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Vasundhara Mahajan*, Department Of Electrical Engineering, M P Christian College of Engineering & Technology Bhilai, Chattisgarh, INDIA. vasu.mahajangmailcom, asundharal 01 .rediffmail.com Abstract: Thyristor controlled series compensator (TCSC) controller, the first generation of flexible AC transmission

system (FACTs), can control the line impedance through the introduction of a thyristor-controlled capacitor in series with

**history of emergence of FACTs and the recent developments in the field. Zhang and Ding [6] give a
**

presents some aspects and directions need to be studied.

. ther benefits . .

the transmission line. TCSC is used as series compensator in transmission system. The TCSC controller can be designed to control the power flow, to increase the transfer limits or to improve the transient stability. The TCSC controller can provide a very fast action to increase the synchronization

power through quick changing of the equivalent capacitive

de pm e b ly general overew ofof FACTsdevices This paper also FACTs describes the effects devices.

**Habur and O'Leary [7] provide definitions of the most common application of FACTS devices as well as
**

n

mode to bypass mode the TCSC controller can be modeled with detailed dynamics. The TCSC controller is modeled in MATLAB SIMULINK and can be used in power system for stability improvement. Key words: TCSC, compensation, FACTs, reactance.

the compensation. The presented controller is suitable only in capacitive zone. For the transition from a capacitive vernier

reactance to the full compensation in the first few cycles after a fault, hence subsequent oscillations are damped. TCSC controller provides variable impedance, which is required for

. Generic informathon on the costs and benefits of FACTS devices is then provided. The paper then discusses seven applications of FACTS

the USA.

devices in Australia, Brazil, Indonesia, South Africa and

FACTs controllers to control the interrelated parameters that govern the operation of transmission system inldn se ipedance, tian ce, curren ' . .' . voltage, phase angle and the damping of oscillations at ~~various frequencies below the rated frequency. By ququ y y providing added flexibility, FACTs controllers can enable a line to carry power closer to its thermal rating. FACTs FACTs ftechnology refers to devices that enable flexible electrical economical means to solve thepower sstem tability power system operation, i.e. controlled active & reactive power flow redirection in transmission paths. FACTs an effective transient. abi dynamic stiy device offers continuous control of power flow or voltage, s t solving problems of ' against daily load changes or change in network steady state stability and voltage stability in long topologies. The first generation of FACTs devices transmission lines. By flexibly and quickly adjusting the emerged some thirty years ago in the form of passive reactance of the TCSC, many relevant benefits can be reactive elements driven by thyristor switch banks. The achieved such as the better utilization of transmission second generation FACTs can achieve the same, and in capability, efficient power flow control, transient stability some cases better, results with much smaller reactive improvement, power oscillation damping, control over sub elements by using power electronics with tur off synchronous resonance (SSR), and fault current limitation, capability. Because of their fast response FACTs can also II. FACTS CONTROLLERS IN POWER SYSTEM improve the stability of an electrical power system by helping critically disturbed generators to give away the excess ergy gined thrughthe tion during A large number of papers and reports have been published excess energy gained through the acceleration during IIiici- Rnl-c],%%7 4nfiii nnA Xnrm [1], Qncr fut on theses subjects. Books by Mathur and Varma rlI Song and Johns [2], and Hingorani and Gyugyi [3] cover the basic idea about the FACTs devices. A detailed explanation has III. TCSC CONTROLLER IN POWER SYSTEMS been given for all the FACTs devices. Edris [5] gives the

I. INTRODUCTION Power system engineers are currently facing challenges to increase the power transfer capabilities of existing transmission system. FACTs controllers can balance the power flow and thereby using the existing power system network most efficiently. Because of their fast response FACTs controllers can also improve the stability of an . electrical power system by helping critically.. , disturbed generators to give away the excess energy gained through the acceleration during fault. TCSC is an important device in

