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ANTENNA PARAMETERS

Lecture 3.

ANTENNA PARAMETERS.

Dr Hasanovic: ADVANCED ANTENNA THEORY (Spring 2012)

Lecture 3. ANTENNA PARAMETERS

• Properties of antennas are described through antenna parameters

**• Antenna parameters are also used for comparing various antenna configurations
**

• Antenna parameters define the performance of an antenna, from various perspectives • Certain antenna parameters are mutually related to each other

ANTENNA PARAMETERS: [1] radiation pattern [2] directivity [3] gain [4] efficiency [5] axial ratio [6] input impedance [7] frequency band, etc.

Dr Hasanovic: ADVANCED ANTENNA THEORY (Spring 2012)

Lecture 3. as a function of three dimensional space coordinates RAVAN ELEVACIJE ELEVATION PLANE Field pattern: MAIN GLAVNA LOBE LEPEZA SPOREDNE SIDE LEPEZE LOBES Power pattern: AZIMUTALNA RAVAN AZIMUTHAL PLANE Dr Hasanovic: ADVANCED ANTENNA THEORY (Spring 2012) . ANTENNA PARAMETERS RADIATION PATTERN [1] this is the most important and the most comprehensive antenna parameter [2] graphical representation of electromagnetic radiation that characterizes an antenna.

Lecture 3. ANTENNA PARAMETERS RADIATION PATTERN (cont.) LOBE (BEAM) MAJOR LOBE MINOR LOBE side lobe back lobe FIRST NULL BEAM WIDTH IZMEĐU PRVIH NULA (FNBW) (FNBW) ŠIRINA SNOPA HALF POWER BEAM WIDTH SA 50% SNAGE (HPBW) (HPBW) ŠIRINA SNOPA MAIN LOBE (BEAM) GLAVNA LEPEZA MINOR SPOREDNE LOBES LEPEZE BOČNA LEPEZA SIDE LOBE POZADINSKA LEPEZA BACK LOBE SPOREDNE LEPEZE MINOR LOBES DIJAGRAM POLJA FIELD RADIATION PATTERN (linearna skala) (linear scale) DIJAGRAM SNAGE POWER RADIATION PATTERN (linearna skala) (linear scale) DIJAGRAM SNAGE POWER RADIATION PATTERN (logaritamska skala) (logarithmic scale) Dr Hasanovic: ADVANCED ANTENNA THEORY (Spring 2012) .

ANTENNA PARAMETERS The First Null Beam Width (FNBW) represents an angle between the two straight lines with an origin in the center of the radiation pattern that pass through the two points on the opposite sides of the beam characterized by the zero radiation. RADIATION PATTERN (cont.Lecture 3. The Half Power Beam Width (HPBW) is an angle between the two straight lines with the origin at the center of the radiation pattern that pass through the two points on the opposite sides of the beam characterized by a radiation intensity equal to the half of the intensity present on the main axis of the beam (maximum intensity).) FIRST NULL BEAM WIDTH IZMEĐU PRVIH NULA (FNBW) (FNBW) ŠIRINA SNOPA HALF POWER BEAM WIDTH SA 50% SNAGE (HPBW) (HPBW) ŠIRINA SNOPA MAIN LOBE (BEAM) GLAVNA LEPEZA MINOR SPOREDNE LOBES LEPEZE BOČNA LEPEZA SIDE LOBE POZADINSKA LEPEZA BACK LOBE SPOREDNE LEPEZE MINOR LOBES Dr Hasanovic: ADVANCED ANTENNA THEORY (Spring 2012) .

is constant Dr Hasanovic: ADVANCED ANTENNA THEORY (Spring 2012) . ANTENNA PARAMETERS RADIATION INTENSITY The total power that an antenna radiates through a specified surface S that is a part of a sphere of radius r : 1 1 1 ˆ E(r) H * (r) rr 2 s i nθdθdφ 2 S P S(r) ds E(r) H * (r) ds E(r) H * (r) ds 2 2 S S S The total power that an antenna radiates through a unit space angle dΩ=sinθdθdφ or through any other space angle Ω obtained through integration of unit angles.Lecture 3.

