Moslem Seeker After God


M. Zwemer,


R. G.



or Christ,


Introduction bj Rt. Rtv. C. H. Biihof f Ptrtla

Stileman+M. A.^ itmttimt

An account of the rapid spread of Islam in all parts of the globe, the methods employed to obtain proselytes, its immense press, its strongholds, and suggested means to be adoptejd to counteract the evil.

The Disintegration of Islam,

izmo, cloth Dr. Zwemer traces the collapse of Islam as a political power in Europe, Asia and Africa, as well as the inevitable effect of the impact of Western civilization.



Childhood in the Moslem World.
Illustrated, 8vo, cloth,



and illustrations, Dr. Zwemer s new book much ground hitherto lying untouched in Moham
in text

Arabia : and numerous

The Cradle of Islam.
Illustrations, cloth



comprehensive scope of the volume covers a wide range of interest, scientific and commercial, historical and
literary, sociological,


By A.
Country. /

E. and S.

M. Zwemer
and Story.

Zigzag Journeys in the Camel
in Picture 12010, cloth


a d M"5 Zwemer are charming guides. We com"? i mend the u book highly for interest and information." Missionary Review of the World.
Arabia Pictured for am. Illustrated, 2mo, cloth book of pictures and stories for big children and small grown-up folk, for all who love Sinbad the Sailor and his


Topsy- Turvy Land.




Boston Globe.


from The supposed grave of Abu Hamid Al Ghazali at Tus. Persia.The old ruined Mosque at Tus. . probably dating the Eleventh Century.

&quot. etc.A the Moslem Seeker After God: Showing Islam in at its Best Life and Teaching of Al-Ghazali Mystic and Theologian of the Eleventh Century By SAMUEL Author of &quot. ZWEMER &quot. M. Revell AND Company EDINBURGH CAVEN U&RARY RNOX CGUEGi TORONTO .&quot. ILLUSTRATED NEW YORK CHICAGO Fleming LONDON c H.Child The Disintegration of Islam. hood in the Moslem World.

by FLEMING H.Copyright. 1920. London : 21 : Paternoster Square Street Edinburgh 75 Princes . REVELL COMPANY New York: 158 Fifth Avenue Chicago: 17 North Wabash Ave.

Indianapolis. New Brunswick. J. To the Faculties and the 2nd. where the several chapters of this book were given as lectures .and Students of the N. College of Missions. Theological Seminary.


RENDEL HARRIS was a rare combination of AL-GHAZALI aberrant Sufi.Introduction By DR. would But from rites. who tion William Penn said something in the same direc when he affirmed that all good men were the of same religion. or roots. the livery off? ceremonies and the like The is a negative process which certainly would not satisfy 7 . are occupied in demon strating experimentally that all religions which start at the bottom find their way to the top. of whom the Sufi is a tion leading representative. in the constitu and the fears of primitive man. and will have a peculiar value which attaches to Sufism On the one hand we have the at the present time. and that they know one another when the what did he mean by taking abstinence livery was off. on the other hand we have the mystics. lem and the scholar and saint. J. of the orthodox Mos is This work a real contribution to the history of religion. anthropologists engaged in the task (and for the most part successfully engaged) of tracing all religions to a common root.

as by putting on the robe of light and sitting down in the heavenly places with Jesus Christ. else whom He calls into Al-Ghazali tells us in his Confessions that he found the true way of life in Sufism. Not that we would be unclothed. there must be some other way of taking us to God Himself.8 INTEODUCTION the genuine Sufi. clothed upon. which affirm the Unity of God and the authority of His Apostle. yet he remained an orthodox Moslem. and with any one His companionship. all. Sufism is on its back. Al-Ghazali found it. are At the present time. That is real mystic language. Where speculation fails. While he still continued to recite the formulas. Trans equalled cendentalism can scarcely keep its poor time of day for seeing God in ill feet. when the effects of a severity war of unheard and un still perplexing men. or limps along with lame feet or with broken wing. not so much by being denuded of tradition and superstition (however desirable the process may be in some points of view). that is. the Transcendent and the Immanent views of God are alike hard put to it. he found his way into . but rather &quot. He would say with St.&quot. that mortality may be swallowed up of life. a Transcendentalist. that is. Paul. in Pantheism. when he abandoned his lecture-room and went into the wilderness. and sug gests that we shall know one another. It is a almost as a time for believing Him to be over all. beyond reason and safer than imagination.

and when the story is finished we are reminded not to seek the Living among is the dead. but to believe that the same Lord R. Needs not a letter nor a messenger. that 9 where one understands &quot. Friends Settlement. H. rich unto all that call upon Him in truth. Woodbrooke. . J.&quot.INTRODUCTION the Sufi inner sanctuary. Folded in favour on the Sultan s breast. he who lies. England. The book tells us something about this side of his experience in the Quest of Life.


especially the Tabaqat ash-shafai ya by As-Subqi. B. deal with Al-Ghazali s inner experiences and his philosophy.Preface are a score of lives of Mohammed. especially the intro the Ihya by Sayyid volumes and entitled Ithaf assa ada. but whose work he did not ii use. the great Arabian Prophet. acknowledge our great now We indebtedness to his paper and to the original Arabic sources on which it was based. however. . THERE Al-Ghazali. the Encyclopedia Britannica Professor Duncan gives only scant information. I have found additional material in Al-Gha zali s writings and other books mentioned in the duction to the Commentary on Murtadha in ten bibliography given in the appendix of this book. who wrote long before Murtadha and to whom Macdonald refers. but the American Oriental out of print His Society&quot. The Journal of (1899). Macdonald prepared a life of Al-Ghazali with raphy of the greatest of Even special reference to his religious experiences and influence in a paper published in the twentieth vol ume of &quot. scholarly investigations and conclusions. in the English language. yet there is no popular biog all Moslems since his day. rather than with his environment and the events of his life.

Fools buy false coins because they are like the true.&quot. meet him and on his neck Have missionaries always had this spirit? No one can read the story of Al-Ghazali s life. If in the world no genuine minted coin Were current. among the non-Christian religions. Islam Now we read in Christ s ble of the prodigal how &quot. When he was and kissed matchless para yet a great to way off his father fell saw him and ran out him.12 PBEFACE The study of Al-Ghazali s life and writings will. cry not that creeds are vain Some scent Of truth they have. His books are full of references to the teaching of Christ. the Ishmael. awaken a deeper sym pathy for that which is highest and strongest in the religion of Islam for the student of his works . Tis the love of right Lures men to wrong. so near and yet so far from the Kingdom of God. To make it specious. learns to appreciate Islam at its best. so eager to enter and yet always groping for the doorway. they will all cram Let poison but be mixed it into their mouths. As Jalal-ud- din says: &quot.&quot. With sugar. more than anything else. He was is a true seeker after God. how would forgers pass the false ? Falsehood were nothing unless truth were there. ! Oh. There is a real sense in which Al-Ghazali may be used as a schoolmaster to lead Moslems to Christ. without . this is a fact we may not forget. else they would not beguile. the prodigal son.

By striving to understand Al-Ghazali fit we may who. Cairo. Egypt* . M.PEEFACB 13 fervently wishing that Al-Ghazali could have met a Then surely this great true ambassador of Christ. a lesson for us all in its devout Theism and in its call to the practice of the Presence of God. champion of the Moslem faith would have become an apostle of Christianity in his own day and generation. S. are earnest seekers after God amid His life also has the twilight shadows of Islam. at least better ourselves to help those like him. Z.


255 295 APPENDIX : A. VII... Bibliography B. Works . . .145 . .19 . VIII. Translati ons of Al-Ghazali s Works List of Al-Ghazali s 297 299 303 D. .51 81 III. VI. II. . THE ELEVENTH CENTURY BIRTH AND EDUCATION TEACHING. ..Contents I. C. Comparative Table of Events S . V.219 . . WANDERINGS. . His WRITINGS 169 195 . LATER YEARS AND DEATH 1 1 1 His CREED AND CREDULITY . IX. . . . AND RETIRE MENT IV. CONVERSION. His ETHICS AL-GHAZALI AS A MYSTIC JESUS CHRIST IN AL-GHAZALJ .


seen from the . as .. page 1 80.126 Pen-case of Al-Ghazali. . Cairo Ed. probably dating from the Eleventh Century Frontispiece . Cairo . Museum.).. Mihrab showing the direction of prayer and to the right the Great Pulpit The Dome of the Rock. It gives a diagram of the prayer kibla and .Illustrations The old ruined Mosque at Tus. preserved in the Arab made of brass inlaid with silver. Jerusalem. Facing page -54 106 Interior of the center the In the Great Mosque at Damascus. the rules to be observed in facing it correctly 180 Facsimile book Al-Ghazali wrote. . 232 A Mihrab dating or from prayer-niche made of cedar the Eleventh Century. . The supposed grave of Abu Hamid Al-Ghazali at Tus &quot. . II.172 A facsimile page of the Ihya (Vol. &quot. works. Lutheran Church . . . . .&quot. page of the Minhaj-Al- last Abidin. The East Gate. Damascus . wood and (Cairo Museum) 242 . On the margin this Cairo edition gives another of his celebrated . Persia. Badayat-al-Hadaya title entitled &quot. .


I The Eleventh Century .

and the only teacher of the after f * generations ever put by a Muslim on a level with the four great Imams. can entirely bridge over.&quot. approaches him. and that in virtue of his Only mysticism. He was Al-jGhazali. it all its problems.&quot. &quot.Between the civilizations of is Islam there a gulf which no human Christendom and genius. by With the time came the man. for Europeans. whether in war or policy. the greatest. The most celebrated Orientals. Macdonald. are little more than names Al-Hariri&quot.&quot. . in literature or learning.&quot. The Assemblies of Thomas Chenery. certainly the most sympathetic figure in the history of Islam. In his own person he took up the life of his time on all its sides and with all the rest. B.Muslim from his stitutional Theology. The equal of Augustine in philosophical and theological importance. no concourse of events. scholiasts. Jurisprudence and Con Theory. by D. By his side the Aristotelian philosophers of Islam. Ibn Rushd and seem beggarly compilers and Al-Farabi. them all and drew his theology &quot. He lived through experience.

&quot. spiritual Of all finding relief in the way of the those who have found a deeper in the teachings of the 21 meaning Koran and . Moslems are more and more mystic. of Islam four names stand out prominently. &quot. the great dogmatic theologian and the opponent of rationalism and of The last Al-Ghazali. of . Bokhari. the reformer and mystic. the himself. It is in his life. and more especially in his writ ings. that I believe we can see Islam at its best. study THE compared to They are those of Mohammed most celebrated Al-Ash ari. named has left a larger imprint upon the history of Islam than any man save Mohammed himself. of Alcollector of the Traditions. In trying to escape the dead weight of Tradition and the formalism of its requirements. it would have been Al-Ghazali.&quot.I THE ELEVENTH CENTURY great characters of history may be mountain peaks that rise above the plains and the lower foot high hills and are visible from great distances because In the historical they dominate the landscape.If there had been a prophet after Mohammed.&quot. said As-Suyuti.

learned. a certain grave and brought forth They stood by clothed him in the green robe was answered. and the common pool of refreshing waters for the soul of the purest part of the people of the Faith. com them its tenant and and set him on the steed and ascended with him from heaven to heaven.22 A MOSLEM SEEKEE AFTEE GOD &quot. till he passed the seven heavens and rent after them sixty veils. &quot. and I know not whither at last he reached. even in the multitudinous and puerile detail of the Moslem ritual. . He &quot. and at the hearing of whose message voices are hushed and heads are nearly contemporary. said another is an imam by whose name breasts are dilated and souls revived. says Jamal-ud-Din. and the road for obtaining the satisfaction of the Merciful. and a green robe and a precious steed. and a perceived pany of blessed angels descended. Then I asked about him. &quot. having with Ghazali. Ahmed As-Sayyed Al- Yamani Az-Zabidi. This is the Imam Al-Ghazali/ That was after his death. said. none can equal Al-Ghazali.&quot.&quot. &quot. bowed. . may God Most High have mercy on him &quot.Al-Ghazali. the gates of heaven opened.&quot. . He for became the unique time one of his own day and all among the Moslem writer. in whose literary productions the ink horn exults and the paper quivers with joy. A celebrated saint. also a contemporary of Allo.&quot. ! . the pivot of existence all. I When I was sitting one day. was.

he saved it from scholastic decrepitude. who has made a more thorough study of Al-Ghazali s life and writings than any the the whips Al-Ghazali. And should this praise seem oriental and ex travagant. related of him as follows: In Egypt who disliked Al-Ghazali and abused him and slandered him. Biography history.&quot. and now ranks as the greatest doctor of the Moslem Church. and he was wont to weep and tell the story. saying. Thereupon the Prophet said. Bring So the man was beaten on account of other student of Islam: the &quot. was persecuted the possibility of a life hid in in his life as a heretic. Abu Bakr and Omar our time there was a in man (may God be were him. To understand the importance of Al-Ghazali and of his teaching we must transport ourselves to the time in which he lived. we add the words of Professor Duncan B. against me ! well pleased with both of them!) at his side. and marks of the whips remained on his back. and Al-Ghazali was sitting before O Apostle of God. in only a thread in the vast web of . And he saw the Prophet (God bless him and give him peace!) in a dream. cannot understand a We man is unless we know his environment. this man speaks ! Then the man arose from sleep. What rigidity of grasp hand of Islam would have exercised but for the influence of Al-Ghazali might be hard to tell. opened before the orthodox Moslem God.THE ELEVENTH CENTUEY Another story is 23 &quot. Macdonald.&quot.

Togrul Bey. Nicholas II was Pope. When He was year 1058 Al-Ghazali was born Togrul Bey had just taken Bagdad. born at Tus. D.24 A MOSLEM SEEKEE AFTEE GOD is which time the belongs to the small broad as well as long. about two hundred years after Al-Kindi had written his remarkable apology for the Christian faith at the court of Haroun-ar-Rashid and two hundred his life a years before Raymond Lull laid down martyr in North Africa. they retained little more than their religious supremacy. Bernard. and Asia conquest had just begun in the Minor was overrun by the Turks in temporaries in the west Al-Ghazali s other con were Hildebrand the Pope. had been confirmed by the powerless Caliph Al- . About the time he wrote his greatest work. Henry IV was Emperor. Al-Ghazali company of torch bearers in Dark Ages. the the Norman East.. The condition of the Moslem world had utterly changed since the days when Busrah with its rival city Kufa were dominated by the victorious Arabs of Omar s Caliphate. Abelard. the grandson of Seljuk. in the A. Ghazali was struggling with the problem of Islam in its relation to the human heart thirsting for God. The Abbasside Caliphs of the eleventh century were almost as much the shadows of former power as the Emperors of the East . west. God Near Among Alfrey of Bouillon was King of Jerusalem. in Khorasan. and Peter the Hermit. Persia. D. Anselm. and died in 1111 A.

London.THE ELEVENTH CENTUBY Qa im bi-amr Allah.&quot. Theodore Noldeke. These nomads (the Turks) caused dread . . true. Islam &quot. ical. the Seljuk the King of the East and hand of the Caliph s In the next reign. that of Al-Muqtadi. 98. p. trampled to the ground the flourish ing civilization of vast territories. and contributed almost nothing to the culture of the human race. 1892. saluted as West. &quot. The Abbasside Caliphate had long ceased to be of any importance.About the year 1000. the power of the Arabs had long ago been broken. and endowed with daughter. and conquered new regions for Islam in the northwest. says Noldeke/ was in a very bad way. . They founded the powerful empire of the Seljuks. especially as it was Shi ite. faith The rude Turks took up with which was just within reach of their and they became its zeal the intellec tual powers. . often fanat champions against the outside world. in all 25 his conquests. Had not the warlike character of Islam been revived by the Turks. Turks captured Jerusalem. was very far from being able to give solidity to the whole. . After the downfall of the Seljuk empire they still continued to be the ruling people in all its older portions. the Crusaders perhaps &quot. There was a multitude of Islamite States. but they mightily strengthened the religion of Mo hammed. loaded with honours.&quot. ful devastation.Sketches from Eastern History. that of the Fatirnids. great and small but even the most powerful of these.

title of Sultan in the royal city of Nishapur. Turkmans continued to dwell in the ancestors and. perhaps the wisest. much time in prayer. and the of Nishapur and Rei displayed the royal palaces order and magnificence of a great monarchy. Euphrates. Accord father of his soldiers ing to Gibbon. and in every city which spent he conquered built new mosques.&quot. &quot. from the Oxus to the .&quot. A. By force of arms he delivered the Caliph of Bagdad at the head of an irresistible force and taught the people Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. these military colonies were protected and propagated by their native princes. But the Turks of the court and city were refined by busi ness and softened by pleasure: they imitated the and manners of Persia. The first of the great Seljuk Sultans was con He spicuous by his zeal for the Moslem faith. language. 1038. and the whole body of the Turkish nation embraced with fervour and sincerity the religion of Mahomet. D. portion of the tents of their The more rustic. public peace. . The most deserving of the Arabians and Persians were dress. Togrul Bey was invested with the &quot. he was the and of his people.&quot.26 A MOSLEM SEEKEB AFTER GOD might have had some prospect of more enduring success. By a firm and equal adminis tration Persia was relieved from the evils of an archy and the same hands which had been imbrued in blood became the guardians of justice and the . promoted to the honours of the state.

His name. therefore. The the significance of his name. those whom Moore describes: One of that saintly murderous brood To carnage and the Koran given.THE ELEVENTH CENTUEY 27 of Mosul and Bagdad the lesson of obedience.&quot. for that is sinated Enemies were assas fered dreadful persecution. valiant lion. was pronounced after that of the Caliph in public prayer by all the Moslems of the Near East. The character of his rule Gibbon gives us in a sentence: &quot. displayed at once the fierceness and gener Christians suf osity of a typical Oriental ruler. Alp Arslan succeeded him. and the blood of 136.&quot. Arslan was a valiant warrior of the faith and as eager for the battle field as &quot. &quot.The myriads of Turkish horse over spread a frontier of 600 miles from Taurus to Erzeroum. Who think through unbeliever s blood Lies their directest path to heaven. One who will pause and kneel unshod In the warm blood his hand hath poured To mutter o er some text of God Engraven on his reeking sword. and the favoured . but the learned.000 Christians was a grateful sacrifice to the Arabian prophet. Armenia was laid waste in the crudest manner . Rescued from his enemies. were lavishly rewarded.&quot. the alliance between the Caliph and the Sultan was cemented by the mar riage of Togrul s sister with the successor of the In 1063 Togrul died and his nephew Prophet. the rich.

that the streets were choked up with dead bodies. and the literally waters of the river were reddened from the quan tity of bloody corpses. erected. the shepherd king. he stretched his immediate jurisdiction or feudatory sway to the west and south. Instead of resigning himself to the luxury of the harem. His eldest son. as far as the mountains of Georgia. schools and colleges and the learned competed with each other for the favour of For thirty years Nizam royalty. until his name on the coins and in the prayers of the Tartar kingdom on the borders of China. was in action in the field. his vizier. succeeded him.28 A MOSLEM SEEKEE AFTER GOD the capital &quot. Alp Arslan was assassinated. Al-Mulk was honoured by the Caliph as the very oracle of religion and science. the neighbourhood of Constantinople. and the In 1072 Al-Ghazali was then six years old. and was the carnage. We are told that so great human blood flowed in torrents.&quot. inhabitants priests were tortured. when was taken on June 6. and the spicy groves of Arabia Felix.&quot. Malek Shah. both in peace and war. From as far as was inserted &quot. But at the age of . Nizam Al-Mulk was The calendar was reformed. 1064. the Chinese frontiers. He ex tended the conquests of his father beyond the Oxus Bokhara and Samarkand. and it is largely due to his influence that the study of science and literature revived to such a remarkable degree. The wealthy pillaged. the churches flayed alive. the holy city of Jerusalem.