FACTs technology opens up new opportunities for CTr ol og the up new fpo o resent, controlling and enhancing the useable capacity of present, as well as new upgraded lines. The possibility that current through a line can be controlled at a reasonable cost enables a large potential of increasing the capacity of existing lines with longer conductors and use one of the FACTs controller to enable corresponding power to flow through such lines under normal and contingency ctions. Thes oppo unier through tility

problem.aTCSCais

.andeeconomicaltmeanstof

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1-4244-0726-5/06/$20.OO '2006 IEEE

182

artificial neural functions are discussed. field excitation and series power flow controller to enhance the transient stability of a single machine infinite Juncheng et al.ral system in a wide range.eeee Zhou and Liange [15]eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeewitheeeeeeMATLAB/SIMULINKeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeenvironmenteeeeeeewthMand/SMUIthevioneeffecteefec havedscssddiscussedhem theCS controlth schemee for TCSC to enhanceoftheeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeTCSCeeeeeeparametereeeeeeeeeevariationseeeeeeofthoveraamtetheiaio the systemesyte 183 . which can a fundamental frequency stability model for TCSC. Rosso [12] examines the use of TCSC for stability improvement of power systems.Dai et at. Patel et al. [19] have analyzed the detailed dynamics of Xu [11] explains the steady state characteristics of the the TCSC. [23] have analyzed TCSC for the transient stability improvement. transient stability of power system. system. The simulations are performed using the to that of the TCR. Gjerde et appropriate TCSC model for angle stability studies is used to al. Han et al. connected to infinite bus through TCSC transmission line. Jiang and Lei [13] have used a nonlinear control scheme for the TCSC to damp power oscillations and improve Paserba et al. The result indicates that TCSC could be used to redispatch the power simplified model of the Argentinean high voltage interconnected system is used to illustrate the concept flow on the tie lines and prevent synchronization problems after major disturbances in the South Norwegian presented in this paper. [8] propose an improved. [24] has designed a TCSC that can accurately simulate the nonlinear performance of controller for SMIB as well as a multi-machine power at thewrsytm impacteeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeofeeeeeeTCSCeeeeeeeeeoneeeeeepowereeeeeeeeeeesystemeeeeeeeeeeeeestabilityeeeeeeeeeeeeee system. [16] have presented network (ANN) inversion control strategy. where a power plant is stability. [22] have presented a model for TCSC. [10] have presented a coordinated control scheme for Padiyar and Uma [18] have given a detailed analysis and excitation systems and TCSC controls for improving the study of a discrete control strategy for TCSC to improve stability of a transmission system. A Norwegian power system has been discussed. TCPST and TCSC. both goals of indirectly time domain simulations are performed. The proposed control scheme is developed upon determining the switching instants. Li et al. It is characteristics of the TCSC are presented using the shown that the key point to select the reactance of the TCR analytical equation for three operating modes of the is to determine the ratio of the reactance of series capacitor TCSC. The energy function is used in lines. fault location and network structure. The design of the resulting controller is model can give advice to the design of TCSC controller. The TCSC modeling and power system simulation are performed using the program system NETOMAC. The effectiveness and which is applicable for typical transient and oscillatory robustness of the proposed linear nonlinear control scheme stability studies.Zreasonably1] evaluated. By directly controlling active power through TCSC. The aim of this paper is to design a proper TCSC enhancing system stability in the main grid of Southern controller based on small signal and transient stability Norway. controller for transient stability of the power system. General aspect of application of FACTs in the analysis so that transfer capability limits can be increased. [14] have proposed a method requirements. [20] examine factor (ISF) of the TCSC is presented and it is proved that improvement of power system dynamics by use of UPFC. Simulation results are Rules of controller parameter adjustment are discussed and presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed the model is verified by digital simulation results. The linearize the controlled TCSC system into a first order paper first analyses the factors that influence the transients of TCSC when the operation condition changes and the integ. The system considered is single machine TCSC in time domain and frequency domain.machine system. The Detailed simulation studies were carried out canbemoebeaonbmorelatd. Lei et al. the controllable impedance range of TCSC and its thyristor Transient characteristics as well as steady state controlled reactance (TCR) constraints are studied. The bus power system. Based on this. SMIB is considered to illustrate the development connected with a proper grid through long transmission of control strategy. The paper also describes comparison with a conventional control scheme. main grid. The achieved control laws are shown ISF is the main factor determining the controllable to be effective both for damping of large signal and small impedance range of TCSC. significant the mathematical modeling and high current test series for improvements of dynamical performance in the test power the application of TCSC controller under severe system are achieved by the proposed nonlinear control strategy for the TCSC. The concept of impedance sensitivity MATLAB program. [9] present a mathematical model to explain the factors affecting transient response of the TCSC. In McDonald et al. carried by the NETOMAC program system. [21] have discussed the application of FACTs for design a simple controller based on the dynamic response of the system. Noroozian et al. The simulation is philosophy is later extended to multi .term stability analysis. The control nonlinear optimal variable aim strategies. An signal disturbances and are robust with respect to loading condition. independent of the operating point. Tan and Wang controlling remote generator's power angle and enhancing [17] have proposed a robust nonlinear thyristor controlled the system's transient stability are simultaneously reached. This paper also includes a discussion on are demonstrated with a single machine infinite bus power relevant information to extend the modeling detail of the TCSC for use with long . Xiaolu et at.