) To avoid dependence on r. we introduce a new quantity called RADIATION INTENSITY: Radiation intensity is proportional to the antenna radiation pattern because it can be shown that : Average radiation intensity: Coefficient 4π represents the value of the total space angle (units steradians) Dr Hasanovic: ADVANCED ANTENNA THEORY (Spring 2012) .Lecture 3. ANTENNA PARAMETERS RADIATION INTENSITY (cont.

ANTENNA PARAMETERS BEAM SOLID ANGLE The beam solid angle ΩA physically represents a solid angle through which an antenna would radiate if its radiation intensity would have been constant and equal to the maximum value Umax for all directions within the angle ΩA. Dr Hasanovic: ADVANCED ANTENNA THEORY (Spring 2012) .Lecture 3.

we are considering the maximum value of the antenna directivity Antenna radiation directivity D and the beam solid angle ΩA are interrelated through the following expression Dr Hasanovic: ADVANCED ANTENNA THEORY (Spring 2012) . ANTENNA PARAMETERS DIRECTIVITY Antenna directivity D is defined as the ratio of the radiation intensity in a certain direction to the average radiation intensity in all directions.e. we assume the direction in which the antenna has maximum radiation.Lecture 3. i. If the direction for which the directivity is considered is not specified.

Lecture 3.5. i. ANTENNA PARAMETERS OMNIDIRECTIONAL PATTERN Antenna has omnidirectional radiation pattern if its radiation pattern is characterized by the uniform radiation intensity in the horizontal plane.e. Omnidirectional radiation pattern Dr Hasanovic: ADVANCED ANTENNA THEORY (Spring 2012) . Figure 3. for a constant value of angle θ.

or opposite. [2] dielectric losses. Types of losses: [1] conductor losses.Lecture 3. ANTENNA PARAMETERS ANTENNA EFFICIENCY Antenna represents a device that transforms energy brought on its input terminals into the energy of an electromagnetic wave radiated into the surrounding environment. This transformation of energy is characterized by certain energy losses. A measure of these losses is given through an antenna parameter called antenna efficiency (e). [3] mismatch losses Dr Hasanovic: ADVANCED ANTENNA THEORY (Spring 2012) .

ANTENNA PARAMETERS ANTENNA EFFICIENCY (cont. LΓ – coefficient of mismatch losses. Ld – coefficient of dielectric losses.) Lc – coefficient of conductor losses. Γ – voltage reflection coefficient on the antenna input terminals [VSWR= (1+|Γ|/(1-|Γ|)] ANTENNA RADIATION EFFICIENCY (depends on the antenna only and NOT on the feeding line): Dr Hasanovic: ADVANCED ANTENNA THEORY (Spring 2012) .Lecture 3.

Lecture 3. ANTENNA PARAMETERS ANTENNA GAIN Antenna gain (G) is an antenna parameter that takes into account both its efficiency and its directional properties. Dr Hasanovic: ADVANCED ANTENNA THEORY (Spring 2012) .

Dr Hasanovic: ADVANCED ANTENNA THEORY (Spring 2012) . ANTENNA PARAMETERS POLARIZATION Consider the vector of electric field E(r.t) in a plane perpendicular to the direction of electromagnetic wave propagation. Antenna polarization is defined as a curve made by the end point of the vector E(r=const. then this vector is exclusively a function of the time variable t.e.t) and the corresponding phasor form E(r) where E(r.t). E(r=const.Lecture 3. If we fix the point at which we observe the vector of electric field. i.t)=Re{E(r)e-jωt} then we may notice that the amplitude of this vector forms a spiral path in time as shown in Figure on the right.