. to whom. The language of the former. and murdered by a fanatic. while the Gulistan.&quot. trans. is tolerably pure. Every race with which the Arabs came in contact was more or ence. &quot. The last words of Nizam Malek attested his innocence. of Malay sia. and assumes that his readers are acquainted tongue. It is to be noticed. as the highest ornaments of his work. 1867. The extent of this influ says Chenery. as we shall see later. Thomas Chenery. may be perceived by com paring the Persian of Firdausi with that of Sa di.&quot. The Arabic language had become dominant everywhere. that the latter author introduces continually Arabic verses.THE ELEVENTH CENTUBY 29 ninety-three. who flourished in the early part of our eleventh century. less Arabized. so called. was dismissed by his master. Al-Ghazali owed so much. a? well as with the Spice Islands. the venerable statesman. vocabulary had leavened the whole lump of languages in the Near East. is in some places little more than a piecing together of Arabic words with a cement of the original tongue. Caravans carried trade across the whole of Central Asia and Northern Arabia to the empo&quot. by p. with this classic and sacred Trade routes extended everywhere. also. Introduction. 1 &quot. There was intercourse with India and China on the east.&quot. I. London. 5. which was produced some two hundred and fifty years later. s life and the remainder of was short and Its inglorious. Vol. accused by his enemies.The Assemblies of al-Hariri.

Judging from literature and history. H.80 A MOSLEM SEEKER AFTER GOD Spain had intercourse with Al-Hariri praises Busrah as the spot &quot. but even versation. the camel-leader and the sailor. 1 of which date from the eleventh This would indicate that even this re mote part of Europe was in touch with the Near East. There were those who wrote commentaries on the marvels of the Koran. carried have evidences that an extensive trade was on between Arabia and China in walrus and An extensive work exists written in Chinese in the twelfth century on trade with the Arabs of at still is which a recent translation has been published Petrograd. like Al-Harawi. . yet did not scruple to indulge in private wine-drinking and carousals and loose con The place of wine. The same was true of Alex &quot. the sea fish and the lizard. Heft 2/3. where the ship and the camel meet. We ivory. women. More remarkable all the fact that in Scandinavia thousands of Kufic coins have been found. 291. the fisher it was the port and the lands watered by the Euemporium and Tigris. Strassburg. Band V. 239. Persia. even more startling than in the world of Islam to-day.phrates and the tiller. C. riums of the West. Becker. In other words for all andria for the West. it was a time of looseness of morals and of divorce between religion and ethics. and song. Der Islam. PP. nearly century. not only in popular literature and poetry.&quot.

were matters of such every-day occur rence that the maimed man was always a suspect. but he also carried about with him a accident. Ampu tations for theft. when Moslems went to Chris tian cloisters. Punishments were cruel. that when he openly attacked the evils which he saw around him in Bagdad. the use of which was forbidden in the Mohammedan towns. sang the praises of the blessed spots where they had enjoyed the delights of intoxica tion. that one of his feet had been frost-bitten during a winter storm.THE ELEVENTH CENTUEY in the table talk 31 is of theologians and philosophers clear evidence. written testimony of witnesses to prove that he had been maimed by and not in punishment for a crime. which is &quot. left to die. Those who dared to preach and write against this public immorality had to suffer the consequences.&quot. We read of Al-Zamakhshari. an anthology of the convents of the Near East: must not forget that. he was dismissed from his and public office as secretary of state. Huart remarks the in regard to the celebrated Book of Monasteries. but simply for the sake of an opportunity of drinking wine. . &quot. We read of Ibn Hamdun (1101-1167). The poets.&quot. it We im was not to seek devotional pulses. neces sitating a wooden an amputation. and because hypocrites were in power reformers were not heeded. and so he went about with leg. in accordance with the Koran legislation. out of gratitude. cast into prison.

shows us that the zeal for the faith was often accompanied by a reckless disregard for the law of Islam as regards the use of fermented liquor. the chronicler of the court at Bag dad. Fifty goblets and flagons of wine were brought from the pavilion into the garden. saying.&quot. your slave has any more he will lose both his his respect for wits and went on Mas ud your Majesty. of Khorasan province. and after he had drunk twentyalone. Khalil Dawud managed ten. the capital which he frequently saw his fellow under the table. seven full cups. but the Sultan lar bouts in &quot. Mas ud used to enjoy regu topers sented as having taken place at Ghazni. They grew merry and the minstrels One of the courtiers had finished five tank each held nearly a pint of wine but the sixth confused him. Siyabiruz nine. The Khwaja till eighteen goblets and then rose. Khwaja finished If only the Sultan and the Abd-ar-Razzak remained. measure/ said the amir. The doctor was cup. called for water and prayer-carpet. Here is a scene repre &quot. Not only the soldiers and their officers had drunken brawls. and then they were taken home everybody rolled . and recited the belated noon and sunset prayers together as soberly as if he had . the seventh bereft him of his ards senses. or was rolled away.32 A MOSLEM SEEKER AFTEE GOD Al-Baihaki. and equal cups Fair let us drink fair/ sang. washed. he too arose. and the cups began to go round. and at the eighth he was consigned to his carried off at his fifth servants.

and the constant display of the most brutal passions. This feeling often took the form of superstition and fanaticism. with the sacrifice same devotion and which we still witness among the ardent Russian pilgrims of to-day. proud position of the capital of a kingdom to a mere dependency of the Empire of Malek Shah. 1903. . and spent their fortune to reach the holy city. then mounted his elephant and rode to the palace. abroad. Thousands risked all their life and health. a strong religious feeling. although the masses were still in the depths of barbarism. the performance of meritorious works.The Mediaeval India. but we are told by one writer that it was a striking characteristic of the time to find side by side with barbarian violence and disorder.THE ELEVENTH CENTUBY f 33 not tasted a drop. especially a pilgrimage to the holy sepulcher. His sons and descendants for more than a century ruled this part But Ghazni fell from the of the Moslem world. and social de velopment had appeared. Mas ud was put to death in 1040. p.&quot. The eleventh century was a period when the na tions of Western Europe were beginning to crys tallize both as regards their governments and civ Their influence was felt at home and ilization. When the 1 Asia Minor and Syria were conquered by Turks this access to Jerusalem was cut off. in Stanley I^ane-Poolc. In &quot. Among the clergy and nobility something of order and civilization. 37. New Story of the Nations Series/ York.

There are said to have been mustered in the plains of Bithynia one hundred full armour and six hundred thousand footmen. The Crusade under Godfrey of Bouillon was a well-appointed military expedition embracing the flower of Europe. but in less than three years they had attained the great object of their expedition. We &quot. number reached the shores of There they were utterly destroyed and a pyramid of bones remained to tell of their only fate. Crusade. These numbers may be exag thousand horsemen in gerated. result was the first II cooperated. in which Pope Urban Three hundred thousand half- armed. half-naked peasants forced their way across Europe along the Rhine and the Danube. and arch was dragged by cast into a dungeon the clergy of every sect were its . The insulted.34 A MOSLEM SEEKEE AFTEE GOD 1076 (Al-Ghazali was then eighteen years old) they massacred three thousand of these Christian people and their subsequent rule was relentless in read that the venerable Patri tyranny. the hair along the streets. and pestilence and famine thinned their ranks. Peter the Hermit himself visited Jerusalem and returned to Europe to arouse the nations. This treatment of Christian pilgrims produced a storm of indignation and anger throughout the West.&quot. They ad- . In 1097 they laid siege to Nicea and captured it. Only one-third of their Asia. and the unhappy pilgrims were made to suffer every indignity and abuse.

and Hums remained in the possession of the Moslems in Syria. the mission failed in the East. The Jews were burned in their synagogues and seventy . until only four cities. Soon Godfrey and his successors extended their dominions cus.&quot. 578. three days the city pillage For was given up to indiscriminate and massacre. p. its The Rise. Caliphate. But whatever the success elsewhere. Damas Hamath. In the year 492 A. and rousing men to recover from infidel hands the Mosque of Omar. &quot. which was occupied with its own trou and moreover cared little for the Holy Land. kindling revenge.. and scene of the Prophet s heavenly flight. Preachers went about proclaiming the sad story.THE ELEVENTH CENTUEY 35 vanced against Antioch and after seven weary months laid siege to the city. 1 &quot. In 1099 they ad vanced on Jerusalem and after a siege of forty days The merciless Franks the holy city surrendered. 1 habitants. did not fail to inflict a terrible vengeance for their &quot. until a pestilence was bred by the putrefaction of the slain. says Muir. thousand Moslems were put to the sword. and cruel treatment of its in &quot. 1892. own sufferings and the indignities which had been heaped upon their religion and their race. Everywhere the fol lowers of the Prophet were filled with grief and shame and with a great longing to wipe away the disgrace which had fallen on their religion. bles. H.&quot. conster nation was spread throughout the land by the cap ture of Jerusalem. .&quot. Decline and Fall. Aleppo.

exiles. was deep and bitter. and it dominated as Crowds of joined there by the populace.36 A MOSLEM SEEKER AFTER GOD then was by the Fatimide faith. with this cry. never reluctant to shed blood. they factions divided into two com posed of Shafi ites. so that the hatred between his the sects torian. has recorded a fact which shows how implacable the feeling had become towards the close of the Caliphate. Among Moslems abounded. on condi Mongols massacred the members of the other sect. slaughtered the Hanifites without mercy. the other of Hanifites. gladly accepted these proposals. For two Fridays the insurgents. but in those days there were frequent and hot dis putes between the rival schools and much contro versial literature arose. had ears to hear. cried out for war But neither Sultan nor Caliph against the Franks. and shouted down the service. The former at once entered into secret negotiations un tion that the dertaking to deliver up the city at night. and being admitted into the city. stormed the Great Mosque. but that was all. No army went. of . At themselves religious rancour present the four orthodox sects worship together and live in peace as neighbours. The Mongols. driven for refuge to Bagdad.&quot. When the Mongols of the one Genghiz Khan appeared found it before the city of Rei. The Persian Mirkhond. broke the pulpit and throne of the Caliph in pieces. It was in this atmosphere of mutual hatred.

and the Nestorian hood. 1 its terrific impact when Zoroaswas almost destroyed. especially the life and writings of Al-Kindi. (&quot. The coming of the Arabs meant to the Christians only a change of masters. The latter shows clearly that Islam borrowed considerably from Chris tianity. and Theodor Abu Qurra as given by A. 37 that Al-Ghazali spent the last excuse in him much of what would otherwise seem intolerant and hateful. and es See pecially during the life of Al-Ghazali is well known. through controversy. 175-195).&quot. John of Damascus.Festschrift Ignaz Goldziher. They still conducted foreign missions and during the entire Abbasside period remained a very important factor of civilization in the East. (Leipzig. The Nestorians became the rayah. 1896) and Christliches Polemik und Islamische Dogmenbilding. peo Church withstood trianism &quot. Becker polemical &quot. dition. of the Caliphs.THE ELEVENTH CENTUBY war and bloodshed. years of his life. H. That there was not only close social. both in its dogma and ritual even as late as the tenth century. &quot.&quot. but religious and contact between the learned men of Christian sects and those of Islam long before this period. . They did not sink into their present deplorable con immediately ple of protection.&quot. when we remember how the passion of war blinds human judgment and makes it impossible to see We may any virtue in the invader. We must not forget that Al-Ghazali came into close touch with Oriental Christians from his boy Christianity was established in Persia at the time of the Moslem conquest. pp. Keller in Der Geisteskampf des Christentums gegen den Islam bis zur Zeit der Kreuzziige&quot. by C.

He says that there are three Melchites. etc. elected Patriarchs. The most numerous of them Melchites and Nestorians.38 A MOSLEM SEEKEE AFTEE GOD . . because Greece and the adjacent countries are all inhabited by Melchites. scribes. Mos Yet the Nestorians were the most powerful non-Mos lem community while the Caliphs reigned at Bag dad (750-1258). and at times civil authority over all Christians arch. They were permitted to restore their Churches. . and secretaries. begins in great part with the Nestorians of Bagdad. So we find the Caliphs treating them as chief of the Christian communities. save in case of necessity. and had a higher tradition of civilization than their masters. and thus gained great influence. The Arab scholarship which came to Spain. mentions the Nestorians as the most civilized of the Christian communities under the Caliph. and they even then had to dismount on meeting a lem they were subject to the usual poll-tax. but not to build new ones they were forbidden to bear arms or ride a horse. They were used at court as physicians. They handed on to their Arab masters the Greek culture which was inherited in Syriac translations. whilst the majority of the inhabitants of Syria. had been given to the Nestorian Patri Early in the eleventh century Al-Biruni. having much freedom in canonical matters. and was a great factor in mediaeval learning. Nestorians and Jac are the obites. sects of Christians &quot. a Mos lem writer from Khiva.

enough as to be called quotations.THE ELEVENTH CENTUBY : 39 Irak and Mesopotamia and Khorasan are Nestorians. quite numerous. pels. Adrian Fortescue. London.&quot. Diglot manuscripts in Syriac and Arabic are The manuscript of the four Gos of which a few leaves are now in the British Museum. Vol. translations existed at this period to Christ and not only are there many references and His teaching in Al-Ghazali s works. To the tenth century belong versions of some books of the Old Testament from Syriac.The lyesser Eastern Churches. Al-Ghazali spent his first twenty years in Kho Did he ever become acquainted with Chris tianity through perusal of the Gospel ? We know that Arabic.&quot. &quot. D. He himself states we shall see later: I have Gospel. That there were translations of the Bible into Arabic to which Al-Ghazali may have had access is read in the Dr. 1 Cf The Moslem World. if not Persian. . but there are some very few passages accurate . 385* . Kilgour tells of Arabic Gospel man of the ninth century and of translations of uscripts the Old Testament and portions of the New made probable. 1913. &quot. is a good specimen of such a diglot. It was brought by Tischendorf from the Syrian Con*Cf. rasan. others from the LXX. in the Fayyoum before 942 A.&quot.&quot. &quot. and from the Coptic. using the Samaritan text as well 3 as the Massoretic. VI. and some fresh translations of the Pentateuch. p..

D. Missionary Achievement Evangelization. therefore. while Christians might not. vent of St. : A survey of world-wide 22. 1907. Their bishops found time to write learned treatises in Persian and Arabic. or while still in Khorasan. Whiteley. acquit We the Christians of Persia of negligence. ever examined the New Testament. 26. are told that the Jews translated their law It is. I/mdon. In the early part of the eleventh century an Arabic scholar made a version of Tatian s Diatessaron. 1916. pp. failed to exercise an influence on Islam around it. T. many of whose names and writings are &quot. in the A version of the Psalms was prepared middle of the same century for use in the Church services of the papal This was translated from or Melchite Greeks. from the place where it was became known afterwards as the 1 It remains an interesting ques Aleppo Psalter. the Greek Psalter. article on &quot. first printed. Bible&quot. the Scriptures. and even to translate Aris totle. their testimony even at the court of the Caliphs. and. . The Church. that early Syriac Harmony of the Gospels which helped the Christian Church to realize the main facts concerning our Saviour. on peril of death.40 A MOSLEM SEEKEE AFTER GOD Mary Deipara in the Nitrian Desert. October. in The Moslem World. had not says W. tion whether Al-Ghazali in his travels.The Arabic &quot. but not to give Moslems like lost. hard to into Persian by 827 A.&quot. Yet Al-Kindi and others him. were not afraid to give 2 &quot. seek See 2 &quot.