Furthermore shunt capacitors typically must be connected at the midpoint. where as in TCSC because of the voltage and current in the FC and thyristor controlled reactor (TCR) are not sinusoidal because of thyristor switching.a resonance CC 1/ CL = impedance. This fixed series capacitor is provided primarily to minimize costs. as shown in figure different TCSC modules may have different values to provide a wider range of reactance control. The capacitors C1. L. Basic module of TCSC Controller The basic module has a fixed series capacitor C. discussed in further section.(1 / cL) > 0 or cL > (1 / cC). These are discussed in detail in this section. the conduction losses are minimized by installing an ultra high-speed contact (UHSC) across the valve. this develops is an unacceptable condition.5L1 C lL 7 L 0. inductorc 184 . ++ CF C1 + C2 0.5L2 0. 2. reactance. l(a).. L2 Fig. in parallel with a thyristor-controlled reactor. The equivalent impedance Zeq of this LC combination can be expressed as: A metal oxide varistor (MOV) is connected across series capacitor to prevent the occurrence of high capacitor over voltages as shown in figure l(b).. For achieving same system benefits as those of series capacitors.5Ln + Cn ( 0. C11. There are three different modes of TCSC operation. Introduction Series capacitors offer certain major advantages over the shunt capacitors. c LIT > Ti .. A simple understanding of TCSC functioning can be obtained by analyzing the behavior of a variable inductor connected in series with a fixed capacitor. whereas no such requirement exists for series capacitors. the reactive power is proportional to the square of bus voltage. TCSC basic module. The difference is that the LC combination analysis is based on pure sinusoidal voltage and current in the circuit.A. C Ls~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Fig. the reactive power increases as the square of line current. 1(b). 0 5Ln I(a). The metallic contact is closed shortly after the thyristor is turned on. D. CF. Figure 2 shows the conceptual TCSC system with basic TCSC modules. Zeq co( II) (IwL) =-J ct)wC- 1 WL (1) 4Ld MOV _ + -C( UHSC T If cC . together with a fixed series capacitor. line LI(- ~ Operation ofTCSC Controller A TCSC is a series controlled capacitive reactance that can provide continuous control of power on the AC line over a wide range. then the combination provides inductance above the value of fixed inductor. If TCSC valves are required to operate in fully on mode for prolonged duration.. 3. The behavior of TCSC is similar to that of the LC parallel combination.. and also during fault conditions. This situation corresponds to the inductive vernier mode of the TCSC operation. shunt capacitors required are three to six times more reactive power rated than series capacitors. During a sudden overload of the valve. 5L 0. and is opened shortly before the valve is turned off. the metallic contact is closed to minimize the stress on the valve. whereas with shunt capacitors. as shown in figure 3. A variable inductor connected in shunt with a fixed capacitor. An actual TCSC system usually comprises a cascaded combination of many such TCSC modules. This offers a loss less switching operation similar to that of circuit breakers. Modes ofTCSC Operation TCSC can operate in different modes because of the various operations of thyristor valves. CB T2 Fig. The inductor in series with the anti-parallel thyristor is split into two parts to protect the thyristor valves in case of inductor short circuit. C2. B. If coC . in Fig. MOV allows the capacitor to remain in circuit even during fault conditions and hence improestrnsien stblt. TCS . capacitivethat results inIfinfinite-capacitive 0. The detail of TCSC working is discussed in further sections. the reactance of the FC is less than that of the parallel connected variable reactor and this combination provides a variable . Conceptual TCSC system.?ctical module TCSC Fig 1X *i*al mod*lr A circuit breaker *() is installed across capacitor for (CB) controlling the insertion of capacitor. With series capacitors.(1 / coL) < 0.

