This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
A Project Report
Under guidence of Dr.Nandita DasGupta in partial fulﬁlment of the requirements for the award of the degree of
BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, MADRAS. MAY 2007
This is to certify that the thesis titled Simulation and Fabrication of MEMS based Remote Pressure Sensor, submitted by Harsh Naik, to the Indian Institute of Technology, Madras, for the award of the degree of Bachelor of Technology, is a bona ﬁde record of the research work done by him under our supervision. The contents of this thesis, in full or in parts, have not been submitted to any other Institute or University for the award of any degree or diploma.
Prof.Nandita DasGupta Research Guide Professor Dept. of Electrical Engineering IIT-Madras, 600 036
Place: Chennai Date: 10th May 2007
There are many people who contributed to this thesis that I would like to thank.I would ﬁrst like to convey my heartfelt gratitude and thanks to my research guide, Dr.Nandita DasGupta for her invaluable encouragement, support and assistance.Her patience and guidance have pulled me through the challenges of working on this project. I would also like to thank Hari Krishna for his constant help during the course of the project.Thanks to all those at Microelectronics Lab including Madhavi,Sharmaji,Uday,Hareesh,Sheeja, Sachin and Somshekhar Bhatt who have made working here,a truly enjoyable experience.I would also like to thank Amit Mittal who helped during the initial stages of the project. And last but not the least I would like to thank all my friends and seniors at Tapti Hostel who have made my stay here at IIT Madras truely a memorable one,an experience whose memories will be ’etched’ in my heart forever.
KEYWORDS: MEMS ; Pressure Sensors; Capacitive sensors; Piezoresistive Sensors:Micromaching.
Since the discovery of piezoresistivity in silicon in the mid 1950s, siliconbased pressure sensors have been widely produced. Micromachining technology has greatly beneﬁted from the success of the integrated circuit industry, borrowing materials, processes, and toolsets. Because of this, microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) are now poised to capture large segments of existing sensor markets and to catalyse the development of new markets. Given the emerging importance of MEMS, it is instructive to review the history of micromachined pressure sensors, and to examine new developments in the ﬁeld. Pressure sensors,especially capacitive,will be the focus of this thesis. Micromachined pressure sensor typically uses a Silicon membrane as the sensing element and piezoresistors or capacitors for data retrieval.Remote sensing of data indicating variation in pressure allows inplementation of battery free devoces with indeﬁnite lifetime and is thus very attractive for bio-medical applications. In this research work capacitive pressure sensors have been simulated and fabricated.Due to pressure variation membrane deﬂects and the value of capacitance changes which can be detected by an external circuit.First an optimum structure was proposed based on results from simulation and a process ﬂow and masks were designed for fabrication of this structure.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ABSTRACT LIST OF FIGURES 1 Introduction 1.1 1.2 1.3 2 Background and purpose of the research . . . . . . . . . . . . . Statement of the problem and objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . Organization of the thesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i ii vi 1 1 2 3 4 6 6 7 9 12 14 14 15 18 19 19 21 22 25
Processes for Micromachining 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 Epitaxy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Oxidation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lithography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Etching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bonding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Capacitive Pressure Sensors 3.1 3.2 Capacitive Sensing Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Micromachined Pressure Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.1 Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Previous Work 4.1 4.2 4.3 Piezo-resistive Pressure sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Capacitive Pressure sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Observations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Results and Discussion
. . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 6 C-V Measurements .4 5. . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Simulation Results and Discussion . . . . . . . Bonding . 5. . . . . .5. . . . . Etching . .2 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 5.3. . . . . . . .5 Wafer Cleaning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Photolithography . . . . . . . . Summary and Further work . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 28 32 34 34 35 36 40 41 42 5. . . . . . . . . . . Oxidation . . . Fabrication steps . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 5. . . . .1 5.3. . . . . . . . Mask and Process steps Design . . . . . . . . . . . .2 5. . . . .
. . self-limiting pyramidal and V-shaped pits.(b)Pressing Surfaces. . . . . . . . . .5 14 16 16 A cross section schematic diagram of a bulk-micromachined. . . . .4 v . . . . Examples of simple capacitance displacement sensors: (a) moving plate.2 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Illustration of a wafer bonding process. . . . . . . . . . . . .2 4. . . . . . . The process is repeated until completion of the microstructure. . . . . . . contactmode pressure sensor. capacitive pressure sensor. . . . Capacitors connected in Parallel . . and (b) etching from both sides o the wafer can yield a multitude of different shapes including hourglassshaped and oblique holes. . . .1 2. . Illustration of the anisotropic etching of cavities in 100-oriented silicon: (a) cavities. . . (c)Binding Si-O bonds. . . . . . .(d)Binding Si-Si bonds. . Etching proﬁles for different types of etchants. . . . . . .5 11 2. . 17 A comparison of deﬂection shapes for uniform-thickness (left) and bossed (right) diaphragms. . . . An illustration of proximity and projection lithography. . . and thin membranes. . Double sided alignment scheme. .2 2. . . . (a)The two wafers to be bonded. . . Dotted lines represent the undeﬂected diaphragm. . . . .6 13 3. . . .3 4. . . . . . . 17 20 21 22 22 4. . Structure Simulated in CoventerWare . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Concept of a Resonant Absolute Pressure Sensor . . . A schematic cross section of a typical pressure sensor diaphragm. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 3. . . . . . . . . (b) variable area. . . . . . . . . Illustration of the basic process ﬂow in micromachining: Layers are deposited. . . . . . . . . . . . . A cross section schematic diagram of a bulk-micromachined. . . . . .4 3.4 2. Circuit Equivalent of the Structure . . . . . and (c) moving dielectric. . .1 3. . . . . . . . . . . . 2 5 8 9 10 2. . .1 . . . . . .3 2. . .LIST OF FIGURES 1. . . . photo resist is lithographically patterned and then used as a mask to etch the underlying materials. . .1 4. . . . . . . . . . . . Results of the simulation of the structure in Figure 4. . . .
