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INTRODUCTION A supply of pure and wholesome or potable water is essential for a healthy life.

Water being the second most essential commodity in life after air, is required for domestic needs which include water for drinking, cooking, washing, bathing, flushing of toilet, gardening and other purposes. The consumption of water is al so necessary for Commercial and institutional needs Industrial needs Public use Fire demand This chapter examines basic aspects of water treatment, supply, the layouts and principles of both storage and non storage cold water systems in buildings. 5.1 WATER Water is a chemical compound made up of one atom of oxygen and two atoms of hydr ogen. The three atoms make the tiniest possible drop of water, called water mole cule. Water can be liquid, solid, or gas. Liquid water flows. Solid water is ice . Water in the form of gas is called water vapour. 5.3 PROPERTIES OF WATER (IN PURE WATER STATE)

The properties of water (in pure water state) can be grouped under two headings: 1. Physical properties 2. Chemical properties PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF WATER (IN PURE WATER STATE) 1. Boils at 100oC and freezes at 0oC under standard atmospheric pressure. 2. Water is tasteless, colourless and odourless. 3. At 4oC, water is at its maximum density of 1000 kg/m3. 4. Expands between 4oC and 0oC and contracts when melting from 0oC to 4oC. 5. Expands between 4oC and 100oC and contracts when condensing form 100oC t o 4oC. 6. Has a very high surface tension 7. Water has specific gravity of 1 8. Water is incompressible. 9. Water has a high specific heat index. This means that water can absorb a lot of heat before it begins to get hot. CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF WATER (IN PURE WATER STATE) 1. . 2. 3. 4. Water is an excellent natural solvent and most substances dissolve in it It is made of element hydrogen and oxygen in the ratio 2:1 Water reacts with many metals, liberating hydrogen It is neutral to litmus

5.4 WATER OR HYDROLOGICAL CYCLE Earths water is always in movement. Water evaporates from wet grounds, from the leaves of growing plants and trees and from rivers, streams, lakes, lagoons, pon ds and the oceans leaving any salts behind. Clouds then form and the moisture fa ll as rain, snow, sleet, and mist to feed rivers and streams, eventually flowing back to the sea. This continuous movement of water on, above and below the surf ace of the earth is known as water or hydrological cycle. Rainfall is the origin of all sources of water.



Occupants of most modern buildings can obtain their water supply from the Water Authorities (e.g. Ghana Water Company) main, but in rural areas it is sometimes n ecessary to obtain water from private sources. The following are some sources of water for treatment before consumption or consumption without treatment. 1. Rivers 2. Springs 3. Oases 4. Lakes 5. Wells 6. Ponds. 7. Oceans 8. Steams 9. Lagoons 10. Boreholes 11. Rainwater CLASSIFICATION OF SOURCES OF WATER The sources of water supply may be classified as: Surface water Underground or sub-surface water Rainwater SURFACE WATER UNDERGROUND WATER RAINWATER River lakes streams Creeks Lagoons Ponds Canals Springs wells Boreholes Rainwater Snow Water obtained from these sources must be colourless and odourless, free from sm all suspended matter and harmful bacteria, pleasant to taste and for health reas ons moderately hard. WATER QUALITY AND CONTAMINATION As water recycles itself throughout the world, it dissolves minerals (natural sa lts) and also carries into it some soil and dust particles. Water naturally pick s up many things along its path. Therefore, its quality will vary from place to place, with the seasons and with the lands or rocks and soil through which it mo ves. For the most part, it is natural processes that affect water quality. In a ddition to nature influence, the activities of human beings throughout the world also affect the quality of water. Surface water is mostly polluted by sewage, agricultural and industrial waste. T hese wastes may contain toxic chemicals which may be difficult to remove. They p roduce colour, turbidity, taste, odour and hardness and also contain bacteria an d micro-organisms. Upland surface water is mostly soft and acidic. Underground water is contaminated by dissolved inorganic materials such as calci um, magnesium and sodium as the water seeps through the subsoil. These are respo nsible for water hardness. Ground water is often polluted by human activities su ch as: Improper use of fertilizers, animal manures, herbicides, insecticides, and pesti cides Improperly built or poorly located and/or maintained septic systems for househol d wastewater

Leaking or abandoned underground storage tanks and piping Storm-water drains that discharge chemicals to ground water Improper disposal or storage of wastes Chemical spills at local industrial sites

Certain types of bacteria present in water can be responsible for outbreaks of t yphoid, cholera and dysentery. Wells and Boreholes A well is a shaft sunk or excavated below the level of ground water or into subsoil water bearing strata called water table. The shaft, usually circular, is li ned with brick, block, stone or precast concrete sections or rings to maintain t he sides of the well. Wells are defined as shallow wells and deep wells. A shallow well is one that is sunk to collect surface or ground water above the first impervious stratum. A d eep well is one that sunk to penetrate the first impervious stratum to collect w ater below it. An artesian well is sunk, in a valley, to a permeable stratum fro m which water rises with force from the folded permeable layer sandwiched betwee n impermeable layers.

The distinction is made between shallow and deep well in relation to the quality or purity of the water drawn from each. The shallow well draws surface and grou ndwater that may be contaminated whereas water from a deep well is less likely t o be contaminated as the water has percolated through a permeable stratum and ha s been purified. The lining of a shallow well should be rendered impermeable for some distance fr om the surface with a surround of puddle clay to exclude surface that may be pol luted. The lining of a deep well should likewise be made impermeable down to the first impermeable stratum to exclude surface and groundwater. A borehole is a steel-lined or plastic-lined shaft driven or drilled into the gr ound to a water bearing stratum. Water enters the perforated or slotted shoe of the tubes and is raised by a force pump. Rainwater is contaminated by suspended impurities as it falls through the air. T hese impurities are principally carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide and nitrous oxides originating from domestic flue gases and industrial manufact uring processes. Rainwater may also pick up dust and bacteria or germs from roof tops dissolve roofing and storage materials (e.g. asbestos, lead, copper, zinc e tc.). It may also fall on decomposing organic matter such as peat. The mixture o f these impurities produces acid rain or acid water. Rainwater is soft and acidi c, and has taste. Contamination comes in many forms. It may appear as: germs (microbial contamination) that cause disease, poisonous chemicals (chemical pollution), too many minerals and soil particle (physical pollution). Water contamination or pollution usually occurs when something outside the natur al water cycle disrupts the balance of life. CONTAMINANTS The following are substances that result in poor quality water. Biological contaminants e.g. bacteria, viruses, protozoa, helminths Inorganic toxic compounds e.g. arsenic, mercury, selenium, lead, chromium, cyani de, fluoride, nitrate

Organic toxic compounds e.g. pesticides, herbicides, dioxins Turbidity e.g. sediment Salinity e.g. dissolved salts such as chlorides Colour, taste, odour e.g. iron, manganese, hydrogen sulfide Hardness e.g. calcium, magnesium