By solving above equations the steady state thyristor current iTcan be given as c 0( .cos ct stchyin insta. The TCSC module behaves like a parallel capacitor inductor combination. u = 0.a) Here firing angle a . = _ T advance before the forward voltage becomes zero.8 or C = 2(7T. < 3max . is(t). l vc(t) I I Mathematical analysis of TCSC cT (t) Where C Cos < < -.8) = (8) dv( C = iS (t) iT (t). is given as: C Transmission line current is assumed to be the v1= VC x At cot = k -1 (sin. and the net TCSC reactance is capacitive. thereby resulting loop current flow in the TCSC controller.a. and capacitor voltage is Where u is the switching variable. This is achieved by varying the thyristor-pair firing angle in an appropriate range.e. If the thyristors are conducting and a blocking command is given. in this mode the firing pulses to the thyristor valves are blocked. i. (5) C = 2. E. is defined as the period from firing instant to the time when the forward voltage of the thyristor is lost. Hence this behaves as fixed series capacitor.8 tan k. effectively enhancing the equivalent capacitive reactance and series compensation level for the same value of the line current. 0 < . in which the thyristors are fixed when the capacitor voltage and capacitor current have opposite polarity. When thyristor valves are conducting or when switch S is closed. When thyristors are blocked or when switch S is open. (1 (10) + ImXc (sin cot . resulting in continuous sinusoidal flow of current through the thyristor valves./3 is given as The steady state capacitor voltage at the instant independent input variable and is represented as variable current source. Where /3 is the angle of Simplified TCSC circuit is shown in figure 4. The thyristor switch S turns off at the instants 2 and 4defined as C C t2 = tI + co t4 = t3 + co Where is the conduction angle. which is same for . For balanced TcS operatine thyrist atinstants t andonI3.6 k -2 CsCOSO Coskp (6) |L is(t) Fig. is defined as the period from the zero cross point of capacitor voltage v to the firing instant of the corresponding thyristor and Angle of advance 83. Here for the analysis the line current is assumed to be sinusoidal.k cos. .1) Bypassed thyristor mode: In this mode. A variant of this mode is capacitive vernier control mode. A = nT.. 2) Blocked thyristor mode: This mode is also known as waiting mode. the thyristors are made to conduct fully with a conduction angle of 180°. is (t) = I.The firing angle a is generated using a reference signal that can be in phase with the capacitor voltage. This condition causes a TCR current opposite to capacitive current. in this mode the direction of circulating current is reversed and the controller behaves as inductive impedance. positive and negative cycle of conduction. iT (t) is thyristor valve current and is given as: -/3 . Simplified TCSC circuit.6.sin/). iT = 0. t. C. VC (t) = VC2 The equivalent TCSC reactance is the ratio of VCF to I and Ct c 185 .given as ar stched t current 3 (4) Above equations can be solved by the knowledge of . 3) Partially conducting thyristor or vernier mode: This mode allows the TCSC to behave either as a continuously controllable capacitive reactance or as a continuously controllable inductive reactance. Vc (t) =k21 . The loop current increases the voltage across the FC. FC =- /3 co . the thyristors turn off as soon as the current through them reaches a zero crossing.sin cot + k Cos sin wrtJ.u (2) (9) The final expression for the capacitor voltage is given as = (t) /. 4. The current through the capacitor..8 . u = 1 . Another variant is the inductive vernier mode. Gate pulses are applied as soon as the voltage across the thyristor reaches zero and becomes positive. = &1 k I c r= (7) Cot =-. for the analysis.