. . . .6 5. . . . . .13 C-V curve of the device at 1KHz. .2 5. .11 (a)A two dimensional etching proﬁle of the bottom wafer(b)Xproﬁle of the etched windows showing the etch depth.7 5. . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . .(d)Layer 3-Metallization mask. vi . . . . 5. . . . . The ﬁnal meshed structure simulated with parallel capacitors. . Mask used for fabrication purpose. . . . . The displacement proﬁle from mechanical analysis.4 5. .12 A three dimensional etching proﬁle of the bottom wafer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 5. . . .3 5.1 5. 26 27 29 30 30 31 32 33 34 38 39 40 41 5. . . . . . . Anisotropic etching of < 100 > silicon. . . . . . Process ﬂow designed for the fabrication of the pressure sensor. . . . .5 5. . .10 (a)A two dimensional etching proﬁle of the top wafer(b)X-proﬁle of the etched windows showing the etch depth. .(c)Layer 2-Top wafer. . . . . . (a)The three layer mask. . . Results of simulation showing (a)Sensitivity v/s Pressure and (b)Delta C v/s Pressure for different structures. . 5. .9 A meshed model of the device before simulation . . . . .(b)Layer 1-Bottom wafer. . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . The structure simulated for further analysis. . . . . . . . . . .
1 Background and purpose of the research Sensors can be considered the eyes and ears of any system that requires information about its environment. ’Smart’ Vehicles are based on the extensive use of sensors and actuators. Pressure sensor is a device which can be used to measure static pressure. In many cases human beings take part in such a system.CHAPTER 1 Introduction 1. Apart from the biomedical applications. or a pressure in moving ﬂuids . blood pressure in surgery and intensive care. 1997). it is frequently desirable to use implanted pressure measurement systems for long-term monitoring(Menon. like radiation. The pressure sensors play a vital role in the performance of these vehicles. Pressure is a common parameter used in biomedical research as well as in clinical care . Besides external and internal catheter tip measurements. intracranial pressure in neurosurgery. abdominal and urinary pressure for diagnosis of respective disorders etc . these measurements are essential in many patient management situations. In other cases sensors are required to provide human beings with information they can not directly observe. intrauterine pressure in obstetrics. eg. the remote sensing of pressure also ﬁnds interesting applications in the automotive industry . air pressure in respiratory diseases. 2006). A few examples for these are (1) Tyre pressure sensor (2) Exhaust gas differential pressure sensor (3) Fuel rail pressure sensor (4) Gasoline direct injection pressure sensor (5) Fuel tank evaporative fuel pressure sensor etc. Here two types of pressure measurements are . They can act as a sensor to provide a machine with data (entering visually observed date into a computer) or even control the response of a machine (driving a car)(Nandor.
The absolute pressure is measured relative to perfect vacuum.1: Concept of a Resonant Absolute Pressure Sensor In order to be bio-compatible. A bulk micromachined pressure sensor typically uses a silicon membrane as the sensing element and piezoresistors or capacitors for data retrieval. forming a resonant LC circuit. Au or Cu.. 2005) integrates a capacitor and inductor in one small chip.of particular interest : (1) Absolute pressure and (2) Relative pressure (Singh et al. 2005). Figure 1. it is proposed to have the tank circuit on Sili2 . This may cause variation in the resistance of the piezoresistors fabricated on top of the membrane (Piezoresistive effect) or alter the gap between the membrane and a ﬁxed plate (Capacitive effect). The relative pressure is measured with respect to some reference pressure.2 Statement of the problem and objectives One of the proposed systems for implantable miniaturized continuous pressure measuring sensor (Peterson et al. stress is developed in the Silicon membrane. 1.. When a pressure is applied. The inductor is a spiral micromachined coil made by removing selected portions of a material from a conductive sheet of Al. The variation in resistance or capacitance can be sensed as a function of the applied pressure. The capacitive pressure sensing part consists of a thin deformable Si membrane that forms part of the ﬁrst wafer which is bonded to a second wafer that is already etched to form the gap of the capacitor.
The approach used was to simulate different structures and pick the one which gives maximum sensitivity and then fabricate it and test it to validate the results from the simulations. The pressure range of interest is 0. The sensor area is restricted to a size of 2mm × 2mm. 1.17 MPa.1 MPa . Chapter 5 describes the results of the simulation work done and also the process ﬂow used to fabricate the pressure sensor and the results of fabrication. a resonant pressure sensor. Chapter 6 presents the summary of the work done.12 MPa . Hence the pressure sensor should have a linear response in the range 0.0. Chapter 4 describes the previous work done on this project on which this research work is based. The objective of this project was to design an optimum structure for the pressure sensor operating within the speciﬁcations mentioned.3 Organization of the thesis This chapter presents in brief the relevance of pressure monitoring in biomedical and automotive applications along with a background and speciﬁcations of the proposed system.15 MPa. In Chapter 3 the basic design of a Capacitive pressure sensor id discussed. Chapter 2 describes the commonly used processes that are used in the fabrication of MEMS.0.It also describes the main objective of the research work done.con substrate. 3 .
For example. The implementation is based on a broad . and critical-point drying. emerged over the years within the MEMS community and remain limited to micromachining in their application (Maluf. Many are borrowed from the integrated-circuit industry. sacriﬁcial etching. There are. From a simplistic perspective. Silicon micromachining combines adding layers of material over as silicon wafer with etching(selectively removing material)precise patterns in these layers or in the underlying substrate. however.in addition to others developed speciﬁcally for silicon micromachining. in some processes. but its price is substantially discounted. lithographic tools used in micromachining are often times from previous generations of equipment designed for the fabrication of electronic integrated circuits.Another key difference is the minimum feature dimension-on the order of one micrometerwhich is an order of magnitude smaller than what can be achieved using conventional machining.There is no doubt that the use of process equipment and the corresponding portfolio of fabrication processes initially developed for the semiconductor industry has given the burgeoning MEMS industry the impetus it needs to overcome the massive infrastructure requirements. 1999). distinct differences. The equipments performance is sufﬁcient to meet the requirements of micromachining. such as anisotropic chemical wet etching. Micromachining is a parallel (batch) process in which dozens to tens of thousands of identical elements are fabricated simultaneously on the same wafer. Furthermore.dozens of wafers are processed at the same time. deep reactive ion etching. A few specialized processes.CHAPTER 2 Processes for Micromachining This chapter presents methods used in the fabrication of MEMS. micromachining bears a similarity to conventional machining in the sense that the objective is to precisely deﬁne arbitrary features in or on a block of material. wafer bonding.
including deep reactive ion etching. The follow ing sections describe some of the fundamentals of the basic process tools relevant to this thesis. The process is repeated until completion of the microstructure. including material deposition. These are the tools of MEMS (see Figure 2.1).portfolio of fabrication processes.Lithography is a photographic process for printing images onto a layer of photosensitive polymer (photoresist) that is subsequently used as a protective mask against etching. Epitaxy. metals. Figure 2.1: Illustration of the basic process ﬂow in micromachining: Layers are deposited. photo resist is lithographically patterned and then used as a mask to etch the underlying materials. insulators. Lithography plays a signiﬁcant role in the delineation of accurate and precise patterns. and spin-on methods are common techniques used to deposit uniform layers of semiconductors.and polymers. and etching techniques. chemical-vapor deposition. evaporation. 5 . Wet and dry etching. patterning. sputtering. form the essential process base to selectively remove material.
