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DEVELOPMENT OF ALUMINIUM ALLOY COMPOSITES FOR ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS
Metal Composite Group, Regional Research Laboratory (CSIR), Bhopal – 462 026 (MP), India E-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org (Received 1 March 2004 ; in revised form 20 May 2004)
This paper describes the wear behaviour such as sliding wear, abrasive wear, erosion-corrosion etc. of Al alloySiC composite. Attempts have been made to make prototype components out of Al-SiC composites for automobile and mineral processing industries such as brake drum, cylinder block, refrax apex insert etc. The performance evaluation of the prototype components in actual field condition showed encouraging results.
Aluminium alloy composites (AACs) are becoming potential engineering materials offering excellent combination of properties such as high specific strength, high specific stiffness, electrical and thermal conductivities, low coefficient of thermal expansion and wear resistance 1-5. Because of their excellent combination of properties, AACs are being used in varieties of applications in automobile, mining and mineral, aerospace, defense and other related sectors 1-5. In the automobile sector, Al composites are used for making various components such as brake drum, cylinder liners, cylinder blocks, drive shaft etc. In aerospace industries, Al composites are used essentially in structural applications such as helicopter parts (parts of the body, support for rotor plates, drive shafts), rotor vanes in compressors and in aero-engines 6, 7. Lightweight body armour plate, track shoes of vehicles are also tried out for defense sectors 8. In general, Al composites are classified into two major groups depending upon the aspect ratio of the reinforcements. In the first category, the aspect ratio (l/d, l : length, d : diameter) is varied in the range of 100 – 10,000 in which, fibres are reinforced in metal matrix to achieve properties required for structural applications. In the second category, the aspect ratio of the reinforcement is in the range of 1-5 in which, the reinforcements are equiaxed in shape (particle/ whiskers); such type of Al composites are in great
interest in tribological application. The present paper is based on the second category of composite in which, hard ceramic particles, such as SiC, are reinforced in Al matrix and these composites are used in an environment where wear resistance is of prime consideration in addition to the weight saving. The components, which are subjected to severe wear, are mainly due to sliding action, abrasive, erosion and erosion-corrosion. Extensive studies have been carried out to assess the Al composites against various wear situation under varying triboenvironment and tribo-conditions. During the sliding action, the hard ceramic particles protrude the composite surface and resist wear of material. The sliding wear resistance of the composites with respect to that of alloy varies with the test parameters 9-12. Alpas and Zhang 10 noted three distinct regions of wear as a function of load. In the low load regime, the type of wear is designated as oxidative wear in which the oxide Al surface layer is removed during sliding process. In the medium load regimes, the wear of material is designated as mild wear in which the loss of material is dictated by asperity-to-asperity contact. However, in high load regime, the wear of material is controlled essentially by subsurface deformation and fracturing of the surface as proposed by Suh 13. In general, it is observed that the wear of the composite is reported less as compared to that of the alloy.
In the case of Al 6061 – SiC composite containing 20 vol. 2. LM13– 10 wt. MET. Limited studies have been carried out in studying the erosion-corrosion behaviour at different experimental factors like speed of rotation. On the other hand. over-ageing of composite resulted in achieving the best abrasion resistance. INDIAN INST.Ni.% SiC composite.00 wt. 2. 2. The disc was made of hardened EN24 steel having a hardness of 450 Hv. Studies on sand slurry erosion behaviour have reported that Al composites exhibited higher erosion resistance than their matrix alloy at shallow angle of impact 26.TRANS. Frictional heating and coefficient of friction were recorded from the digital display interfaced with the wear test machine. The steps involved in preparing the composite were melting the alloy. The wear rate was computed from weight loss measurement (accuracy level of 0. field assesed and the results are presented in this paper.00 wt. content of reinforcement and rack angle of the abrasive affect the wear behaviour 14 . NO. In the present paper.3 Sliding Wear Behaviour Dry and lubricated sliding wear tests of LM13 alloy and Composites were carried out using Pin-on-disc wear test apparatus under varying applied pressure upto a sliding distance of 5000 m or seizure which ever occurs earlier. continuous lubrication was provided with the use of SAE-40 lubricated oil at the wear track. Using Al-SiC composites.