1 by the tax collector with disdain the collector re maining seated and the infidel standing before him. and were protected only by the pay which gave them certain rights The most distinguished jurist of the Shaft ite sect. and that immediately following upon infidels in the They were considered ment of a poll tax. the head bent and the body bowed. trans. Mutual hatred The and suspicion prevented real intercourse of those who. were both seeking God. a command occasionally honour and success. yet all the devel of Islam at Damascus and Bagdad was in opment atmosphere. The followers of were the enemies of Allah in the eyes of Jesus Moslems. 467 and 469. a Christian Christianity of that period was. The infidel .THE ELEVENTH CENTUKY to 41 violated with win converts direct. C. . lays down the law as follows: &quot. Van Den Berg by E. as devout Christians and devout Moslems. et Talibin of An-Nawawi.&quot. How may period. London. should personally place the money in the balance. from the &quot. however. The Moslem was feared and the Christian despised. C. who taught at Damas cus in 1267.Minhaj French of L.An infidel who has to pay his poll tax should be treated as subjects. W. An-Nawawi. not the religion of Christ in its purity nor after the example of His love and toleration. pp. Howard. 1914. learn Christians were regarded at this time we from the books of canon law of this it.&quot. Moslem sense of the word.

as well as a saddle. however. are referred to as obligatory in Al-Ghazali s See the chapter on Wajiz. Richard Gottheil gives the contents of a fatwa on the appointment of Dhimmis to office dated about A. These badges of servitude. nor given the first place at a He should be distinguished by a suit gathering. or some other mark of He is forbidden to offend Moslems. a rule. or even to have them as high . that does not apply to the infidels who inhabit a separate quarter. or by speaking aloud of Esdras or of the Messiah. by making them hear his false doctrines. 1 ostentatiously their sacrilegious 1 &quot. He must not be treated as a per son of importance.&quot. or if he undresses anywhere else in their presence. Infidels should be forbidden to have houses higher than those of their Moslem neighbours. rites. whatever may be its use an ikaf. called Ghayar. and wooden spurs. And infidels are forbidden to sound the bells of servitude.42 A MOSLEM SEEKER AFTEE GOD him by the beard and while the collector holds strikes him upon both cheeks. D. He must go to the side of the road to let a Moslem pass. or celebrate &quot. infidel-subjects. those of iron being forbidden him. 1126 2 . If he enters a bathing house where there are Mos lems. the infidel should wear round his neck an iron or leaden necklace. of coloured cloth and a girdle outside his clothes. either their churches or of their synagogues. but a don key or a mule value. or by ostentatiously drinking wine or eating pork. is He must permitted him. An infidel subject of our Sovereign may not ride a horse.

communities. and the Moslems naturally devote little space to their concerns.Festschrift Ignaz Goldziher Bezold. He who does so must either be a godless fellow or be ignorant of Moslem law and practice. e. Ahmad infidel in authority money-changer.THE ELEVENTH CENTUBY &quot. .&quot. but some of the chapters of Ghazali s Ihya reflect such ter- To place an over a Moslem would never enter the mind of one who had a sound heart. they were likely scape goats whenever there was distress. Generally speaking.scribe. quently There are darker shades in the treatment of Christians and in the moral condition of this period over which one might well draw the veil. a and given by one ibn Al Husain. or a butcher. 1911. Margoliouth. under Moslem rule cannot be ade quately written. 43 says The history of Christian 1 &quot.&quot. Strassburg. despotic state under an irresponsible ruler. Mohammedanism. (&quot.&quot. the Traditions&quot. Owing to their being unarmed their was always hazardous and though it is prosperity true that this was the case with all the subjects of a . The Early Development of London. citing passages from the Koran and von Carl 1 &quot. He attempts to prove that a Dhimmi (i. &quot. they seem to have been regarded as certain old Greek and Roman sages regarded women: as a necessary annoyance. the members of those communities had no opportunity of describing their condition safely. Jew or Christian) is not even to be used as a . and even in the best governed countries periods of distress fre arose. 203-208).&quot. the nonMoslem population was at the mercy of the mob as well as of the sovereign. pp.

as it appears. and the governor pro posed to execute and burn the young monk who had occasioned the disaster. Christian lads seem often to have been the unhappy objects of this pas sion. being themselves all fast Enemies of the Papacy have perhaps exaggerated . Christ was then. when the Lord was thus asleep. and scourge his col leagues. however. awaken him.44 rible A MOSLEM SEEKER AFTER GOD conditions as Margoliouth describes: &quot. The visits and attentions of this Moslem became so offensive that the monks had to put a stop to them. when the ship was covered with waves . story is told us by the biographer Yakut A of a young monk of Edessa or Urfah who had the misfortune to attract the fancy of one Sa ad the copyist. and was finally found dead outside the mon The Moslem population declared that astery wall. morals were at a low ebb in the One of the annalists of the Roman Church all &quot. Thereupon this personage pined away. says it was an iron age barren of a leaden age abounding in all wicked goodness.A form of passion which is nameless would appear at one time to have been as familiar among Moslems as of old among Hellenes. Christians as well. in a very deep sleep. ness. who by their cries might asleep.000 dirhems. and what seemed worse. there were no disciples.&quot. They finally got off by paying a sum of 100. but among eleventh century.&quot. the monks had killed him. Not only among Moslems.

&quot.&quot. Poland. For a long time &quot. country. was that the popes exchanged the vices regulations &quot. on the testi mony of its own writers. When Otho I. . formerly altogether inaccessible on account of idolatry they now eagerly admit the preachers of the word. who wrote ferocious Look at the very 1080. was immersed in profaneness. in : they have been accustomed. which had been lost by vicious ex But this did not begin to take place till cesses. and lewdness. II. the unevangelized portions of Denmark.&quot. The Prussians continued pagans ure throughout this century. in the praises of God. the domineer . he intro duced moral reforms by the power of the sword. The effect of Otho s but according to Milner.THE ELEVENTH CENTUEY 45 the vices and crimes of the popes in this and the preceding century. 1 of the rake and the debauchee for those of the ambitious politician and the hypocrite and gradu ally recovered. missionaries sent out to labour Milner. ing ascendency. Vol. came to Rome. Adam of Bremen. in a great meas We read that eighteen among them were Church of Christ. .The History of the 1834. Emperor of Germany. They are now content with the fruits of their at own that horrid region. by a prudent conduct. but the Church. to resound Alleluia. work Missionary effort in this century was confined to in Hungary. Look at that piratical people. and Prussia. the latter end of the eleventh century. p. 531. says nation of the Danes. Look .&quot. sensuality.

46 A MOSLEM SEEKEB AFTEB GOD They seemed to have been massacred.Confessions&quot. Both Anselm and Al-Ghazali lived and wrote under a deep consciousness of the world to come. is a parallel to that of his spects contemporary. of Anselm. This also was characteristic of the times. last among the of the European nations to submit to the yoke noblest figure of the century in the West. have been put into the hands of the English reader as a testimony of his sincerity and devotion. . Both were apologists for the Faith and opponents of infidelity and philos ophy. through his Ihya. and died in 1109. Both were theologians and both were mystics. It is interesting to Anselm lation s famous book now used in Arabic trans by missionaries to Moslems. and the doom of the wicked. He was born about the time of Al- His life in many re Ghazali. Both exerted an immense influence by their writings as well as through teaching. seek ing rest for their souls in withdrawing from the world and its allurements. and that AlGhazali s &quot. The the annals of Christendom. Both of them refuted philosophers note in this connection that is in their effort to establish the Faith. Anselm gave employment to his active mind in writing his celebrated treatise Cur I Deus Homo? &quot. and if AlGhazali sought the revival of religious life in Islam &quot. the terrors of the judgment day. in was undoubtedly that of Christ.



understand the time in which Al-Ghazali

we must


remember that


was one of

great literary activity under the Abbasside Caliphs have seen of Bagdad and the Seljuk sultans.





literary genius, established


and furthered education on

religious lines.

Arabic literature affords a galaxy of names during the latter half of the eleventh century in almost
every department of Among Ghazali s


learning. celebrated contemporaries,


of literary fame, we may mention Abiwardi 1113), the poet; Ibn Al-Khayyat, who was born at Damascus in 1058 and died in Persia in

1125; Al-Ghazi (b. 1049), who composed elegies and panegyrics at Nizamiyya College, was a col lege mate of Ghazali s, and died in Khorasan Al;


(b. 1080), a younger contemporary. But the most famous poet of all was Al-Hariri

(1054-1122), whose "Assemblies throw so much light on the manners and morals of this period.





Nizamiyya University were 1030), the great philologist; and
at the

Ibn Al-Arabi, born at Seville in 1076, who visited Bagdad to attend the teaching of Al-Ghazali. The
greatest of
also a
ite doctors, Al-Ruyani, was of Al-Ghazali. He taught at contemporary and wrote the most voluminous book on Nishapur

the Shafi

jurisprudence in existence, called


The Sea of

In 1108, just as he had finished one of his lectures he was murdered by a fanatic of the




who were

then holding the castle of


We must also mention a schoolmate of Al-Ghazali, Al-Harrasi (10581110), who studied at Nishapur under the Imam
in the mountains.

Al-Haramain, was made his assistant, and then went to Bagdad, where he taught theology in the

Nizamiyya University for the rest of his life. Nor must we forget Al-Baghawi, who wrote a famous commentary on the Koran, and other works of the
in 1108,

ology (1122); Al-Raghib Al-Ispahani, who died and wrote a dictionary of the Koran, ar

ranged in alphabetical order, called Mufradat alfaz Al-Koran, with quotations from the traditions and from the poets he also wrote a treatise on morals,

which Al-Ghazali always carried about with .him (Kitab ad-dharia), and a commentary on the Koran. Among the early contemporaries of AlGhazali

we must


not forget to mention Ali bin Al-Jullabi Al-Hujwiri, the author of the

oldest Persian treatise

on Sufism extant. He was born in Ghazni, Afghanistan, and died in A.D. 1062,

when Al-Ghazali was fourteen








Mohammedan Empire and
Kashf al-Mahjub
of Al-Ghazali,



anticipates much of the teaching who must have been familiar with this author. And to complete this already long list of celebrities, we may mention Al-Maidani of who died in 1124, having written a Nishapur,


work on Arabic proverbs; Al-Zamakhshari,



born in 1074, who wrote a famous commentary on the Koran; Ibn Tumart, the noted philosopher
of the

West who attended Al-Ghazali

s lectures at

Nizamiyya and ash-Shahristani who wrote on the various religions and sects the standard work among all Moslems to-day on comparative re

The period was in many respects the golden age of Islamic literature, and it is high praise indeed that, in the judgment of Moslem and

surpassed all his literary not in style and eloquence, at contemporaries, least in the scope and character of his writings


more by

fluence of his


the enduring and outreaching in The story of that life and the

character of his message sketch for the reader.




attempt to


Birth and Education




without doubt the most remarkable

figure in all Islam. His doctrine is the expression of abandoned the attempt to his own personality.



this world.

But the


problem he

comprehended much more profoundly
philosophers of his time.

than did the
intellectual in

These were

methods, like their Greek predecessors, and

consequently regarded the doctrines of Religion as merely the products of the conception or fancy or even caprice of the lawgiver. According to them Religion was either blind obedience, or a kind of

knowledge which contained truth of an inferior order.

hand Ghazali represents Religion as of his inner Being. It is for him the experience more than law and more than Doctrine; it is the


the other


s experience."

Philosophy in


T. /. DeBoer.

Al-Ghazali was born and educated in Khorasan. the Aryan genius. and science. and to produce the enormous aggregate of works. the powerful. enabling European family. were dominated by All posts. as also he spent the closing years of his life. 53 &quot. Huart expresses it. AS Persia. from the Abbasside period on tellectual ward. and in brain which. It pervaded everything. Persian in fluence was supreme.n BIRTH AND EDUCATION already stated.All races. Persia. The realms of poetry.&quot. and yet the language they used was that of the Koran. were held by men who were not Arabs. philosophic. imaginative. and legal. is again facing disintegrating At the time of Al-Ghazali. and remained the sole literary language of the huge empire of the Caliphs. It was this Aryan genius which explains much of the powerful influence of Al-Ghazali upon Moslem thought. and the revival of that influence in our day when Islam forces. The Arabs had ceased to write. and creative mind of the great Indoartistic. and there &quot. so mightily affected Arab literature. theology. Per- . administrative those of Persian birth. possessed an in tangible force. the it to develop in every quarter of the Caliph s realms.

and theology were referred by Sultans to celebrated authorities for reply. and from Kurdistan Dar Southern Arabia. His long residence in all the great centres of Islam of his day brought him into close touch with men of every school of thought and followers of manners of religions and philosophies.&quot. were melted in this sians. and Palestine. philosophy. Al-Ghazali was a Persian by birth. We have records of letters re ceived by Al-Ghazali from Spain and Morocco as well as from Egypt. describes Al-Ghazali s native The first the delightful Province of the Sun. we have from Afghanistan to to Spain. mosphere we find in The poet Moore land as &quot. When all we remember literary the key to his enormous His horizon stretched productiveness.64 A MOSLEM SEEKER AFTER GOD Berbers from Maghrib. What happened outside the ul Islam in infidel Europe was brought to the all notice of by the Crusades. Ques tions of jurisprudence. Where. and amalgamated mighty crucible. . Syrians. of learning had intercourse by correspond with those of similar tastes in every part of ence the Men Moslem world. all the loveliest children of his beam. an Aryan in his modes of thought. Syria. of Persian lands he shines upon. All this produced the cosmopolitan at his works. this. a Semite in his religion and he became a cosmopolitan by travel and education.. Flowerets and fruits blush over every stream...



&quot. or Great Salt Desert of Khorasan. the arid plains Throughout the prov and the grassy valleys have been engaged in a perpetual The shifting sands have struggle for the mastery.000. losing themselves in the The salt brought down by the great salt desert. and was sions into which the ancient kingdom of the Sas- sanians was divided.000 square miles. the north and southwest Khorasan is mountainous. doubtless far Towards more in Al-Ghazali s day. the land of the Khorasan. The total area is about 150. fairest of all streams. and It was the present population not over 800. are scarcely any rivers. They were named according After the to the cardinal points of the compass. but between the mountain ranges there extend broad waste land. and especially near Tus. is By far the most extensive of these saline wastes the Dasht-i-Kabir.BIETH AND EDUCATION And. indeed. dries these up until the winter floods This process being repeated for ages. . signifies one of the four geographical divi sun. and the few streams are brackish and intermittent. The fierce deposited in the marshes. There already absorbed some towns and villages. the s 66 roves Murga and Among Merou bright palaces &quot. rivers is summer heat occur again. ince. tracts of In the east the country is hilly. Even now the boundaries of the province are scarcely determined. groves. Arab conquests the name was used both for a definite province and also in a looser sense for the whole eastern region of Persia.&quot.

and Seyistan is instruct ive/ says Ellsworth Huntington. Travellers and students of climate seem to be in the course of time the agreed that the country offers unmistakable evi dence of desiccation. drier part of the province is full and has suffered great depopulation.has from war more severely than has any 1 Its northern portion. Asia.&quot.. . where the rainfall is heaviest. . other province of Persia.A san. more than any province except Khorasan. 1907. of Persia entirely to the devastations of war and the misrule of Islam. Ruins of cities and villages are incredibly lation numerous and point to a larger popu and better climate and irrigation in the days It would not be just to attribute the decay past. is to-day one of the most prosperous portions of Persia. and where the great est amount of fighting has taken place. Seyistan has suffered from &quot. New York. It contains numerous ruins. . suffered Khorasan &quot. &quot.The Pulse of p. such impressive features as are those farther south.66 A MOSLEM SEEKER AFTEE GOD whole stretch of soil over which the marsh extends has become incrusted with salt. 325. comparison of the four provinces of KhoraKirman. which . Azerbaijan. has suffered from war Azerbaijan. The relative abundance of its water supply renders its future hopeful. Houghton. Mifflin & Co. but they are by no means The southern and of ruins. is the most prosperous and thickly settled part of Persia.

The surface of the province of Khorasan to-day consists mainly of highlands. except along the Helmund. If war and misgovernment are the cause of the decay of Persia. and turquois. it would seem. Other products are manna. The town of Mashad. and the fruitful well-watered upland valleys. Nevertheless. which was an ancient and dis capital. irreparably depopulated. factures have always been sabres. and. and not less from misgovernment. while the two which have suffered less from war and no more from misgovernment have been fearfully. it is remark able that the two provinces which have suffered most from war. gum. the saline deserts. cotton. but especially melons and other fruits. saffron.&quot. it has been depopulated to a far greater extent. asafoetida for ex The chief manu port to India. the present capital of city Khorasan. Kirman lies so remote behind its bar of desert and mountains that it has suffered from war much less than any of the three other Yet its ruined cities and its appearance provinces.BIETH AND EDUCATION 57 wars. has supplanted the older trict of Tus. riers of hopeless depopulation are almost as impressive as those of Seyistan. should now be the most prosperous and least de populated. pottery. are raised in profusion. but less severely than the two preceding prov inces. The . carpets. Its extreme aridity renders recovery well-nigh impossible. In these fruitful regions rice. woolen and cotton goods.

As early as the tenth century we have references to the birthplace of Al-Ghazali. from the time of Islam. Tabaran. and that of Rashid in the environs (lit. son of Kahtabah. .). writing ten years later. such as the house of Hamid. as a dependency of the province towns are Radkan. gardens) of the town.&quot. two of which are up large and the other two of minor importance.68 A MOSLEM SEEKEE AFTEE GOD ruins of this city lie fifteen miles to the northwest. D. Bazdghur. and the tomb of Haroun ar-Rashid. in which (latter) is the tomb of Ali. D. the slayer of the last Darius.&quot. its area is that date It has beautiful monuments a square mile. During the Zoroastrian sway. son of Musa ar-Riza (may the peace of God be upon him).&quot. Williams Jack son in his most interesting book. who gave Alexander the Great against Turan.) writes: Tus is made of the union of four towns. the tomb of Ali. son of Musa. . . passed through it in pursuit of Bessus. history of Tus and description of its present con dition is given by Professor A. V. The tomb of Ar-Riza is about one-quarter of a farsakh distant towards the vil The best summary of the lage called Sanabadh. Thus Mis ar &quot. and Naukan. From Constanti &quot. nople to the Home of Omar Khayyam. Istakhri (951 A. Muhalhil (about 941 A. He says: &quot. .Taking Tus its of Nishapur. He tells us that the name of the town is as old as the half- battle legendary warrior Tusa of the Avesta. speaks of Tus as a depend ency with four large towns or settlements.

BIETH AND EDUCATION the city of 59 Tus shared with Nishapur the distinc tion of being the seat of a Nestorian Christian When the Arab conquest of Persia came Tus fell before the invaders and it became a great Moslem centre. in contrast with stretches of arid waste that told only too well the story of ruin wrought in the past. aided by earthquakes. The devastating inroads of Ghuzz hordes and the Mongol armies.&quot. who was born there about 935 bishop. The it. thick clover spread their rich green on all sides. had indeed laid mighty Tus in rise ruins: but its dust still contains the resurrection seed of flowers and grain. com pass. and the eternal power of nature to . Professor Jackson thus describes the present The crumbling walls ruined condition of the city: of the dead city were once broad and lofty ram &quot. A. following roughly the points of the . which must have formed a very irregular quadri lateral. famous especially as the home of the poet Firdausi. and died 1025 A. but they had be come much flattened with the lapse of ages. D. . D. al still though traces of their towers were to be seen. much like those already mentioned at Bustam and Rei. as we saw the and bloom again. bringing life anew in Acres of barley and fields of the midst of death. Professor Jackson goes on to say: &quot. presented a strange paradox of the destructive effects of the hand of man. parts of clay and rubble. scene. It is clear that . while their outline showed the contour of the town.

1 &quot. It is a mistake to regard Tus as having been a metropolis containing four boroughs. Jackson. says that villages. 7. Tabaran. vol. formed part of the borough of Tabaran. Bazdghur. Tus contained two towns and over one thousand . i. vi. Tabaran was the capital. 1-3) : From while 267.000 villages. having been the capital of the dis was commonly called by the name of the district. and must cover some at least of the site of that city.&quot. Radkan. &quot. Nawqan was the most populous. p. or the period covering the It was in portion of the poet s life. from Mashad to Radkan. p. quoting Mis ar bin MukIbn Khallikan.60 A MOSLEM SEEKER AFTER GOD Tus we have been examining. p. Tabaran that Al-Ghazali was buried. (Yaqut gives the spelling as Nuqan) and more than 1. &quot. the present Mashad represents the old Nawqan. 284 ff.) Constantinople to the Home of Omar Khayyam. and there he must have had his home during the closing years of his life. (pp. Religious disputation must have been the very See however Gardner s Al-Ghazali in the Islam Series The district of Tus where we have this note contained four towns. 29. (See Yaqut. Tabaran. the ruined site of with the Rudbar and Rizan Gates. Of these four towns. It was outside Tabaran that Al-Ghazali and Firdausi were buried. halhil. as we know from the Oriental geographers better of the tenth century. while the ruins now known as Tus represent the old city of trict. when the city covered a large area comprising several thickly populated centres.&quot. It was outside of Nawqan that AH bin Musa ar-Rida and Haroun Ar-Rashid were buried. which. in the Kitabu l-Ansab. is incredible. Thus. an important section of the town in Firdausi s day. That there ever ex isted a city of Tus stretching thirty-five miles. and Nawqan. As-Sam ani. vol.