Sze. Arsine (AsH3 ) and phosphine (PH3 ).Oxidation mechanisms have been extensively studied and are well understood. respectively. 150◦C). Nominal growth rates are between 0.1 Epitaxy Epitaxy is a deposition method to grow a crystalline silicon layer over a silicon wafer. The compressive stress depends on the total thickness of the silicon dioxide layer and can reach 6 . Impurity dopants are simultaneously incorporated during growth by the dissociation of a dopant source gas in the same reactor.2. or silicon tetrachloride (SiCl4 ).2 Oxidation High-quality amorphous silicon dioxide is obtained by oxidizing silicon in either dry oxygen or in steam at elevated temperatures(850◦C1. it is polycrystalline. Common source gases are silane (SiH4 ). The epitaxial layer is typically 1 to 20µm thick. two extremely toxic gases. depending on the source gas and the growth temperature. Charts showing ﬁnal oxide thickness as function of temperature. diborane (B2 H6 ) is used for boron (p-type) doping.containing source gas. There are two reasons for the stress: Silicon dioxide molecules take more volume than silicon atoms.and there is a mismatch between the coefﬁcients of thermal expansion of silicon and silicon dioxide. Epitaxy is a widely used step in the fabrication of CMOS circuits and has proven efﬁcient informing wafer-scale p-n junctions for controlled electrochemical etching. are used for arsenic and phosphorous (n-type) doping. but with a differing dopant type and concentration.The growth occurs in a vapor-phase chemical-deposition reactor from the dissociation or hydrogen reduction at high temperature (> 800◦C) of a silicon. It exhibits the same crystal orientation as the underlying crystalline substrate. and time are widely available (S.g. 2. oxidizing environment.. a layer of silicon dioxide).2 and 4µm/min. dichlorosilane (SiH2Cl4 ). except when grown over an amorphous material (e.M. Thermal oxidation of silicon generates compressive stress in the silicon dioxide ﬁlm. 1988).
The exact opposite process happens in negative resistsexposed areas remain and unexposed areas dissolve in the developer. • Optical exposure to print an image of the mask onto the resist. Exposure to light in the 200 to 450 nm range (ultraviolet to blue) breaks down the sensitizer. The mask itself consists of a patterned opaque chromium (the most common). As a result. proximity. thermally grown oxide ﬁlms cause bowing of the underlying substrate. which is a photosensitive emulsion layer. causing exposed regions to immediately dissolve in developer solution. or iron oxide layer on a transparent fused-quartz or soda-lime glass substrate. In contact lithography. 2. Optical exposure can be accomplished in one of three different modes:contact.5µmand10µm. the mask touches the wafer. Moreover.3 Lithography Lithography involves three sequential steps: • Application of photoresist (or simply resist). This normally shortens the life of the mask and leaves undesired photoresist residue on the wafer and the mask. emulsion. Positive photoresist is an organic resin material containing a sensitizer.hundreds of MPa. The sensitizer prevents the dissolution of unexposed resist during immersion in the developer solution. A complete microfabrication process normally involves several lithographic operations with different masks.the mask is brought to 7 . It is spin-coated on the wafer with a typical thickness between 0.In proximity mode.often by electron-beam or laser-beam writing. The pattern layout is generated using a computer-aided design (CAD) tool and transferred into the opaque layer at a specialized mask-making facility. • Immersion in an aqueous developer solution to dissolve the exposed resist and render visible the latent image. freestanding membranes and suspended cantilevers made of thermally grown silicon oxide tend to warp or curl due to stress variation through the thick ness of the ﬁlm. or projection.
examples include exposure of thick resist. the alignment marks on the mechanically clamped mask are viewed from below by a set of dual objectives.lithographic patterns on both sides of a wafer need to be aligned with respect to each other with high accuracy. topographical height variations.By contrast. the fabrication of a commercial pressure sensor entails forming on the front side of the wafer piezoresistive sense elements that are aligned to the edges of a cavity on the back side of the wafer. front to back side pattern alignment. While resolution of most lithographic systems is not a limitation for MEMS.and an image is elec8 . Double Sided Lithography Often.First.have been incorporated in commercially available tools.2: An illustration of proximity and projection lithography. and large ﬁelds of view. Figure 2. also known as double-sided alignment.2).Wafers polished on both sides should be used to minimize light scattering during lithography. For example.within 25to50µm of the resist surface. lithography can be challenging depending on the nature of the application. Different methods of front-to-back side alignment.projection lithography projects an image of the mask onto the wafer through complex optics (see Figure 2.
Deep etching of silicon lies at the core of what is often termed bulk micromachining.the objective is to selectively remove material using imaged photoresist as a masking template. 2. For a successful etch. Etch processes for MEMS fabrication deviate from traditional etch processes for the integrated circuit industry and remain to a large extent an art.3: Double sided alignment scheme.No ideal silicon etch method exists.exposure of the mask on to the front side of the wafer is completed in proximity or contact mode.4 Etching In etching.The wafer is then loaded with the back side alignment marks facing the microscope objectives and positioned such that these marks are aligned to the electronically stored image. which may in turn be used as a mask for subsequent etches. The pattern can be etched directly into the silicon substrate or into a thin ﬁlm. there must be sufﬁcient selectivity (etchrate ratio) between the material being etched and the masking material. Figure 2.tronically stored. After alignment.leaving process engineers with 9 .