% Cu. 4. the possibility of fracturing of the reinforcement is more and results in enhancing the rate of wear 27. The silicon carbide particles (size: 50-80 m) were used as reinforcement for synthesizing LM13–10 wt..00 wt. However. slurry composition. it was mentioned that the wear resistance of composites increases with decrease in the abrasive particle size. Wear rate increased when the sand concentration increases and than decreased when the sand concentration is increased more than 60%. Erosion-corrosion behaviour of ZnAl alloy – Al2O3 composite depicted that composite showed better wear resistance than the alloy.50 wt.1 Materials Al-Si (BS: LM13) alloy was used as the matrix material. 1.2 Microstructure For microstructural investigation. The factors like shape.% Si. angle of impingement.80 wt. the cast and heattreated alloy and composite were mechanically polished using standard metallographic practices. The tests were carried out at a sliding speed of 1.% SiCp composite was prepared by dispersing hard particles in Aluminum matrix using stir-casting technique. 57. VOL. AUGUST 2004 Reinforcement of hard particles in Al matrix protects the matrix surface against destructive action of the abrasive during the abrasive wear process. Detailed sliding. dispersing the silicon carbide particles in the vortex of the melt and solidifying the composite melt in a predetermined cast iron mold. At higher angle of impingement. at normal impact angle. 1. 1. which is attributed mainly due to fragmentation of reinforcement phase. During lubricated wear tests. Aluminium composites have been proved useful in making marine and mineral processing machinery components experiencing erosion-corrosion wear in practice. Lin and Leu 20 reported that the abrasion resistance of Al-Zn-Mg-SiC composites controlled by ageing temperature and duration rather than ageing hardness. Wang and Hutchings 19 reported that coarse abrasive particles and high volume fraction of reinforcement results in decreased wear resistance.% of reinforcement.% Fe. attempts have been made to synthesis Al-SiC composite by solidification process.18.4 Abrasive Wear Two body abrasive wear tests were conducted on 40 35 5 mm3 rectangular specimens using a Suga Abrasion Tester (Model : NUSI. EXPERIMENTAL 2. Japan) at different 326 . etched with Keller’s reagent and observed in a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM).% Mn and balance was Al.% .50 wt. the transition in the wear behaviour was observed when the size of abrasive was less than 20 m. 21-25. The abrasive wear resistance of the composite is enhanced by several factors due to reinforcement of hard particles.001 mg).% Mg. size of erodent etc. reverse wear trends was observed. Further. 0. Al-Si alloy melt was also cast in the same mold. a number of automobile and mineral processing components were made.2 m/s. This was explained on the basis of anchoring and contraction mechanism. stirring the melt using a mechanical stirrer. The alloy contains 11. 2. 0. abrasive and erosive-corrosive wear have been studied and the results are presented.
DAS : DEVELOPMENT OF ALUMINIUM ALLOY COMPOSITES FOR ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS applied loads (1N – 7N). The brake drums were tested as per IS specification at VRDE. height : 5 mm) of the matrix alloy and composites were carried out using rotating sample test method. The Al . A metallic die was prepared conforming to the dimensions of Jonga jeep and the brake drums were prepared. Ahmednagar and Vehicle Factory. 1 : Microstructure of Al-Si (LM13 alloy) shows (a) the dendrites of aluminum and eutectic silicon in the interdendritic regions and around the dendrites (b) sharp-edges plate-shaped Si in Al matrix (c) LM13 .10% SiC composite through gravity casting in a cast iron permanent die. 2. blunt due to abrasive action. thickness: 12 mm). The load over the specimen was applied through cantilever mechanism. 900 and 1100 rpm) in three different slurries namely 3.%. The specimen was fixed with a locking arrangement against the abrasive medium. The brake drums were fitted in Modified Nissan Jonga Jeep and their performance was evaluated for a period of two years running. Emery papers.15 wt.%. was measured using a microbalance.15% SiC composite Fig. The specimens were kept at a radial distance of 75 mm from the center of the disc in such a way that the circular cross section of the sample made normal impact with the slurry.5 Erosive-Corrosive Wear The erosion–corrosion tests of metallographically polished cylindrical disc samples (diameter : 16 mm. It is observed that the abrasive particles.% and 40 wt. The fade test and the rise in temperature were found out. 30 wt. 2.15 wt.% SiC composite shows good interfacial bonding between aluminum matrix and silicon carbide particle 327 . to serve as the abrasive medium. 3. The loss of weight of the specimen.5% NaOH and synthetic mine water plus varying amount of sand (20 wt. Jabalpur. (size: 80 mm) were cut into exact dimensions and fixed on a wheel (diameter: 50 mm.% SiC composite shows uniform distribution of SiC particles in Aluminum matrix (d) LM13 .5% NaCl. The wear rates were calculated by weight loss methods.).6 Component Development Automobile component such as brake drum confirming to the dimensions of Nishan Jonga Jeep is prepared using Al . containing SiC particles. Tests were performed at three different speeds (700. before and after each test. in the emery paper.
