French I 1. Some Basic Phrases 2. Pronunciation 3. Alphabet 4. Nouns, Articles and Demonstratives 5.

Useful Words and General Vocabulary 6. Subject Pronouns 7. To Be and to Have 8. Question Words 9. Numbers / Ordinals 10. Days of the Week 11. Months of the Year 12. Seasons 13. Directions 14. Color and Shapes 15. Weather 16. Time 17. Family and Animals 18. To Know People and Facts 19. Formation of Plural Nouns 20. Possessive Adjectives 21. To Do or Make 22. Work and School 23. Prepositions and Contractions 24. Countries and Nationalities 25. Negative Sentences 26. To / In and From places 27. To Come and to Go 28. Conjugating Regular Verbs 29. Pronominal (Reflexive) Verbs 30. Irregularities in Regular Verbs 31. Past Indefinite Tense 32. Irregular Past Participles 33. Etre Verbs 34. Food and Meals 35. Fruits, Vegetables, Meats 36. To Take, Eat or Drink 37. Quantities 38. Commands 39. More Negatives 40. Holiday Phrases 41. Places 42. Transportation 43. House 44. Furniture 45. Clothing 44. Future Tenses 47. Adjectives 48. Sports and Hobbies 49. Parts of the Body 50. Asking Questions

1. Some Basic Phrases
Bonsoir / Bonne nuit (bohn-swahr/bun nwee) Good evening / Good night (only said when going to

Bonjour (bohnzhoor) Hello / Good day Au revoir! (ohr-vwah) Goodbye! Merci beaucoup (mair-see boh-koo)

S'il vous plaît (seel voo pleh) Please Je vous en prie / de rien (In Canada: Bienvenu) (zhuh voo zawn pree/duh ree-ahn/bee-awn-vuh-

Thank you very much

new) You're welcome. Monsieur, Madame, Mademoiselle (muh-syuh, mah-dahm, mahd-mwah-zell) Mister, Misses, Miss Ça va? (sah vah) How are you? (informal) Ça va bien / mal / pas mal (sah vah bee-ahn/mahl/pah mahl) I'm good / bad / not bad Je suis malade (zhuh swee mah-lahd) I'm sick J'ai soif (zhay swahf) I'm thirsty Comment t'appelles-tu? (koh-mawn tah-pell tew) What's your name? (informal) Mon nom est... (mohn nohm ay) My name is... Tu es d'où? (tew ay doo) Where are you from? (informal) Où habites-tu? (ooh ah-beet tew) Where do you live? (informal) J'habite aux Etats-Unis / au Canada. (zhah-beet oh zay-tahz-ew-nee/ oh kah-nah-dah) I live in the U.S. / Canada. Tu as quel âge? (tew ah kell ahzh) How old are you? (informal)

Oui / non (wee/nohn) Yes / no Comment allez-vous? (koh-mawn tahl-ay voo) How are you? (formal) Je vais bien (zhuh vay bee-ahn) I'm fine Je suis fatigué(e) (zhuh swee fah-tee-gay) I'm tired J'ai faim (zhay fawn) I'm hungry Comment vous appelez-vous? (koh-mawn voo zah-play voo) What's your name? (formal) Je m'appelle... (zhuh mah-pell) I am called... Vous êtes d'où? (voo zet doo) Where are you from? (formal) Où habitez-vous? (ooh ah-bee-tay voo) Where do you live? (formal) Je suis des Etats-Unis / du Canada. (zhuh swee day zay-tahz-ew-nee/dew kah-nahdah) I am from the United States / Canada. Vous avez quel âge? (voo za-vay kell ahzh) How old are you? (formal) J'ai (zhay I am ans. awn) years old.

Parlez-vous français?

Parles-tu anglais?

(par-lay voo frahn-say) Do you speak French? (formal) Italien, Allemand, Espagnol (ee-tahl-ee-ahn, ahll-uh-mawn, es-pahn-yol) Italian, German, Spanish Je parle... (zhuh parl) I speak... Je (ne) comprends (pas) (zhuh nuh com-prawn pah) I (don't) understand Excusez-moi / Pardonnez-moi (eg-scew-zay mwah/par-dohn-ay mwah) Excuse me / Pardon me A tout à l'heure / A bientôt (ah too tah luhr/ah bee-ahn-toh) See you later / See you soon Je t'aime (zhuh tem) I love you (singular)

(parl tew on-glay) Do you speak English? (informal) Russe, Japonais, Chinois (rooss, zhah-po-neh, shee-nwah) Russian, Japanese, Chinese Je ne parle pas... (zhuh nuh parl pah) I don't speak... Je (ne) sais (pas) (zhuhn say pah) I (don't) know Je regrette / Je suis désolé(e) (zhuh re-gret/zhuh swee day-zoh-lay) I'm sorry Salut (sah-lew) Hi / Bye Je vous aime (zhuh voo zem) I love you! (plural)

2. Pronunciation
French letter(s) a, à, â e, è, ê, ai, ei, ais i, y o o ou oy, oi u u + vowel c (before e, i, y) ç (before a, o, u) c (before a, o, u) g (before e, i, y) ge (before a, o) g (before a, o, u) gn English Sound ah eh ee oh shorter and more open than aw in bought oo wah ew wee s s k zh zh g nyuh

é, et, and final er and ez ay

pahd. The "slurring" that I mentioned is called liaison. as in play. plewd. and soixante in liaisons. Their vowels tend to be shorter as well. The French slur most words together in a sentence. les. it goes down at the end of the sentence. but sometimes it is difficult to hear the difference. plus d(e). not eel ah duh bohn ko-pahn) il y a d(e). quels) before or after a pronoun (vous avez. chez l(e) docteur (pronounced sool bewr-oh. and then say eee. as in hoot. plus. • • • • • • rapid(e)ment. or plew duh) je n(e). pas d(e). dix. The short u does not exist in English though. In general.. and all other times. c(e) que (shtuh. intonation only rises for yes/no questions.note the change of the pronunciation of the j as well) 3. . not soo luh bewr-oh) il a d(e) bons copains (eel ahd bohn ko-pahn. not zhuh tuh or suh kuh . final q r s (between vowels) th x silent zh k rolled z t ekss.. (eel yahd. petits enfants) after one syllable prepositions (en avion. The long e is pronounced openly. slur the two together as if it were one word. ces. 2. des. bien) after est It is optional after pas. if a word ends in C. Sometimes the e is dropped in words and phrases. like z Note: French pronunciation is tricky because it uses nasal sounds which we do not have in English and there are a lot of silent letters. The short e is more closed. not eel ee ah duh. as in bed. shortening the syllables and slurring more words. lent(e)ment. Two sounds that are tricky to an American English speaker are the differences between the long and short u and e. not zhuh nuh or duh nuh) j(e) te. dans un livre) after some one syllable adverbs (très. F or L (except verbs that end in -r) you usually pronounce the final consonant... sauv(e)tage (pronounced ra-peed-mawn. However. More about Pronunciation 1. To pronounce is correctly. 4. It is always made: • • • • • • after a determiner (words like un. . except as s in six. but it is never made after et. like ay. skuh. and pronounced like eh. trop fort. de n(e) (zhuhn. . and the forms of être. round your lips as if to whistle. R. The long u is pronounced oooh. pah duh. The long and short e are relatively easy to pronounce. not ra-peed-uh-mawn) sous l(e) bureau... duhn.h j qu. mon. je les ai) after a preceding adjective (bon ami. so if a word ends in a consonant that is not pronounced and the next word starts with a vowel or silent h.

-sion. om In words beginning with in-. Nouns ending in -ure. and approximate pronunciations. the inprefix is pronounce een before a vowel. Nouns ending in -age and -ment are usually masculine. the nasals. so don't actually pronounce the n fully. Alphabet a b c d e f g h i ah beh seh deh uh eff zheh ahsh ee j k l m n o p q r zhee kah ell em en oh peh koo air s t u v w x y z ess teh ooh veh doo-blah-veh eeks ee-grek zed 4. And articles have to be expressed even though they aren't always in English. Definite Articles (The) Masculine Feminine Before Vowel Plural . Here are the orthographical representations. eim. you must memorize the gender. My Representation ahn awn ohn Pronunciation an apple on the desk my own book Orthographical Representation in. These are what present the most problems for English speakers. im. but there are some endings of words that will help you decide which gender a noun is. Articles and adjectives must agree in number and gender with the nouns they modify. yen. And of course. oing. Demonstratives are like strong definite articles. am. -ance. oint. Otherwise. ien. um. Nasal means that you expel air through your nose while saying the words. -tion. an. en. Nouns. ain. aon. un. aim. -té. and you may have to repeat the article in some cases. aen on. ym. eng. em. as are nouns ending with a consonant. -ence. For the most part. either masculine or feminine. 3. and -ette are usually feminine. oin. Articles and Demonstrative Adjectives All nouns in French have a gender. ein. a nasal is only used if the next letter is a consonant.6. yn. éen en.