Figure 2.g. and selectivity of the etch to other materials. By contrast. anisotropic etchants etch in some directions preferentially over others.4: Etching proﬁles for different types of etchants. but nonplasma gas-phase etching is also used to a small degree. Anisotropic Wet Etching Anisotropic wet etchants are also known as orientation-dependent etchants (ODEs)because their etch rates depend on the crystallographic direction. It can be isotropic or vertical. resulting in rounded crosssectional features. etch medium. Wet etchants in aqueous solution offer the advantage of low-cost batch fabrication 25to50100-mm diameter wafers can be etched simultaneously and can be either of the isotropic or anisotropic type.4). Isotropic etchants etch uniformly in all directions. 10 . Distinctions are made on the basis of isotropy.techniques suitable for some applications but not others. which need not be perpendicular to the surface of the wafer (see Figure 2..The etch medium(wet versus dry)plays a role in selecting a suitable etch method.The list of anisotropic wet etchants includes the hydroxides of alkali metals (e. Dry etching involves the use of reactant gases. resulting in trenches or cavities delineated by ﬂat and well deﬁned surfaces. usually in a low-pressure plasma.
simple and quaternary ammonium hydroxides (e. and thin membranes. while (111) planes are etched at a rate about 100 times slower than for (100) planes (see Figure 2.2) Figure 2. 11 . KOH. CsOH). The (110) planes are etched in KOH about twice as rapidly as (100) planes. The solutions are typically heated to 70 − 100 ◦C. corresponding to the etch front being the (100) plane. Etch rates are typically given in the (100) direction.The latter feature is routinely used to make V-shaped grooves and trenches in (100) silicon wafers.g.5: Illustration of the anisotropic etching of cavities in 100-oriented silicon: (a) cavities. self-limiting pyramidal and V-shaped pits.1) (2. and ethylenediamine mixed with pyrochatechol (EDP) in water.NaOH. N(CH3 )4 OH).. which are precisely delineated by (111) crystallographicplanes. KOH is by far the most common ODE. and (b) etching from both sides o the wafer can yield a multitude of different shapes including hourglass-shaped and oblique holes.The overall reaction consists of the oxidation of silicon followed by a reduction step: Si + 2OH − → Si(OH)++ + 4e− (oxidation) 2 Si(OH)++ + 4e− + 4H2 O → Si(OH)−− + 2H2 (reduction) 2 6 (2.5).NH4 OH.
contacting and annealing Fusion Bonding The surfaces to be bonded have to be ﬂat and show an average roughness which is typically in the order of nanometers.The manufacturers of MEMS require wafer-level bonding of one silicon wafer to another silicon substrate or a glass wafer.2. This can be overcome by performing bonding process on a clean room of class 10 or 100. suitable for pressure sensors over a wide range of pressures. (2) direct bonding and (3) intermediate layer bonding which includes eutectic and glass-frit bonds.N. When used along with the wet or dry etching techniques. and (4) high aspect ratio structures which can compete with the LIGA process. 2007) is achieved by several different approaches such as (1) anodic bonding. the wafer bonding technique can be used to realize (1) membranes of thickness varying from couple of microns to several microns. The surfaces are then made hydrophylic and the bonding happens by relatively weak Van-der-Walls or Hydrogen Bridge bonding.level bonding of a silicon wafer to another silicon substrate or to a glass wafer plays a key role in all the leading-edge Micro. the general process of the wafer bonding follow a three step sequence consisting of surface preparation.Bhat et al. (2) complicated three dimensional structures for accelerometers for sensing acceleration and (3) multilayered device structures such as micropump suitable for biomedical and microﬂuidic applications.5 Bonding Wafer.. This provides a ﬁrst level packaging solution that makes these processes economically viable. Even though the process conditions used for all the three bonding techniques vary.Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS). Silicon wafer bonding for MEMS (K. The presence of particlerelated interface bubbles is a major obstacle in wafer bonding. Any kind of particle is detrimental to bonding and leads to unbonded areas or ’bubbles’ at the interface. 12 .
(b)Pressing Surfaces. (c)Binding Si-O bonds.(d)Binding SiSi bonds. 13 .6: Illustration of a wafer bonding process.Figure 2. (a)The two wafers to be bonded.
Figure 3.CHAPTER 3 Capacitive Pressure Sensors 3. but the ability to integrate signal conditioning circuitry close to the sensor allows highly sensitive. compensated devices to be produced.1: Examples of simple capacitance displacement sensors: (a) moving plate..1 illustrates three conﬁgurations for a simple parallel plate capacitor structure (Beeby et al.1 Capacitive Sensing Techniques The physical structures of capacitive sensors are relatively simple. Essentially the devices comprise a set of one (or more) ﬁxed electrode and one (or more) moving electrode. 2004). The technique nevertheless provides a precise way of sensing the movement of an object.1) wheree ε0 is the permittivity of free space.They are generally characterized by the inherent nonlinearity and temperature cross-sensitivity.and . the capacitance is given by C= ε0 εr A d (3. For a simple parallel plate capacitor structure. (b) variable area.A is the area of overlap between the electrodes.εr is the relative permittivity of the material between the plates. Figure 3. and (c) moving dielectric. ignoring fringing ﬁelds.
such as interdigitated capacitors. A common problem to all of these devices is that temperature will affect all three sensing parameters d. 3. This effect must be compensated for in some manner. preferably.1(b)depicts a device where the separation is ﬁxed and the area of overlap is varied.With such devices. Capacitor structures are relatively straightforward to fabricate. The movement is applied to a dielectric material (of permittivity εr ) sandwiched between two electrodes. More elaborate structures.the simple parallel plate capacitor equation only provides a crude estimate of the expected capacitance change.d is the separation between the electrodes. is changing and hence the capacitance varies in a nonlinear manner.Figure 3. and the effects of the fringing ﬁelds cannot always be ignored.whether by additional signal conditioning circuitry or. and the additional noise from the interface electronic circuits often exceeds that of a resistance-based system. Figure 3. however. A.1(c) shows a structure that has both a ﬁxed electrode distance and area of overlap. there is a linear relationship between the capacitance and area of overlap. In this case the separation.1(a) shows the simple case where the lower electrode is ﬁxed and the upper electrode moves. and membrane type devices are often used as the basis for pressure sensors and microphones. by geometric design. industrial control. are also used. Capacitive techniques are inherently less noisy than those based on piezoresistance owing to the lack of thermal (Johnson) noise. and εr .2 Micromachined Pressure Sensors Micromachined pressure sensors have found wide applications in areas such as automotive systems. environmental monitoring and biomed- 15 . With micromachined devices. resulting in changes in the signal output. d. Figure 3. the values of capacitance are extremely small (in the range of femto to attofarads). In this conﬁguration.The equation shows that the capacitance can be varied by changing one or more of the other variables.