13 MPa under dry and lubricating conditions and at a pressure of 1.09 & 0. AUGUST 2004 was used to make refrex apex insert and were tested in D-15 cyclone at Rampura Agucha Mines of Hindustan Zinc Limited. 1(d)). The maximum temperature noted in case of alloy and composites are 85oC and 70oC respectively. the wear rate becomes very high. shows uniform distribution of SiC particles in Aluminum matrix (Fig. Similar kind of trend is noted under lubricated wear. MET. 4.1 Microstructure The microstructure of Al-Si (LM13) alloy. NO.75 and 0. 1(b)). 3. This signifies that addition of SiC leads to improvement in seizure pressure of alloy by 2. 2(a). It is evident from this figure that at a fixed applied pressure of 0. It is noted that the transition pressure in the alloy and composites are 0. RESULTS 3.02 respectively. This signifies that composites can withstand higher temperature rise before seizure.15 wt.TRANS.% SiC composite. The alloy seizes at a pressure of 0. in as cast condition.2 Sliding Wear The wear rate as a function of applied pressure for the alloy and composites are shown in Fig. (a) 3. It is noted from this figure that the maximum temperature rise in the alloy and composites are 48oC and 35oC respectively when the tests were conducted at a pressure of 1.5 MPa under dry and lubricating conditions are noted to be 0.34 MPa respectively. The transition pressure is the indication of tending towards seizure condition. At seizure. The micrograph of LM13 .2 : (a) The wear rate as a function of applied pressure of LM13 alloy and LM13-SiC Composite (b) Maximum temperature rise during sliding wear of LM13 alloy and LM13 – SiC composite (applied pressure : 0. shows the dendrites of aluminum and eutectic silicon in the interdendritic regions and around the dendrites (Fig.13 MPa for the alloy and composite is shown as bar chart in Fig. The seizure temperature of the alloy and composites are noted to be 110oC and 165oC respectively.5 MPa. This might be due to the presence of lubricating oil at the contacting surfaces. alloy and composites.26 MPa where as the composite seizes at a pressure of 0. At a critical applied pressure the wear rate shoots up very rapidly.13 MPa alloy Fig. composite and alloy exhibits almost same coefficient of friction. 57. It is evident from this figure that the wear rate increases monotonically with increase in applied pressure. Maximum temperature rise at an applied pressure of 0. In both the cases.72 & 0. VOL. This figure also indicates that the seizure pressure in composites is significantly higher than that of the alloy. 1(c)). the wear rate initially increases at slower rate with applied pressure.5 times.65 MPa.13 MPa) (b) suffers from higher temperature rise as compared to the composite.13 MPa and 0.. Coefficient of friction for the alloy and composites at an applied pressure of 0. 1(a)). This signifies that at dry and lubricated sliding conditions. A higher magnification micrograph of LM13 alloy in as cast condition shows sharp-edges plate-shaped silicon in aluminum matrix (Fig. INDIAN INST. 328 . This critical pressure is termed as transition pressure at which the wear mechanisms may be changing from mild oxidative type of wear to delaminating type. in as cast condition. A higher magnification micrograph of LM1315 wt% SiC composite shows good interfacial bonding between aluminum matrix and silicon carbide particle (Fig. 2(b).
