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DC motor

A DC motor is an electric motor that runs on direct current (DC) electricity. DC motors were used to run machinery, often eliminating the need for a local steam engine or internal combustion engine. Today DC motors are still found in applications as small as toys and disk drives, or in large sizes to operate steel rolling mills and paper machines.

Figure a: a dc motor

There are three types of connections used for DC electric motors: Series shunt compound DC series motor A series DC motor connects the armature and field windings in series with a common D.C. power source This motor has poor speed regulation since its speed varies approximately inversely to load However, a series DC motor has very high starting torque and is commonly used for starting high inertia loads, such as trains, elevators or hoists. Series motors called "universal motors" can be used on alternating current.

Figure b: series DC motor

DC shunt motor A shunt DC motor connects the armature and field windings in parallel or shunt with a common D.C. power source. This type of motor has good speed regulation even as the load varies, but does not have as high of starting torque as a series DC motor It is typically used for industrial, adjustable speed applications, such as machine tools, winding/unwinding machines.

Figure c : shunt DC motor

DC compound motor A compound DC motor connects the armature and fields windings in a shunt and a series combination to give it characteristics of both a shunt and a series DC motor. This motor is used when both a high starting torque and good speed regulation is needed.

Figure d: compound DC motor

Experiment title: Load characteristics of a DC shunt motor

Objectives: To determine the relationship between a) Torque and speed b) Current and efficiency of a DC shunt motor Equipments required: 1. DC shunt motor (J-J testing set) 110V, 2.2 A 2. Three digital multi-meters Procedures: The circuit is connected as shown in the figure e below to allow the measurements to be obtained.

Figure e: The shunt motor

Note: An electrical dynamometer is used to apply and measure torque. A tachometer is used to measure the speed of the rotation. The following measurements are observed from the circuit, and are noted down: Supply or load current, IL Armature current, IA Speed, N(rpm) Torque, T(Nm) Terminal p.d, VL for different applied torque.

The values obtained, are then tabulated as shown in the table below: Torque/Nm 0.03 0.06 0.10 0.14 0.18 0.22 0.26 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 0.50 0.54 0.60 Supply voltage, VL 112 110 105 106 106 105 106 106 106 105 105 104 105 105 Load current, IL 0.53 0.59 0.68 0.72 0.81 0.88 0.95 1.02 1.11 1.22 1.34 1.45 1.56 1.78 Armature current, IA 0.20 0.28 0.38 0.41 0.50 0.60 0.67 0.71 0.83 0.93 1.06 1.18 1.28 1.50 Speed, rpm 1760 1700 1650 1640 1630 1600 1580 1550 1520 1500 1480 1470 1440 1370

At the end of the experiment, the field coil resistance (RF) and the armature resistance (RA) is measured Note: The supply is switched off; the multi-metre is set to ohmmeter, at working temperature.

Calculations: Power input = IL * V Power output = T ; = (2n/60) Efficiency, = (power output)/ (power input) * 100
Table 1: the efficiency

Input power, W 112 * 0.53 = 59.36 110 * 0.59 = 64.90 105 * 0.68 = 71.40 106 * 0.72 = 76.32 106 * 0.81 = 85.86 105 * 0.88 = 92.40 106 * 0.95 = 100.7 106 * 1.02 = 108.1 106 * 1.11 = 117.7 105 * 1.22 = 128.1 105 * 1.34 = 140.7 104 * 1.45 = 150.8 105 * 1.56 = 163.8 105 * 1.78 = 186.9

Output power, W 0.03 * 184.31 = 05.53 0.06 * 178.02 = 10.68 0.10 * 172.79 = 17.28 0.14 * 171.74= 24.04 0.18 * 170.69 = 30.72 0.22 * 167.55 = 36.86 0.26 * 165.46 = 43.02 0.30 * 162.32 = 48.69 0.35 * 159.17 = 55.71 0.40 * 157.08 = 62.83 0.45 * 154.99 = 69.74 0.50 * 153.94 = 76.97 0.54 * 150.80 = 81.43 0.60 * 143.47 = 86.08

Efficiency, 9.310 16.40 24.20 31.50 35.78 39.89 42.72 45.04 47.35 49.05 49.57 51.04 49.71 46.06

Using the values obtained, three graphs are drawn: Speed v/s torque
60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 0.2 0.4 Torque, Nm 0.6 0.8 graph of eficiency v/s torque

As the torque increases, the speed of the motor decreases. P = T T is inversely proportional to IL v/s torque
60 50 40 IL , A 30 20 10 0 0 0.2 0.4 Torque, Nm 0.6 0.8 graph of eficiency v/s torque

speed, rpm

Increasing the torque, causes an increase in the load current, IL Efficiency v/s torque
60

50

40 Eficiency,

30 graph of eficiency v/s torque 20

10

0 0 0.2 0.4 Torque, Nm 0.6 0.8

The efficiency increases as a function of torque, but till a certain extent. As from the maximum point, increasing the torque reduces efficiency.

References:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DC_motor http://www.wisc-online.com/objects/ViewObject.aspx?ID=IAU13908