Capacitive pressure sensor converts the pressure change into a capacitance variation. The reference pressure can be a sealed chamber or a pressure port so that absolute or gauge pressures are measured.Eaton and J. Most sensors for greater than atmospheric pressure share the common characteristic of deformable diaphragms.2: A schematic cross section of a typical pressure sensor diaphragm. (2002)). Figure 3. In diaphragm-based sensors. 16 . but generally takes the form of a square or circle.3: A cross section schematic diagram of a bulk-micromachined.3. more robust structure and lower power consumption compared to piezoresistive devices(Zhou et al.2 illustrates a schematic cross section of a typical pressure sensor diaphragm(W. lower which tends temperature coefﬁcients. A typical bulk-micromachined capacitive pressure sensor is shown in Figure 3. Figure 3. The shape of the diaphragm as viewed from the top is arbitrary.Smith (1997)). Dotted lines represent the undeﬂected diaphragm. pressure is determined by the deﬂection of the diaphragms due to applied pressure.H. capacitive pressure sensor. to provide higher sensitivity. respectively.ical diagnostics.P. Figure 3.
Figure 3. which in turn exhibits good linearity with respect to applied pressure (W. bossed diaphragm is on the right. In contact mode. this linearity comes at the expense of decreased sensitivity. A non-uniform.5 illustrates this concept.A capacitive sensor can be operated in contact mode to increase linearity (Figure 3. On the left is a cut-away view of a uniformthickness diaphragm and its corresponding cross-sectional deﬂected mode shape.5: A comparison of deﬂection shapes for uniform-thickness (left) and bossed (right) diaphragms. Hence the capacitancepressure characteristics wil be more linear. contact-mode pressure sensor. The thicker centre portion (or boss) is much stiffer than the thinner tether portion on the outside.4: A cross section schematic diagram of a bulk-micromachined. Figure 3.P. The centre boss contributes most of the capacitance of the structure and its shape does not distort appreciably under applied load.Eaton and J. However. Another method for achieving a linear response is to use bossed diaphragms. Figure 3.H. This holds true over a wide range of pressures.Smith (1997)). the capacitance is nearly proportional to the contact area.4). 17 .
single-crystal silicon is available in large quantities with high purity and low defect densities. as reported in a landmark article by Petersen in 1982 (K. or thin ﬁlms deposited on the substrate. but temperature coefﬁcients of resistance (TCRs) are high. The focus of this paper will be bulk and surface micromachining. Furthermore. high. 18 . and no mechanical hysteresis. high mechanical repeatability.2. silicon microsensors often require temperature compensation techniques. The mechanical properties of single-crystal silicon are excellent.3. Because of high TCRs.1 Materials The quality and reproducibility of constituent materials play a critical role in the commercial viability of pressure sensors. respectively. high stiffness.E. Piezoresistive gauge factors in silicon are higher than in metal.Petersen (1982)). It has high strength. In bulk micromachining one of the dominant materials is single-crystal silicon. where the desired mechanical structures are made from the substrate itself.
the resistors are placed such that two of the resistors (which experience more longitudinal stress) in a Wheatstone bridge conﬁguration increases and two resistors decreases (which experience more transverse stress) .17MPa. The piezo resistors are positioned on the membrane to get maximum sensitivity.CHAPTER 4 Previous Work As stated in Chapter 1 the approach used to reach at an optimum structure was to simulate different structure conforming with the given speciﬁcation and pick the best out of them. The pressure is varied from 0-0.The initial simulations were done for both Piezoresistive and Capacitive sensors . The membrane model is created by using the process ﬁle and layout (which speciﬁes dimensions of the membrane). To ﬁnd sensitivity the Gauge factor is given by G= ∆R/R Strain (4.1) . The position of resistors on the membrane is shown in the Figure 4.1.1 Piezo-resistive Pressure sensor The piezo-resistive pressure sensor is designed in Coventorware software. 4. All the sides of the membrane are made ﬁxed and pressure is applied at the top face.This chapter presents the previous work done which was the starting point of this research work. Memmech module is used for analysis. For a single crystal silicon piezo resistors as the longitudinal gauge factor and transverse gauge factor are almost same and opposite in sign.
5) 20 .4) (4.2) (4.3) ∆R = Πl σl + Πt σt R where σl is Longitudinal stress σt is Transverse stress Πl is Longitudinal piezo-resistive coefﬁcient Πt is Transverse piezo-resistive coefﬁcient As Young’s modulus E = stress/strain Π= Therefore ∆R Gl σl + Gt σt = R E Gl is Longitudinal Gauge factor Gl is Transverse Gauge factor E is the Young’s modulus The circuit equivalent for the structure simulated is given in Figure 4.2 G E (4.Figure 4.1: Structure Simulated in CoventerWare Piezo-resistive coefﬁcient Π is given by Π= ∆R/R Stress (4.
4 shows parallel capacitors 21 .2: Circuit Equivalent of the Structure V0 = − VIN VIN (R − ∆R) + (R + ∆R) 2R 2R ∆R V0 = ×VIN R (4.1 shown below gives the ∆C (Difference between no load capacitance and max. The Table 4.Figure 4.Thus sensitivity is proportional to Figure 4. The ﬁgure 4.2 shows the ∆C for the capacitors connected in parallel. (4. First. The Table 4. capacitance is found for different dimensions of the membrane by applying pressure to one of the electrodes and zero voltage to both the electrodes. Maximum pressure of 0.3 shows the for 1500µm × 1500µm × 5µm membrane for different pressures.6) (4.7) Sensitivity is given by S= V0 /VIN P ∆R R . This is modeled in Intellisuite software. load capacitance) for different dimensions of the membrane.2 Capacitive Pressure sensor In capacitive pressure sensor the capacitance between two electrodes is obtained for the applied pressure. 4.17MPa is applied in all cases. The ﬁgure shows the linearity within the range and Sensitivity is the change in resistance at 1bar pressure.8) where P is the pressure applied.
Figure 4.1 that the rows marked in bold gave the best possible 22 .1 simulated in Intellisuite.The thickness of the membrane is 5µm.It can be observed from Table 4.4: Capacitors connected in Parallel 4.17MPa.3: Results of the simulation of the structure in Figure 4. Figure 4.3 Observations Different structure were simulated at the maximum pressure of 0.