The phase lead compensator is used for the phase lag between the angular speed and the resulting electrical torque. The effective line reactance can be given asXTL = XLine-XCF-XTCSC(u). The resonant region is avoided by installing limits on the firing angle.5 -'' ''80. XTCSC VS a for different values of k for Xc 0. Hence provides flexibility for compensation.. 5.iiig iiigle alpiua 130 140 150 160 170 180 F.) (k 2 _1) Xc=0. At the resonant point.22 XciXp = 0. T2 and gain K with some designing technique.XTCSC) or it may be divided in two components i.08 3- 0Xc .0 -0.25 Fii2aiiiIg gle alpha (deeg) 170 1 1180 Fig. 8.e.35 Xc = 0. G.5 22 4X2 cos2 13 (ktank/3-tan 13) 7T (X(--X. especially when land prices and environmental concerns become important.TCSC XV'CF - im V(XC -XP) (12) C 6 4- {X ---xXp=0. deviation in conduction angle Au ).ne iS the line reactance. An optimally placed FACTs device requires a lower rating to achieve the same control objective than if it were located elsewhere.5 X 04 . Change in conduction angle c changes initial compensation. The signal wash out block is a high pass filter that prevents the steady changes in the speed by modifying the conduction angle. _cX c 1. 6. fixed capacitorXCFwith TCSC controller Fig. co I s Fi. It comprises of gain block.XL. X oXp =0. Placement ofthe TCSC Controller The placement of FACTs controllers at appropriate location is a critical issue. Where G = ± AG. signal washout block and phase compensator block.25 0.25 c The variation of per unit TCSC reactance as a function of firing angle a for different values of Xc/Xp is described in figure5. An optimum controller can be obtained by suitable selection of time constants T.22. 2.e. The gain of TCSC controller is chosen such that it provides satisfactory damping.Capacitive Zoine 100 110 Firinig aiigle alpha 130 140 150 1 60 170 180 Fig.e. Go initial value of conduction angle. Transfer function model of TCSC controller. 90 1L -1 -2120 i:. If value of Xc is changed then the maximum value of XTCSC also changes and hence initial value of compensation can be changed. (i. -2 Capacitive Zoine 120 130 140 150 160 1 14131 90 100 110 r ~~~~~~~~~Xc'Xp= 0. the FACTs controllers may be need to be placed at nonoptimal locations to minimize costs.08 .08. TCSC is mainly used in capacitive zone. XTCSC VS oc for different values of k for Xc 0. (XTCSC). 90 100 110 120 Fig.22 | lrlictiveZone -. It is clear from figures 5 and 6 that change in Xc affects XTCSC variation significantly. The compensation may be provided only through TCSC controller (i. TCSC controller input signal is speed deviation Aw and output signal is the stabilizing signal.35 X_ 1--p-1=0.. At times. The value of washout time constant Tw should be high enough to allow signals associated with rotor oscillation to pass unchanged. Tw may be in the range of 120 sec.- { _ Capacitive Zoie | r~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~0- -1-L. The following conditions generally apply when land 186 . Figure 7 shows XTCSC variation for different value of Xc for constant k. XTCSC VS oc for different values of Xc for k = 2. the TCSC exhibits very large impedance and results in a significant voltage drop. T1. X41 It is to be noted that a parallel resonance is created between Xp and Xc at the fundamental frequency. so that the TCSC controller produces a component of electrical torque in phase with the rotor speed deviation.5- e Iidtictive Zone 2 1_ iIndictive Zonie ol-@* -. Transferfunction model of TCSC controller Figure 8 shows transfer function model of TCSC controller. 7.