BIETH AND EDUCATION 61 atmosphere of Tus. The people of Khorasan. science of Tradition. says Chenery. the However. Tus in 939.&quot. renowned for their stinginess. &quot. and scholars. for example Abu Ja far Muhammed. to whose kindness asked I owe everything poet. died at of its learned men. as we know from the following anecdote related of Ibn-Habbariyya. like the water-wheel well &quot. the men of Tus were oxen (one would say asses. In spite Tus did not have a high reputation. What wonder is it that Nizam Al-Mulk And that Fate should be on his side ? Fortune is should rule. one of the earliest and most important critics of the writers . He was asked by an enemy of Nizam Al-Mulk to compose How can I attack a man a satire on this ruler. &quot.were and it is not sur prising that the inhabitants of the mother town . nowadays). &quot. he merely remarked that the poet had simply intended to allude to his origin he came from Tus in all Khorasan. on being pressed. Which raises water from the None but oxen can turn it ! When the vizier was informed of this attack upon him. according to a popular saying. were born at Tus and Ibn Abi Hatim. I see in my house?&quot. Christians were numerous and the Moslem Shiahs were almost as strong as Some of their most celebrated the orthodox. and. he penned these lines: &quot. however.

&quot. related in Sa adi s Gulistan.&quot. The Kermani said. in the words of Hujwiri. if I remember well. but made under him rub which it his bread against the glass cover was kept/ * To prove the stupidity of the Khorasanis to-day. . all of them distinguished for the sublimity of their the eloquence of their discourse.&quot. He then goes &quot. in that province alone I have met three hundred who had such mystical en that a single man of them would have been enough for the whole world. In this book we have an interesting picture of Mashad and Tus as &quot.62 A MOSLEM SEEKER AFTER GOD were said to excel in it all the rest of the world. 1910. From Khorasan come all the fools like myself.&quot. This is due to dowments The Glory of the Shiah World. But the poor Khorasani could only say. Kerman produces fruit of seven colours. of the merchant of Merv. Major P. 1 they are to-day. He men tions nine leading Sufis who belong to Khorasan. &quot. Sykes tells a story of three Persians who met and were all praising their own provinces.&quot. M. was that where the shadow of God s favour rested. land &quot. on to say: &quot. The waters of Ruknabad issue from the very rock. &quot. &quot.&quot. It would be difficult to mention all the sheikhs of Khorasan. as regards the teaching of the Mystics. who would not allow his son to eat cheese. and taught there before Al-Ghazali s day. Witness the story. the sagacity of their intelligence. Yet Khorasan. and aspiration. The Shirazi continued. London.

According to Murtadha (who follows As-Subqi). of the family b. it is related that others before him had the peculiarity &quot. by Damiri.&quot. &quot. and among the Ghassan that of al-Harith the junior b. Hasan b. the same name to this one continuation. tari s Ibn-Kutaibah states that Abu 1-Bakh- name was Wahb thrice in Wahb Wahb. Hasan. but used what his predecessors had already written on the subject. The very chapter headings of Kashf al-Mahjub Al-Ghazali s are the same as those found in books on mysticism. 1058). it : 63 the fact that the sun of love and the fortune of the Sufi is In view of such statements Ghazali to his is clear that Al- owed much to his environment as well as own genius. Bahram among .BIRTH AND EDUCATION Path in the ascendant in Khorasan. 2 &quot. there Professor Machas been long and strong dispute.&quot. al-Harith. whether should be spelled with two z s or with one. al-Harith 2 senior b. the Hasan (the descendants of Abu-Talib) that of b. Bahram b. D.&quot. . He did not originate mysticism.&quot. and he was born Tus in the year of In regard to his the Hegira 450 (A. Hayat-ul-Hayawan. 173-174. name. Al-Ghazali s full name was Abu Hamid Moham bin med bin Mohammed Mohammed at at-Tusi al- Ghazali. three times re peated. pp. name b. and that similar the names of the Persian kings was among that of Talibis Bahram b.Kashf al-Mahjub. and the it Concerning the spelling of his name.

in his 1282). wie al Qassari fiir al Qassar. essay. einem kleinen Orte bei Tus. als Nisbe zu .&quot. nach dem atisdrucklichen des Sam anis. sondern gibt seine Qtielle als Sam ani genau wieder. 419) &quot. o. I. persischer Quellen Gazzali verdankt offenbar einer Schreibung Volksetymologie ihr Dasein in Anlehnung an die nach al Sam ani in Hwarizm gebrauchlichen Nisben. such as are common among patronymics.&quot. the name is derived from Ghazala. nr. 1310) leaves little Ghasali. Zeugnis Gazala. Referred to in his Life of Al-Ghazzali Ibn Khallikan (Vol. a village near But ap Tus.&quot. jenes ausgezeichneten Kenners iranischer Namen. so do the Gosche i.64 A MOSLEM SEEKER AFTEE GOD spelt Ghaszali 1 donald thinks the name should be and has given This spelling his is arguments in a special given by Ibn Khallikan (d. . 1 &quot. 2 &quot. Hall.&quot. Abu Sa d Abd alKarim As-Sam ani was born only two years after Al-Ghazali s death. therefore. 3 auf Grund spater. doubt that Sama ani spells it with one So also is the spelling of German Orientalists including Brockelmann. patronymics an expert in names and genealogies. verteidigte (&quot. and wrote a in eight volumes. 265) gives the preference to Ghasali. die von nr. biographical dictionary parently. 29. and is not a professional noun. 330) b. who was his own coun He tryman. A. p. I.So. I. Clement Huart History of Arabic Litera ture. p. Sujuti den Gosche citiert bestatigt keineswegs seine auffassung. p. He writes (Vol. famous book of was. The sheikhs of the Azhar University in Cairo all follow this authority and write Al2 Ghazali. p. (s. Cairo. j. D. z. 37. according to the authority of As-Sam ani. and we may well accept his authority for the spelling of the name of the great imam.

Vol. Ghazali used to after life. one in a dream was the correct spelling. that at the time of his father s death he story is told. Then he advised them to go to a madrasa. The apparently on the authority of Ghazali himself. &quot. p. may appeal to the highest Moslem authority. father. namely. Mo hammed the Prophet who is said to have declared to some (See have a fatwa from the Sheikhs of Al-Azhar. one an elder Al-Ghazali. &quot.BIBTHIAND EDUCATION Some 65 say that there had already been two scholars in the family.) I . the purpose with this friend. stating that the true spelling is now agreed on by Moslems as Ghazali with one middle radical. Yet in spite of all this those who prefer Goldziher in his latest &quot. that this I. This was a paternal uncle of Ghazali s The other was a son of the same. tell the story of this experience in &quot. committed his two boys. 18. We became students for the sake of something else than God. and the well-known Dutch Arabist. to the care of a trusted Sufi friend for their educa He himself seems to have had unfulfilled de tion. they would receive food for their need and shelter. where.&quot. at whose tomb in the cemetery of Tus prayer was an swered. however. according to Moslem custom.Murtadha. sires in regard to his own education and was de termined that his boys should have a better oppor So he left in trust what money he had for tunity. Snouck HurGhazzali gronje. and would add the remark. Mohammed and Ahmed. Cairo. who proved faithful and taught and cared for them until the money was all gone. work Vorlesungen ilber den Islam (1910). French Orientalists in the Revue du Monde Mussulman.

and advocates the wearing of a special garb by the dervishes. and Kazvin. younger brother. he neglected his judicial studies. We Of know his that he married before he was twenty fif and that at least three daughters survived him. This instance doubt less throws light on the motives for his studies and At the outset he his great diligence. and would seem to indicate that he had a son of that name who probably died in infancy. in which he deals with the advantages of poverty. He wrote an abridgement of his brother s great work.&quot.66 A MOSLEM SEEKEE AFTER GOD but He was unwilling that it should be for the sake of anything but Himself. he was a mystic and preached his views with great eloquence as well as with a prolific pen. who died teen years after he did (1126). we know Tus. His name Abu Hamid was doubtless given him much later. and had the gift of So fond was he of public preaching that healing. We are told that he was a man of splendid appearance. we know the following: was buried at He succeeded Al-Ghazali in the professorial chair at the Nizamiyya School. An other of his books was in defense of music. . however. and of his own next to nothing. called 1 Macdonald. Like him. Of Al-Ghazali family life 1 s home life at afterwards. was in search rather of reputation and wealth through learning than of piety. and also a celebrated treatise on mysticism called Minhaj al-albab (Path for Hearts).

or. but acted in such a man him is in the eyes of the people. The full account brother called worth giving. but this was considered frivolous by strict Moslems. &quot. The . would not take part with him in the prayers (i. and he asked his mother to order him (Ahmed) to treat him as other people did. Zain-ud-Din. and pressed his dition that he stand apart from the ranks. his brother ner as to discredit Ahmed not merely failed to respect. An interesting story is told of Abu Hamid was show him proper at the height of his how. and he agreed on con this repeatedly. even while thousands of the commonalty and nobility arranged themselves in ranks behind him. His mother urged him (Ahmed) time and again to agree to this. seeing that his brother was celebrated for his good conduct and piety. So he complained to his mother what he ex perienced at his brother s hands. notwithstanding as others say. who. He had a surnamed Jamal-ud-Din. He complained about demand.. Al-Ghazali s mother we to know nothing be the fact that she survived her husband and see both her sons famous at Bagdad. Ahmed. whither apparently she accompanied or followed them. the high rank which his brother held. when fame at Bagdad.BIETH AND EDUCATION 67 Bawariq al-ilma. (saying) that it almost led to people doubting him. e. would not recognize him as a man fitted to lead the public prayers). although the Sufis used music to Of yond lived produce the state of ecstasy.

the prayer in the distance. a dis tance of over one hundred miles. indi . Cairo . dry. heat. which are for it as though they did not exist.&quot. and the people followed him. and the people after him. is touch. the Imam went to the Mosque. when began the it Imam began the prayer. at the end of Miskat-ul- Anwar. man. and his studies at Tus met with such success that he went to the larger educational centre of Jurjan before the age of twenty. Next comes the the Biography given edition (1322). s autobiography we have a of how he himself conceived the growth of glimpse a child in wisdom and stature. cating by this expression the vileness of one who took a share in the work of worldly men of learn1 ing. The sense of touch does not perceive colours and forms.&quot. Jamal-ud-Din followed him in And while they were praying Jamal-ud-Din suddenly interrupted him. and when one of the appointed times of prayer arrived. Al-Ghazali must have begun his education at a very early age. till.68 A MOSLEM SEEKEE AFTER GOD Imam accepted this condition. moist. So this trial was worse than the first and when he was asked the reason (of his conduct) he replied that it was impossible for him to take as his pat tern an Imam whose heart was full of blood. cold. he says. by means of which he perceives a certain group of qualities revealed to &quot. The first sense In Al-Ghazali &quot. and no inconsider able journey at that time.

O God. endeavour to arise before early &quot. O God.BERTH AND EDUCATION colours and forms 69 sense of sight. I ask Thee Thou wouldst this day send me all good and deliver me from all evil. tion. towards the age of seven. He hath awakened us to the religion nature. . and the religion of His Prophet Mohammed and the sect of our father Abraham. and not a polytheist. occupies . Thanks be to God who hath given us life after the death of sleep. he enters then upon a new phase of existence and can experience. and may the first thing that enters your heart and your tongue be the remembrance of God Most High. He hath awakened us and awakened The greatness and the power belong to the majesty and the dominion to the Lord of the worlds. do we that . The of smell sense of hearing succeeds. Al-Ghazali must have been an early riser from In his Beginner s Guide to Religion &quot. By Thee. To Him do we all return. impressions. which makes him acquainted with that is to say. which do not occur in the sphere of sensa his youth. with that which the highest rank in the world of sensation. can elevate himself above the world of sense. superior to those of the senses.&quot. who was a Hanif and a Moslem. and then the senses When the human being and taste. and Morals (Al Badayet) he writes: When you awaken from sleep. God of Islam and the testimony of His unity. he receives the faculty of discrimination. dawn. thanks to this faculty. saying. &quot.



from sleep, and by Thee do we reach the even In Thee do we live and die and to Thee do we return/ And when you put on your garments, remember that God desires you to cover your nakedness with them and to show forth God s

beauty to those around you." In another place in the same


volume he

Know again inculcates early rising by saying: that the night and the day consist of twenty-four
Let therefore your sleep during the night and day be not more than eight hours; for it will suffice you to think after you have lived sixty years that you have lost twenty years of it solely


probably began to read even before the age

of seven, for we find that his studies at Tus, and afterwards at Jurjan, apparently included not only religious science but also a thorough knowledge of

Persian and Arabic.


his religious studies






us that the

matics, logic,

sciences physics,


mathe metaphysics, politics, and

And although he does not speak in his Confessions of his earliest studies, what he says in regard to mathematics throws a

flood of light


his youthful scepticism.



Mathematics comprises the knowledge of calcula tion, geometry, and cosmography: it has no con
nection with the religious sciences, and proves noth ing for or against religion it rests on a foundation



of proofs which, once known and understood, can Mathematics tend, however, to not be refuted.

produce two bad
ness of



first is this



studies this science admires the subtlety



His confidence

in philosophy

and he thinks that all its departments are capable of the same clearness and solidity of But when he hears people proofs as mathematics.

speak of the unbelief and impiety of mathema ticians, of their professed disregard for the divine

Law, which





true that, out of

regard for authority, he echoes these accusations, but he says to himself at the same time that, if there was truth in religion, it would not have
escaped those who have displayed so much keen ness of intellect in the study of mathematics.

Next, when he becomes aware of the unbelief and rejection of religion on the part of these learned men, he concludes that to reject religion



How many

of such

astray I have met,
just mentioned!

men gone argument was that

Not only mathematics but astronomy and other

were then

in alleged conflict with the facts
felt this

of revelation.

Al-Ghazali must have


The ignorant Moslem thinks keenly, for he says the best way to defend religion is by rejecting all

the exact sciences.

Accusing their professors of

being astray, he





eclipses of the sun and moon, and condemns them

in the

name of

These accusations are

carried far and wide, they reach the ears of the philosopher who knows that these theories rest on

proofs; far from losing confidence in them, he believes, on the contrary, that Islam has ignorance and the denial of scientific proofs for

its basis,

and his devotion to philosophy increases

with his hatred to religion.

It is therefore a great to religion to suppose that the defense of injury Islam involves the condemnation of the exact

law contains nothing which approves them or condemns them, and in their turn The words of they make no attack on religion. the Prophet The sun and moon are two signs of





power of God; they are not eclipsed for the birth or the death of any one when you see these

signs take refuge in prayer, and invoke the name of these words I say, do not in any way con God


the astronomical calculations which define

the orbits of these


bodies, their conjunction

and opposition according to particular laws." We must remember in this connection that it was

Omar Khayyam,

the poet astronomer, who at this time was leading many into scepticism. very After a knowledge of Arabic grammar, and

memorizing the Koran, the diligent student would take up its critical and devotional study. AlGhazali


teachers undoubtedly emphasized, as he

The Confessions of


by Claud



the sacred volume.


did himself, the importance of correct reading of In one of the most beautiful

passages in his Ihya, Al-Ghazali himself notes the following points: The reader must be clean out

wardly, and respect the book with outward rever He must read the proper quantity. He ence.
quotes with approval the practice of Sa ad and Othman, that the Koran should be read through

once a week.
for this

One should

helpful to the

use chanting (tartil), memory, and makes us

read slowly, and rapid reading is not approved. One should read it with weeping, i. e., sorrow for One should give the proper responses in the sins.

proper places. One should use the opening prayer It may be read secretly before beginning to read. It must be read beautifully or aloud. according
to the Tradition:


Koran by

the sweet

ness of your


or another Tradition:

who does not sing the Koran is not of our religion." One day when the Prophet heard Abu Musa read Verily, to this reader God ing the Koran he said: has given the voice of David when he wrote the


We may


Yusuf Nassaj, his first a mystic, as well as, later, the al-Haramain, laid considerable emphasis on
believe that

who was

the points here mentioned.

The atmosphere in which Al-Ghazali was educated, we must never

was that of mysticism. The study of the Koran was followed by




of the Traditions, of which the standard collec tions were already in circulation. After this, a in Al-Ghazali s day would begin the study youth of Fiqh, or





from the contents of the standard works on

subject, written before Al-Ghazali s time, and later by himself, what engrossed the attention in the

schools of

Tus and Jurjan.






be on ceremonial purity by the use of ablution, the bath, the tooth-pick and the various circumstances of legal defilement when ghasl or complete ablution

prescribed; of the ailments of

women and


duration of pregnancy. Then came the second part of the book on prayer, its occasions, conditions,

and requirements, including the four things in which the prayer of a woman differs from that of a man. He would learn all about the poor-rate about fasting and pilgrimage, about the (sakat), laws of barter and sale and debt about inheritance and wills a most difficult and complicated sub Then the pupil would pass on to marriage ject. and divorce, a very large subject, and one on which Moslem law books show no reserve, and leave no detail unmentioned. Then would follow the laws in regard to crime and violence, Holy War, and the


of sacrifice at the Great Feast.



three chapters of books on Fiqh generally deal with 3 oaths, evidence, and the manumission of slaves.

Appendix VII






Jurisprudence and Constitutional Theology." 8 1 follow here the contents of Ghazali s


his youth


up Al-Ghazali belonged to the

Shafi School, one of the four orthodox systems of jurisprudence. The Imam ash-Shafii , whose tomb

was afterwards visited by Al-Ghazali, and a place of pilgrimage, died in A. H. 20-i. He chose the via media between the slavery of tradi tion and the freedom of logic and deduction in
at Cairo
is still

Moslem law. According to Macdonald, "Ashwas without question one of the greatest Shafi

Perhaps he had not the originality and keenness of Abu Hanifa; but he had a balance of mind and temper, a clear vision
figures in the history of law.

grasp of means and ends, that enabled him what proved to be the last word in the After him came attempts to tear down; matter. The fabric of the Muslim canon but they failed.



to say

law stood

The adherents of the school now number some sixty million persons,




about a half are in the Netherland Indies,
rest in

and the

Egypt, Syria, Hadramaut, Southern India, and Malaysia. Among all of these AlGhazali the Shafi ite naturally holds a place of su

preme honour.


interesting story


told in connection with

his studies

under the

Imam Abu Nasr






teacher, but neglected to memorize what he had written. This seems to have been a characteristic

of his, according to Macdonald, because his quota tions are often exceedingly careless; and one of

to Tus from Jurjan. Robbers upon him. and even carried off the bag with his manuscripts. p. he got tells his fell He the story himself. 76. however. and spent three years there com the science in them. On his way back lesson. I travelled for writing them They are writings in that the sake of hearing them and down. Vol. and there But he gave them you are without any science ? him back. the charges brought against him by his assailants afterwards was that he falsified tradition. 1 &quot. Macdonald. Journal of the American Oriental Society. Life of Al-Ghazzali. mitting his notes to future robbers/ memory as a precaution against Shortly afterwards Al-Ghazali left Tus a second time to pursue his studies at Nishapur under the D. B. XX. And/ says Al-Ghazali.&quot. this man was sent by God to teach me/ So Al-Ghazali went back to Tus. and entreated the return of the notes they were of no use to them. he ran after them. Said Al-Ghazali with great simplicity: bag. stripped him. . and knowing the science in : Thereat the robber chief laughed conHow can you profess to know sumedly. Al-Ghazali had a certain quality of dry humour.76 A MOSLEM SEEKEE APTEE GOD &quot. clung to them though threatened with death. and was evidently tickled by the idea of these thieves studying law. The robber chief asked him what were these notes of his. and said them/ when we have taken them from you and stripped you of the knowledge. This was more than he could stand.