at 7N load and 80 m abrasive size. 3(a).10 wt. It represents that the mild wear is prevailing even at abrasive size of 80 m and at a load of 1N. when the abrasive size is increased to 80 m.SiC composite 329 . (a) The effect of abrasive size on the wear rate of LM13 alloy and LM13 .3 Abrasive Wear Effect of load on the wear rate of LM13-alloy and LM13-SiC composite. and it increased to 27. 3 : (a) Effect of applied load on the abrasive wear rate of LM13 alloy and LM13.15 wt. The abrasive wear mechanism maps of alloy and composites.SiC composite (b) Effect of abrasive size on the wear rate of LM13 alloy and LM13 .% SiC composites. A triangular region formed by AA’ and BB’ lines is corresponding to transition zone representing mixed wear mechanism. the wear rate of LM13 . 3(b). at an applied load of 7N.8 x 10-11 m3/m when the load was increased to 7N. At extreme condition i.5 x 10-11 m3/m at a load of 1N. at abrasive size of 80 m and after a sliding distance of 108 m.10 and 15 wt.% SiC composite (Fig. 4(a).% SiC composite (Fig.% SiC composite.% SiC composites. is shown in Fig. recorded to be around 12. The wear mechanism map of LM13 . For example.4 Erosive-Corrosive Wear The variation of erosive-corrosive wear rate of LM13 alloy. But severe wear is noted at an abrasive size of 40 m and at a load of 7N. However.10 and 15 wt. It is noted that the wear rate of LM13 alloy reduced significantly with the addition of SiC particle in Al alloy. The wear mechanism map of as cast LM13 alloy . 4(c)) shows that for a considerably wide range of applied load and abrasive size.DAS : DEVELOPMENT OF ALUMINIUM ALLOY COMPOSITES FOR ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS 3.e. 5(a). 4(b)) exhibited mild wear even upto a abrasive size of 60 m and at a load of 3N. Similarly in the case of LM13 15 wt. is more or less same when the abrasive size is in the range of 40 to 60 m. It is evident from this figure that the wear rate of all the materials decreased with sliding distance to approach to a more or less stable value. is shown in Fig. the wear rate at a load of 3N.65 x 10-11 m3/ m at a load of 7N. as a function of abrasive size and load are constructed using the following steps : (i) measuring of wear rate of alloy and composites as a function of load and abrasive size (ii) identification of wear mechanism based on wear data (iii) pointing the wear rate of the sample (iv) draw boundary lines to differential areas in the figures corresponding to specific wear mechanism. mild wear is prevailing and the transition zone is found to be very narrow. severe wear is taking place. LM13 – 10% SiC and LM13 – 15% SiC composite as a function of sliding distance in NaCl + 30% sand slurry is shown in Fig.10wt. It shows that the wear rate of alloy and composites increases with the increase in load.% SiC composite was found to be 4. This may be the transition in wear mechanism when the abrasive size is increased from 60 m to 80 m. It may be noted that the wear rate of LM13 alloy and LM13 . 3. However the wear rate of 10% SiC composite increased initially and then decreased to a stable value. It is also observed that the alloy exhibited greater wear rate in this media compared to (b) Fig.5 x 10-11 m3/m and it increases to 24. the wear rate of alloy and composites increased drastically. The wear mechanism map of as-cast LM13 alloy is shown in Fig.
MET. the wear rates of composites decreased monotonously with sliding distance and no stable regime was observed. 18 x 10-15 m3/m respectively. NO. Wear rate of these materials as a function of sliding distance in NaCl slurry containing varying concentrations of sand (0 . 4.15 % SiC composite. 21 x 10-15 m3/m.40%) is shown in Fig. VOL.% SiC composite composites. 6(a). The effect of changing slurry composition is clearly evident in this figure. It is noted from this figure that irrespective of the material. Amongst the composites. 4 : Abrasive wear mechanism maps of Al-Si (LM13) alloy and LM13-SiC composite showing regimes of wear mechanism : (a) LM13 alloy (b) LM13-10 wt. the alloy experienced significantly greater wear rate compared to both the composites. the Al . However. 57.10% SiC composite experienced greater wear rate as compared to 15% SiC composite. Figure 5(b) shows the variation of wear rate of these materials in acidic medium containing 30% of sand. Al .10% SiC composite exhibited higher wear rate compared to Al . Amongst the composites. Further these materials experienced marginally lower wear rate compared to NaCl media. AUGUST 2004 Fig.TRANS. the wear rate increases as the sand concentration is increased from 330 .15% SiC composite were found as 31 x 10-15 m3/m. After a sliding distance of 763 km the wear rates of LM13 alloy LM13 10% SiC composite and LM13 . In this medium.% SiC composite (c) LM13-15 wt. INDIAN INST.. Further the wear rate of the alloy approached to a peak value and then decreased to attain a stable value in contradiction to what was observed in NaCl media.