ce lit-ci is this bed. Before Vowel cet oiseau this/that bird Fem. 6. comme ça kohm see kohm sah friend (masc) un ami un homme une fille un garçon une femme ewn fawn Note: When il y a is followed by a number. Useful Words and General Vocabulary It's / That's and but now especially except of course so so not bad book pencil pen paper dog cat c'est et mais maintenant surtout sauf bien sûr pas mal le livre le crayon le stylo le papier le chien le chat say vwah-lah ay may mahnt-nawn sir-too sohf bee-ahn sir pah mal leevr krah-yohn stee-loh pah-pyaya shee-ahn shah There is/are il y a Here is/are always often sometimes usually also. Those) Masc. For example. and -là to the end of the noun for that and those. while ce lit-là is that bed. cette pomme this/that apple Plural ces gants these/those gloves If you need to distinguish between this or that and these or those.le lit the bed la pomme the apple l'oiseau the bird les gants the gloves Indefinite Articles (A. it means ago. These. That. Subject Pronouns Subject Pronouns . 5. An. Some) Masculine un lit a bed Feminine une pomme an apple Plural des gants some gloves Demonstrative Adjectives (This. Il y a cinq minutes means five minutes ago. you can add -ci to the end of the noun for this and these. too again late almost friend (fem) woman man girl boy voici toujours souvent d'habitude aussi encore en retard presque une amie eel-ee-yah vwah-see too-zhoor soo-vawn dah-bee-tewd oh-see awn-kore awn-ruh-tar presk ew nah-mee ah-nah-mee ah-nohm feey gar-sohn There is/are voilà quelquefois kell-kuh-fwah comme ci. ce lit this/that bed Masc.

to be I was (being) j'étais zhay-teh ay-teh We were (being) You were (being) nous étions ay-tee-ohn vous étiez ay-tee-ay You were (being) tu étais He was (being) il était ay-teh She was (being) elle était ay-teh One was (being) on était ay-teh They were (being) ils étaient ay-teh They were (being) elles étaient ay-teh Note: Je and any verb form that starts with a vowel (or silent h) combine together for ease of pronunciation. Tu is used when speaking to children. but I will leave them out of future conjugations. animals. To Be and To Have Present tense of être . Vous is used when speaking to more than one person. or close friends and have (ah-vwahr) I have You have j'ai zhay We have as ah You have avons ah-vohn avez ah-vay . or to someone you don't know or who is older. Present tense of avoir .) Elles ell They ( be I will be je serai suh-reh We will be You will be nous serons suh-rohn vous seriez suh-ree-ay You will be tu seras suh-rah He will be il sera suh-rah She will be elle sera suh-rah One will be on sera suh-rah They will be ils seront suh-rohn They will be elles seront suh-rohn Note: You must use the subject pronouns. Ils and elles can replace plural nouns as well in the same way. or you. On can be translated into English as one. and elle replaces feminine nouns) instead of a person's name. Future Tense of être .) eel He ell She ohn One Note: Il and elle can also mean it when they replace a noun (il replaces masculine nouns. we. 7. they.Je Tu Il Elle On zhuh I tew Nous noo We You (informal) Vous voo You (formal and plural) Ils eel They (masc. Notice there are two ways to say be (eh-truh) I am Je suis zhuh swee We are tew ay You are Nous sommes noo sohm Vous êtes voo zett eel sohn ell sohn You are Tu es He is She is One is Il est eel ay Elle est ell ay On est ohn ay They are Ils sont They are Elles sont Past tense of être . the people.

They will be (in the act of) studying. Nous sommes have I had You had j'avais zhah-veh avais ah-veh ah-veh We had You had avions ah-vee-ohn aviez ah-vee-ay He/she had avait They had avaient ah-veh Future tense of avoir .to be lucky J'ai be in the act of être enrhumée . Il aura sommeil ce soir. Vous étiez enrhumé. I'm cold. You were need avoir l'air de .to be late être en avance .to be ashamed avoir besoin de .to look like. They were afraid yesterday. They are hot. être de retour .to be hungry avoir soif . It is be thirsty avoir sommeil . Elle a de la chance! She's lucky! Nous aurons faim plus tard. Vouz aviez be in agreement être sur le point de . We will be hungry have I will have You will have j'aurai zhoh-reh auras oh-rah oh-rah We will have You will have aurons oh-rohn aurez oh-ray He/she will have aura They will have auront oh-rohn Avoir and être are used in many common and idiomatic expressions that should be memorized: avoir chaud . Elles étaient sur le point de partir. On est de feel like avoir de la chance . You had a cold. He will be tired be afraid avoir raison . be early être d'accord .to be wrong avoir faim .to be (a day) Je suis en retard! I'm late! Tu étais en avance.He/she has a ah They have ont ohn Past tense of avoir .to be right avoir tort . We/you/they/the people are back. Elle sera d'accord. She will be back être en retard . Ils ont chaud. Ils seront en train d'étudier. You were right. Question Words Who What Why When Where How How much / many Which / what Qui Quoi Pourquoi Quand Où Comment Combien Quel(le) kee kwah poor-kwah kawn ooh kohn-mawn kohn-bee-ahn kehl .to be hot avoir froid . You were be about to être en train de .to have a cold nous + être (un jour) . Tu avais raison. Elles avaient peur be cold avoir peur . seem avoir envie de .to be sleepy avoir honte . They were about to leave.

Numbers / Les numéros Zero One Two Three Four Five Six Seven Eight Nine Ten Eleven Twelve Thirteen Fourteen Fifteen Sixteen Seventeen Eighteen Nineteen Twenty Twenty-one Twenty-two Twenty-three Thirty Thirty-one Thirty-two Forty Fifty Sixty Seventy Seventy-one Seventy-two Eighty Eighty-one Eighty-two Ninety Zéro Un Deux Trois Quatre Cinq Six Sept Huit Neuf Dix Onze Douze Treize Quatorze Quinze Seize Dix-sept Dix-huit Dix-neuf Vingt Vingt et un Vingt-deux Vingt-trois Trente Trente et un Trente-deux Quarante Cinquante Soixante Soixante-diz Soixante et onze Soixante-douze Quatre-vingts Quatre-vingt-un Quatre-vingt-dix zay-roh ahn duh twah kat sahn seess set weet nuhf deess ohnz dooz trehz kah-tohrz kanz sez dee-set deez-weet deez-nuhf vahn vahn tay ahn vahn duh vahn twah trawnt trawnt ay uhn trawnt duh kuh-rawnt sank-awnt swah-ssawnt swah-ssawnt deez seh-tahnt swah-ssawnt ay ohnz swah-ssawnt dooz ka-truh vahn weet-ahnt ka-truh vahn tahn ka-truh vahn deez noh-nahnt (Belgium & Switzerland) Septante (Belgium & Switzerland) Huitante Quatre-vingt-deux ka-truh vahn duh (Belgium & Switzerland) Nonante .9.

And an f becomes a v before the -ième. 1. Ordinal Numbers first second third fourth fifth sixth seventh eighth ninth tenth eleventh twelfth twentieth thirtieth premier. 8. But if a number ends in an e. Belgian and Swiss French use septante.00 in English. Days of the Week / Les jours de la semaine Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday lundi mardi mercredi jeudi vendredi lahn-dee mahr-dee mare-kruh-dee zhuh-dee vahn-druh-dee . 80.Ninety-one Ninety-two One Hundred Two Hundred Thousand Two Thousand Million Quatre-vingt-onze Cent Deux cents Mille Deux mille Un million ka-truh vahn ohnz sawnt sawnt ahn duh sawnt duh sawnt ahn meel duh meel ahn meel-ee-ohn Quatre-vingt-douze ka-truh vahn dooz One Hundred One Cent un Two Hundred One Deux cent un Note: French switches the use of commas and periods. and 10 are used before a word beginning with a consonant.00 would be 1. première deuxième troisième quatrième cinquième sixième septième huitième neuvième dixième onzième douzième vingtième trentième twenty-first vingt et unième Note: The majority of numbers become ordinals by adding -ième. huitante and nonante in place of the standard French words for 70. their final consonants are not pronounced. Also. you must add a u before the -ième. 6. 10. and 90. when the numbers 5. After a q. you must drop it before adding the -ième.

Directions / Les directions . 12. as in "le lundi") 11. Also note that days of the weeks and months of the year are all masculine and not capitalized in French. such as "in May. the ordinal numbers are not used." With dates. such as "on Monday. except for the first of the month: le premier mai but le deux juin. Months of the Year / Les mois de l'année January February March April May June July August September October November December Month Year janvier février mars avril mai juin juillet août septembre octobre novembre décembre le mois zhan-vee-ay fay-vree-ay marz ah-vril may-ee zhwahn zhwee-ay oot sep-tawm-bruh ahk-toh-bruh noh-vawm-bruh day-sawm-bruh luh mwah l'an / l'année lawn/law-nay Note: To express in a certain month.Saturday Sunday day week today yesterday tomorrow samedi dimanche le jour la semaine aujourd'hui hier demain sahm-dee dee-mahnsh luh zhoor lah suh-men oh-zhoor-dwee ee-air duh-mahn Note: Articles are not used before days. except to express something that happens habitually on a certain day. Seasons / Les saisons Summer l'été Fall Winter Spring l'automne l'hiver lay-tay loh-tohn lee-vair in the summer en été in the fall in the winter en automne en hiver awn ay-tay aw noh-tohn aw nee-vair le printemps luh prahn-tawn in the spring au printemps oh prahn-tawn 13." use en before the month as in "en mai." (you would use le before the day.