4944 0.17 500 × 500 4.542 2.212 2.45 1 0.6 0.142 1.934 0.2833 0.5883 0.582 1.987 3.462 0.6 0.297 0.612 4.981 4.104 1.152 1.78 3.472 2.17 350 × 700 2.6507 0.709 3.269 3.024 0.362 1.75 3 350 × 700 2.4284 0.72215 0.2: Table showing sensitivity for different sizes of capacitors connected in parallel with applied pressure of 0.859 2.908 1.4176 0.398 0.17 200 × 200 0.3214 0.17 300 × 300 0.17 400 × 800 4 5 0.886 2 0.627 0.907 0.36 200 × 400 0.203 0.661 2.07 0.26083 1.Pressure Dimension Deﬂection Gap Capacitance Capacitance ∆ C=C p −C (MPa) (µ m× µm) (µm) (µm) No load with load (pF) C(pF) C p (pF) 0.2118 0. Parallel Dimension Deﬂection Gap Capacitors (µ m× µm) (µm) (µm) 2 3 4 2 3 4 2 3 4 2 3 4 2 3 4 200 × 200 0.373 4.41512 0.863 0.1117 0.415 2.695 1.0212 1.7 0.256 0.6654 1.6326 1.362 2.17 250 × 250 0.2408 0.36 1.221 0.7 0.5676 0.17MPa and the spacing between the capacitors of 50µm.4369 0.604758 0.64645 0.17 400 × 400 2.295 1.1: Table showing sensitivity for different sizes of capacitors.8 1.13295 0.1764 0.5 0.77 3.6 2.17 250 × 500 0.506 3.46132 0.786 1.18 0.4148 0.707 3.656 0.17 200 × 400 0.262 0.57 4.713 0.99 2.83 2 0.8 0.882 1.3914 0.8 300 × 600 1.806 2.67076 0. 23 .466 0.59 3.131 1.7 2.559 0.17 300 × 600 1.8 4 400 × 800 4 5 Capacitance Capacitance ∆ C=C p −C No load with load (pF) C(pF) C p (pF) 1.356 0.17 450 × 450 3.696 0.5 Table 4.026 1.7 0.356 0.779 Table 4.17 350 × 350 1.17 500 × 1000 6.7794 0.183 2.091 0.7 5.1307 0.18 0.68 2.
24 .Hence linearity still needed to be veriﬁed.However these were done at maximum pressure of 0.17MPa.1 were simulated with capacitors in parallel considering the space constraints.The results are shown in Table 4.The following section discusses the results of simulation.Hence optimum structures from Table 4.2.Also theory shows that connecting capacitors in parallel increases the capacitance.Simulations were carried out the check these structure for linearity.sensitivities and those structures should be explored further.
If dmax < 1 µm then d = 2 dmax and if dmax > 1 µm then d = dmax + 1 µm.1 Simulation Results and Discussion The structures in Table 4. The device consists of two parallel plates of Silicon. • Mesh the device. • Save it in the Thermo Electro Mechanical module of Intellisuite • Set the simulation setting as Thermo Electro Mechanical Relaxation Analysis • Deﬁne material properties for the structure ( in this case that of (100) Si ) • Apply loading zero volts to both plates and the pressure on the top surface of the upper plate and appropriate boundary conditions.CHAPTER 5 Results and Discussion This chapter presents with the simulation and fabrication work done based on the observations made in the previous chapter.The simulation was done using Thermo Electro Mechanical (TEM) module of Intellisuite .1 to 0.17MPa to check for linearity of sensitivity with pressure. The four edges of the membrane are ﬁxed.2 were simulated for the pressure range 0.The procedure used for simulating in Intellisuite is described below. The lower plate is ﬁxed while the upper plate is deformable. The spacing d between them based on the work by Menon (2006) is ﬁxed depending on the value of dmax . Different values of pressure is applied and capacitance value is studied.The steps followed for this analysis are listed below : • Create a model of the capacitive pressure sensor using the 3D builder.Zero voltage is applied to both the plates.Where dmax is the deﬂection of a single plate at maximum pressure. . 5.
Hence this structure was chosen for further analysis.the structure having a linear response and maximum sensitivity is 350 × 700µm with 6 capacitors in parallel.Hence an actual structure to be fabricated. Now analysis was done on this structure to optimize the bonding area of the structure to minimize the stray capacitances due to the supports for the membrane. • However the response also becomes nonlinear on increasing the membrane size.2. • The sensitivity increases on increasing the membrane size.taking in to consideration the 26 . Figure 5. Thus.1: A meshed model of the device before simulation Several structures were simulated and the results are summarized in the Figure 5. A couple of observation can be made from the graph above. • After the analysis note down the value of capacitance.• Run static analysis. Figure 5.The thickness of the membrane is 5µm.1 shows an example structure simulated.
27 .2: Results of simulation showing (a)Sensitivity v/s Pressure and (b)Delta C v/s Pressure for different structures.Figure 5.
Figure 5.6 gives a schematic of the process steps involved in the fabrication of the pressure sensor.It also presents with the design of a mask which was made for testing the results from simulation.Hence it was decided to do simulation for a single capacitor and multiply the capacitance by 6 to get the results for the required structure.bonding area for the two wafers.Hence capacitance information could not be extracted.Thus the width of the mask 28 . simulations were done with smaller structures. As seen from Figure 5.Thus masks were designed to get the required pattern after etching.which effectively is also the gap between the adjacent capacitors.and gradually increased. 5.However. We want a rectangular cavity of 350 × 700µm.simulations didn’t converge for electromechanical analysis.6 Step 3 Lithography requires a mask to selectively etch the oxide and get a pattern on the wafer.due to unsatisfactory results from simulation it was decided to start with the fabrication work by designing a mask with bonding area width as 1500µm. To validate the reason for non-convergence being the large structure.Figure 5. However the structure was too large and hence only mechanical analysis could be done.Simulations were started with a single capacitor and it was found that simulations converged until 4 capacitors in parallel. was simulated.The results of mechanical analysis is shown in Figure 5.3 shows the structure simulated.5.based on previous results on bonding in the laboratory.4 shows the ﬁnal structure simulated with the bonding area width being 500µm.In the structure the layer II contributes to the bonding area.It was also found that capacitance for 2 and 4 capacitors in parallel was roughly 2 and 4 times the capacitance of a single capacitor respectively.2 Mask and Process steps Design This section describes the process ﬂow designed for the fabrication of the pressure sensor.Figure 5.
