You are on page 1of 9

EEA APEX 07 Northern Summit 1 November 2007

Study of Differential Protection and Current Transformer Behaviour


David Spackman
(Presenter)

& Dr. Nirmal Nair (N.Nair@auckland.ac.nz)


Power Systems Group

Study of Differential Protection and Current Transformer Behaviour


Outline:
Differential Protection Scheme Current Transformers
Modelling with JMAG

The Relay Test Bench: RTP System


Components Testing of Relays

Conclusion

Differential Protection Scheme


Transformers Generators Large motors

Credit: Art & Science of Protective Relaying

Differential Protection Scheme

Credit: Art & Science of Protective Relaying

Differential Protection Scheme


Restraint current De-sensitizes relay at high fault current levels

Credit: Art & Science of Protective Relaying

Differential Protection Scheme

IOP = i1 i2 IRT = k i1 +i2 TRIP IOP > slopeIRT


Credit: SEL brochure

Differential Protection Scheme


Issues:
Performs well, as long as CTs reproduce primary currents correctly CT saturation Mismatch between CT ratios and Transformer ratio Tap change transformers Phase shift for delta-wye connections These are overcome by:
Detecting harmonics caused by CT saturation to provide further restraint Dual slope/variable percentage for heavy CT saturation Connection compensation of CTs for phase shift

Current Transformers
CT equivalent circuit

Credit: Practical Power Systems Protection

Current Transformers
Transient behaviour

Current pu

Flux - pu

Current Transformers: JMAG


JMAG: Finite Element Method (FEM) magnetic modelling software Point sequence Model is solved for every time step
Current Point Sequence
800 600 400 Primary Amps

Current Point Sequence: Transient


1000 800 600 Primary Amps 400 200 0 0 -200 -400 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80

200 0 0 -200 -400 -600 4 8 12 16 20

-600
-800 Time (ms)

-800 Time (ms)

Current Transformers: JMAG

Current Transformers: JMAG


Simulation results: Steady State
CT Ratio 400:5
800

Primary Current (A)

600 400 200 0 -200 -400 -600 -800

Secondary Current (A)

8 6 4 2 0 -2 -4 -6 -8

Relay Test Bench: Aims


To provide an environment where transient and steady state power system waveforms can be produced (at the VT/CT secondary level) So that:
Existing relay performance under transient conditions can be examined New power system protection developments can be researched

Relay Test Bench: History


Real-Time-Playback (RTP) unit purchased 2006 Summer project by Rebecca Stevens & Stephen Zhao to set up this unit Dec 2006 Feb 2007 Progress reported by Rebecca and Stephen at EEA conference July 2007 Voltage amplifiers arrive August 2007 Current amplifiers arrive September 2007 Commissioning of V. amps by Stephen Zhao Aug Oct 2007 Commissioning of I. amps by David Spackman Sep Oct 2007 Testing of GE and Siemens relays Oct 2007

Relay Test Bench: Overview


Power system simulation: PSCAD -> RTP Recorder Loaded via ethernet into Real Time Playback (RTP) unit On command:
Output from up to 12 analog channels Output from up to 8 logic outputs Receive up to 8 logic inputs

Amplification of signals Input to relays

Relay Test Bench

PSCAD
Power system simulation, generators, transmission lines, transformers, loads, etc. Nodes selected for waveform recording PSCAD

Relay Test Bench

Playback
Load recorded RTP waveforms Can also load Comtrade files, other waveform data PSCAD Playback

Relay Test Bench

Real Time Playback:


Power System Waveform Generator
PSCAD Playback
Ethernet

RTP
12 Analog Outputs 10 VAC via BNC connectors 8 Logic inputs (accept 110 VDC) Ethernet communication to PC network

Relay Test Bench

Voltage Amplifiers:
EPRI 32500, supplied by AE Techron
PSCAD Playback
Ethernet

RTP
3 Units 100 x voltage amplification Can deliver +/- 325 V peak @ 0.2 A peak 200V/s Amplifiers

Relay Test Bench

Current Amplifiers:
AE Techron LVC5050 RLY Linear Amplifier PSCAD Playback
Ethernet

RTP
Designed to drive resistive and low inductive loads for protective relay testing 1V input = 10A output Max 73A for 40ms (into <1 ohm) Continuous 1740 W (into <1 ohm) Amplifiers

Relay Test Bench Relay Test Bench


GE Multilin F35 Feeder Protection Relay

PSCAD Playback
Ethernet

RTP
Amplifiers

Courtesy: CSE Uniserve

Relay

Relay Test Bench


Siemens SIPROTEC 7SJ64 Numerical Multifunction Relay

PSCAD Playback
Ethernet

RTP
Amplifiers

Relay

Relay Test Bench: Future Work


Further co-ordination of system Obtain differential relay and test Transient testing Co-ordination with IEC 61850 research

Conclusions
Differential protection scheme investigated
Modern relays compensate for CT saturation

JMAG FEM modelling of Current Transformers


Method for simulating transient currents

Relay Test Bench


Current and Voltage amplifier testing Relay testing

EEA APEX 07 Northern Summit 1 November 2007

Study of Differential Protection and Current Transformer Behaviour


David Spackman
(Presenter)

& Dr. Nirmal Nair (N.Nair@auckland.ac.nz)


Power Systems Group