Yakut. miles west of Tus. element. because. with a great export of cotton goods and raw silk. D. 820-873). raids have in modern times destroyed the In 1153 it was prosperity of this whole region. but soon rose again. the Koran Ahmed al-Tha labi. In the decline of the empire whose the city had much to suffer from the Turkomans. 31. H. The older became the capital of Khorasan. a league square. as Yakut remarks. among them Omar Khayyam commentator the poet. and greatly increased in prosperity.BIETH AND EDUCATION 77 most celebrated teacher of that period in this great Nishapur was situated forty-nine literary centre. and was captured by the Arabs in A. and Maidani the author of the well-known collection of Arabic name of the town or district was The importance of the place under the Sasanians was in part religious. one of the three holiest fire temples was in its neighbourhood. it proverbs. the cities he had visited this was the It was in this city that Hamadhani wrote his four-hundred Maqamat and vanquished his great literary rival. Istakhri describes it as a well. under the almost independent princes of the house of Tahir (A.fortified town. Other great names are connected with the city. utterly ruined by the Ghuzz Turkomans. its position gave it command of the entire caravan trade with . Nishapur under the Moslems contained a large Arab Abrashahr. in his geographical dictionary. all says that of finest.

he went to Bagdad and thence to the two holy cities. and to make the sacred pilgrimage. Damascus. Along with his professorial .&quot.little stuffs to India. lem law in his day. On the death of his father. which signifies teacher of the two holy places/ When he returned to Nishapur. in which he gave courses of lessons till his death. hence his surname. but a century later Ibn Batuta city again flourishing.&quot. numerous have an interesting portrait of Al-Ghazali s chief teacher while he was at Nishapur. teacher in the latter town. in 1221. which overtook him on the twentieth of own August. &quot. whither he had gone in the hope of recovering from an illness.78 A MOSLEM SEEKER AFTEE GOD It the East. on the twelfth of February. Abu Muhammed Abdallah ibn Yusuf. and an export of silkNishapur was famous for its fruits and gardens which gave it the epithet of &quot. of literary prodigies due to precocious talent and To complete his prodigious power of memory. 1085. though But this was a time barely twenty years of age. 1028. who was a &quot. where he taught for four the years. while on a visit to his native village. Abdal-Malik Al-Juwaini Imam al-Hara- near Nishapur. Nizam Al-Mulk founded a school for him. he took his place. was taken and razed to the ground by Mongols leges. Abul- We Ma ali main. Mecca and Medina. found the with four col students. and was one of the most learned and celebrated teachers of Mos He was born at Bushtaniqan. studies.

or landed property devoted to the support of pious For more than thirty years he con undertakings. des troyed their pens and ink-horns. He was a teacher as well philosophy and logic. and presided over discus sions tions on various doctrinal points: to these occupa he added that of managing the waqfs. his fellow students and teach them. tinued in undisputed possession of these various When he died. and gave up their It is certain that Al-Ghazali studies for a year. At Nishapur he held gatherings every Friday. . embracing theology. and here his studies were of the broadest. the great pulpit of the Mosque from which he had delivered his sermons was broken up. at which he preached sermons. both at Nishapur and imagine that he had a part also in the general mourning at the death of the Imam. and *Huart. as a student. &quot. Under the double task his health failed. until in a short time he became infirm and weak. At Nishapur. posts. Nihayat al-Matlab (Finality of Inquiry).&quot. sat at his feet as a learner. and we may preserved in Cairo in the Sultania Library. but he did not give up his studies. The Imam once said of him.&quot. Al-Ghazali was one of the favourite pupils of this Imam. and his pupils.Arabic literature. 79 he had discharged those of a preacher. to the number of four hundred and one.&quot. is still Bagdad. the mourning was general.BIETH AND EDUCATION duties. the manuscript of whose masterpiece. for we are told that he would read to &quot. dialectics.

&quot. but probably so long as he was under the influence of the Imam-al-Haramain a devout Sufi. Al-Kiya is a tearing lion.&quot. and strength of character. thing that I cannot ascertain. but underneath there was some when it did appear showed graceful ex and delicate allusion. Of and how he found tell us. made by some one unnamed.&quot. To this time of his life belongs the &quot. the proof belongs to Al-Khawafi. They must certainly have been reached some time before the year A. says Macdonald in speak whether ing of this period of Al-Ghazali s life. and clearness to Al-Kiya.Al-Ghazali is a sea to drown in. : contend together. 484. soundness of at pression tention. he would be held more or less fast to the old faith. and AlKhawafi is a burning Another saying of his about the same three was Whenever they fire. &quot. these struggles of his soul in an age of doubt relief the next chapter will .The remark also. H. while he was still at Nishapur he touched those depths of scepticism of which he speaks in the &quot.&quot. and must have been the outcome of a long drift of de velopment.80 A MOSLEM SEEKER AFTER GOD two other notable pupils: &quot. youth Al-Ghazali showed externally a vain-glori ous disposition.&quot. &quot. the warlike attacks to Al-Ghazali. Munqidh.

Ill Teaching. Conversion. and Retirement .

&quot. Mystics and Saints of Islam. Intimately acquainted with all the learn ing of his time. Islam.&quot.&quot. and his whole life was dedicated to one purpose. He was imbued with a sacred enthusiasm for the triumph of his faith.Al-Ghazali is one of the deepest thinkers. all Muhamadan lands he is celebrated both as an apologist of orthodoxy and a warm advocate of Sufi mysticism. but one of those rarer minds whose originality is not crushed by their learning. greatest In theologians and profoundest moralists of Islam. . the defense of &quot. he was not only one of the numerous Oriental philosophers who traverse every sphere of intellectual activity. Claud Field.

which. as if built by enchantment.Ill TEACHING. each of which was constructed in the manner of a booth at an English fair. Moore gives us the picture in these words : motley collection of tents &quot. life 478 of Nishapur brought him to the camp court of the great Vizier Nizam Al-Mulk. Whose Where are the gilded tents that all crowd the way. the travelling capital of the This imperial camp was laid out into squares and streets. as if the magic powers 83 . was waste and silent Hath sprung up here. The camp exhibited a and dwellings and palmleaf huts. Here AlGhazali sought advancement and the honours of his fortune WITH a great change came into the Al-Ghazali. The only regular part of the encamp ment were the streets of shops. CONVERSION. in a few short hours. would rise on the uninhabited plain. yesterday? This City of War. AND RETIREMENT the death of the Imam in A. He left to seek and it learning. The camp court was Seljuk Sultans. H. We read how in a few hours a city.

Lalla Rookh.&quot. quoted in Mirkof the Assassins. Steeds.) &quot. may God re his illustrious years exceeded eighty- was the universal belief that every boy who read the Koran or studied the traditions in and it his presence happiness. This world of tents and domes and sun-bright armoury. a man he. Princely pavilions. As rial for Nizam Al-Mulk we have an (It is interesting autobiography which he wrote and for future statesmen.&quot. Built the high pillar d halls of Chilminar.&quot.One of the greatest of the wise men of Khorasan.&quot. . highly honoured and reverenced. Towards me he ever turned an eye of to from Tus doctor of law.84 A MOSLEM SEEKER APTEE GOD Of him who. screen d by many a fold cloth. And camels. Of crimson Shaking in every breeze their light-toned J bells. far as the eye can see. joice his soul five. and topp d with balls of gold. tufted o er with Yemen s shells. s &quot. so that I passed four years in his service. with their housings of rich silver spun. the I might employ myself in study and learning under the guidance of that illustrious teacher.History left as a memo hond &quot. would assuredly attain to honour and For this cause did my father send me Nishapur with Abd-us-Samad. and as his pupil I felt for him extreme affection and devotion. in the twinkling of a star. &quot. says was the Imam Mowaffak of Nishapur. When I first came there. . Had conjured up. that favour and kindness.

and wandered to Ghazni and Kabul. the successor of Togrul Bey. and on these terms we mutually pledged our words. while Hasan life Ibn Sabbah s father was one AH. he please/ that to whomsoever this fortune falls. and we three formed a close friendship together. When the Imam rose from his lectures. and rose to be administrator of affairs during the Sultanate of Sultan Alp Arslan. without doubt one of what then shall be our mutual pledge and bond? We answered: let Well/ he said. they used to join me. Years rolled on. Now Omar was a native of Nishapur. a man of austere and practice but heretical in his creed and doc trine. After his education at Nishapur Nizam Al-Mulk served Alp Arslan. and for more than twenty years the burden of the . us will do not attain thereto.&quot. founder of the sect of the Assassins. and when I returned I was invested with office. shall share it equally with the rest. even we all . and we repeated to each other the lessons we had heard. us Be it what you make a vow. and reserve no preeminence for himself/ Be it so/ we both replied. One day Hasan It is said to me and to Khay yam: Imam if a universal belief that the pupils of the Mowaffak will attain to fortune.TEACHING AND CONVEESION I 85 found two other pupils of mine arrived own age newly Hakim Omar Khayyam. and I went from Khorasan to Trans- oxiana. and the ill-fated Ibn Sabbah. Now. Both were endowed with sharpness of wit and the highest natural powers.

ures three miles the country in which . both useful all and orna mental. The circumference of the city of Bagdad meas &quot. as well as a . whom . merchants of countries resort thither for purposes of trade. It contains a large all The park of sorts of trees. and it contains many wise philosophers well skilled in sciences. who visited the city some He says: years after Al-Ghazali s death (1160). so that Mesopotamia. gardens it nothing equals all in and orchards. Nizam Althe greatest ruler. Mulk was real letters He was man in the empire and its a friend of learning and in and established colleges many centres. dad is palace of the Caliph at Bag three miles in extent. 485. birds. In A.86 A MOSLEM SEEKEE AFTEE GOD empire of the Seljuks rested on his shoulders. the capital of the whole of Eastern Islam. and magicians proficient in all sorts of witchcraft. 484. When Alp Arslan died in 465 Malek Shah suc ceeded him and from that time until his assassina tion. of Tudela. and sorts of beasts. on the tenth of Ramadan. Al-Ghazali gained high fame at court and teach in the was appointed by Nizam Al-Mulk to Madrasa at Bagdad. We have an interesting picture of the city of Bagdad about this time from the pen of Rabbi Benjamin. pond of water led thither from the river Tigris and when ever the Caliph desires to enjoy himself and to sport and to carouse. it is situated is rich in palm-trees. H. beasts and fishes are prepared for him and for his councillors.

called itors The Caliph viz. pillars of gold palace of the great king contains large and silver. is there was decreed members of much honoured. are enacted in consequence of an occur measures rence which took place some time ago. which are composed of gold and silver cloth. how the ever. but once every year. All the brothers and other kiss his garments. and a special officer is appointed over every household to prevent their These rising in rebellion against the great king. and treasures of precious stones.. that all To prevent this in future. On his head he wears a turban. He then bestrides the royal mule. a palace within that of the Caliph but they are all fettered by chains of iron. they eat and drink. resides in his palace. Every one of them. family are accustomed to and every one of them possesses s . and upon which occasion the brothers rebelled and elected a king it among themselves. dressed in kingly robes. in order to have an opportunity of beholding his countenance. the rents of which are collected for them by their stewards. Upon this occasion many vis assemble from distant parts. at leaves his palace the time of the feast Ramadan. the Caliph s should be chained. The buildings. and lead a merry life. and they possess villages and towns.TEACHING AND CONVERSION 87 He gives us a glimpse of he invites to his palace/ what went on behind the walls of these royal palaces when he says members of the Caliph : &quot. in order to prevent their family rebellious intentions. &quot. ornamented with .

acknowledges and The procession moves on returns the compliment. rejoicings. This from the Palace to the Mosque at procession goes the Basra gate. and as much as to say: See. All those who walk in procession are dressed in silk and purple. of Media. a country distant three months journey from Arabia. which is led thither for that purpose. where the Caliph mounts a wooden unto them. He which is distributed to the nobles. of Persia. which is the Metropolitan Mosque. but over this turban is thrown a black veil. These send portions of it to their friends. and this is their offering. Mohammedan nobles. and by parties who dance before the great king. lord and king/ loudly saluted by the as Blessed art thou. upon which the whole assembly answer. all this worldly honour will be converted into darkness on the day of death/ He is accompanied by a numerous retinue of dresses. and expounds their rise. pulpit.88 A MOSLEM SEEKEE AFTEE GOD precious stones of inestimable value. law pray The learned Mohammedans for him. as a sign of humility. He it and by holding in his hand. called Caliph. and praise his great kindness and piety. who are eager to taste of the meat killed by the hands of . arrayed in rich . and even of Thibet. He who is sembled crowd. both men and women. into the court of the Mosque. Amen/ then pronounces his blessing and kills a camel. thereupon kisses his garment. and riding upon horses princes of Arabia. our cry. The streets and squares are enlivened by singing.

large houses. in boats until he never returns by the way he came. There are about sixty medical warehouses here. the Euphrates which runs These buildings include many sick poor. &quot. is called in r Dar-ul-Marastan (the abode of the insane). and has erected buildings on the other side of the river. then leaves the Mosque. a contemporary. every one of whom is secured by iron chains until w hich his reason returns. the noble He Mohammedans accompanying him enters his buildings. . Al-Hamadhani. are are locked up all those insane persons who met with. particularly during the hot season. add what the poet. all well provided from the king s stores with spices and other necessaries and every patient who claims . streets. so as to pre vent any one treading in his footsteps. assistance is fed at the king s expense until his cure There is further the large building completed.&quot. The Caliph never leaves his palace again for a whole year. and the path on the bank of the river is all the year around. He carefully guarded a pious and benevolent man. when he is allowed to return to his home. and hostelries for the who resort thither in order to be cured.TEACHING AND CONVEESION their holy king. and returns alone to his Palace along the banks of the Tigris. tells us of the luxuries of the table at We may We found ourselves among a com Bagdad: who were passing their time amid bunches of pany &quot. on is He the banks of an arm of on one side of the city. 89 and are much rejoiced therewith.

&quot. &quot. and that of an exile to whom return is impossible. picked herbs with very sour vinegar. and so I approached a company. placed now ranged before thee by one who will not put thee off with a promise nor torture thee with delay. whose gardens were in flower. The boy then said: Which of the two breaches dost thou wish stopped first? I answered: Hunger. full cups. : fine date wine with pungent mustard. approached them and they advanced to receive us. and who will afterwards follow juice of grape? it up with golden goblets of the Is that preferable to thee. He said What sayest thou to a white cake on a clean table. and whose dishes were arranged in rows with viands of various hues opposite a dish of something intensely black was something exceedingly white. for it has become extreme with me. Then we clave to a table whose vessels were rilled. spread . And in another place: I was in Bagdad in a famine year. in order to ask something of them. .90 A MOSLEM SEEKER AFTEE GOD We myrtle twigs. broached wine vats and the sound of the flute and the lute. and bouquets of roses. Now there was among them a youth with a lisp in his tongue and a space between his thy affair? a man pros front teeth. variety of dessert. or a large company. roast meat on a skewer with a little salt. united like the Pleiades. and against some thing very red was arranged something. I replied : He asked: What is Two conditions in which pers not: that of a beggar harassed by hunger. very yel low.

D. the building in The Suk. or market of the Nizamiyya. in his . traveller. being especially Close to the college was teaching of Shafi ite law. The college was founded in 1065. The the Ibn Jubayr. good order. 91 and a skilful minstrel &quot. brilliant lights. . was built on the eastern river bank of the Tigris. and he describes it as the most splendid of the thirty and odd colleges which then adorned the City of East Ibn Jubayr further reports that the endowments derived from domains day and rents belonging to the college amply sufficed both to pay the stipends of professors and to keep Bagdad. with the eye and neck of a gazelle ? all this we can imagine what Al-Ghazali when he went to dine with the Nizam Alenjoyed Mulk or other men of wealth and there was no From famine in Bagdad ! The Nizamiyya College which Al-Ghazali at tended and in which he was one of the leading lecturers at two periods of his life. . in the year 581 (A. the great thoroughfares of this quarter. besides supplying an extra fund for the sustenance of poor scholars.TEACHING AND CONVERSION carpets. and Mashra ah described as lying adjacent to the is or . was one of it &quot. A. another college called the Bahaiyah and the Hos pital established for the Maristan Tutushi. 1185). D. near the Bridge of Boats and close to the wharf and the large market-place. attended prayers in Nizamiyya on the first Friday after his arrival in Bagdad. &quot.

. Hamd-Allah. historian. and abanCaliphate. Then suddenly in It was here. and was a leader of the people. He rious disease. His lectures drew crowds. Oxford. He suddenly left Bag dad in the his brother 1 &quot. He gave fatwas. wharf. he wrote books. . L. Nizamiyya School. for Niebuhr found no traces of the to describe in his painstaking account of the ruins in the city of Caliphs. appointed to teach in his place. the col lege was still standing. prosperity a great change came seemed to be attacked by a myste His speech became hampered. and his physicians said the malady was due to mental unrest. at the Ghazali first the midst of all this over him. though at the present time Madrasahs vestiges of it have disappeared. G.e Strange. Baghdad under the Abbasside 1900. which proves that the college must have 1 stood near the Tigris bank. 298.92 A MOSLEM SEEKER AFTER GOD . . Writing a dozen years later than Ibn Batuta. This proves that down to the middle of the fourteenth century A. that Alembarked on his career as an inde pendent teacher. or legal opinions. alludes to the Nizamiyya. he preached in the mosque. D. 488. Ahmed month of Dhu-1-Qada. which he calls the mother of the in Bagdad. briefly &quot. his appetite failed. as these still ex Nizamiyya isted in the time of his visit. p.&quot. 8 Several of these are given at length by Murtadha. as indeed appears already to have been the case in the middle of the all last century. the Persian &quot. on matters of the 2 law.