3: The structure simulated for further analysis. 29 .Figure 5.
Figure 5. 30 . Figure 5.4: The ﬁnal meshed structure simulated with parallel capacitors.5: The displacement proﬁle from mechanical analysis.
31 .Figure 5.6: Process ﬂow designed for the fabrication of the pressure sensor.
5.9 was used for both the top and bottom wafers.7: Anisotropic etching of < 100 > silicon.A mask was also designed for the metallization step which will be done after bonding to provide the contacts.1 the masks were designed for the patterning of the bottom and the top wafer using the etch depths z as 4 and 275µm respectively. However.Thus.opening wm is determined from etch depth z.a three layer mask was designed using the IntelliMask module of the Intellisuite software. 32 .due to some constraints in the lab the mask couldn’t be written and a different mask shown in Figure 5. 2002).Madou.Let us go through each processes. step by step and describe the procedure followed for each steps. Figure 5. wm = w0 + 2z cot α (5.74◦ which is the angle between the < 100 > and < 111 > planes (J.1) Using Equation 5.8.The masks designed are shown below in Figure 5.width of the bottom cavity w0 and the angle α = 54.3 Fabrication steps This section describes the process steps carried out to fabricate the capacitive pressure sensor for testing purposes.
(d)Layer 3-Metallization mask.(c)Layer 2-Top wafer. 33 .Figure 5.8: (a)The three layer mask.(b)Layer 1-Bottom wafer.
The wafer thickness was measured to be 307µm. followed by rinsing in deionised water and drying by blowing nitrogen with air gun.9: Mask used for fabrication purpose.2 Oxidation Oxide growth is carried out in a quartz diffusion tube in which the silicon wafer is o kept at a temperature of 1050◦C.Sze (1988)). 5.3. 2. Removal of these contaminants is called cleaning. High-density ceramic liner is used to serve 34 . Two p-type < 100 > Double Side Polished (DSP) quarter wafers were taken. To remove the inorganic impurities such as chromium and gold.Figure 5. rinsed with DI water and then dried with air gun. 5.The cleaning steps are: 1.3. Finally the wafer is dipped in dilute HF(HF:H2 O::1:10) to remove the native oxide. This leads to molecular contamination ( S. the wafer is boiled in HNO3 for 10 minutes. The wafer is then boiled in acetone for about 2 minutes till the start of bubble formation which removes the TCE.M. The wafer is boiled in hot organic solvent trichloro ethylene (TCE) for about 2 minutes till bubbles start to form to remove the organic impurities such as grease. 3. Now the wafer is ready for dilute oxidation. All these steps carried out for 10 to 20 minutes at 75 − 85◦C.1 Wafer Cleaning Semiconductor wafers are subjected to physical handling during the process.
To get good quality of oxide. 35 . Steps followed during the oxidation 1. Furnace is again switched to dry oxidation mode and oxygen is passed at the rate of 20 lts/hr for 15 minute. 5.3 Photolithography Photolithography was used to open the windows in the oxide on both the wafers. The above procedure gave an oxide thickness of about 0. The thermal oxidation furnace is switched on and the temperature is set to 1050◦C.3. which gives high oxidation rate. Thick layers are grown by wet oxidation method. In later stages the reaction is diffusion limited and oxide thickness is proportional to the square root of time. Loading and unloading of wafers are carried out in nitrogen ambient. is introduced into the furnace at the rate of 2lts/hr for a time of 4 hours for the top wafer and for 15 minutes for the bottom wafer. The furnace is kept in dry oxidation mode and oxygen at 20lts/hr is passed for 15 minute. 7.The steps used in lithography are listed below. The well cleaned p-type Silicon wafers are loaded into oxidation furnace. where oxygen bubbled through water at 98◦C.99µm(measured from ellipsometry measurements). 4.as a diffusion barrier to sodium. which is present in furnace heating elements (Sorab. The furnace is changed to wet oxidation mode. In the early stages of growth. 5. 3. 6. Annealing is carried out in nitrogen ambient at 20lts/hr for 30 minutes. 2.K.Gandhi (1983)). This process is carried to reduce the ﬁxed oxide charges. The oxidation rate increases with temperature and pressure. oxide thickness varies linearly with time. oxidation is carried out by alternative dry-wet-dry oxidation methods. slow push and pull rates are employed to reduce the steepness of thermal gradients.
5. 36 . after a small quantity of pre ﬁltered PPR has been coated on it. The mask is placed over the wafer and is exposed to UV light for 30 sec. Wet Si Etching To realize the membrane structure. wet etching is carried out using 40% KOH solution. The wafer is kept in post bake furnace for 5 minute to remove any moisture present. The wafer is rinsed in developer (sol. 3. 4. This beaker is placed in water bath and its temperature is raised to 80◦C using temperature controller.3. the wafer is placed in the beaker after giving a dip in dilute HF(HF:H2 O::1:10)solution for 1 minute. Before etching the back oxide is protected by coating thick PPR on back side of wafer. of 50 ml DI water and 3 pellets of KOH) followed by rinsing in DI water. 2. Now the wafer is ready for wet etching. The oxide in the exposed windows is etched by dipping the wafer in BHF solution for 12 minutes for top wafer and 2 minutes for bottom wafer followed by DI water rinse. After the required temperature is achieved. the wafer is rinsed in acetone followed by cleaning in H2 SO4 + H2 O2 (3 : 1) solution and then DI water rinse to remove unexposed and back coated PPR. The wafer is spun at 1000 rpm for 30 sec. 80 gm of KOH (in pellets) is taken with 200 ml of DI water and mixed proper manner to make perfect solution.4 Etching Oxide Etching 1.The beaker is then covered with lid. The wafer is pre baked for 20 minute at 80 − 90◦C. 6. 2. 5.1. The wafer is post baked at 120◦C for 30 minute. This removes the exposed PPR. After etching. 3.