Lecture 3. ANTENNA PARAMETERS POLARIZATION (demo) Dr Hasanovic: ADVANCED ANTENNA THEORY (Spring 2012) .

Lecture 3. Ey(r. [2] circular (AR=1) [3] elliptical Axial Ratio: Dr Hasanovic: ADVANCED ANTENNA THEORY (Spring 2012) .t) Ex(r.t) in a plane perpendicular to the direction of electromagnetic wave propagation.) Antenna polarization is defined as a curve made by the end point of the vector E(r=const.t) MAJOR AXIS GLAVNA OSA MINOR AXIS SPOREDNA OSA Three types of polarization: [1] linear (AR=0 or AR=infinity). ANTENNA PARAMETERS POLARIZATION (cont.

) E(r=const.t) E(r=const.t) RIGHTDESNA ELIPTIČKA POLARIZACIJA ELLIPTICAL POLARIZATION LIJEVA ELIPTIČKA POLARIZACIJA LEFT ELLIPTICAL POLARIZATION Dr Hasanovic: ADVANCED ANTENNA THEORY (Spring 2012) .t) E(r=const.Lecture 3. ANTENNA PARAMETERS POLARIZATION (cont.t) VERTIKALNA LINEARNA POLARIZACIJA HORIZONTALNA LINEARNA POLARIZACIJA VERTICAL LINEAR POLARIZATION HORIZONTAL LINEAR POLARIZATION E(r=const.t) E(r=const.t) DESNA KRUŽNA POLARIZACIJA RIGHT CIRCULAR POLARIZATION LIJEVA KRUŽNA POLARIZATION LEFT CIRCULAR POLARIZACIJA E(r=const.

the goal is to reduce the undesired component (crosspolarized) component.t) VERTIKALNA LINEARNA POLARIZACIJA HORIZONTALNA LINEARNA POLARIZACIJA VERTICAL LINEAR POLARIZATION HORIZONTAL LINEAR POLARIZATION E(r=const.t) direction of OA) is called the crosspolarized component.t) E(r=const. the component of electric field in the direction of desired polarization (OB) is called the E(r=const.t) In practice. the quality of linear polarization is LIJEVA ELIPTIČKA POLARIZACIJA LEFT ELLIPTICAL POLARIZATION RIGHTDESNA ELIPTIČKA POLARIZACIJA ELLIPTICAL POLARIZATION improved.Lecture 3. Dr Hasanovic: ADVANCED ANTENNA THEORY (Spring 2012) . ANTENNA PARAMETERS LINEAR POLARIZATION E(r=const.t) E(r=const. DESNA KRUŽNA POLARIZACIJA RIGHT CIRCULAR POLARIZATION LIJEVA KRUŽNA POLARIZATION LEFT CIRCULAR POLARIZACIJA In this case. By reducing the crosspolarized component. it is impossible to achieve ideal linear polarization for which OA or OB is equal to zero. Very often in practice.t) copolarized component while undesired field component (in the E(r=const. Let us assume that we have polarization for which OA≈0.

ANTENNA PARAMETERS LINEAR POLARIZATION (demo): Dr Hasanovic: ADVANCED ANTENNA THEORY (Spring 2012) .Lecture 3.

t) If OA=OB.t) Dr Hasanovic: ADVANCED ANTENNA THEORY (Spring 2012) . Circular polarization is a special type of elliptical polarization.t) E(r=const. If the vector of electric field rotates clockwise. ANTENNA E(r=const. In the case of elliptical polarization we define the direction of polarization as either left or right. then we have circular polarization.t) CIRCULARLINEARNA POLARIZACIJA HORIZONTALNA LINEARNA POLARIZACIJA VERTIKALNA POLARIZATION HORIZONTAL LINEAR POLARIZATION VERTICAL LINEAR POLARIZATION E(r=const. then we have the right elliptical (circular) polarization.t) PARAMETERS E(r=const.t) DESNA KRUŽNA POLARIZACIJA RIGHT CIRCULAR POLARIZATION LIJEVA KRUŽNA POLARIZATION LEFT CIRCULAR POLARIZACIJA E(r=const. If the same vector rotates counterclockwise. then we have the left elliptical (circular) POLARIZATION LIJEVA ELIPTIČKA POLARIZACIJA LEFT ELLIPTICAL polarization RIGHTDESNA ELIPTIČKA POLARIZACIJA ELLIPTICAL POLARIZATION E(r=const.Lecture 3.