TEACHING AND CONVEESION doned all 93 his property. must be fulfilled. itself in possession of the truth and of salvation. more than seventy sects of only one will be saved/ This prediction. f reaching my twentieth year to the when I have passed my fiftieth. This book reveals the story of his spiritual experiences fiftieth year. rejoices in its own creed but as the chief of apostles. My people . believes cape safe and sound. that is to say. They looked upon it as a calamity for Islam. are like a deep ocean strewn with shipwrecks. * will be divided into whom &quot.&quot. each party/ as the Koran saith. a flight from responsibility. from which very few es Each sect. has told us. This sudden retirement from active life and aca own demic honour was unintelligible to the theologians cf his days. I have ventured into this vast ocean. Confessions. that the diversity in and sects and religions. previous to J . from his youth up to his He direct beliefs says: &quot. From the period of adolescence. I have interrogated the beliefs of each sect and scrutinized the mys present time teries of each doctrine.Know then. it is true. my brother (may God you in the right way). but the real rea son of his renunciation he himself tells us in his &quot. and the variety of doctrines which divide men. whose word is always truthful. Some interpreted it as fear of the Govern ment. in order to disentangle truth . except so much as was nec essary for his support and that of his children. like all others of the Prophet.

94 A MOSLEM SEEKER AFTEE GOD who maintained heresy. and the children of Moslems embrace Islam. knowledge was innate me from my early age implanted by God. I was moved by a keen desire to learn what was this innate disposition in the child. Sufism has no secrets into which I have not is &quot. nor theologian the intricacies of whose doctrine I have not followed out. There no philosopher whose system I have not fathomed. the nature of the accidental beliefs imposed on him by the authority of his parents and his masters.&quot. and finally the un reasoned convictions which he derives from their instructions. me the real reason of his in The thirst for . penetrated the devout adorer of Deity has revealed to me the aim of his austerities. then his par : ents make him Jew. nor a partisan of its exterior sense with out inquiring into the results of his doctrine. beliefs. or Zoroastrian. the atheist has not . Christian. No sooner had I emerged from boyhood than I had it was like a second nature already broken the fetters of tradition and freed myself from hereditary &quot. been able to conceal from unbelief. the hidden I from error and orthodoxy from never met one have meaning of the Koran without investigating the nature of his belief. . and remembering also the traditional saying ascribed to the Prophet Every child has in him the germ of Islam. Having noticed how easily the children of Christians become Christians. without any will on my part.

That Al-Ghazali was driven to scepticism must not surprise us. dead.TEACHING AND CONVERSION &quot. and man. 95 Per Again he is full of doubts when he says: haps also Death is that state [he is speaking of a possible state of being which will bear the same relation to our present state as this does to the con dition when asleep]. Not only philosophers but poets were the leaders of these circles. and it was This un precisely these of which I was in doubt. This blind rah. born in 9T3 A. Among them we must mention Abu l Ala Al-Ma arri. Now a proof must be based on primary assumptions. and when some one complained to him that although the book was well written it did . But how ? In order to disentangle the knot of this difficulty. Men are asleep. Schools of free thinkers had been established fifty years earlier at Bagdad and Buswere Every Friday they gathered together. explicitly or by profession. when they Our present life in relation to the they wake/ future is perhaps only a dream. during which I was not. but morally and essentially a thoroughgoing sceptic&quot. happy state lasted about two months. once now &quot. poet is said to have written a Koran in imitation of Mohammed. Such thoughts as these threatened to shake my reason. some downright materialists. it is true. will see things in direct opposition to those before his eyes. according to a saying of the Prince of Prophets: die. Some rationalists. and I sought to find an escape from them. a proof was necessary. D.

Nor could this poet have had much reverence for the religion of Islam when he wrote: &quot.96 A MOSLEM SEEKEE AFTER GOD make the &quot. . and alas . Let it be read from the pulpit of the for four hundred years and then you will mosques all be delighted with His quatrains rival those of Omar Al-Kayyam in their utter pessimism and rank infidelity from the orthodox Moslem stand For example. same impression as the true Koran. as if it swung anchored with a yard of string. Because men dare not live with men alone. The bridal gift I can t afford to pay. But always with another Religion fairy-tale. Where is the valiance of the folk stories of the who sing These valiant world to come? Which they In air and describe. forsooth. not he replied : it.&quot. Lo : there are many ways and many traps guides and which of them is Lord? For verily Mohammed has the sword And he may have the truth perhaps ? perhaps ? And many Now this religion happens to prevail Until by that one it is overthrown. is a charming girl.&quot. I say But over this poor threshold will not Because I can t unveil her. pass. &quot. . he writes: point.&quot.

As in the nineteenth century for Christianity. 97 Two merchantmen decided they would battle.&quot. sought aid against the difficulty of the desert through the blessing of prayer. his hero. away from my companions. To prove at last who sold the finest wares And while Mohammed shrieked his call The prayers. at the same But I time. says taking advantage of the opportunity of joining in public prayers. I went to the front row and stood up. still The exer Mu atazilites cised great influence while the literalists and the blind followers of traditional Islam were often more distinguished for Pharisaism than piety.&quot.TEACHING AND CONVEESION &quot. the loss of the caravan I was leaving. The Imam went up to the niche and recited the opening chap to the intonation of ter of the Quran according using Hamza. So I slipped &quot. I impatience and tasked myself was . and dreading. in regard to Madda and Hamsa while I experienced disquieting grief at the thought of missing the caravan. Then he followed up the Surat Al-Fatiha with Surat Al-Waq ia while I suffered the fire of severely. true Messiah to waved his wooden rattle. &quot. therefore. and of separation from the mount. &quot. and. . need only turn to the Maqamat of AlHamadhani to know what the sceptic of that day We &quot. the struggle be tween science and orthodoxy waged rationalistic school of the fiercely. so in the eleventh century for Islam. thought of the public religious services.

spaired of the caravan and given up all hope of the He next bent his back for supplies and the mount. Then he stood up for the sec ond prostration. when he to had finished his two prostrations and proceeded wag jaws pronounce the testimony to God s and to turn his face to the right and to the unity. but I per ceived no opening in the rows. I raised my head to look for an opportunity to slip away. left for the final salutation. so I re-addressed the tion. or speech and the grave! So sity I remained standing thus on the foot of neces till the end of the I had now de chapter. Then he raised his hands and his head and said: May God accept the praise of him who praises Him/ and remained standing till I doubted not but that he had fallen asleep. I said Now God has his to * : made escape easy. the like myself to prayer until he repeated the Takbir for the sitting posture. two prostrations with such humility and emo of which I had never seen before. recited the Suras of Al-Fatiha and Al-Qaria with an intonation which occupied the duration of the Last Day and well-nigh exhausted the spirits of the congregation. roasting and grilling on the live coal of rage. if prayers were cut short of the final salutation. and deliverance is nigh .98 A MOSLEM SEEKEE AFTEE GOD But. but a . there was no alternative but silence and endurance. from what I knew of the savage fanaticism of the people of that place. Then he placed his right hand on the ground. put his forehead on the earth and pressed his face thereto. Now.

p. Such was the &quot. &quot.TEACHING AND CONVEESION man stood up and said : the companions of the lend me his ears for a 99 Whosoever of you loves Moslem community let him moment. and there was no common ground on which to meet. ciples generally They lacked the necessary knowledge of the sub . founded by Al-Ash ari to meet the Mu tazilites it had done that victoriously.Nor did he find light in philosophy. to first prin but their efforts had been fruitless. It is true that had attempted to go further back and meet the they their inconsistencies students of philosophy on their own ground. philosophy had place but could satisfy only the intellect and left the Next he deepest longings of the soul unsatisfied. had no scientific basis. the con- Macdonald. . . and they could argue deny them. Grant the theologians their premises. 88. deal with substances and attributes and ject. Religion is not merely of the its mind but of the heart. Their science had been since his day. but against the sceptic they could do nothing. but could do no more. examined the teachings of the Ta 1 limites. and were constrained eventually to fall back on authority/ &quot. They could hold the faith against heretics. impression made by the formalities of orthodoxy Al-Ghazali found no help for his doubts among these scholastic theologians nor has any Moslem ! Professor Macdonald tells us why. although he thoroughly studied the various systems of his day and refuted them. expose and weaknesses. .

p. and there was doled to me of knowledge I had not had purer and Then I looked upon finer than what I had known. Macdonald. wrote several books No other path remained open for against them. Of this period of I wished to plunge into following the and to drink of their drink. purer and finer than what had Then I befallen me at first. was doled (i. and I rejoiced in it. But Al-Ghazali. in it was a legal element. and there edge that is known felt). it. and lo.&quot. So I returned to solitude a third time for forty days. Theirs was the doctrine of an Imam or infallible spiritual guide and the sect found large following. did not attain to the people of the ine. in it was a speculative ele ment. When and lo. . early teaching he received at Tus and Nishapur and to the atmosphere of his native land which was for centuries steeped in mysticism.100 A MOSLEM SEEKEB AFTEB GOD temporary sect of the Ishmaelites founded by Has san Ibn as Sabbah. I looked at my people soul and I saw how much it was curtained in. So I returned to solitude and busied myself with religious exer cises for forty days. to me other knowl and 1 I not simply perceived. 90. and see Bibliography. his life he was wont to say: &quot. so far from being attracted by them.. looked upon it. the perplexed and sceptical seeker after God than It was a return to the the way of the mystics. so I retired into solitude and busied myself with re ligious exercises for forty days. and there was doled to me other knowledge.

I and The researches to which had devoted myself. and the Last Judgment. These three fundamental articles of belief by definite were confirmed in me. cir it is cumstances. to saw that the only condition of success sacrifice honours and riches and to sever the life. but by a chain of causes. to the domain. I was ties &quot. a by procedure which presupposes renouncement and detachment from this world of falsehood in order to turn towards eternity and meditation on God. was lacking belonged tion but of ecstasy &quot. Coming .&quot. not of instruc initiation. and I never separated myself from spec ulation except in a few things. in the path which I had traversed studying religious and speculative branches of knowledge. Finally. I found myself bound down on all sides by these trammels. I impossible to re saw that one can only hope for salvation devotion and the conquest of one s passions. and attachments of worldly seriously to consider my state. from which something has been erased is not like writing on a surface in its first purity and cleanness. not merely arguments.: ences rather than in definitions. and proofs which count. had given me a firm faith in three things God.TEACHING AND CONVEESION ward face 101 So I know that writing on a sur sciences. and that what I tells &quot. Who can read this and doubt his utter sincerity in the search for God and for Truth ? Confes the rest of the story in his saw that Sufism consists in experi sions&quot.I He &quot. inspiration.

On the one side the world kept me bound to my post in the chains of covetousness. when wilt thou think of it? If thou dost not break thy chains to-day. I wished to give up all and flee the Tempter returning to the attack said : . I advanced one step and immediately relapsed. in place of being sincerely teaching consecrated to God. I should be doomed to eter I spent a long time.102 A MOSLEM SEEKEE AFTEE GOD Examining my actions. nearing to make. when wilt thou break them ? Then my resolve was strengthened. but You give are suffering from a transitory feeling. the next In these reflections Still day I gave up my resolution. In the morning I was sincerely resolved only to occupy myself with the future life. and that without an regards my immediate conversion nal fire. the most fair-seeming of which were my lecturing and professorial occupa tions. it was only actuated by a vain I perceived that desire of honour and reputation. and profitless as I probed the motives of my salvation. Up. I found to my surprise that I was engrossed in several studies of little value. and found that. one day I decided to leave Bagdad and to give up everything. on the other side me: Up. thy and thou hast a long journey end. If thou dost not think the voice of religion cried to life is its now of thy salvation. All thy pretended knowledge is nought but falsehood and fantasy. I was on the edge of an abyss. in the evening a crowd of carnal thoughts assailed and dispersed my resolutions. don t . a prey to uncertainty.

in the interest of my pupils. He pp. this you obey it. I my weakness and the prostration of man took refuge in God as a my at the end of himself and without resources. He who (Koran. physical powers The enfeeblement of my was : such that the doctors despairing of saving me. but &quot. If you give up exempt from trouble and rivalry. He dis- . Thus I remained. my mouth became dumb. hears the wretched xxviii. Vainly I desired. to go on with my teaching. God caused an impediment to chain my tongue and pre vented me from lecturing. D.TEACHING AND CONVERSION way to it. (&quot. said The mischief is in the heart. 103 for it will soon pass. there is no hope unless the cause of his grievous sadness be ar rested/ &quot. 1096. this seat of au thority safe from attack you will regret it later on without being able to recover it. for of the year will yielded about six months from the month Rajab At the close of them my A. torn asunder by the oppo site forces of earthly passions and religious aspira &quot.The Confessions. and has communi cated itself to the whole organism. 42-45). family&quot.&quot. Finally. and I gave myself up to destiny. made easy and to me the sacrifice of honours. this fine position. 63) deigned to when they cry hear me. wealth. ethically all That his conversion did not mean that the word means in the Christian sense is evi dent from what immediately follows. if honourable post tions. conscious of soul.

this sacrifice had a considered in my religious motive. because they position as the highest attainable the religious community. of explanations of my conduct were forthcoming. I made all kinds of clever excuses for leaving Bag dad with the fixed intention of not returning The Imams of Irak criticized me with one accord Not one of them would admit that thither. Behold liii. 31). I obtained a legal authorization to preserve as for my support and that of is much as was necessary . said to themselves. a calamity which one can only impute to a fate which has be fallen the Faithful and Learning/ &quot. how far their knowledge goes (Koran. their displeasure at my resolution and * my It is refusal of their request. I gave out publicly that I intended to the pilgrimage to Mecca. not wishing that the Caliph sembled: make (may God magnify him) or my friends should know my intention of settling in that country. where .104 A MOSLEM SEEKER AFTER GOD &quot. which the Government Those who were on the spot and saw how the authorities wished to detain me. giving up all my fortune.At last I left Bagdad. Those who were outside the limits of Irak at tributed it All kinds to the fear with inspired me. Only. while I secretly re solved to go to Syria. I then should provide sufficient to support betook myself to Syria. as lands and property in Irak can afford an endowment for pious purposes. my children for there surely nothing more lawful in the world than that a learned man his family.

meditation. who was also professor at the Niza- miyya School. I used to live a solitary life in the Mosque of Damascus. in recreation. book into a sack and started to walk the long journey from Persia to Syria. Not only religious men but adventurers found in travel relief and world and The pious did it. imitation of Jesus. which I devoted to re and devout exercises. whose name is often interpreted as meaning one who travels &quot. And the worldly-minded often donned the garb of religious fakirs to satisfy their desire for adventure and their ambition to see distant lands. Of At-Tabrizi 1030-1100). (pp. constantly. 45-46). (A. D. A scholar was not satisfied unless he had seen the world of Islam. we read that when he desired to go on a journey for literary purposes he had no so he put his money wherewith to hire a horse. and was in the habit of spending my days on the minaret after closing the door behind me&quot. When Al-Ghazali determined to abandon the set out as a pilgrim he was only fol lowing the custom of his time. this period seemed one of wanderlust second to none. Because of facilities for travel by post and cara van routes. as they asserted. I only thought of self-improvement and discipline and of in going through purification of the heart by prayer the forms of devotion which the Sufis had taught me. the Messiah.&quot. one of the contemporaries of Al-Ghazali. .TEACHING AND CONVERSION I 105 tirement. The sweat on his &quot. remained for two years.

as a water-carrier in the markets of Jerusalem and the Syrian towns. and forced to work with Jews at cleaning out the moats of Tripoli in Syria. witticisms and traditions. who gave him daughter visits to his in marriage. to Nubia and Egypt. He himself mentions his Kashgar Asia Minor. Sijistan. Yemen. out of charity. &quot.106 A MOSLEM SEEKER AFTER GOD back oozed through the material of his sack and stained the precious manuscript. the diversions of the frivolous. have a picture of such a dervish (a dishonest We however) in Hamadhani s forty-second Maqamat: So I started wandering. made left Mecca pilgrimage several times over. to Kirman. poems of the humorists. as though I was the Messiah. the saws of the pseudo-philosophers. which was long preserved and shown to visitors in one of the libraries was the of Bagdad. its deserted and populous parts. acted. and even travelled about India. went to Bagdad to attend the Nizamiyya University course.&quot. pass ing through Afghanistan on his way. to Sind and Hind. Hijaz. Tabaristan. and I journeyed over Khorasan. was taken pris oner by the Franks. the tricks of . The Persian poet Sa adi an orphan at an early age. Jilan. Mecca and al Ta if. I collected of anecdotes and fables. Oman. he was ransomed by an Aleppan. I roamed over deserts and wastes. to Abyssinia. seeking warmth and the fire and taking shelter with the And thus ass. till both my cheeks were blackened. one. He in Turkestan. the fabrications of the lovesick.



Not only were there the so easy a life. spears of al-Khatt and javelins of Barbary. and made pits our home. the rare sayings of convivial companions. and came to forget our sad and thought destroying death to be sweet and tardy. however. Armenian mules. and wrapped our en trails upon hunger. and deemed says Hariri. the memory of al-Dabbi and the learning of al-Kalbi would have fallen short of. got posses and Yemen blades. &quot. like Al-Ghazali.And to such a pass did assailing fortune through and prostrating need. dles.&quot. silk brocades of Rum and woolen Sus. fine coats of mail of Sabur and leathern shields of Thibet. but the asceticism of the beggar and the wayfarer. the guile of the cheats. the devilry of the fiends. the ordained day to be The Maqamat. that we were shod with soreness.&quot. such that the legal decisions of alSha abi. and Mirris stuffs of asses. the deception of the effeminate.&quot. and filled our bellies with ache.&quot. . the artifices of the artful. hardships of travel and its loneliness. and anointed our eyes with watching. we come.TEACHING AND CONVEESION 107 the conjurors. till I acquired much property. To the it was not honest traveller. excel sion of Indian swords lent fleet horses with short coats. thorns a smooth bed. I had re I eulogized and course to influence and I begged. &quot. the fraud of the astrologers. satirized. &quot. and fed on choking. the finesse of quacks. solicited gifts And I and asked for presents.

