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George Gordon, Lord Byron (1788-1824) Mad, bad and dangerous to know - Lady Caroline Lamb Lord Byron

embodiment of rebellion and dismissal of conventional moral Byrons promiscuity o sleeping with his half sister, o bisexuality, and o (by his own count) over two hundred affairs She walks in Beauty She walks in beauty, like the night Of cloudless climes and starry skies; And all thats best of dark and bright Meet in her aspect and her eyes: Thus mellowed to that tender light 5 Which heaven to gaudy day denies. Stanza 2 One shade the more, one ray the less, Had half impaired the nameless grace Which waves in every raven tress, Or softly lightens oer her face; 10 Where thoughts serenely sweet express How pure, how dear, their dwelling-place. Stanza 3 And on that cheek, and oer that brow, So soft, so calm, so eloquent, The smiles that win, the tints that glow, But tell of days in goodness spent, A mind at peace with all below, A heart whose love is innocent!

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Analysis Iambic tetrameter common for hymns She: cousins wife Mrs Wilmot 1 physical beauty; 2 & 3 physical and internal beauty Subject: the ladys virtuous beauty Beauty: balance of opposites light and dark nameless grace Internal and external beauty Her beauty direct result of her purity When we two parted When we two parted In silence and tears, 1

Half broken-hearted To sever for years, Pale grew thy cheek and cold, Colder thy kiss; Truly that hour foretold Sorrow to this. Stanza 2 The dew of the morning Sunk chill on my brow-It felt like the warning Of what I feel now. Thy vows are all broken, And light is thy fame; I hear thy name spoken, And share in its shame. Stanza 3 They name thee before me, A knell to mine ear; A shudder comes o'er me-Why wert thou so dear? They know not I knew thee, Who knew thee too well-Long, long shall I rue thee, Too deeply to tell. Stanza 4 In secret we met-In silence I grieve, That thy heart could forget, Thy spirit deceive. If I should meet thee After long years, How should I greet thee?-With silence and tears. Analysis Published 1816 written 1808 (??) we: Byron & Lady Frances Webster; scandalous relationship with Duke of Wellington in 1816 (?) Autobiographical: poets emotional state Otherwise: no markers for gender, time, place Tone: despair silence and tears cold, / Colder emotional detachment 2

Portentuous chilly dew on brow own detachment or cold sweat? Beloveds infidelity Light fame bad reputation he also feels shame Relationship was clandestine no one knew about it He rues (regrets) the affair Poetic convention: hurt too deep, cannot express it in words, yet still writing about it Unable to mourn relationship publically Pain will not diminish, nor will his sense of being wronged How to greet her? with silence - will not add scandal to scandal and tears his grief When a man hath no freedom When a man hath no freedom to fight for at home, Let him combat for that of his neighbors; Let him think of the glories of Greece and of Rome, And get knocked on the head for his labors. To do good to mankind is the chivalrous plan, And is always as nobly requited; Then battle for freedom wherever you can, And, if not shot or hanged, you'll get knighted. Percy Bysshe Shelley (1792-1822) Hymn to Intellectual Beauty The awful shadow of some unseen Power Floats though unseen among us,-visiting This various world with as inconstant wing As summer winds that creep from flower to flower,Like moonbeams that behind some piny mountain shower, It visits with inconstant glance Each human heart and countenance; Like hues and harmonies of evening,Like clouds in starlight widely spread,Like memory of music fled,Like aught that for its grace may be Dear, and yet dearer for its mystery. Hymn spiritual poem Speakers god: awful [awesome] Power intellectual Beauty Not apprehended by the senses, but by the mind Stanza 1 awful shadow unpredictable - manifestations of the Power a world in change

Stanza 2 Spirit of Beauty, that dost consecrate With thine own hues all thou dost shine upon Of human thought or form,-where art thou gone? Why dost thou pass away and leave our state, This dim vast vale of tears, vacant and desolate? Ask why the sunlight not for ever Weaves rainbows o'er yon mountain-river, Why aught should fail and fade that once is shown, Why fear and dream and death and birth Cast on the daylight of this earth Such gloom,-why man has such a scope For love and hate, despondency and hope? Onwards: direct prayer-like address to the Spirit Where art thou gone? Unanswerable: question of mutability o of phenomena, o of the contradictory experiences and emotions of human beings: love and hate, despondency and hope. This question has always haunted humankind Stanza 3 No voice from some sublimer world hath ever To sage or poet these responses givenTherefore the names of Demon, Ghost, and Heaven, Remain the records of their vain endeavour, Frail spells-whose uttered charm might not avail to sever, From all we hear and all we see, Doubt, chance, and mutability. Thy light alone-like mist oe'er the mountains driven, Or music by the night-wind sent Through strings of some still instrument, Or moonlight on a midnight stream, Gives grace and truth to life's unquiet dream. To answer question man created and named gods Religious claims are frail spells; they fail to account for Doubt, change, and mutability. Only Beautys light lends purpose to human life. Stanza 4 Love, Hope, and Self-esteem, like clouds depart And come, for some uncertain moments lent. Man were immortal, and omnipotent, Didst thou, unknown and awful as thou art, Keep with thy glorious train firm state within his heart. Thou messenger of sympathies, 4