15. Colors and Shapes / Les couleurs et les formes Red rouge roozh oh-rahnzh zhohn vehr/t bluh poo-pruh vee-oh-leh/lett square circle triangle le carré le cercle le triangle kah-ray sair-kluh tree-awn-gluh Orange orange Yellow jaune Green Blue Purple White Brown Black Pink Gold Silver Gray vert/e bleu/e pourpre violet/te rectangle le rectangle ruhk-tawn-gluh oval cube sphere cylinder cone octagon box l'ovale le cube la sphère le cylindre le cône l'octogone une boîte loh-vahl kewb sfair see-lahn-druh kohn ok-toh-gohn bwaht blanc/he blawn/sh brun/e marron noir/e rose doré/e brahn/brewn mah-rohn nwahr roze doh-ray argenté/e ahr-zhawn-tay gris/e gree/z Note: In French. bad cool cold warm. verte is the feminine form. Almost all adjectives agree in gender and number with the noun they modify (except marron and orange. Un carré brun would be a brown square and une boîte noire would be a black box. nouns and adjectives have a gender. Ex: vert/e = vert is the masculine form of green. hot cloudy beautiful mild stormy Il fait bon. Il fait mauvais Il fait frais Il fait froid Il fait chaud Il fait nuageux Il fait beau Il fait doux Il fait orageux eel fay bohn moh-vay fray fwah shoh noo-ah-zhuh boh dooh oh-rah-zhuh . Weather / Le temps What's the weather like? Quel temps fait-il? kell tawn fay-teel It's nice.North le nord luh nor South le sud luh sewd East l'est lest West l'ouest lwest 14. as well as colors that are modified with the words clair-light and foncé-dark) and most are placed after the noun.

In Canada.) 17.sunny windy foggy snowing raining freezing Il fait (du) soleil Il fait du vent Il neige Il pleut Il gèle eel fay (dew) so-lay vawn eel nezh pluh zhell Il fait du brouillar d broo-ee-yar Note: The du in "il fait (du) soleil" is optional. Family and Animals / La famille et les animaux Family Relatives Grand-parents Parents Mom Stepmother/Mother-in-Law Dad la famille des parents les grands-parents les parents la mère. pa-pa . du is often not said. ma-ma bell-mehr pehr. Time / Le temps What time is it? It is.. une heure deux heures midi minuit une heure précise quatre heures précises midi (minuit) et demi six heures et demie cinq heures vingt onze heures moins dix du matin du soir kell urr ay-teel eel ay oon urr duh zurr mee-dee meen-wee twa zurr ay car oon urr pray-sees ka-truh urr pray-sees meee-dee (meen-wee) ay duh-mee see zurr ay duh-mee sank urr vahn ohnz urr mwan dees doo mah-tahn duh lah-pray mih-dee doo swahr a quarter after three trois heures et quart sept heures moins le quart set urr mwahn luh car in the afternoon/PM de l'après-midi Note: Official French time is expressed as military time (24 hour clock. maman la belle-mère le père.. papa fah-mee pahr-awn grawn-pahr-awn pahr-awn mehr.. but in France it is common. one o'clock two o'clock Noon Midnight one o'clock sharp four o'clock sharp twelve thirty six thirty a quarter to seven five twenty ten fifty in the morning/AM in the evening/PM Quelle heure est-il? Il est.. 16.

Stepfather/Father-in-Law Daughter Son Sister Half/Step Sister Sister-inLaw Brother Half/Step Brother Brother-in-Law Stepson/Son-in-Law Twins (m) Twins (f) Uncle Aunt Grandmother Grandfather Cousin (f) Cousin (m) Wife Husband Woman Man Girl Boy Niece Nephew Grandchildren Granddaughter Grandson Distant Relatives Single Married Separated Divorced Widower / Widow le beau-père la fille le fils la sœur la demi-sœur la belle-sœur le frère le demi-frère le beau-frère le beau-fils les jumeaux les jumelles l'oncle la tante la grand-mère le grand-père la cousine le cousin la femme le mari la femme l'homme la fille le garçon la nièce le neveu les petits-enfants la petite-fille le petit-fils célibataire marié(e) séparé(e) divorcé(e) veuf / veuve boh-pehr fee feess sir duh-mee-sir bell-sir bell-fee frehr duh-mee-frehr boh-frair boh-feess zhoo-moh zhoo-mell ohnk-luh tawnt grawn-mehr grawn-pehr koo-zeen koo-zahn fawn mah-ree fawn ohm fee gar-sohn nee-ess nuh-vuh puh-tee-zawn-fawn puh-teet fee puh-tee feez say-lee-bah-tair mah-ree-ay say-pah-ray dee-vor-say vuhf / vuhv Stepdaughter/Daughter-in-L aw la belle-fille des parents éloignés pahr-awn zay-lwawn-yay Dog Cat Puppy Kitten Pig Rooster le chien / la chienne shee-ahn / shee-enn le chat / la chatte le chiot le chaton le cochon le coq shah / shaht shee-oh shah-tohn koh-shohn kohk .

add an x. I know that your brother is named John. But there are some exceptions: If a noun already ends in an -s. some weird exceptions: un œil (eye) . I know your brother. If a masculine noun ends in -al or -ail.les cieux (skies).Rabbit Cow Horse Duck Goat Goose Sheep Lamb Donkey Mouse le lapin la vache le cheval le canard la chèvre l'oie le mouton l'agneau l'âne la souris lah-pahn vahsh chuh-val kah-nahr shev-ruh lwah moo-tohn lon-yoh lon soo-ree 18. To Know People and Places connaître-to know people (koh-net-truh) connais koh-neh connaissons koh-nezz-ohn connais koh-neh connaissez koh-nezz-ay connaît koh-neh connaissent koh-nezz savoir-to know facts (sahv-wahr) sais sais sait say say say savons savez savent sah-vohn sav-ay sahv Note: Connaître is used when you know people or places. Je sais que ton frère s'appelle Jean. change it to -aux. and un jeune homme (a young man) . 19. nous connaissons Grenoble. Yes. Formation of Plural Nouns To make a noun plural. of course. You know where Grenoble is located. le ciel (sky) . When savoir is followed by an infinitive it means to know how. Connaissez-vous Grenoble? Do you know (Are you familiar with) Grenoble? Oui. Some nouns ending in -ou add an -x instead of -s. Ils savent nager. They know how to swim.des jeunes gens (young men). Je connais ton frère. we know (are familiar with) Grenoble. add nothing. bus boat horse knee Sing. savoir is used when you know facts. Tu sais où Grenoble se trouve.des yeux (eyes). . le bus le bateau le cheval le genou Plural les bus les bateaux les chevaux les genoux There are. If a noun ends in -eu or -eau. you usually add an -s.

to do / study (subject) faire le ménage .to do the dishes faire une promenade .to do the cooking faire la lessive .to run errands faire des achats .to do laundry faire la vaisselle . you must use the masculine form of the pronoun for ease of pay attention faire la queue . make (fair) fais fay faisons fezz-ohn fais fay faites fait fay font fett fohnt Faire is used in expressions of weather (il fait beau) and many other idiomatic expressions: faire de (a sport) . Ma amie is incorrect and must be mon amie. Ton oncle est play (a sport) faire le sourd / l'innocent . Their cousins are Dutch. C'est ma mère et mon père. Possessive Adjectives take a walk faire une voyage . n'est-ce pas? Your uncle is an stand in line . Sa grand-mère est veuve. My Your Our Your Their mon (mohn) ton go shopping faire de l'exercice do the housework faire la cuisine .to exercise faire attention . His grandmother is a widow. but our sister is act deaf / innocent faire le (subject in school) . When a feminine noun begins with a vowel. even though amie is feminine. Ce sont vos petits-enfants? These are your grandchildren? Mes parents sont divorcés. Our brother is married. 21. ta sa votre leur Plural tes ses nos (noh) vos leurs (luhr) ma (mah) mes (may) His/Her/Its son votre leur (luhr) notre (noh-truh) notre Note: Possessive pronouns go before the noun. My parents are take a trip faire les courses . mais notre sœur est célibataire. isn't he? Leurs cousines sont hollandaises. Notre frère est marié. To Do or Make Faire-to do. This is my mother and my father.

Work and School Masculine architect accountant judge business peron baker hair dresser computer programmer secretary electrician mechanic cook salesperson fire fighter plumber librarian police officer reporter factory worker banker lawyer postal worker carpenter engineer doctor nurse pharmacist psychologist dentist veterinarian taxi driver writer teacher l'architecte le comptable le juge l'homme d'affaires le boulanger le coiffeur le programmeur le secrétaire l'électricien le mécanicien le cuisinier le vendeur le pompier le plombier le bibliothécaire l'agent de police le journaliste l'ouvrier le banquier l'avocat le facteur le charpentier l'ingénieur le médecin l'infirmier le pharmacien le psychologue le dentiste le vétérinaire le chauffeur de taxi l'écrivain l'instituteur lar-shee-tekt kohn-tahbl zhoozh lohn dah-fehr boo-lawn-zhay kwah-fur proh-grah-mur suk-ray-tehr ay-lehk-tree-seeahn may-kah-neesyahn kwee-zee-nyay vawn-dur pohn-pyay plohn-byay bee-blee-oh-tehkehr lah-zhawnd pohleess zhoor-nah-leest loov-ree-ay bahn-kee-ay lah-voh-kah fah-tur shar-pawn-tyay lahn-zhay-nyur mayd-sawn lahn-feer-myay fahr-mah-see-ahn psee-koh-lohg dawn-teest vay-tay-ree-nehr shoh-furd tahksee lay-kree-vahn lahn-stee-tew-tur Feminine l'architecte la comptable la juge la femme d'affaires la boulangère la coiffeuse lar-shee-tekt kohn-tabl zhoozh fahn dah-fehr boo-lawn-zhay kwah-fur la programmeuse proh-grah-mur la secrétaire l'électricien la mécanicienne la cuisinière la vendeuse le pompier le plombier la bibliothécaire l'agent de police la journaliste l'ouvrière la banquière l'avocate la factrice le charpentier l'ingénieure la médecine l'infirmière le pharmacienne la psychologue la dentiste la vétérinaire le chauffeur de taxi l'écrivaine l'institutrice suk-ray-tehr ay-lehk-tree-seeahn may-kah-neesyenn kwee-zee-nyay vawn-dur pohn-pyay plohn-byay bee-blee-oh-tehkehr lah-zhawnd pohleess zhoor-nah-leest loov-ree-ay bahn-kee-ay lah-voh-kah fah-tur shar-pawn-tyay lahn-zhay-nyur mayd-sawn lahn-feer-myay fahr-mah-see-ahn psee-koh-lohg dawn-teest vay-tay-ree-nehr shoh-furd tahksee lay-kree-vahn lahn-stee-tew-tur .22.