&quot. some of which contained maps and even illustrations. all was &quot. We may believe travels. 985. There were frequent changes of govof war. with the travelling His book possible exception of India and Spain. Abu Ubaid al-Bakri of Cordova. It was written in A. Ghazali carried his an observer as AlBaedeker with him on his &quot. was a general geography of all the roads and provinces of the Moslem world. All through this period of Al-Ghazali s life Damascus was experiencing the storm and stress Shortly before his time the city was taken by the Karmatians and much of it was destroyed by fire. a journey of nearly five hundred miles. The most important work was that by Abu Abdallah al-Maqdisi. entitled : The Best Classification for the Knowledge of Climates. of his travels seems to have been from Bagdad to Damascus. He was chief geographical doubtless acquainted with the works of that period. Another work of a contemporary of AlGhazali. D. who spent a great part of his life over the Moslem empire. Although we have no details of Al-Ghazali s wanderings we can at least follow him on his journeys and learn something of the places he The course visited and their condition in his day.108 A MOSLEM SEEKEE AFTEE GOD that so keen &quot. thence on to the birthplace of the Prophet at Mecca and his tomb at Medina and back over a thousand miles more of caravan travel. from Damascus to Jerusalem and Hebron. .

uprisings 109 Mosque was set and riots. long since closed. O CHRIST. you possess you are proud of your fruits. this were driven To &quot. s This was about fifteen years before Al-Ghazali from Bagdad. The ings. your air. built other buildings. arrival there anew the citadel and among them a famous hospital. the Caliph would not look at the ac counts brought to him on eighteen laden mules. John the Baptist. but out. great said to be the grandest of all Ummayad Mosque of Damascus was Mohammedan build and it is There was praying space for 20. four glories above other people your water. to still whom there is an imposing shrine. not counting eighteen shiploads of gold and silver from Cyprus to com When the wondrous work plete the building.000 men. is the Greek inscrip THY KINGDOM. said to have taken the whole revenue of Syria for forty-seven years. In 1068 the great on fire. mosque this your fifth glory/ Like other famous places of Moslem worship. is AN EVERLASTtion. .TEACHING AND CONVEESION ernors. shall be mosque was once the site of a Christian church. . in A. Mohammedans. but ordered that they should be burned and thus ad dressed the crowd: Men of Damascus. D. dedicated to St. was finished. your baths your . In 1076 the Seljuk gen erals seized the city. and above a gate. &quot. For some years the building was shared between Christians and 708 the Christians day one of the three minarets is called by the name of Isa (Jesus).

Manuel d Art Musulman. I. . The minaret of Jesus. 1 this great building. Paris. Did he ever understand the inscription on the gate and meditate on that Prophet whose kingdom has no fore the time of Al-Ghazali end and no frontier ? *&quot. according to H. shortly be find or s visit. 1907. AND THY DOMINION ENDURETH THROUGHOUT ALL GENERATIONS/ Al-Ghazali spent many hours for many and years it under the shadow of tions. Salawas built in the eleventh century. was in the minaret of Jesus that he had long medita din. Vol.110 A MOSLEM SEEKER AFTEE GOD ING KINGDOM.&quot.

and Death . Later Years.IV Wanderings.

Drought was added to the horrors of war. and fought their knee-deep in blood to the walls of Jerusalem. . and all Asia Minor.Then Seljukian Empire into a were partitioned among a dozen different Turkish Emirs. To crown all. Syria. Barkiaroc and Muhammed.&quot. &quot.came the immediate breaking up of the number of independent principalities. extending over several years. the incessant marching and counter-marching of the hostile armies destroyed the remnant of food which fierce had survived the want of rain. The hosts of the Red Cross passed the Bosphorus. Palestine. Khorasan and Irak became the scene of a civil war. Islam under the Khalifs of Baghdad &quot. by Robert Dune Osborn. be tween two sons of Malek Shah. the people perished by thousands of famine. way The capture of the Holy City struck like the point of a poisoned dagger to the heart of every true Moslem. from the borders of Christendom a fresh scourge was be held preparing for Islam.

Al-Ghazali. we left off in the last I pro says Al-Ghazali. 1 The other dates are quite the best authorities at our Following especially continue the story chapter.IV WANDERINGS.&quot. 1 From &quot. Compare on s the chronology the first ner &quot. and every day secluded my After that I self in the Sanctuary of the Rock. own where we his &quot. returned to active life.&quot. H. uncertain. A.3 chapters of Gard Soc. for India). 498 (A. ceeded to Jerusalem. D. &quot. &quot. Damascus. Confessions. know that the date of his conversion was (A. 1104) he is said to have exile. and to have spent two years in retirement in Syria. 1919 (Christian Lit. AND DEATH century after his death.&quot. H. a 1095). disposal. when he was thirty-eight years old. . There seems great uncertainty not only as to the time of his various journeyings but as to their order. LATER YEARS. and that shortly after this he went into In A. and there is THE 488 chronology of Al-Ghazali s life was a puzzle even to those who wrote only a We dispute even regarding the places he visited.

but events. he journeyed to Damascus. first remained ten years at Damascus is therefore al- probably inaccurate. and vicissitudes of life changed my resolutions and meant. family care. and the more was diverted by hindrances. and to receive a full effusion of grace by visiting Mecca.&quot. Finally. 1095 for the Hejaz. Medina. to Medina and Mecca. Ten years passed in According to this account his pilgrimage to Jerusalem and Hebron. D. did return. was part of one itinerary it also is the natural route of travel from Bagdad to the birthplace of Islam. At any rate. He On from the pilgrimage. and made his abode there for some years in the minaret of the Grand Mosque. com posing several works of which the Ihya is said to his return . although I was so firmly visiting the shrine of the I resolved at I first never to revisit it. After Friend of God (Abra went to the Hejaz. of my heart and the prayers of my children brought me back to my country. if I troubled my my I meditative calm. and the Tomb of the Prophet.114 felt A MOSLEM SEEKEE AFTER GOD a desire to accomplish the Pilgrimage. the longings ham). I However irregular the intervals which ecstasy. could give to devotional confidence in it did not diminish. If we are to believe Isnawi. The statement made by some authorities that he . to live there solitary and in religious meditation. the course of events was as follows: set out in the year A. the more it. steadfastly I returned to this manner.

Rock.&quot. 1. Jerusalem that Jesus ascended to heaven. As-Suyuti says Jerusalem &quot. 115 Then after visiting Jerusalem and per his haps Cairo and Alexandria. who had been a pupil also at Nishapur under the great Imam. he returned to at Tus. he was accompanied by a disciple.WANDEEINGS. and put all the beasts of the earth and sent to Zacharias fowls of the air in subjection to him. Mohammed is represented as having taken his flight from Mecca to Jeru salem. the precinct of which we have blessed. announced glad tidings and John. is specially honoured by Moslems as being the scene of the repentance of David and Solomon. Celebrated be the praises of Him who by night took his servant from the Masjidu l-Haram (the Sacred Mosque) to the Masjidu l-Aqsa (the Remote Mosque). xvii. a certain Abu Tahir Ibrahim. 513. when Alleft Damascus in his wanderings. and the Dome of the Among many In Sura &quot. but the authorities Damascus are do not agree. DEATH be one. he returned afterwards to Jurjan. Other pupils of his at also mentioned. It was at Jerusalem that the prophets sacrificed. Al-Ghazali visited the Mosque of Omar. his native place. and died a martyr in A. LATEE YEAES. that Jesus was born and spoke in His cradle and it was from . The place where God His angel to Solomon. home Ghazali According to one Arabic authority. showed David a plan of the Temple. and it . shrines at Jerusalem. H.

when He comes to judge the earth. All this is found in Moslem Tradition. to heaven the holy place in the roof of the cavern where it arose to allow him to stand erect and to pray. and to-day also near the eastern wall where the throne stood whereon he sat when dead.116 A MOSLEM SEEKEE AFTEE GOD shall will be there that He will again descend. the praying places of Abraham and Elijah would be pointed out to him the round hole where the rock let Mohammed through when he ascended . Here Al-Ghazali would see the sacred footprint of Mohammed made in the rock on his journey to heaven. the corpse leaning on his staff to cheat the demons until the worms had gnawed it through and the body fell forward. It is in the holy land and Magog of Jerusalem that Adam and Abraham. There will all mankind be gathered at the Resurrection for judgment. surrounded by His angels. and the marks of the Angel Gabriel s finger where it had . And in the last days there will be a general flight to Jerusalem. into the Holy Temple. the tongue with which it spoke. and must have The also pointed out stirred the credulity or the scepticism of Al- . Gog subdue every place on the earth but Jerusalem. and it will be there that God Al mighty will destroy them. when the Ark and the Shechinah will be again restored to the Temple.&quot. and God will enter. and Isaac and Mary are buried. to be held sion! down from is following him in his ascen by Moslems place where Solomon tormented the demons.

and throw them into his trumpet. The superstitions connected with this Mosque. A modern traveller describes other Moslem &quot.&quot. rock of the temple of Jerusalem.WANDEEINGS.&quot. be thrust out and fly like bees. and the dead.Islam. has been restored to life. little arcades at the top of the steps of the plat * form are called Balances. Then they will repair The earth will then be an immense plain without hills or villages. . will sit down each one on his tomb. who. on his giving the last sound. whose other end will be made fast to the lie Quoted IV: 220. like bees in a hive. page 87. will at the com of God call together the souls from all parts. anxiously waiting for what is to * come. and will. in Klein s &quot. from the Ihya. with Gabriel and Michael. to their respective bodies. There they will be ranged in little holes. LATER YEAES. DEATH Ghazali. The Dome of the Chain owes its name to the circumstance that there a golden chain hung at place judgment. A place in the outer wall is shown from which a wire will be suspended on the Day of Judgment. those of believers from Paradise and the unbe mand lievers from hell. filling the whole space between earth and heaven. after they have risen. standing on the He himself on the last &quot. which had to be witnesses and dropped a link when a grasped by s David of was told. that 117 tells us in one of his books day Israfil. because the scales of judgment are to be suspended there on the Great Day.

1010 the Church Holy Sepulchre was destroyed by the mad Sultan Hakim. narrow way We have descriptions of Jerusalem by a Moslem who wrote at the end of the tenth. &quot. Yet the history of position to-day. them. and by another of the middle of the eleventh century. and a of spiked iron work is now inserted between piece thinned. and he alone. The latter estimated the population at twenty thousand. the wicked falling into the valley beneath. D. had found the true heaven. This was followed by other humiliations of the pilgrims and persecutions. but only the good will cross.118 A MOSLEM SEEKEE AFTEE GOD of Olives. Jerusalem throughout this century is little more than the record of damage and repair to Christian and Moslem sanctuaries. Chris tians and Jews then visited the city as they do cleanliness. These are another test for the final award to he who could squeeze himself between them. Both these writers praise the place for its which they attribute to its geographical and natural drainage. and fancied that as many more Moslem pilgrims came to the city in the month of their pilgrimage. until Peter the Hermit arose in protest and the Crusades began. of the In A. Christ will sit Mount Mohammed on the mount. . In the Al-Aqsa Mosque a couple of pillars stand very near each other. so worn that they are perceptibly The space between them bulges. Over on the wall and this wire must all men find their way.

Moslem five conscientiously performing his devotions recites the same form of prayer at least seventy- times a day. how ever. only are there the five ritual prayers.WANDEEINGS. Not in the life of every conscientious Moslem. One can imagine with what interest Al-Ghazali studied the whole situa tion and how this ardent champion of the Moslem faith was stirred by the coming events whose shadows were already resting on the Holy Land at We do know that he the time of his visit there. We may best note the character of this mystical devotion. was a time of war and tumult throughout Syria. there are prayers called witr to be performed after the night prayer. in which he spent whole . according to Al-Ghazali himself. must be performed between midnight and the be It has been calculated that a ginning of dawn. . LATEE YEAES. accordance with his to engage in certain additional devotional exer cises called wird. but the night prayer which. and devoted himself to Prayer occupies a large place prayer and fasting. tioned prayers. practices at this period. dhuha. on the eve of the Crusades. lived the life of a mystic. the prayer used in the forenoon and the prayer of night vigils. In addition to these prayers. which take place between the last evening prayer and mid In addition to observing all the above men night. DEATH 119 We have no information as to how Al-Ghazali It spent his days during this visit at Jerusalem. those gree of perfection are in who would own reach a high de recommended by Al-Ghazali.

and praises a certain number of times. and prays the two raka s of dawn. Saluting the Mosque/ and sits and obligatory prayer of dawn. performs the Wudhu. 1 he repeats a collected petition and goes to the mosque with He enters the mosque solemnly and first. enters the first rank of worshippers if there be room.&quot. terms consult Hughes Dictionary of . the devotional services called wird in which the be liever can engage at all times of the day as well as The wirds to be observed during the the night. cleans his teeth with the miswak. significance Islam. thoughts. The Moslem on rising day early mentions the name of God.120 A MOSLEM SEEKEE AFTER GOD days and nights. then prays two After this Sunna raka s of dawn. he remains sitting in the mosque till sunrise. then two raka s of down repeating the assembling of petitions praises. he re cites the appointed petitions. while dressing. and reciting For the &quot. if he has not done so already at home. re spectfully with the right foot saying the ap He pointed petitions on entering and leaving. counting them by the of these rosary. From many verses of the Koran it appears that the only way of becoming united with God is con This is the object of stant intercourse with Him. awaiting After having repeated the the congregation. by quoting in substance from the Ihya as follows: &quot. are seven: First wird. reciting certain petitions. meditating and repeating certain petitions. and praises Him.

four raka s between the Azan and the Ikama are said and portions of the Koran are recited. to the time when darkness has set the worshipper says two raka s. DEATH portions of the Koran. in which certain portions of the Koran are recited.Assemblies from a reference to it in the of al-Hariri.&quot. etc. then four long in. the time when the sun has become somewhat high and the noon prayer. the believer. and as much of the Koran as time allows. The fifth. &quot. and in Al-Ghazali s &quot. and seventh occur after this until vespers.Alchemy of Happiness. LATER YEAES. 121 [We know that the rosary was in general use &quot. he spends his time in repeat ing petitions. . This is the time when the believer visiting the sick. this sixth is the fourth wird.WANDERINGS. in zikr. meditation and reading the may perform good When Koran. care of his worldly affairs. wird: after sunset.] The second wird is . works. such as nothing of the kind requires his attention. This wird may preferable to be performed at home but it is do so in the mosque. Second night . when the prayer of sunset has been performed. engages in the devo Between tional exercises as before mentioned. raka s. be tween sunrise and an advanced forenoon hour the worshipper says a prayer of two raka s. Finally there are the wirds of the night which are divided and described as follows: First night five. The third wird is between morning and the ascending of the sun after taking . and when the sun has risen the length of a lance above the horizon two more raka s.

and sleep may well be considered a devotional act. the early dawn to the appearing of dawn. at tending funerals and finally all this punctilious re .&quot. Al-Ghazali describes the method and effects of . was con good sidered meritorious to add four additional actions: fasting. membrance of God through prayer was supple mented by what is called dhikr the special method of worship used by the Sufi saints. if enjoyed in the proper way. almsgiving. four before it and six after . when it. In this about Koran are to be re The witr prayer before going to sleep. is This prayer also called the hujud. visiting the sick. described in the Ihya. sists of three things: (1) the obligatory Isha prayer ten raka s. this is from the time when the spent to first half of the it night remains. the of which is the witr prayer. Third night wird: this consists of sleep.. (3) unless one is accustomed to rise in the night. Fourth night wird: rious. Fifth night wird: this begins with the last sixth of the night. Mohammed mostly made it a prayer of thirteen raka s. morning before To these devo it tional exercises. called the Sahar. which is more merito three hundred verses of the cited. is when only one-sixth of still At from sleep this time the believer ought to rise and perform the prayer of tahajjud.122 A MOSLEM SEEKEE AFTEE GOD this is wird: from the darkness of the last Isha to the time This con people retire to sleep. last (2) performing a prayer of thirteen raka s. when it may be performed later on. viz.

he light of the may be sure that the Real will shine out in his heart. LATER YEABS. as though So far. until all will seem as though the Let him persevere in this is trace of motion removed from his tongue. and not occupying himself either with reciting the Koran or considering its meaning or with books of religious traditions or with anything of the sort. all is the dependent on his will and choice but to bring mercy of God does not stand in his will or . If he follows the above course. its letters and shape. alone in some corner. Then. choice. And let him see to it that nothing save God most High enters his mind. heart. clinging to his heart. At . as God has done after this manner to prophets and saints. he will reach a state when the motion of his it tongue will cease. inseparable from it. DEATH this practice in 123 summarized as follows: anything and its a passage which Macdonald has &quot. and nothing remains but to wait what God will open to him. the word. as he sits in solitude. let him not cease saying continuously with his tongue. and word flowed from it. limiting his Then let him sit religious duties to what is absolutely necessary. At last Allah.WANDERINGS. He has now laid himself bare to the breathings of that mercy.Let the worshipper re duce his heart to a state in which the existence of non-existence are the same to him. is removed from his and there remains the idea alone. Allah/ keeping his thought on it. and he finds his heart persevering in the Let him still persevere until the form of thought.

$.prayer without ceasing&quot. but by the magic of two eye-pupils thou hast taken me captive. May I be thy ransom were it not for love thou wouldst have ransomed me. London).. ! the most earnest &quot. sometimes its abid long.&quot. in the Cradle of Isa (upon salem. and he these salem in these words him be peace!) in Jeru recited (Al-Ghazali. returns. told of his life at Jeru There came together the Imams Abu Hamid Al-Ghazali and Ismail AlKakimi and Ibrahim Ash-Shibaki and Abu-1-Hasan Al-Basri. *That this . M. is the teaching of Al-Ghazali in regard to the true life of devotion and such we may believe Such own practice at Damascus and Jerusalem the years that followed his life of exile the during endless repetition of God s great names and was his &quot. apparently) two lines: &quot. method of seeking God is still a refuge for and sincere among Moslems is clear from such books as &quot.The Autobiography of Imad-ud-Din the Indian Convert (C. and sometimes short. One wonders what the literary part of the day remained for in work and teaching 1 which we know he was also engaged. like a flash of lightning. in the Moslem sense. ing is And if it abides. it turns and And if returns. sometimes it it abides and sometimes it is momentary. though sometimes it hangs back. and a large number of foreign elders. An interesting story : is &quot.124 first A MOSLEM SEEKEE AFTER GOD unstable.

about seventeen miles southwest of is Before the twelfth century the Cave Jerusalem. At Hebron &quot. and the mosque which now stands there is Hebron supposed to enclose the grave. It was natural for one of Al-Ghazali s tempera 1 ment &quot. and eyes wept and garments were rent and Mo hammed Al-Kazarimi died in the midst of the as sembly in ecstasy.WANDERINGS. DEATH I 125 came to thee when my if breast was straitened through love. In Jerusalem he is said to have written his Risalat Al-Qudsiya. for in that year Jerusalem was captured by the Crusaders. thou wouldst have come me/ to Then Abu-1-Hasan Al-Basri constrained himself an ecstasy which affected those that were present. 492. delight to the religion of Islam is con tinually called the religion of Abraham in the Koran. and was to my thou hadst known how longing. . on the edge of the valley. of Machpelah began to attract visitors and pil grims. Benjamin of Tudela relates: there is a large place of worship called 1 &quot.&quot. Friend of whom Moslems God.&quot. Abra- Gardner finds evidence that the book mentioned was not written there. LATER YEARS. Tradition locates the so-called Machpelah The Cave in the eastern part of the present-day Hebron. and the date of his visit there must have been shortly before A. to desire to pay homage also at the tomb of call Abraham. H. St.