That wax and wane in lovers' eyesThou-that to human thought art nourishment, Like darkness to a dying flame! Depart not as thy shadow came, Depart not-lest the grave should be, Like life and fear, a dark reality. Stanza 5 While yet a boy I sought for ghosts, and sped Through many a listening chamber, cave and ruin, And starlight wood, with fearful steps pursuing Hopes of high talk with the departed dead. I called on poisonous names with which our youth is fed; I was not heard-I saw them notWhen musing deeply on the lot Of life, at that sweet time when winds are wooing All vital things that wake to bring News of birds and blossoming,Sudden, thy shadow fell on me; I shrieked, and clasped my hands in ecstasy! Speakers attempts to understand mysteries, talk to the dead, etc. through religion I was not heard I saw them not Speakers encounter with Beauty: epiphany Spring - the resurrection of nature Experiences sudden new life and creativity and ecstasy Stanza 6 I vowed that I would dedicate my powers To thee and thine-have I not kept the vow? With beating heart and streaming eyes, even now I call the phantoms of a thousand hours Each from his voiceless grave: they have in visioned bowers Of studious zeal or love's delight Outwatched with me the envious nightThey know that never joy illumed my brow Unlinked with hope that thou wouldst free This world from its dark slavery, That thou-O awful Loveliness, Wouldst give whate'er these words cannot express. Stanza 7 The day becomes more solemn and serene When noon is past-there is a harmony In autumn, and a lustre in its sky, Which through the summer is not heard or seen, As if it could not be, as if it had not been! Thus let thy power, which like the truth 5

Of nature on my passive youth Descended, to my onward life supply Its calm-to one who worships thee, And every form containing thee, Whom, Spirit fair, thy spells did bind To fear himself, and love all human kind. Dedicated life to the Spirit In autumn of his life only Beauty can supply necessary calm and harmony It has taught him lifes most valuable lessons: [t]o fear himself (in his inspired imaginative powers) and to love all human kind. A Defence of Poetry (1840) Shelley declares that the secret of all real poetry is Love Through the agency of poetry the world will change John Keats (1795-1821) Here lies one whose name was writ in water. Form 10-line stanzas Quatrain presents problem Sestet discusses and resolves it Generally, in iambic pentameter

Ode on a Grecian Urn THOU still unravish'd bride of quietness, Thou foster-child of Silence and slow Time, Sylvan historian, who canst thus express A flowery tale more sweetly than our rhyme: What leaf-fringed legend haunts about thy shape Of deities or mortals, or of both, In Tempe or the dales of Arcady? What men or gods are these? What maidens loth? What mad pursuit? What struggle to escape? What pipes and timbrels? What wild ecstasy? 10 Stanza 2

Heard melodies are sweet, but those unheard Are sweeter; therefore, ye soft pipes, play on; Not to the sensual ear, but, more endear'd, Pipe to the spirit ditties of no tone: Fair youth, beneath the trees, thou canst not leave 15 Thy song, nor ever can those trees be bare; Bold Lover, never, never canst thou kiss, 6

Though winning near the goalyet, do not grieve; She cannot fade, though thou hast not thy bliss, For ever wilt thou love, and she be fair! 20 Stanza 3 Ah, happy, happy boughs! that cannot shed Your leaves, nor ever bid the Spring adieu; And, happy melodist, unwearid, For ever piping songs for ever new; More happy love! more happy, happy love! 25 For ever warm and still to be enjoy'd, For ever panting, and for ever young; All breathing human passion far above, That leaves a heart high-sorrowful and cloy'd, A burning forehead, and a parching tongue. 30 Stanza 4 Who are these coming to the sacrifice? To what green altar, O mysterious priest, Lead'st thou that heifer lowing at the skies, And all her silken flanks with garlands drest? What little town by river or sea-shore, 35 Or mountain-built with peaceful citadel, Is emptied of its folk, this pious morn? And, little town, thy streets for evermore Will silent be; and not a soul, to tell Why thou art desolate, can e'er return. 40 Stanza 5 Attic shape! fair attitude! with brede Of marble men and maidens overwrought, With forest branches and the trodden weed; Thou, silent form! dost tease us out of thought As doth eternity: Cold Pastoral! 45 When old age shall this generation waste, Thou shalt remain, in midst of other woe Than ours, a friend to man, to whom thou say'st, 'Beauty is truth, truth beauty, - that is all Ye know on earth, and all ye need to know. 50

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