Lecture 3. ANTENNA PARAMETERS CIRCULAR POLARIZATION (demo) Dr Hasanovic: ADVANCED ANTENNA THEORY (Spring 2012) .

Dr Hasanovic: ADVANCED ANTENNA THEORY (Spring 2012) . ANTENNA PARAMETERS INPUT IMPEDANCE OF ANTENNA Input impedance of an antenna is equal to the ratio of voltage and current on the antenna input terminals when the antenna is fed from a generator GENERATOR (Zg) ANTENA GENERATOR ANTENA Xg XA Real part of antenna input impedance is called ANTENNA INPUT RESISTANCE: Rg Γ RA Antenna input resistance represents the measure of power dissipation on the antenna that occurs through two different processes: [1] the portion of the power is being radiated into the surrounding environment as an electromagnetic wave [2] the portion of the power is irreversibly lost as a heat in the antenna structure.Lecture 3.

Lecture 3.) Antenna Input Impedance: Antenna Input Resistance: Rr – radiation resistance (radiated power) Rl – ohmic loss resistance (heat) GENERATOR GENERATOR (Zg) ANTENA ANTENA Xg XA XA – antenna reactance: the portion of input power that is not utilized and is stored in the near field of the antenna Rg Γ RA Dr Hasanovic: ADVANCED ANTENNA THEORY (Spring 2012) . ANTENNA PARAMETERS INPUT IMPEDANCE OF ANTENNA (cont.

X g X A If above conditions are met. then the maximum power from the generator will be delivered to the antenna: GENERATOR GENERATOR (Zg) ANTENA ANTENA Xg XA 1 1 2 2 Pul Pr Pl Rr IA Rl IA 2 2 Rg Γ RA e Rr Rr Rl RΓ er Rr Rr Rl Dr Hasanovic: ADVANCED ANTENNA THEORY (Spring 2012) .) Antenna Input Impedance: Generator Impedance: Z g R g jX g Impedance Matching: R g R A . ANTENNA PARAMETERS INPUT IMPEDANCE OF ANTENNA (cont.Lecture 3.

2. two frequency band definitions are used – one for the radiation pattern and another for the antenna input impedance.Lecture 3. efficiency. axial ratio. ANTENNA PARAMETERS ANTENNA FREQUENCY BAND 1. 3. In other words. Antenna frequency band is defined as a frequency range in which antenna meets certain standards relative to a specified antenna parameter. In practice. beam width. a corresponding criterion is defined and then the frequency band would be the range of frequencies for which that criterion is satisfied. for a specified antenna parameter (input impedance. etc). Dr Hasanovic: ADVANCED ANTENNA THEORY (Spring 2012) .

For broadband antennas. frequency band is usually defined as the ratio of the highest to the lowest frequency in the band (for example. a frequency band of 5% means that the difference between the highest and the lowest frequency is equal to 5% of the center frequency. ANTENNA PARAMETERS ANTENNA FREQUENCY BAND (cont. Dr Hasanovic: ADVANCED ANTENNA THEORY (Spring 2012) . frequency band is defined as the difference between the highest and the lowest frequency given as a percentage of the center frequency. For example. 10:1 frequency band means that the highest frequency in the band is ten times higher than the lowest frequency in the band). For narrowband antennas.Lecture 3. There exist different definitions of antenna frequency band.) 1. 3. 2.

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