I am a student (masc.) Je suis professeur. unless they are preceded by an adjective.) Où est-ce que vous faites les études? Where do you study? Je vais à l'université de Michigan. even if the person is a woman. Qu'est-ce que vous faites dans la vie? What do you do for a living? Je suis avocate. Je suis étudiant. Je fais mes études à l'université de Toronto. Qu'est-ce que vous étudiez? What do you study? . There are also words that are always feminine (such as la victime) even if the person is a man. (fem.professor student le professeur l'étudiant proh-fuh-sur lay-tew-dee-awn le professeur l'étudiante proh-fuh-sur lay-tew-dee-awnt Note: Notice that some professions are always masculine. Math Algebra Calculus Geometry Economics les mathématiques l'algèbre le calcul la géométrie maht-ee-mah-teek lal-zheb kahl-kool zhay-oh-may-tree les sciences économiques see-awns ay-kon-oh-meek lawn zay-trawn-zhair lahn-gee-steek lee-tay-rah-tur fee-loh-soh-fee p-see-kol-oh-zhee see-awns poh-lee-teek ees-twahr zhay-oh-grahf-ee fees-eek bee-ol-oh-zhee shee-mee zoh-ol-oh-zhee boh-tah-neek zahr mew-zeek dahns duh-sahn pahn-tur ahn-for-mah-teek teck-no-loh-zhee lay-dew-kah-see-ohn fee-zeek la linguistique la littérature la philosophie la psychologie les sciences politiques l'histoire (f) la géographie la physique la biologie la chimie la zoologie la botanique les arts la musique la danse le dessin la peinture l'informatique la technologie Foreign Languages les langues étrangères Linguistics Literature Philosophy Psychology Political Science History Geography Physics Biology Chemistry Zoology Botany Art Music Dance Drawing Painting Computer Science Technology Physical Education l'éducation physique (f) Notice that you do not use an indefinite article before professions. I am a lawyer. I study at the University of Toronto. I go to the university of Michigan. I am a professor.

Elle me remercie d'un sourire. She thanks me with a smile. Je pars dans quinze minutes. de is used in phrases of manner and in many idiomatic expressions. à is used when referring to someone's attributes. Ma spécialization est la biologie. The man with the red hair is very tall.) dew of / from / about the de + les = des day of / from / about the (pl. Prepositions and Contractions among at / to / in at the house of between for parmi par-mee à chez ah shay entre on-truh pour poohr duh dawn sir ah-veck sawn from / of / about de in on with without à + le = au à + les = aux de + le = du oh oh dans sur avec sans Prepositional Contractions at / to / in the at / to / in the (pl. and chez is used to mean "as far as (person) is concerned. Chez cet enfant. With: Avec vs. Countries and Nationalities / Les pays and les nationalités . Il marche. Chez Avec implies doing something or going along with someone. 23. I'm going to France with my sister. De vs. everything is simple. L'homme aux cheveux roux est très grand. 24. no extra word is used. Il peut lire ce livre en une demi-heure. He walks with his hands in his pockets. En Dans is used to show the time when an action will begin. Je vais en France avec ma sœur. tout est simple. Je fais des mathématiques.Quelles matières étudiez-vous? What subjects do you study? J'étudie les langues étrangères et la linguistique. I study/do math. My major is biology.) In: Dans vs. A vs. With this child. I study foreign languages and linguistics. I'm leaving in 15 minutes." To describe the way a person carries him/herself. les mains dans les poches. He can read this book in a half hour. while en shows the length of time an action takes.

I am French (feminine. feminine. but it cannot be omitted in written French. plural. they must agree with the subject of the verb (masculine vs. (masculine or feminine) . I am not from Mexico. the ne is frequently omitted. Je suis du Canada. Negative Sentences To make sentences negative. I am not Swiss. simply put ne and pas around the verb.) The extra ending shown above is added to signify a feminine subject. To make them plural.) Je ne suis pas suisse. And the definite article is not used before a language when it follows the verb parler (to speak.France Switzerland Italy Germany Spain Belgium Netherlands China England Russia Poland Canada Mexico Japan Portugal Brazil Sweden Norway Finland Denmark Greece Austria Australia Africa India Ireland la France la Suisse l'Italie l'Allemagne l'Espagne la Belgique les Pays-Bas la Chine l'Angleterre la Russie la Pologne le Canada le Mexique le Japon le Portugal le Brésil la Suède la Norvège la Finlande le Danemark la Grèce l'Autriche l'Australie l'Afrique l'Inde l'Irlande frahns sweess lee-tah-lee lahl-mawn-yuh leh-spawn-yuh bell-zheek pay-ee-bah sheen lawn-gluh-tair roo-see poh-lohn-yuh kah-nah-dah meks-eek zhap-ohn pore-tew-gahl bray-zeel ay-tah-zew-nee soo-ed nor-vehzh feen-lahnd dahn-mark grehs loh-treesh loh-strah-lee lah-freek lahnd leer-lawnd français/e suisse italien/ne allemand/e espagnol/e belge chinois/e anglais/e russe polonais/e mexicain/e japonais/e portugais/e brésilien/ne américain/e suèdois/e finlandais/e danois/e frawn-say/sez sweess ee-tahl-ee-awn/enn ahl-mawn/d es-pan-yohl belzh sheen-wah/wez bree-tahn-eek an-glay/ez rewss poh-lon-ay/ez mek-see-kahn/enn zhah-poh-nay/nez por-tew-gay/gez bray-zeel-ee-awn/enn ah-may-ree-kahn/kenn soo-ed-wah/wez feen-lan-day/dez dahn-wah/wez hollandais/e oh-lawn-day/dehz Great Britain la Grande-Bretagne grahnd bruh-tawn-yuh britannique canadien/ne kah-nah-dee-awn/enn United States les États-Unis norvègien/ne nor-vehzh-ee-awn/enn grec/grecque grek autrichien/ne oh-trees-ee-awn/enn australien/ne oh-strahl-ee-awn/enn africain/e indien/ne irlandais/e ah-free-kahn/kenn ahn-dee-ahn/enn eer-lahn-day/dez Note: When the nationalities are used as adjectives. And when you are replying "yes" to a negative question. just add an -s (unless it already ends in an -s. then add nothing.) 25.) The masculine forms of the nationalities are also used to signify the language. I am from Canada. you use si and not oui. however. Je ne suis pas du Mexique. and singular vs. In spoken French. Je suis française.

au du Fem. such as La Nouvelle-Orléans (New Orleans). Je parle chinois et japonais. it is masculine. They are from the United States. The exceptions are le Cambodge. He is Australian. Elle n'est pas danoise. Yes. à la de la Vowel à l' de l' Plural aux des Cities à à à de de d' Countries au en en du de d' aux des aux des If the name of a country. She is not Danish. cities. Ils ne sont pas du Portugal. The exception to the masculine beginning with a consonant rule is Texas: in / to Texas is au Texas. Vous n'êtes pas du Brésil? You aren't from Brazil? Si. Pennsylvanie. obtenir . devenir . Prepositions with American States To / In Feminine Islands Masc. nous sommes du Brésil. Caroline du Nord / Sud. To Come and to Go Venir-to come (vuh-neer) viens vee-ahn venons viens vee-ahn venez vuh-nohn vuh-nay Aller-to go (ah-lay) vais vay allons ah-lohn vas va vah allez vah vont ah-lay vohn vient vee-ahn viennent vee-enn Other verbs that are conjugated like venir: tenir .to hold. le Zaïre and le Mozambique. w/ Consonant en à dans le From de de / d' du en / dans l' d' / de l' Californie. we are from Brazil. I don't speak Swedish. 26. Floride. and Virginie are the feminine states. If it ends in anything else. state or province ends with an e.Il est australien. Géorgie. and countries Places Masc. Je ne parle pas suèdois. w/ Vowel Masc. They are not from Portugal. I speak Chinese and Japanese. Elles sont des Etats-Unis. To / In and From come become. revenir . le Mexique. Some cities have an article as well. 27. Louisiane. island. le Maine. the gender is feminine. .to get. continent.

aim.) and the emphatic (I do write. The verb before it is conjugated is called the infinitive. He's holding a pencil.) However. Conjugating Regular Verbs in the Present Indicative Tense Verbs in French end in -er. Je vais devenir professeur. Tu ne vas pas au Brésil cet été. You just ate an sell vends vawn vendons vawn-dohn vends vawn vendez vend vawn-day vawn vendent vawn finir . Aller is also used idiomatically when talking about health. Elle va parler russe. Nous allons en Espagne. Vous venez de manger une pomme. They are going to go to England. these three English present tenses are all translated by the present indicative tense in French. or habitual activity. I see).to leave pahr partons pahr partez pahr partent pahr-tohn pahr-tay pahrt fee-nee finissent fee-neess Regular verbs -er -re . To conjugate verbs in the present tense. general state. Besides the simple present tense (I write. He just went to Finland. Comment vas-tu? How are you? Je vais bien. finish finis finis finit fee-nee finissons fee-nee-sohn fee-nee finissez fee-nee-say pars pars part partir ." Ils vont aller en Angleterre. etc.) The present indicative tense indicates an ongoing action.Je viens des Etats-Unis. or -ir. use the stem and add the following endings. We're going to Spain. Aller + an infinitive means "going to do something. I run. You're not going to Brazil this summer." Il vient d'aller à la Finlande. Removing the last two letters leaves you with the stem (aimer is the infinitive. I am running. -re. I come from the United States. Venir de + an infinitive means "to have just done something. I do run. I'm going to become a professor. Il tient un crayon. love j'aime zhem aimes em aime em aimons aimez aiment em-ohn em-ay em vendre . She's going to speak Russian. the stem. -er -e -ons -re -s -ons -s -ez -ent 1st -ir -is -issons -is -issez -it -issent 2nd -ir* -s -ons -s -ez -t -ent -es -ez -e -ent Sample Regular Verbs aimer -to like. there are two other forms of the present tense in English: the progressive (I am writing. I'm fine.