G. Funamental r VCF [9] G. Vol. No. IEEE proceedings of * The control action of the TCSC controllers in one transmission transmission path should not cause undue power patsoulntautransmission and distribution. Flolo. Vol. Gujerde. Analysis". which can be used for dynamic compensation as in case of transient instability. The transferfunction model can The transfer function model The TCSC controller mathematical model and transfer can [19] and Energy Systems 1997.[13] D. R. 7: No. P. variation. J. Sometimes it may be advisable to distribute the control [17] Y. No. W.53. Transactions Delivery. 1997. Paserba. If it does. Jun. Y. 8th "Improving Power System Dynamics by Series Connected FACTS Mediterranean Electotechnical Conferencel996. Varma. Vol. pp. Larsen. Ding. TCSC characteristic is explained mathematically hence it can be implemented in MATLAB OR SIMULINK and further can be extended for different applications. Jiang. Vol. Juncheng. "Overview of control Schemes for TCSC to Enhance the Stability of Power System". Canizares.org/html/fpd/em/transmission/facts_siemen Maximum current. Angquist. 5765th placement of TCSC controllers: 581 * The TCSC controllers should be located in lines [14] B. C = Capacitor. Proceedings of The 4th Conference on APSCOM 97. Damsky. 4. Zhou. 352 . 22. pp. Zhang. No. Lei. 2. Y. H. [23] D. "The Development of FACTS and Its Control". March 2000. Song. G. "FACTS Technology Development: An Update". Oct. X.11. Q. Rosso. X.pp. Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS). Electrical action between multiple TCSC controllers rather than Power and Energy Systems. [2] Y. 1471 . Zhou.358. IEEE1744 . Waterloo. 15 . Park. J. Vasundhara Mahajan. X =Line [12] A. C = Fixed series capacitor. International conference on POWERCON 1998. No. pp. then variable [16] L. Johns. J. Nov. The aDove analys1s ana results snows that TCSC has very wide range of reactance. Understanding FACTS. V. 1498 . 2001. Series Compensator Dynamics Using the State Variable Approach on Power [20] M. Power Engineering Society General Meeting 2003. L = Thyristor controlled S T c Controller Based on Local Measurement". The System Stability Enhancement". IEE. controllers must be within acceptable limits. 1997. 10. IEEE Transaction on Power Delivery. J. Q. K.2559. [24] Ramnarayan Patel. "A Thyristor [2]J. Powercon 2002. Thyristor Based FACTS Controllers for Electrical Transmission Systems. 4. McDonald. "A Nonlinear Control for Coordinating TCSC Inductive reactance of inductor connected in capacitor only. Controlled Series Compensation Model for Power System Stability [5] A. Vol.pdfMxmmcretISt =Vaibecretsuc. Zhang. pp. L. NAPS -2000. controller. 2002. Edris. [10] X. Hong Kong.For Cost Effective And Reliable Transmission of Electrical 1994. 16 May Miller. 1999. "Discrete Control of Series Compensation controller. frequency component of voltage. pp. pp. Yangzan. 1. Lee. Vol. 1997. MELCON'96. 6. Model". IEEE Power Engineering constant. H. 48 .19 July 2001. ( VVF = dv AS5= 187 . 311 . * The swing of voltage on each side of the TCSC 2000. Gyugyi. No.. pp. Zhang.374. "Modeling And Testing of a Thyristor Controlled Series Compensation (TCSC)".V. V. K = TCSC controller gain. [6] B. Han. H. 2555 . 17 Article 6. "An Improved ANN Inversion TCSC Thyristor current k= Compensation ratio.com/ijeeps/vol7/isslL/art6. (0 Initial firing angle of thyristor. 