i. 5 : Effect of Reinforcement on the Erosion-Corrosion Behavior of LM13 alloy and LM13 – SiC composite in (a) NaCl medium (b) Acidic medium 0 . It is observed that in this medium also the wear rate increased as the sand concentration is increased irrespective of the material. 49% and 33% respectively and 27%.15% SiC composite. The brake drums for modified Nishan Jonga Jeep (for defence). Taking strong feed back from FEM designing/studies AMCs have been synthesized for Brake drums (Fig.15% SiC composite exhibiting highest wear rate. composites exhibited higher wear rate compared to the alloy with Al .10% SiC and Al . Figure 6(b) shows the variation of wear rate of these materials with sliding distance in acidic slurry containing different concentrations of sand. Thus the improvements in the wear resistance exhibited by Al . 30.10% SiC composite exhibited higher wear rate compared to Al .5 Al Composite Component Development 3. at the stable regime. Tata Sumo.15% SiC composites were 10%. Bajaj Auto and cylinder blocks confirming to the dimensions of Bajaj Auto have been successfully cast and machined to the required dimensions.e. 7(a)) and the cylinder blocks (Fig. Al 10% SiC composite exhibited higher wear rate at all sand concentrations compared to Al . 40%) except for pure solution containing no suspended particles (0% sand). 68% and 49% respectively when the sand concentrations were 20%. 30% and 40% respectively. It is also evident from this figure that the alloy exhibited higher wear rate compared to that of the composites irrespective of the sand concentration. In case of pure solution the trend was vice versa.15% composite for all sand concentrations ranging from 20 . Amongst the composites. 3.1 Development of Automobile Components Attempts have been made to develop few prototype automobile components such as brake drums/discs and cylinder blocks for four-wheeler as well as for two wheelers. 6 : Effect of Sand Concentration on the Erosion-Corrosion Behavior of LM13 alloy and LM13 – SiC composite (a) Marine Environment (b) Acidic Environment Fig.5. One set of brake drums for rear and front wheels have been fitted in the Nishan Jonga Jeep and it ran successfully for several 331 . 7(b)).DAS : DEVELOPMENT OF ALUMINIUM ALLOY COMPOSITES FOR ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS Fig.40%. Maruti Omni.40%. Further the alloy exhibited higher wear rate compared to the composite at all sand concentrations (20. Similarly the Al .
(ii) elastic and plastic incompatibility between the matrix and reinforcement which leads to interaction stress. NO. Additionally. In addition. As a result composite materials exhibits a good combination of strength and toughness. AUGUST 2004 (a) from Vehicle Factory. 8 : Refrex Apex Insert for D-15 hydrocyclone thousands hours without any problem. These phenomena lead to higher high temperature strength. MET. Ahmednagar. it is found that the composite apex would be cheaper than the existing one.TRANS. 4. composite exhibits good thermal conductivity and less thermal expansion coefficient. 8) used in the hydrocyclone using AMCs. abrasive wear behaviour and mechanical properties. The addition of ceramic reinforcements leads to strengthening of the alloy due to following facts: higher dislocation density due to the existence of thermal residual stress (because of significant difference in thermal expansion coefficient between the matrix and reinforcement). This work was sponsored by DRDO. At higher Fig. While analyzing the cost of the component. (b) Fig. the temperature rise in AMC-brake drum (97°C) is considerably less as compared to that of the cast iron (147°C) brake drum. Under the project sponsored jointly by DST. a set of refrex apex insert for D-15 hydocyclones of Rampura Agucha Mines of Hindustan Zinc Ltd. This makes the composite materials more thermally stable. VOL. (iii) resistance to flow of the matrix material. Jabalpur stated that the brake drums worked satisfactorily without any difficulty. In this direction attempts have been made to develop a component namely refrex apex insert (Fig. stiffness and strength of hard ceramic reinforcements. It is observed that these hydrocyclones worked for 1200 hours. DISCUSSION Aluminium matrix composites are designed to have the toughness of the alloy matrix and the hardness. The test results show that the braking efficiency of AMC-brake drum is around 20% higher than that of the cast iron brake drum. The P-type and N-type tests of the brake drums have been conducted at VRDE.. are cast and machined to the required dimensions. 7 : (a) Brake drum of Nissan Jonga Jeep (b) Cylinder block for Bajaj Auto 4. it is thought that AMCs could be the promising material for the mineral industries where the components are subjected to severe wear and corrosion.5.2 Development of Refrex Apex Insert After detailed observation of the slurry erosioncorrosion behaviour. which are equivalent or better than the performance of the existing Gum-Rubber components. As a result composite could be used at much higher temperature as compared to that of the alloy. 57. 3. DOM and CSIR. The report 332 . while the weight reduction is around 60%. INDIAN INST. These components are fitted in D-15 Hydrocyclones at Rampura-Agucha Mine and its performances are monitored.