Ex: Je réponds au téléphone. such as after another verb. Other verbs like partir are sortir (to go out).) 29.) to wash (oneself) s'entendre bien to get along well to comb to get dressed to get married se dépêcher to hurry Note: When used in the infinitive. the reflexive pronoun agrees with the subject of the sentence. but they require an extra pronoun before the verb. heal to go down ay-too-dee-ay to study fehr-may ah-bee-tay zhoo-ay mawn-zhay mohn-tray par-lay pawn-say trah-vy-yay troo-vay to close to live to play to eat to show to speak to think to work to find Note: If a verb is followed by à (like répondre) you have to use the à and any contractions after the conjugated verb.aimer chanter chercher em-ay shahn-tay share-shay to like. Most indicate a reflexive action but some are idiomatic and can't be translated literally. Je vais me coucher maintenant. mentir (to lie). The pronouns are: me te se s'amuser se lever se laver se peigner s'habiller se marier nous vous se Some Pronominal Verbs to have fun to get up se reposer to rest se souvenir de to remember se coucher se brosser se maquiller se casser to go to bed to brush to put on makeup to break (arm. * The 2nd -ir verbs are considered irregular sometimes because there are only a few verbs which follow that pattern. etc. dormir (to sleep). love to sing to look for vendre attendre entendre perdre vawn-druh ah-tawn-druh awn-tawn-druh pair-druh to sell to wait for to listen to lose commencer koh-mawn-say to begin donner étudier fermer habiter jouer manger montrer parler penser travailler trouver dohn-nay to give répondre (à) ray-pohn-druh (ah) to answer descendre deh-sawn-druh 1st -ir bâtir finir choisir punir remplir obéir (à) réussir guérir bah-teer fee-neer shwa-zeer poo-neer rawn-pleer oh-bay-eer (ah) ray-oo-seer gay-reer to build to finish to choose to punish to fill to obey to succeed to cure. Pronominal (Reflexive) Verbs These verbs are conjugated like normal verbs. I'm going to go to bed. leg. sentir (to smell. . feel) and servir (to serve.

Verbs that end in -yer: Change the y to an i in all forms except the nous and vous. but commençons. acheter-to buy achètes ah-shet achète ah-shet achetez ahsh-tay espérer-to hope espères ess-pehr espère ess-pehr espérez ess-pay-ray j'achète zhah-shet achetons ahsh-tohn j'espère zhess-pehr espérons ess-pay-rohn achètent ah-shet espèrent ess-pehr 3. Verbs that are conjugated as -er verbs: Some -ir verbs are conjugated with -er endings. nettoyer-to clean (nuh-twah-yay). Verbs that add or change to an accent grave: Some verbs add or change to an accent grave (è) in all the forms except the nous and sit down je m'assieds mah-see-ay nous nous asseyons noo-zah-say-ohn tu t'assieds tah-see-ay vous vous asseyez il s'assied sah-see-ay ils s'asseyent vous-zah-say-yay sah-say-ee 30. ouvrir-to open. but mangeons. découvrir-to discover and souffrir-to suffer. For example: offrir-to offer.Sample Irregular Pronominal Verb s'asseoir . The c must have the accent (called a cedilla) under it to make the c sound soft. couvrir-to cover. Verbs that end in -ger and -cer: The nous form of manger isn't mangons. offrir-to offer j'offre zhaw-fruh offrons aw-frohn offres aw-fruh offre aw-fruh offrez aw-fray offrent aw-fruh 4. The e has to stay so the g can retain the soft sound. give. essayer-to try (ess-ah-yay) envoyer-to send j'envoie zhawn-vwah envoyons awn-vwah-yohn envoies awn-vwah envoie awn-vwah envoyez awn-vwah-yay envoient awn-vwah . Irregularities in Regular Verbs 1. Examples: envoyer-to send (awn-vwah-yay). manger-to eat mange mawnzh mangeons mawnzhohn mawn-zhay mawnzh commence commences commence commencer-to begin kohmawnz kohmawnz kohmawnz commençons commencez koh-mawnsohn koh-mawnsay manges mawnzh mangez mange mawnzh mangent commencent koh-mawnz 2. The nous form of commencer isn't commencons.

appeler-to call j'appelle zhah-pell appelons ahp-lohn appelles ah-pell appelle ah-pell appelez ahp-lay appellent ah-pell 31. and as a result or consequence of another action. Verbs that double the consonant: Some verbs. Je n'ai pas aimé le concert. Regular Verbs: Formation of the Past Participle -er -é -re -u -ir -i Then conjugate avoir and add the past participle: J'ai aimé le concert. is happening. which expresses what happens. To make it negative. I liked the concert. Tu as habité ici? Nous avons fini le projet. You lived here? We finished (or have finished) the project. put the ne and pas around the conjugated form of avoir. The passé composé is used for actions that happened only once. He didn't answer (or hasn't answered) . The Past Indefinite Tense or Passé Composé You have learned the present indicative so far. All you need to learn are the past participles of the verbs. He answered (or has answered) the telephone. Elles ont rempli les tasses. Il a répondu au téléphone. They filled (or have filled) the cups. I didn't like the concert. They didn't fill (or haven't filled) the glasses. or does happen now. or has happened. you have to use the passé composé. Il n'a pas répondu. a specified number of times or during a specified period of time. such as appeler-to call (ahp-lay). but if you want to say something happened. 32. Elles n'ont pas rempli les tasses. and jeter-to throw (zheh-tay) double the consonant in all forms except the nous and vous. Irregular Past Participles avoir to have eu (ew) connu cru had known believed ouvrir offrir pouvoir to open to offer ouvert (oovehr) offert opened offered was connaître to know croire to believe to be able to pu .5.

and they must agree in gender and number with the subject. Etre Verbs Sixteen "house" verbs and all pronominal verbs are conjugated with être. Conjugation of a Pronominal Verb Je me suis amusé(e) Nous nous sommes amusé(e)s Tu t'es amusé(e) Il s'est amusé Elle s'est amusée Vous vous êtes amusé(e)(s) Ils se sont amuses Elles se sont amuses . Elle a rentré le livre à la bibliothèque. make to read to put dit écrit été fait lu mis (me) permis had to said written been made read put permitted promised prendre apprendre comprendre surprendre recevoir rire savoir voir vouloir to take to learn to understand to surprise to receive to laugh to know to see to want pris (pree) appris compris surpris reçu (rehsew) ri su vu voulu (voolew) taken learned understood surprised received laughed known seen wanted permettre to permit promettre to promise promis 33. and naître-né. Vous can have any of the endings. mourirmort. The house verbs are: aller-to go arriver-to arrive entrer-to enter sortir-to go out partir-to leave tomber-to fall venir-to come devenir-to become revenir-to come back mourir-to die monter-to go up rester-to stay rentrer-to return home naître-to be born passer-to go by (pass) descendre-to go down Most have regular past participles. She returned the book to the library. except to devoir dire écrire être faire lire mettre to have to dû to tell to write to be to do. devenir-devenu. monter. Conjugation of an être verb Je suis resté(e) Nous sommes resté(e)s Tu es resté(e) Il est resté Vous êtes resté(e)(s) Ils sont restés Elle est restée Elles sont restées You add the e for feminine and s for plural. rentrer. revenir-revenu. and passer can sometimes be conjugated with avoir if they are used with a direct object. sortir. descendre. And five of these verbs.

Food and Meals / La Nourriture et Les Repas Breakfast Lunch Dinner Cup Slice Bowl Glass Fork Spoon Knife Plate Napkin Ice cream Juice Fruit Cheese Chicken Egg Cake Pie Milk Coffee Butter Water Ham Fish Tea Salad Jam Meat French fries Beer Wine le petit déjeuner puh-tee day-zhew-nay le déjeuner le dîner la tasse la tranche le bol le verre la fourchette la cuillère le couteau l'assiette (f) la serviette la glace le jus le fruit le fromage le poulet l'œuf (m) le gâteau la tarte le lait le café le beurre l'eau le jambon le poisson le thé la salade la confiture la viande les frites (f) la bière le vin day-zhew-nay dee-nay Tahss Trawnsh Bohl Verr foor-shett kwee-yehr koo-toh ah-syett ser-vyett Glahss Zhew fwee froh-mawzh poo-lay luff gah-toh tart leh kah-fay burr loh zham-bohn pwah-sohn tay sah-lahd kon-fee-chur vee-awnd freet bee-ehr vahn Salt and Pepper le sel et le poivre luh sell ay luh pwahv-ruh .There are only two cases with pronominal verbs where the past participle does not agree: 1. When the pronominal verb is followed by a direct object. Compare: Elles se sont lavées. With verbs where the reflexive pronoun is an indirect object. 34. but elles se sont lavé les mains. Ils se sont téléphoné. s'écrire. 2. se dire. se demander. such as se parler. and se téléphoner. se sourire.