939 943. Li.109. Liu. 0. Vol. [7] "FACTS . 3. and Vinay Pant (2006) Modelling of TCSC Controller for Transient Stability Enhancement. March 1999. Vol. Oct 2000. Xianzhong. pp. R. W. R. A John Wile and Sons Pubs. K. Kong. T. Hongfa. Lu. E. for Stability Improvement in Power Systems". Tw = wash out block time [11] Z. Electrical Power and Energy Systems. Transaction [21] J. n p = Angle of advance." International Journal of Emerging Electric Power Systems: Vol. B. Available at: http://www. Turner. No. pp.Grow Hill Inc. F. [3] N. M. 4. D. J.1750. swings in a parallel path. 333 337. pp. XT (t) s. G. NOMENCLATURE Firing angle of thyristor. 2. "Fundamental Frequency Model of Thyristor Controlled Series series compensation may become necessary in the Capacitor for Transient Stability Studies". Vol. lne above analysis and results shows thyristor firingangl. L. pp. IEEE1635 . 13. Kundur. Jan. V. Electrical Power and Energy Systems. R. G. Wang. K. REFERENCES Mohan Mathur. T. "Mathematical Model for Describing Characteristics of TCSC". X. 4 . X. 125 . 1. pp. Wang. 19. "Robust Nonlinear Design for Transient Stabilization using Series Power Flow Compensator".43 -49. D. "Use of HVDC and FACTS components for Enhancement of power system stability". pp. Hong Proceedings 2000. [4] P.. D. 103 . 18 21 Aug 1998. Liang. 367 . Dai. Wu. "Stability Reactance. H. IEEE Power Engineering Review. Lei. 19. Power System Stability and Control. L. Urbanek. 12. 802 808. H. Rotor angle Society Summer Meeting. Gjendal. parallel with fixed capacitor. devices". Improvement Using TCSC in Radial Power Systems". 2001. July 1995. C. Jiang. I F 'n Energy".17 July 2003. System Stability". T2 =lag/lead block time constants. X. Zhonghong. 5. Xo Nominal reactance of the fixed C 3. J. "Analysis of Thyristor Controlled of a periodic System Oct. Xu. H. Xiaolu.1478. "A Nonlinear TCSC Control Strategy for Power prices and environmental concerns become important. B. IEEE. H.1502."The Controllable Impedance Range of TCSC and Its TCR Reactance Constraints".I(t [8] X. 9. is () =Variable current source. Quintana. The modeling can be done for single machine infinite bus system as well as for multi-machine systems. Y. Povh. cm = Initial conduction angle. R. 0t) =Rotor Speed. 1996. 1997. G. "Modeling of TCSC Dynamics for Control and Analysis of Power that experience limiting power oscillations. U.bepress. 13 N. Vol. Dona. [15] X.17 Oct 2002. 13 . T. The compensation can be decided by changing the value of thyristor firing angle. on Power Delivery. 12. Vol.worldbank. Luyuan. Padiyar. T. CONCLUSION CONCLUSION be used in power system stability improvement. C = Conduction angle of thyristor. [1] function*model iS function model is obtained. Gandhari. pp. confining the control action to one large rating TCSC [18] K.130. tan. D. Andersson. Li. A.319. X and Generator Excitation to Enhance the Transient Stability of Long Transmission Systems". No. A. pp. 146. Vol. IEEE Transaction on Power Delivery. Noroozian. Oct of The following conditions generally apply when considering the conditons generally apply when considering the Conference on APSCOM 2000.www. Electrical Power - V. Piwko. 1998. ON. Vol. XTCSC = Reactance provided by TCSC 59.1641. 1994. M. pp. Mc . Vol. Hingorani and L. 2. Aw) Speed deviation. Rao. D.

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