In case of erosion-corrosion wear two types of wear mechanisms are simultaneously occurring on the specimen surface: the corrosion and erosion. the SiC particles remain protruded over the specimen surface. which leads to reduction in corrosion. The SiC particles not only improve the strength of the alloy but also resist plastic flow of the matrix material at high temperature. particles are more or less uniformly distributed in the matrix and eutectic silicon phases are surrounding the particles. But during erosion a considerable amount of material gets removed either by abrasive types of wear or by impact type of wear. in general. In addition. abrasion. Wear rate increases almost linearly with the applied load. Composites exhibit improved wear resistance and seizure pressure as compared to the alloy under both dry and lubricated sliding wear. Thereby the protruded particles lead to less nominal contact between the two counter surfaces. The field trial results were quite encouraging and suggested to carry out further development for commercial exploitation. The above discussions. The interface between the particle and the metallic matrix is found reasonably good. preferably by nobler ceramic phase. In particulate composites. preferably at the particle-matrix interface is expected to give higher corrosive wear as compared to the alloy. size of dendrites and cooling rates. In fact these particles help in retaining strength of the alloy at higher temperature. the hard ceramic phase protect grain boundary sliding and thus prevent easy flow of material. It is further observed that erosive-corrosive wear is primary controlled by the erosive wear. the improvement is noted to be more at low load and finer abrasive size. But the area covered. Aluminium composite so developed exhibit uniform distribution of the particle in the matrix and good interface bonding between the ceramic phase and the metallic matrix. Additionally. 5. Further. in composites. As the erosive corrosive wear is 333 . Thus when the composite surface comes in contact with the other surface. In view of these facts. show that the composites have superior wear resistance as compared to the alloy in most of the tribo-environments. Aluminium composite provides higher wear resistance than those of the base alloys in all tribo-conditions. In fact. is considerably high in composite. ceramic particles either pushed by the solidification front to the last freezing eutectic phase or get trapped in the interdendritic region or at the primary dendrites depending on the size of particles. In case of high stress abrasive wear. temperature rise in composite at affixed applied load and sliding speed is less as compared to the alloy. All these factors lead to improvement in seizure pressure of the alloy due to particle additions. As a result. Thus. the composite exhibits more or less same wear rate to that of base alloy. composites exhibit considerably higher wear resistance as compared to the alloy. In the present composite systems. because of less contact and considerably good thermal conductivity. the composites perform superior to the alloy under erosive-corrosive environment. Bhopal has developed few Al composite components and their performance was evaluated in actual field conditions. These lead to the development of wear resistance components for automobile and mining applications. frictional heating and coefficient of friction are noted to be considerably less in composite as compared to that in the alloy. In fact. SiC particles improve wear resistance of the alloy against both these types of wear. the effective contact is controlled by these protruded particles. attempts have been made to use composites in several engineering applications. these SiC particles being very hard and remains protruded over the specimen surface protect the matrix alloy from different types of wear such as sliding. Regional Research Laboratory. it is strongly dictated by the alloy composition and processing parameters. erosion-corrosion etc. CONCLUSIONS The aluminum alloy hard particle composite can successfully be synthesized by