Fruits. du bacon le bifteck un poulet un canard une chèvre le jambon l'agneau le foie des boulettes de viande une côtelette de porc un lapin une côte de bœuf la saucisse une dinde le veau un chevreuil mah-eez cohn-cohn-bruh oh-behr-zheen leh-tew shahm-peenyohn wawn-yohn pwah pee-mawn see-troo-ee reez ay-pee-nar koorzh to-maht nah-vay koor-zhett vee-awnd lar. Vegetables and Meat fruit apple apricot banana blueberry cherry coconut date fig grape grapefruit lemon lime melon olive orange peach pear pineapple plum prune raisin raspberry un fruit une pomme un abricot une banane une myrtille une cerise une noix de coco une date une figue un raisin un pamplemousse un citron un limon un melon une olive une orange une pêche une poire un ananas une prune un pruneau un raisin sec une framboise fwee pohm ah-bree-koh bah-nahn meer-tee suh-reez corn cucumber eggplant lettuce mushroom onion le maïs un concombre une aubergine la laitue un champignon un oignon les pois un piment une citrouille le riz des épinards une courge une tomate un navet des courgettes une viande du lard. bah-kohn beef-teck poo-lay kah-nar shev-ruh zhahm-bohn awn-yoh fwah boo-lett duh veeawnd kote-lett duh pork lah-pahn kote duh buf so-seess dahnd voh shuv-ruh-ee nwah duh kohpeas koh daht feeg reh-zahn pahm-pluhmoos see-trohn lee-mohn mel-ohn oh-leev oh-ranzh pesh pwahr ah-nah-nah prewn proo-noh reh-zahn sek frez pah-stek leh-goom ar-tee-sho ahs-pehrzh bett-rahv broh-coh-lee shoo cah-roht shoo-flir pepper potato pumpkin rice spinach squash tomato turnip zucchini meat bacon beef chicken duck goat lamb liver meatballs pork chop rabbit T-bone steak sausage turkey veal venison une pomme de terre pohm duh tehr frwahm-bwahz ham strawberry une fraise watermelon une pastèque vegetable artichoke une légume un artichaut asparagus des asperges beet broccoli cabbage carrot une betterave le brocoli un chou une carotte cauliflower un chou-fleur .Sugar Soup le sucre le potage soo-kruh poh-tawzh 35.

I would like to have some cheese. So "je prends de la bière" literally means "I am having some beer" even though in English we would usually only say I am having beer. He is eating some meat. mais pas de fruit. Manger is a regular verb meaning "to eat. Je ne prends pas de vin. Boire is literally the verb to drink and is also used in a general sense only. I would like one piece of pie. Est-ce que je peux prendre un verre de vin? May I have a glass of wine? Je prends du vin. I drink wine all the time. Je voudrais prendre du fromage. We are having some rice and understand and surprendre . 37. l'." the French translation is "Je prends du vin. Eat or Drink Prendre-to take. comprendre . Il y a trop de lait dans la tasse. Je voudrais un morceau de tarte. many plus de a glass of un bouquet de Note: With quantities and negatives. but no fruit." You must use de and le. such as Je mange le poulet tous les samedis. I eat chicken every Saturday.celery un céléri say-lay-ree 36. or les and the proper contractions (called partitives) because in French you must also express some. you never use partitives. There is too much milk in the cup. la. eat or drink (prawn-druh) Prends Prends Prend prawn prawn prawn prenons prenez prennent pruh-nohn pru-nay prenn Boire-to drink (bwahr) bois bwah buvons bew-vohn bois bwah buvez bew-vay boit bwah boivent bwahv Other verbs that are conjugated like prendre: apprendre . 38. Quantities assez de une assiette de beaucoup de une boîte de enough (of) un morceau de a piece of a plate of a lot of a box of un peu de une tasse de a little (bit) of a cup of une douzaine de a dozen of un paquet de un panier de une poignée de a packet of a basket of a handful of more a bunch of une tranche de a slice of trop de un verre de une bouteille de a bottle of un kilo de a kilo of too much. The construction is always de or d' + noun. To Take. Note: When you want to say "I am having wine. Nous prenons du riz et du brocoli." but manger is used in a general sense. Commands .to learn. I'm drinking some wine. Je bois du vin tout le temps. Il prend de la viande. I am not drinking any wine.

. tu and nous forms for commands.aucun(e) not a single one ne. Rien and personne may be used as subjects: Personne n'est ici. Ne.. He no longer likes to * Use of ne . ne... as in Ne nous reposons pas...Use the vous... (Or: She doesn't hate anyone.. Nous n'avons rien fait.rien Ne comes before auxiliary verb.. ne.... He made not a single mistake. Il n'a fait aucune nothing changes.rien ne.que is placed directly before the noun it limits. the pronoun is placed after the verb connected by a hyphen. More Negatives ne. all articles are dropped except definite articles. the pronoun precedes the verb.. Aucun(e) by definition is We want to go shopping only on part. ne.. Vous form Tu form Polite and Plural Same as verb form Familiar Same as verb form... (Or: He doesn't like to work anymore) Nous ne voulons faire des achats que lundi. Partitive: Je prends du pain et du . but que in ne.. Note: With using pronominal verbs as commands. the and ne.. so the verb and nouns must also be changed to the singular. and ne. Je n'ai ni caméra ni caméscope. (unless the verb is être..... Vous ne vous êtes pas ennuyés.... pas de: In 2.jamais. ne. Elle ne déteste personne.) faute. ne. que partitives and indefinite articles Ne comes before the auxiliary verb. We did nothing. but drop -s for -er verbs Same as verb form Restez! Stay! Regarde! Watch! Allons! Let's go! Nous form Let' nobody ne.pas. but Je n'aime ni les chats ni les chiens.pas. He listened to no no longer never nothing only neither.. Il n'aime plus travailler.personne.jamais ne... and the other part is between auxiliary and past participle..) Negatives with Passé Composé 1..nor ne. Irregular Command Forms être (be) tu sois swah tu avoir (have) aie ay tu savoir (know) sache sahsh nous soyons swah-yohn nous ayons ay-yohn nous sachons sah-shohn vous soyez swah-yay vous ayez ay-yay vous sachez sah-shay Ne sois pas méchant à ta sœur! Don't be mean to your sister! N'ayez pas peur! Don't be afraid! Sachez les mots pour l'examen demain! Know the words for the exam tomorrow! 39.. You were not bored..nulle part nowhere The negatives are used exactly like ne.. Ne. but the other part is after become de before the noun the past participle.aucun. She hates no one.. then Il n'a écouté personne.. negative sentences. Tu te dépêches becomes Dépêche-toi! And in negative commands... With ni..

Holiday Phrases Merry Christmas Happy New Year Happy Thanksgiving Happy Easter Happy Halloween Happy Birthday Joyeux Noël Bonne Année Joyeuses Pâques Bonne Halloween Bon Anniversaire zhoy-uh no-ell bun ah-nay zhoy-uhss pawk bun ah-loh-ween bun sahnt-val-awn-tahn bohn ahn-nee-vair-sair Bonne Action de grâces bun ak-see-ohn de grahss Happy Valentine's Day Bonne Saint-Valentin 41. I am not having any bread or butter. Negative: Je n'ai pas de chien. It's not a brown cat. I don't have a dog. Negative: Ce n'est pas une chatte brune. I have a dog. I'm having some bread and butter.beurre. Indefinite: J'ai un chien. Places / Les Endroits school bathroom locker drinking fountain store library office stadium cafe cafeteria movie theater church museum pool countryside beach theater park l'école la toilette le coffre la fontaine le magasin la biblio(thèque) le bureau le stade le café la cafétéria le cinéma l'église le musée la piscine la campagne la plage le théâtre le parc lay-kohl twah-lett koh-fruh fohn-ten mahg-ah-zahn beeb-lee-oh(teck) bur-oh stahd kah-fay kah-fay-tay-reeah see-nay-mah lay-glees mew-zay pee-seen kawn-pawn-yuh plahzh tay-ah-truh park university bank l'université la banque loon-ee-vair-seetay bahnk gahr air-o-poor tay-lay-fone ah-par-tuh-mawn low-tell vee-lazh lew-zeen zhar-dan shah-toe kah-tay-drahl zoh-oh mon-u-mawn far-mah-see boosh-ree con-feess-ree train station la gare airport telephone apartment hotel village factory garden castle cathedral zoo bakery monument pharmacy butcher shop l'aéroport le téléphone l'appartement l'hôtel le village l'usine le jardin le château la cathédrale le zoo le monument la pharmacie la boucherie la boulangerie boo-lanzh-ree candy store la confiserie . restaurant hospital post office home le restaurant l'hôpital la poste la maison res-toh-rawn loh-pee-tahl post may-zohn s b city la ville veel grocery store l'épicerie lay-peess-ree 40. It's a brown cat. Verb is être: C'est une chatte brune. Negative: Je ne prends pas de pain ou de beurre.