Wet oxidation for 4 hours.12 also shows the 3-D etching pattern of the bottom wafer. The bottom wafer was also subjected to same etching conditions for 8 minutes and the etch depth was found to be 8µm. After etching both the wafers. 4. 4 hours of wet oxidation. Thus.photolithography and ﬁnally etch down to required thickness. Lithography 7.another wafer was taken and was subjected to the following steps.The etching proﬁles for both the wafers observed using the surface proﬁler is shown Figure 5.thus etch rate was calculated to be 56. 5. 3. RCA I (NH4 OH:H2 O2 :DI H2 O::1:1:5 solution for 20minutes at 80◦C) and RCA II clean(HCl:H2 O2 :DI H2 O::1:1:5 solution for 20minutes at 80◦C).It was concluded that the temperature of etching was high and was reduced to 76◦C for subsequent etching steps. 2. 37 .Etch rate from this was calculated to be around 58µm/hour.It was decided to do etching ﬁrst only for 3 hours and then again do oxidation. Lithography as described in Section 5.3.4.After etching for 3 hours and 20 minutes it was found that the oxide mask for the wet etching was also etched. As seen from the 2-D proﬁle the etch depth for the top wafer is not uniform.10 and Figure 5.Etch depth was calculated to be 170µm.top wafer was etched in BHF solution for about 5 minutes to remove any oxide left after the KOH etching. Etching for 2 hours and 15 minutes based on etch rate calculated in step 3.66µm. 1. 6. Figure 5.Possible reason suggested for this is that during second lithography mask pattern was not aligned exactly over the pattern after ﬁrst etching.11.The etch depth was found to be 298µm. Etching for 3 hours at 76◦C.
38 .Figure 5.10: (a)A two dimensional etching proﬁle of the top wafer(b)X-proﬁle of the etched windows showing the etch depth.
39 .11: (a)A two dimensional etching proﬁle of the bottom wafer(b)Xproﬁle of the etched windows showing the etch depth.Figure 5.
8. 5. Contact the wafers.3. 4. 7. Make the wafers hydrophillic by cleaning with DI water before loading the wafers. Unload the sample. 40 .12: A three dimensional etching proﬁle of the bottom wafer. 1. Decrease the temperature to 250◦C. 3.5 Bonding Once the etching was complete for both the wafers they were bonded.Figure 5. Increase the temperature to 450◦C. After following the above procedure the two wafers were successfully bonded. 6.The bonding procedure is outlined below. Apply tool pressure of 200mbar. 5. RCA I and RCA II cleaning 2. Make a vacuum of 2 × 10−5 mbar.
Cmax = 1.It can be inferred that the pull in occurs for positive voltage after approximately 10V.5mm2 . value of the capacitance the maximum deﬂection can be calculated from the equation below.which is close to etch depth of 8µm as seen from Figure 5.Figure 5.pull-in is not observed for negative voltage.the dissipation factor of the device was found to be high.indicating poor quality of oxide.2) where Cmin = 2.5 × 1.13: C-V curve of the device at 1KHz.5.98nF. A = 1.Also.7pF .4 C-V Measurements Once the wafer was bonded the C-V measurements were carried out on the device.13 shows the C-V curve.Substituting these values we get maximum deﬂection as 7. 41 .However.11.4µm. Also from the maximum and minimum Figure 5. d1 − d0 = 1 Cmin − 1 Cmax ε0 A (5.
It was also observed that when membrane dimensions reach 400µm non-linearity creeps in.It is suggested that simulations be carried out with different bonding areas to determine the optimum bonding area.it is suggested that fabrication be carried out with the mask in Figure 5.8 to validate the results from simulation.More characterization of the device can be done and relate voltage deﬂections with pressure. C-V measurements were done on the bonded device.However. Fabrication was carried out with a mask with 3mm × 3mm as the bonding area.CHAPTER 6 Summary and Further work Based on the simulation work it was concluded that the membrane structure with dimensions 350 × 700µm with six capacitors in parallel has the maximum sensitivity and a linear response.and it was found to be sufﬁcient as the bonding procedure was successful. .
CRC. 1999. VLSI Technology. 43 .Sze. A. Nandor. 420–457. (2006).Sivakumar. Smart materials and structures (Smart mater. Silicon as a mechanical material.E. Actuators and Microsystems. A silicon piezoresistive pressure sensor. Indian Journal of Pure and Applied Physics. (1997). N. N.. 6(5).Smith (1997).Eaton and J. struc. G. and M.K. DC. Peterson. Wafer bonding a powerful tool for mems. 5. 12. K. Second Edition. L. Qin. 2005. G.P. Singh. IIT-Madras. IEEE Proceedings. 9. 11. G. In DELTA ’02: Proceedings of the The First IEEE International Workshop on Electronic Design. 2005.. 70. K.Madou. A.DasGupta. Sorab. Huang.China. Chennai.Bhat. Q. Delft University of Technology. Seoul. John Wiley. Test and Applications (DELTA ’02). IEEE Computer Society. Anitha. Menon. 45. 2002.P. L. Nanjing. 1988. 4. Zhou. R. Key Laboratory of MEMS of Ministry of Education. P. Ensel. 10. Design of Pressure Sensors for Remote Sensing of Pressure. 2 edition. L. P. Southeast University.Natarajan (2007). and F. Fundamentals of Microfabrication: The Science of Miniaturization.Partamian. Seng..Petersen (1982).. 13. P. 1983.DasGupta. 2002.Lee. United States Patent 6939299. Mok.. K. VLSI FABRICATION PRINCILES Silicon and Gallium Arsenide. USA.D. Implantable continuous intraocular pressure sensor. A design methodology for low-cost. S. M. 6. J. M. K. Kumar. An Introduction to Microelectromechanical Systems Engineering. N. G. J.Bhattacharya. 7. and M. Artech House Publishers. Washington.A. S. Beeby.M. C. 8. V. 2. X. 530–539. Ngo. MEMS Mechanical Sensors. Kraft.Madhavi.. and K. Micromachined pressure sensors : review and recent developments.Kovacs. ISBN 0-7695-1453-7. Department of Electrical Engineering. S. high-performance capacitive sensors. Maluf.Ryan. Netherlands. Korea. T. F. T. 2004. H. A capacitive pressure sensor with a novel multi-layered composite membrane structure fabricated by a three-mask process.N. W.Gandhi. Rao.Joseph. John Wiley. and D. A. E. L. Artech House Publishers. 3.REFERENCES 1. S.H. In The 13th International Conference on Solid-state Sensors.) ISSN 0964-1726.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.