we must determine the yield point for the screen and adjust for the joint connecting the screen body to the welding ring. by pi. Determine the open area for the type of screen used then convert area to a percentage.

Perform Calculation Calculation of the flow in gallons per minute per foot of screen: Where: F = Flow (gpm/ft of screen) Ap = Open Area (percent%) .inches) s = Slot size (inches) w = Wire width (inches) Do = Average outside diameter of screen (inches) d = Diameter of rods (inches) n = Number of rods Calculate Ap of continuous slot screen .Perform Calculation Calculation of open area for continuous slot screen: Where: A = Open Area (sq.inches) l = Slot length (inches) o = Width of slot opening (inches) n = Number of slots per foot Calculate Ap of shutter screen .inches) Do = Average outside diameter of screen (inches) Calculation of open area for shutter type screen: Where: A = Open Area (sq.Where: Ap = Open Area (percent%) A = Open Area (sq.