Transportation by bike by bus by moped by car by subway on foot by plane by train by boat en vélo (m) en bus (m) en voiture (f) en métro (m) à pied (m) en avion (m) en train (m) en bateau (m) awn vay-low awn boos awn vwah-chur awn moh-toh awn may-troh ah pee-ay awn ah-vee-ohn awn trahn awn bah-toh en mobylette (f) awn moh-bee-lett by motorcycle en moto (f) 43.42. The House / La maison House Appartment Bedroom Hallway Kitchen Storeroom Stairs Floor Closet Room la maison l'appartement (m) la chambre le couloir la cuisine le débarras l'escalier (m) l'étage (m) la penderie la pièce meh-zohn ah-part-mawn shawm-bruh kool-wahr kwee-zeen day-bar-ah les-cahl-ee-ay lay-tahzh pawnd-ree pee-ehss rayd-show-say sahl ah mawn-zhay sahl duh bahn teh-rahss shu-mee-nay twah gah-rahzh root troh-teeay porsh soo-sole kahv gah-zohn bwee-sohn lar-bruh Ground Floor le rez-de-chaussée Dining Room la salle à manger Bathroom Attic Chimney Roof Garage Driveway Sidewalk Porch Basement Cellar Lawn/grass Bush/shrub Tree la salle de bains Terrace. patio la terrasse la cheminée le toit le garage la route le trottier le porche le sous-sol la cave le gazon le buisson l'arbre (m) le grenier/la mansarde grun-eeay/mahn-sard .

Furniture / Les meubles Shelf Desk Chair Dresser Curtain Window Bed Door Closet Rug Lamp Nightstand Stereo Television VCR Remote Control Computer Radio Fridge Refrigerator Freezer (Coffee) Table Sink Bathtub Stove Oven Dishwasher Microwave Clothes Dryer Shower Mirror Ceiling Floor Armchair Clock Bedspread Vase Waste basket Bathroom sink Dryer Couch/Sofa Iron Vacuum l'étagère (f) le bureau la chaise la commode le rideau la fenêtre le lit la porte le placard le tapis la lampe la table de nuit la chaîne-stéréo la télé(vision) le magnétoscope la télécommande l'ordinateur (m) la radio le frigo le réfrigérateur le congélateur la table (basse) l'évier (m) la baignoire la cuisinière le four le lave-vaisselle le four à micro-ondes le sèche-linge la douche l'oreiller le miroir le plafond le plancher le fouteuil la pendule le couvrelit le vase le lavabo le séchoir la canapé/le sofa le fer à repasser l'aspirateur lay-tah-zhehr bewr-oh shehzh koh-mode ree-doh fuh-neh-truh lee port plah-car tah-pee lahmp tah-bluh duh nwee shen-stay-ray-oh tay-lay-vee-zee-ohn mahn-yeht-oh-scope tay-lay-koh-mahnd lor-dee-nah-tur rah-dee-oh free-go ray-free-zhay-rah-tir kon-zhay-lah-tur tah-bluh (bahss) lay-veeay bahn-wahr kwee-zeen-yehr foor lahv-veh-sell foor ah mee-kroh-ohnd mah-sheen ah lah-vay sesh-lahnzh doosh Pillow loh-ray-ay mee-rwahr plah-fohn plawn-shay foo-tuhee pawn-dewl koo-vruh-lee vahz lah-vah-boh Hair seh-shwahr kah-nah-pay/soh-fah fair ah ruh-pahs-say ah-speer-ah-tur Washing Machine la machine à laver la corbeille/la poubelle kor-bayee/poo-bell .44.

Clothing pajamas jewelry necklace jeans pants pullover turtleneck raincoat bra slip coat swimsuit shorts bracelet charm t-shirt hat ring chain earrings pin sock shoe man's shirt skirt dress sandal boots jacket scarf tie belt man's suit slippers jacket underwear gloves le pyjama le bijou le collier le jean le pantalon le pull le col roulé l'imperméable (m) le soutien-gorge le jupon le manteau le maillot de bain le short le bracelet le porte-bonheur le tee-shirt le chapeau la bague la chaînette l'épingle (f) la chausette la chaussure la chemise la jupe la robe la sandale des bottes (f) la veste l'écharpe (f) la cravate la ceinture le costume des pantoufles le blouson les sous-vêtements des gants pee-zhah-mah bee-zhoo kohl-eeay zheen pahn-tah-lohn puhl kol roo-lay lahn-pehr-me-ah-bluh shu-meez-eeay soot-ee-ahn-gorzh zhoo-pohn mawn-toe tenn-ee may-oh-duh-bahn short brahs-lay port-bohn-ur tee-shirt shah-poh bahg shen-ett ay-pahn-gluh show-zett show-zer shu-meez zhoop robe sahn-dal bawt vest ay-sharp krah-vaht sahn-tewr kohs-toom ty-er pahn-toof-luh bloo-sohn soo-vet-mawn gawn woman's shirt le chemisier tennis shoes des tennis (m) les boucles d'oreilles (f) book-luh dor-ay woman's suit le tailleur .45.

Future Tenses: Simple and Anterior The futur simple expresses an action that will take place. dès que or aussitôt que (as soon as) and tant que (as long as. however. double the consonant. in French. the accents all remain the same. The future tense is used just like it is in English. change the y to i. you drop the -e from -re verbs. For acheter. For nettoyer and payer. However. . The futur antérieur expresses an action that will have taken place before another future action.46. use the infinitive and add these endings that resemble those of avoir. -ai -ons -as -ez -a -ont And of course. there has to be exceptions.) To form the future tense. Here are the irregular stems for the future tense (these will also be used in the conditional tense): Irregular Stems aller avoir courir devoir iraurcourrdevrpleuvoir pleuvrpouvoir pourrrecevoir recevrsavoir tenir valoir venir voir vouloir saurtiendrvaudrviendrverrvoudr- envoyer enverrêtre faire falloir mourir serferfaudrmourr- Other exceptions: For appeler and jeter. For préférer. add an accent grave. the future is always used after quand or lorsque (when).

except numbers. they take a literal meaning. go after the noun. use the future of either avoir or être (whichever the main verb takes) and the past participle of the main verb. All other adjectives. ils voudront repartir. Age/Order (premier and dernier). and when used after. Ex: Some old monuments. ils auront changé. Goodness. These are the most common adjectives that go before the noun. there is an exception to that rule too. best new little old Singular beau (bel) bon cher gentil grand gros jeune joli long mauvais meilleur petit vieux (vieil) Plural beaux bons chers gentils grands gros jeunes jolis longs mauvais Pronunciation boh (bell) bon share zhawn-tee grawn groh zhun zho-lee lohn mo-vay Singular belle bonne chère gentille grande grosse jeune jolie longue Feminine Plural belles bonnes chères gentilles grandes grosses jeunes jolies longues Pronunci ation bell bon share zhawn-te e grawnd grohss zhun zho-lee lohng mauvaise mauvaises mo-vezz meilleure meilleures may-ur petite vieille petites vieilles puh-teet vyay meilleurs may-ur petits vieux puh-tee vyuh (vyay) nouveau (nouvel) nouveaux noo-voh (noo-vell) nouvelle nouvelles noo-vell Note: The masculine singular and plural are pronounced the same. and Size. Dès qu'ils seront revenus. 47. De vieux monuments. Preceding and Plural Adjectives Masculine Adjective beautiful good dear nice big large young pretty long bad better. and vieil) are used before masculine singular words beginning with a vowel or a silent h. Remember that des means some. and the meaning changes accordingly. An acronym to remember which ones go before the noun is BRAGS: Beauty. nouvel. you use de instead of des. Before plural adjectives preceding plural nouns. A few adjectives can be used before or after the noun. .jeter jetterai jetterons payer paierai paierons acheter achèterai achèterons préférer préférai préférons jetteras jetterez jettera jetteront paieras paierez paiera paieront achèteras achèterez achètera achèteront préféras préférez préféra préféront To form the futur antérieur. they take a figurative meaning. When they come back. The three words in parentheses (bel. When used before the noun. they will want to leave again. right? Well. Resemblance (même and autre). they will have changed. As soon as they have returned. Quand ils reviendront. as are the feminine singular and plural.

-elle. cool Forming Plurals: Adjectives and Nouns To form the feminine plural. and -eille -et changes to -ète naturel inquiet Exceptions: muet coquet -en and -on change to -enne and -onne -er changes to -ère -f changes to -ve -c changes to -che Italien cher actif blanc Exceptions: public grec -g changes to -gue -eur changes to -euse if adjective is derived from verb -eur changes to -rice if adjective is not same as verb -eur changes to -eure with adjectives of comparison And a few completely irregular ones: long menteur mawn-tur menteuse mawn-tuhz créateur kray-ah-tur inférieur épais favori frais ahn-fay-reeuhr ay-peh fah-voh-ree freh créatrice inférieure épaisse favorite fraîche kray-ahtreess ahn-fay-reeuhr ay-pehz fah-voh-reet frehsh creator inferior thick favorite fresh. unless it already ends in an s. add nothing -x changes to -se brun fatigué jeune brahn fah-tee-gay zhun brune fatiguée jeune Feminine brunn fah-tee-gay zhun zhay-nayruhs fohss rooss dooss naht-ur-ell ahn-kee-ett moo-ett koh-kett ee-tahl-eeenn share ac-teev blawnsh pooh-bleek grek lawng Adjective brown tired young generous false roux red (hair) sweet. just add an -s. and -eil change to -ille. Most adjectives are given in the masculine form. soft natural worried silent stylish Italian dear. To form . follow these rules: Masculine Add -e If it already ends in -e. then add nothing.Adjectives: Formation of Feminine All adjectives must agree in number and gender with the noun they modify. so to change to the feminine forms. -el. expensive active white public Greek long liar généreux zhay-nay-ruh généreuse Exceptions: faux doux foh roo doo naht-ur-ell ahn-kee-ay moo-ay koh-kay ee-tahl-eeahn share ac-teef blawn pooh-bleek grek lawn fausse rousse douce naturelle inquiète muette coquette Italienne chère active blanche publique grecque longue -il.