solidification process (stir casting or vortex technique). Beyond a critical load and abrasive size.DAS : DEVELOPMENT OF ALUMINIUM ALLOY COMPOSITES FOR ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS temperature. The addition of SiC particles also decreases sticking and adhesion tendency with the counter surface. The galvanic corrosion. The corrosion resistance of the composite is comparable to the base alloy irrespective of the corrosive media. These two counter facts may lead to almost comparable corrosion rate in alloy and composite. The wear of materials primarily depends on interfacial strength and the distribution of particles.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would like to thank Dr. Mathews S J. 5.. Rohatgi P K in P. ASME. Prog. Nichols J. and Dept. Pan Y M. and Liu K Shung. Shri R. Brian Ferry.. Ludema. Suh N P.Rohatgi. I am thankful to Dr. Regional Research Laboratory (CSIR). Das S. Alpas A T and Zhang J. Fine M E and Gheng H S. Wear 157 (1992) 189. Inst. 23. AUGUST 2004 dominated by erosive wear. 1 (1989) 23. P. Mrs.K. Tribo. 13 (1994) 170. 111 (1990) 91. Fiest M. N. ZumGahr K H. Rohatgi P K. Review. Int. Sunita Sawla. K. Dept. NO. Mater. Suh and N Saka. Delius R L. 35. A161 (1993) 273. Kosel T H. Ye-Ying S. Cast Aluminum Metal Matrix Composite. Phy.Blau. REFERENCES 1. D. 26. of Mines. Tribology of Composite Materials (eds. 8. R & D Organisation. (1990) 147. This demonstrates the possibility of casting of Al-composite in intricate shape of thinner section also (Cylinder blocks). 16. Sci. and Glyn Janes. Conf. Zianwu X. 9. Adv. Conf. 17. Dasgupta Rupa. Ramakrishnan. Turenne S. Cambridge. Tech. ZumGhar K H. USA Denver.J. 15 (1999) 933. Int. Shri Rajendra Gupta for their help in preparing the manuscript. 12. Prasad B K. Int. Axen N. Tomilson W J. Int. Met. Hutchings I M. MET. Sci. 21. Lin S.S. INDIAN INST.. Wear 203204 (1997) 119. Rao. Sci. Mondal D P. The MIT Press. the erosive-corrosive wear rate of the composite is noted to be less than that of alloy. Process. Ser. 1994. 334 . Sci. JOM (April. 19.P. Fundamentals of Trobology. Surbramanian C. Routbort J L. 22.TRANS.N. 2001) 12. Miracle D. and Fukizawa. Sci. Yellup J M. 57. Jain-main T. 18 (1985) 101. Cost analysis of these components showed that these components could be exploited commercially. Engg. 42. 26 (1992) 505. Review. Noguchi M. 1991). Yu V. Das S. 443. 39 (1994) 1. Author acknowledges the financial support received from Council of Scientific & Industrial Research. Wear Mater. Dasgupta R. C. 13. 5 (1989) 71.C. J. Modi O P. 143 (6) (1993) 20. Simrod S. 3 MMC. Hua-Ji Z Chingan Z.Mater. Technol. Def. JOM (April. Lett. Alpas A T and Zhang J. 24 (1990) 1341. Wear 149 (1991) 187. Scripta Metall. Goretta K C. 11. MMC. Chem. of Science & Technology. 6. 7. Saraswathi. Anthony Kelly. Jha A K and Mondal D P. (April 2001) JOM 18.Yust. 15. Wang A G. Mater. Rawal S. 2. OH. JOM (April 2001) 14. Lloyd D J. Several automobile components like brake drums and cylinder blocks and engineering components like refrax apex insert for D-15 hydro cyclones are made out of Al-SiC composite. 4. Proc.. Elsevier Science Publishers Limited. and Hutchings I M. Met. I would like to acknowledge the support of many of my colleagues who have contributed to this work over the last fifteen years. Wang A.L.K. Kulik T. 31 (3)(1986).P. Asthana R. 116 (1979) 4. Comprehensive Composites Material. Dr. Scripta Metall. 14. Rohatgi P K. 25. 24. 20. The performance evaluation of these components in actual operating conditions demonstrated that the composite components have the potential to replace the existing components. 10. Eng. 4. Hutchings I M. Mat. Bhopal for encouragement and granting permission to publish this paper.). Met. ASM International. Mater. 115-119.. Y. Carl Zweben (eds) 701-716. Wu W. 27. 3. VOL. 18. Prasad B K. Ed. Director. Wear 236 (1999) 295. Mondal. Wear 121 (1988) 1-14. 42 (1987) 869. The mechanical. tribological and electrochemical properties of composite makes it a potential material for automobile and related engineering applications. Ed: N.
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