dew shuh-vahl . narrow étroit/e several pointed bright cute perfect ready sad clever lazy generous famous decorated plusieurs pointu/e vif. And of course there are more exceptions. such as or (gold) and argent (silver). just add an -s.. except in these cases: -al becomes -aux (exceptions: banal banals. These adjectives go after the noun. vive mignon/nne parfait/e prêt/e triste malin/gne paresseux/euse généreux/euse célèbre décoré/e nervous nerveux/euse only seul/e amusing amusant/e touching émouvant/e funny heavy noisy dirty tired angry drôle lourd/e bruyant/e sale fatigué/e fâché/e annoyed irrité/e old âgé/e Note: Remember the first word is the masculine and the second is the feminine. and if it ends in an x or s already. and final . Just remember to change the le. and the words chic (stylish).the masculine plural. 48. Compound adjectives.. some adjectives are invariable and do not have femine or plural forms. la. such as bleu clair (light blue) and vert foncé (dark green). or l' to les.finals). add nothing. The addition of an e for the feminine form allows the last consonant to be voiced. More Adjectives short loud elegant court/e criard/e élégant/e different différent/e situated situé/e big curious gros/se curieux/euse tight. -eau adds an -x. du cheval leh-kee-tah-see-ohn. bon marché or meilleur marché (inexpensive) never change. adjectives that are also nouns. Sports and Hobbies Soccer Hockey Football Basketball Baseball Tennis Skiing Volleyball Wrestling Jogging le football le hockey le football américain le basket le base-ball le tennis le ski le volley la lutte le jogging luh foot-bahl luh hock-ee luh foot-bahl ah-mehr-ee-kahn luh bahs-kett luh base-bahl luh ten-ee luh skee luh voll-ee lah loot luh zhog-ing Horse-back riding l'équitation.

Il veut jouer du tuba. Nature sea stone made of stone sky river cloud thunderstorm hurricane umbrella marina tower wood wooden space star barn bridge farm field la mer la pierre en pierre le ciel le fleuve le nuage l'orage l'ouragan la parapluie le port de plaisance la tour le bois en bois l'espace l'étoile la grange le pont la ferme le champ mehr pee-ehr awn pee-ehr see-yel fluhv noo-awzh oh-rawzh or-aw-zhawn par-ah-ploo-ee por duh plez-ahns toor bwah awn bwah es-spahs ay-twahl grawnzh pohn fairm shawn . I can play the guitar. Tu fais du foot. Je peux jouer de la guitare.Ice-skating Swimming Track and Field Bowling Softball Golf Bicycling Surfing Dirt/Motor biking French horn violin guitar drum tuba flute trombone clarinette cello harp le patin à glace la natation l'athlétisme le bowling le softball le golf le vélo le surf le bicross le cor d'harmonie le violon la guitare le tambour le tuba la flûte le trombone la clarinette le violoncelle la harpe luh pah-tahn ah glahs lah nah-tah-see-ohn lat-lay-tees-muh luh boh-ling luh soft-bahl luh golf luh vay-low luh serf luh bee-cross kohr dar-moh-nee vee-oh-lohn gee-tahr tawn-boor tew-bah flewt trohn-bohn klah-ree-nett vee-oh-lohn-sell arp Faire de + a sport means to play. J'aime jouer au tennis. He wants to play the tuba. We play the clarinette. I like to play tennis. as does jouer de + an instrument. Nous jouons de la clarinette. 49. You play soccer. Jouer à + a sport also means to play.

flower forest hill lake mountain ocean plant pond valley waterfall countryside country road street highway path la fleur la forêt la colline le lac la montagne l'océan la plante l'étang la vallée le cascade la campagne le pays le chemin la rue la grande route le sentier flur for-eh koh-leen lahk mohn-tahn-yuh oh-say-awn plahnt ay-tawn vah-lay kahs-kahd kawn-pawn-yuh pay-ee shu-mahn rew grahnd root sahn-teeay 50. Parts of the Body head hair face forehead cheek ear beard eye/s mustache mouth lip nose tongue tooth neck la tête les cheveux la figure / le visage le front la joue l'oreille la barbe l'œil / les yeux la moustache la bouche la lèvre le nez la langue la dent le cou tet shuh-vuh fee-ger / vee-sawzh frohn zhoo oh-ray barb uhee / yuh moo-stash boosh lev-ruh nay lawn dawn koo .

use faire mal (to hurt) plus the indirect pronoun. if someone is causing you pain. Ne lui faites pas mal. You're hurting me. Her arm hurts. Tu as mal au genou? Your knee hurts? Il a mal aux orteils. . J'ai mal à l'estomac. I have a headache. Don't hurt him / her. Elle a mal au bras.eyebrows eyelashes chin throat skin blood bone shoulder chest waist belly button back heart arm elbow wrist fist hand fingers body hip leg knee foot toes ankle thigh shin thumb nails les sourcils les cils le menton la gorge la peau le sang l'os l'épaule la poitrine la taille le nombril le dos le cœur le bras le coude le poignet le poing la main les doigts le corps la hanche la jambe le genou le pied les orteils la cheville la cuisse le tibia le pouce les ongles soor-see seel mawn-tohn gorzh poh sawn lohs ay-pohl pwah-treen tahee nohn-bree doh kir brah kood pwahn-yay pwahn mahn dwah kore ahnsh zhamb zhu-noo pyay or-tie shu-vee kweess tee-bee-ah pooss ohn-gluh stomach / belly l'estomac / le ventre less-to-mah / vawn-truh To say something hurts or that you have an ache. However. His toes hurt. you can use avoir mal à (body part): J'ai mal à la tête. Tu me fais mal. I have a stomach ache.

around the verb. The past participle follows. it may follow a preposition. It precedes the noun or the verb être. 3) If the question requires a yes or no answer. A-t-il été surpris? Was he surprised? T'es-tu amusé? Did you have fun? 64.) at the beginning of the sentence and then add est-ce que. you can also use inversion: Quand tes parents partent-ils en vacances? Or you can use an interrogative with est-ce que and normal word order: Pourquoi est-ce que vous êtes ici? 5) Quel (which. 4) With interrogative words. Asking Questions 1) Invert the subject and verb form and add a hyphen. or verb and subject if inverted).vous anglais? But if you invert il. It is equivalent to isn't it. Tu ne travailles pas? Est-ce que te ne travailles pas? Ne travailles-tu pas? Pourquoi n'as-tu pas travaillé? Asking Questions with the Passé Composé Only the auxiliary verb (avoir or être) and the subject pronoun are inverted. negative expressions remain in their usual place (i. and it can be used with inversion or with est-ce que. or on.t-il anglais? And je is usually only inverted with pouvoir or devoir. You can also use interrogative words (quand. Quelle est la date? A quelle heure partez-vous? Quels bagages est-ce que vous prenez? Notice that the forms of quel can also be used in exclamatory sentences.63. Instead of Vous parlez anglais? use Parlez. you must put a t between the verb form (if it ends in a vowel) and the subject for ease of pronunciation. you don't use peux. il or on. what) agrees with the noun it modifies. elle. etc. Interrogative Pronouns To ask about people: Long Form Subject Direct Object Object of Preposition Qui est-ce qui Qui est-ce qui est venu? Qui est-ce que Qui est-ce que tu as vu? Preposition + qui est-ce que A qui est-ce que tu as parlé? Short Form Qui Qui est venu? Qui Qui as-tu vu? Preposition + qui A qui as-tu parlé? Translation Who came? Whom did you see? Whom did you speak to? To ask about things: Long Form Subject Direct Object Qu'est-ce qui Qu'est-ce qui est arrivé? Qu'est-ce que Qu'est-ce que tu as fait? Short Form No short form Que Qu'as-tu fait? Translation What happened? What did you do? . However. put Est-ce que (ess kuh) at the beginning. don't you.e. comment. aren't we. such as elle. où. Parle-il anglais? is incorrect and must become Parle. Quel beau jour! What a beautiful day! 6) With negative questions. but puis. It contracts to Est-ce qu' before a word beginning with a vowel. if je is inverted with pouvoir. Puis-je? (pweezh) is Can I? 2) Add n'est-ce pas? (ness pah) to the end of the sentence. etc. won't you.

Object of Preposition Preposition + quoi est-ce Preposition + quoi que De quoi as-tu De quoi est-ce que tu as parlé? parlé? What did you talk about? .

the noun subject must be inverted directly. the verbs agrees with the noun that follows. With qui and quoi. Quel: a. Quelle est la date? What is the date? Qu'est-ce qui est bon? What is good? . Qui étaient Les Trois Mousquetaires? 3. Qu'est-ce que (or qui) vs. inversion pattern is regular. Use of Inversion when Subject is Noun: a. However. Les voitures font du bruit. Qu'est-ce qui fait du bruit? Les enfants sont arrivés. Verb Agreement: a. the short form is not used. With que. if the sentence contains more than a subject and verb.1. Qu'est-ce que c'est que le camembert? What is "camembert"? Quel est le problème? What is the problem? b. quel is used if être is followed by a noun and qu'est-ce qui is used if être is followed by anything other than a noun. or if the verb is in a compound tense (such as the passé composé). Qui Marie a-t-elle vu? Whom did Marie see? De quoi Marc a-t-il besoin? What does Marc need? b. Exception: when qui is followed by a conjugated form of être. When followed by a conjugated form of être. Interrogative pronouns are usually masculine singular. Qui est arrivé? b. Que veut Jean? What does Jean want? Que font les autres? What are the others doing? c. Qu'est-ce que c'est que is used to ask for a definition. and quel asks for specific information. Qu'est-ce que Luc veut faire aujourd'hui? What does Luc want to do today? Qu'est-ce que les autres ont fait? What did the others do? 2.

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