Jews write letters to Abraham and place them in this hole. over the tomb of Abra &quot. consists at present of a quadrangular platform about seventy yards long by thirty-five wide. demanding money as a condition of If a Jew gives an additional fee to seeing them. The natives erected there six sepulchres. and the visitor descends with a lighted candle. A recent traveller says: is &quot. . The tomb which it covers is one of the sites which few Christian eyes have seen. the keeper of the cave.Machpelah. He crosses two empty caves. article is &quot.&quot. It is permitted to none but Moslems to approach nearer the entrance than the seventh step of the staircase along the eastern 8 wall. with barrels containing bones of people.&quot.The 2 Jewish Encyclopaedia.126 A MOSLEM SEEKEB AFTEE GOD ham/* which was previously a Jewish synagogue. But the Moslem boys are said to know that the hole has no great depth. and in the third sees six tombs. and to collect these letters and burn them before Abraham has seen them. At the end of the field of the Machpelah stands is filled The cave Abraham s house with a spring in front of it. on which the names of the three Patriarchs and their wives are inscribed in Hebrew characters. which are taken there as to a sacred place.&quot. &quot. 1 ham. The mosque of Hebron. which they tell foreigners are those of the Patriarchs and their wives.There a hole in the wall which supposed to communicate with the cave below. an iron door which dates from the time of our forefathers opens. to tell him how badly they are being treated by the Moslems.



DEATH 127 Hebron is one of the oldest cities in the world and legends of all sorts have gathered about the Even in Al-Ghazali s day it was spoken place. s visit After Al-Ghazali his pilgrimage to Hebron he probably Mecca. we do not know. In what spirit he fulfilled the rites we know from &quot. .&quot. In any case it was full of peril at that period. stage by stage. however. stage where you halted for traverse a station on the way to his &quot. said Junayd. tions for the correct performance of the rites of 1 pilgrimage.A one of his spiritual teachers whose text-book on man the subject Al-Ghazali had mastered. LATEE TEAES. to first. following the route of the Damascus pilgrimage in our day. you &quot. Very possibly Al-Ghazali took the long caravan journey. and Medina on the return jour It Al-Ghazali himself advises this in his direc ney. you no journey. and also his &quot. who had just returned from the pilgrimage came to Junayd. of as the place of Adam s creation and death. the night did At every God? you Then. said Junayd. visit Mecca was considered proper. From the hour when Junayd said : you first journeyed from your home have you also He said been journeying away from all sins ? No. have made Then.Cf. No.Al-Wajiz.Ihya&quot. and the place where Abra ham made made his home. he replied. Whether the jour to ney was made by sea or by land. have not trodden the road. the scene of Abel s murder.WANDERINGS.

did you re nounce all sensual desires ? No. When you came to Mina. did you discard the qualities of human nature Then No. your wishes (muna) cease? have not yet visited Mina. did you attain to purity (safa) and virtue (muruwwat) ? No. did &quot. and you have not yet performed the pilgrimage/ Such was the mystical interpretation of the rites Then you have not the pebbles. Then you have not circum Ka aba.128 A MOSLEM SEEKEE AFTEE GOD you put on the pilgrim s garb at the proper place. Mecca. did you behold the im material beauty of God in the abode of purifica tion ? No. Then you have not run. did all Then you No. throw away whatever sensual you No/ Then thoughts were accompanying you ? you have not yet thrown the pebbles. When you reached ambulated the sacrifice the objects the slaughter place and offered sacrifices. was under the rule of the Sherif Abu Hashim at . Then you * When have not gone to Muzdalifa. When you circum ambulated the Ka aba. did you stand one moment No. When you ran between Safa and Marwa. Then you in contemplation of God ? have not stood at Arafat. when Al-Ghazali made the pilgrimage. When you stood on Arafat. did you No/ of worldly desire? When you threw sacrificed. as you cast off your clothes? you have not put on the pilgrim s garb. Mecca taught by the Sufis to their disciples. When you went to Muzdalifa and achieved your desire.

J. In 1075 he sold the same privilege to the Fatimides. Mecca itself. Sometimes these M. show Chronicles of the holy city during this period that the pilgrimage was accompanied by grave dangers because of Bedouin robbers as well as disturbances in 1 &quot. the constant disputes between the Caliphs of Bag dad and Egypt that the defense of the holy cities 8 was finally Abu Hashim was given into the hand of the Sherifs. but were disappointed. 1070 he changed the name of the Fatimide Sultans for that of the Abbassides at Friday prayers. D.WANDEEINGS. Karmathians. DEATH 129 Half a century earlier the (A. In A. 950 the stone was re It was because of turned for a heavy ransom. a time-server. D. murdered the pilgrims by thousands. 1886) pp. according to the testi mony of Arabian chroniclers. perhaps the most fanatic of all Mos lem sects. D. In A. 104-114. et . De Goeje. captured the city. and in 1076 to the Caliphs of This conduct so enraged the Sultan of that in 1091 he sent bands of Turkomans Bagdad against Mecca. LATEE YEAES. had besieged Mecca. Bagdad. Memoire sur les Carmathes du Bahrain Les Fatimides. and received much bounty. and carried away the famous black stone to Bahrein on the 1 Persian Gulf. (Leiden. By taking away this sacred treas ure they hoped to put an end to the pilgrimage.&quot. and cared more for bribes than for religion. 2 In the Ihya Al-Ghazali gives the prayer to be offered when kissing the Black Stone. 1063-1094).

but the news of the death put an end to his plans. place of the Shafi* sect to which Al-Ghazali be is directly over the well of Zem Zem. erected in 1072. Mekka. The four maqams or places of prayer for the orthodox sects as they now stand were built in A. II.&quot. Apparently he proposed to make a journey to Spain and the great Sultan of the West. D. 2 Burton &quot. Appendix. I. had been repaired and beautified. except for his visit to Alexandria and beyond.&quot. H. as Just about the time of Al-Ghazali s visit. Snouck Hurgronje. Others say that at this time he was summoned to teach again at Nishapur.130 A MOSLEM SEEKEE AFTEE GOD Abu Hashim 1 uprisings were directed by was the case in A. himself. 1074. C. pulpit of white marble was sent to 969 by the Sultan of Egypt. Yusuf bin Tashfin. Perchance Al-Ghazali ascended these very stairs and addressed the pilgrims. H. on whose behalf he had given Fatwas or Sultan s religious decisions. The longed. 1 &quot. Vol. den Haag. With Medina his it religious seems that Al-Ghazali pilgrimage to Mecca and s life of strict retirement ended. 1094. It is still in use. 1888. D. pp. 323-324. . The repairs were not finished until 1040. ing. In A. is in use to-day. and nearly ruined the 2 Ka aba. Pilgrimage. s Vol. to it which serves as an upper chamber. Dr. the various buildings at Mecca and the Beit Allah it self. torrent swept over Mecca. according to some authorities. 1030 a violent The build The great Mecca in A.

ab sorbed in meditation. set &quot. LATEE YEAES. Ghazali s life must have been gained from per to Syria. 97-9& . Next to The Confes on his life is undoubtedly sions. Nizam Al-Mulk Jamal Ash-Shuhada. Al-Ghazali out on pilgrimage to Mecca. At length Fakhr al-Mulk AH b. but gradually becoming more and more sought after as a teacher and guide to the spiritual life. he went a second time to Mecca. pp. such as the Arba in and the Rasa il. At this time he composed several of his works. sonal knowledge. the Ihya and books abbreviated from it. and to Sinjar the son of Malik Shah that he by him such pressure was put on Al-Ghazali the Mayr in finally consented to resume teaching muna Nizamiyya Madrasa 1 &quot. DEATH The 131 details of his life during the mysterious ten of his wanderings are most conflicting. and lived there a retired life for some time. became at Nishapur. the best authority What he tells us of Althis same Abd al-Ghafir. Macdonald. and remained there wandering from place to place and shrine to shrine nearly ten years. there.&quot. or go back immediately to Al- Ghazali himself.According to him. The Life of Al-Ghazzali.&quot. a personal friend of AlGhazali.WANDEEINGS. who had pre Wazir viously been Wazir to Barqiyaruq. besides labouring at his own spiritual advancement and growth through the religious ex Then he returned to his home ercises of the Sufis. &quot.&quot. after wards and then wandered from shrine to shrine for nearly ten years. then went to Syria. Ac years cording to Abd al-Ghafir.

In the vault of the archways of these gates. and had all the glory which the Fatimid dynasty had bestowed upon it. Cairo was still the great centre of Arab civilization. D. Bab Al-Futuh. but was already world-wide. led into the city. Nor. D. strange to say.132 A MOSLEM SEEKEE AFTEE GOD have reference to but no detail of We Al-Gha- zali s visit to Cairo. The three massive gates which still command admira tion at the present day. Cairo was not yet the economic centre for all Egypt which it be came later. but it was the seat of a splendid court. 1012. as Bagdad was in the East. and these massive gateways constructed along with others which are no longer standing. and religious life of the city centred in the great mosque of Al-Azhar. there used to be two chambers. The splendid palaces of the Caliphs formed the central portion of the town. espe cially the The intellectual departure and return of the sacred carpet. At the time of Al-Ghazali s visit. have I found reference in his works to this visit. It is possible that he was not received altogether with favour by the religious leaders of Al-Azhar at the time. In A. Bab AlNasr and Bab Az Zuwaila. and many of his pupils at Bagdad and Nishapur were from his reputation Egypt and North Africa. the great centre of Moslem architecture and learning in the West. which had been completed in A. . 1087 the walls were rebuilt. and these were used by the Egyptian sovereigns and their friends to watch the various spectacles.

given us vivid pictures of the ceremonial proces sions and festivals. honour. stables. As for Alexandria. stupidity my steed ! &quot. 12. stock among them. treasuries. made my the people thereof are stupid. where we know Al-Ghazali his return to Syria.WANDERINGS. which men passed on to Misr (Cairo) or went by lived for some time before sea to Syria. Moslem tradition. it not have a high reputation at that time for did It was rather a port of trade. . as well as a centre of re Ibn Tuwair and others have ligious learning. from learning. the author of the poem called Mo Al Burdah. LATER YEAES. 1 burton s I. Hamadhani makes one of his char I ?m Of sound and pure The age and Therefore I of the citizens of Alexandria. DEATH 133 with military pageantry.&quot. p. at whose tomb prayer is never offered in vain. Al-Medinah and Meccah. two celebrated Walis or holy men. acters say: &quot. Alexandria has high Moslems show the tomb of Daniel the also that of Alexander the Great whose prophet. One is hammed al Busiri. and royal household. universally celebrated. But in Alexandria also boasts story is told in the Koran. and the other Abu Abbas Al-Andalusi. Vol. the magazines.Pilgrimage to its honours. There is also a prophecy that when Mecca falls into the hands of the in fidels Alexandria will succeed to &quot.

&quot. him in the open country with a patched dervishgarment on. Wei- . Then he &quot. and that notes of his people sermons to the number of 183 were taken by one of those present. as abodes of desire which the heart has decreed. or from Damascus direct to Bagdad. I abandoned the love of Layla and my happiness was far. O Imam. all in strange contrast to the states in which he had seen him before. recited. and those Thereafter some one saw present wept with him. then cried to me my longings. including one hundred of the of Bagdad. As-Subki tells us that the crowded to hear him.&quot. and I returned to the companionship of my first alight ing-place . with three hundred pupils around him. who read them to Al-Ghazali be told of his life at this at fore they were circulated. he He has made beloved the homes began to quote of men. is not the teaching of science more fitting?&quot. The following time: &quot.134 A MOSLEM SEEKER AFTER GOD Al-Ghazali went to Damascus From Alexandria and then to Nishapur and from there to Bagdad. story is Once while teaching the Ihya : Bagdad. &quot. where he taught the Ihya and preached. When the full moon of happiness rises in the will. Then he wept. So he said. whenever they remember their homes these remind them of the pledges of youth there. Al-Ghazali looked at him with red eyes and said. a water-vessel and an iron-shod staff in his hand. But chief men &quot. firmament of East of the sun of setting departs in the union. and they long thither.

draw up and alight/ 135 whom Of his spiritual experiences during these ten years of retirement and wandering. Every moment was filled with his life (lunar calendar) the study and devotion until in the fifty-fifth year of end came. one of the causes for his removal from Nishapur to religious matters also had to Tus. and their slander. his native place. we will speak later. Macdonald thinks. He had his biographers seem to agree in this.WANDEEINGS. and he did not trouble himself to an- . returned to Tus. he seems to have found the greatest delight in go ing back again to the study of Tradition. when he taught others the way of the mystic. at this time of his life templation. A friend remarks in regard to his attitude towards those his influence: who opposed his teaching and envied However much he met of contra &quot. The wan One who had on risen to so high a position of authority pay the price of leadership in controversy with opponents. especially All the collections of Al-Bokhari and of Muslim. as we are told by alGhafir. and of their envy. charge of a madrasa and of the khanka or monas tery for Sufis. This may have been. and during the years that followed. it made no impres on him. LATEE YEAES. DEATH come! these are the alighting-places of her thou lovest. and settled down to study and con Strange to say. We know that he left Bagdad. austerity and privations of his long derings doubtless wore down his strength. diction sion and attack and slander.

Mecca. but I realized after in vestigation that the thing was the opposite of what I had thought. And I hear and obey to go in to the he stretched out his feet towards Tabran. had come to be the very opposite and was purified from these stains. His brother Ahmad (quoted by Murtadha from Ibn Jawzi s Kitab ath-thdbat ind-al-mamat) gives the follow On Monday. He was buried at. in spite I saw in him in time past of maliciousness and roughness towards people. Then he Bring me my grave-clothes/ and he took them and kissed them and laid them on his eyes and said. my brother performed the ablution and prayed. said. Murtadha gives a far . and that the man had recovered after being mad.&quot. King. 18th. the citadel of Tus. and how he looked upon them contemptuously through his being led astray by what God had granted him of ease in of what word and thought and expression. H. and was taken to the good will of God Most High. And I used to think that he was wrapping himself in the garment of pretense. Later biographers were not satisfied with the bare facts of his decease. and Ibn As-Sama ni visited his grave there. and through the seeking of rank and position. 1111). or outside of. ing account of his death: &quot.505 (Dec. and it was no bare conjecture of mine that he.&quot. the fourteenth of Jumada II. at dawn. A.136 A MOSLEM SEEKEE AFTEE GOD swer his assailants. Al-Ghazali died on Monday. I visited him many times.

And some who were of the excellent of the people of Al. middle of his house. . and to summon the people of the neighbouring villages to attend his funeral . Two of them began to wash the corpse. manded to dig his grave in the an excellent and religious man. the servant did according to all that Then.Iraq would come out of the desert. when he he had commanded.Iraq present at the funeral had noticed him carefully. and required the presence of the peo ple. the When death drew near Imam Abu Hamid Al-Ghazali. that two of them would wash him. but did not know him until some of them heard a Hatif in the night saying to them. is Abu Abd Ishaq Amghar. and the third would undertake the prayer over him without the but that a advice or command of any one. in his robe with a black border on both turbaned with wool. the third appeared wrapped sides. the Sharif. 137 interesting story. and carried his bier and laid it on the edge of the grave. The man who led the Allah Mohammed people in prayer b. died. But when they had washed him and arranged him in the grave-clothes. LATEE YEAES. he com his servant. And when the people gathered to attend the funeral. that they should not touch him. while the third vanished and did not appear. Then he gave the benediction and departed and hid from the people. company of three men unknown in the region of Al.WANDEEINGS. DEATH more to &quot. they saw three men who had come out of the desert. and he prayed for him and the people prayed with him.

and on returning with the objects required. and they asked of them their prayers. 2 Hayat-ul-Hayawan. 107-10$ quoted from Murtadha. Then a company of them. pp. by his side was a paper on which were written the follow &quot. and those comrades Abu Shu ayb Ayyub b. : And this is a strange story.&quot. Ghazali. Kadiri on the authority of famous Ahmed. An of Al-Ghazali equally remarkable story is told of the death s younger brother in the books of the 3 The verses given might well ap Persian mystics. Macdonald Quoted in s &quot. Moghith related. . from Ayn who washed the corpse are his He came from al-Qatr. native of Tus in Persia.Life Al-Ghazzali. who of behold me dead. said one day to his disciples. went to visit them and found whom they noticed carefully. and when they had reached them and asked of them their prayers. Sa id and Abu And when they heard that they Isa Wajih. Weeping and mourning 1 my loss a while. how the ing stanzas: * Tell my friends.&quot.Altradition. found their master dead.Iraq to Sanhaja of the farthest Maghrib. to Al-Ghazali himself and his views of life and ply death.138 A MOSLEM SEEKER AFTEK GOD the farthest Maghrib. when them to be those they heard that. journeyed from Al. they returned to AlIraq and related it to the Sufis and published their miracle (karama). Go and bring me new and white garments/ They went. 105.

and left it for a token. nor water. till the treasure was released truth. Deem . &quot. in to God. the goal of all our longings. and this body was my cage. Broken open and abandon d to worthlessness . How could I make an abode of your halting-stage? Ruin then my house and break my cage in pieces. and this my shell. .&quot. There am I now the day conversing with the happy. Food and drink too are mine. I am an undying life. has assign d me a lasting abode in the highest. and left you behind. and whatever remains to be. It is &quot. I am the bird. for it is in truth Life of lives. the veil once thrown over me all these. . And let Tear my the shell go perish with kindred illusions garment. I am the pearl. Then bury and leave them alike for I go. not death death. Thanks be And And beholding face to face unveiled Deity Contemplating the Mirror wherein I see and read . and this was a spell Thrown over me. LATEE YEARS. and this is not my body. Understand my meaning aright. DEATH : 139 Think not this corpse before you myself That corpse is mine. Past and present.WANDEEINGS. . for the secret Is signified by words of symbol and figure. I am the treasure. Mystery known to him who is worthy to know. yet both are one . who has delivered me. but the pure milk of a mother. not wine sweet of taste that I drink No. I have wing d my flight elsewhere. &quot. Many years my house and my garment of change . I have journey d on. but it is not I.

I behold you undying is spirits like myself. He mentions the fact that this man Khorasan. and come on secure of fear. however. may not be the grave of Al-Ghazali the mystic but of another celebrated Ghazali. was celebrated for his wrote books on theological questions. The grave shown in the picture. Ill. was one called Ahmed ibn Abu Hamed Al-Ghazali. was buried at Tus. We are indebted to the Rev. but that after care ful inquiry he has found mention of this man in As-Sam several books. p. Dwight M. And see that our lot one. including the Kitab Al Ansab of Ibn ani.140 A MOSLEM SEEKEE AFTEE GOD Name is Think lovingly of a God whose love. Incidentally we may whose biography we have conclude from this statement of As-Subqi that the name of Al-Ghazali . He thinks that this Ghazali was either the uncle or the granduncle of Al-Ghazali. Persia. Donald son of Mashad. written. 36) that there Mohammed earlier one. the older and He says that people have thrown doubt upon his very existence. and used to come to his grave in or der to obtain answers to their prayers. and because of this people called him the also lived in Old Ghazali. Who joys in rewarding. where his grave was well known. and you as I/ &quot. The mosque is very old and probably dates from the time of Al-Ghazali. for the interesting photo graphs of the ruins of Tus and of the supposed tomb of Al-Ghazali. and learning. Whence I am. For we read in As-Subqi (Vol.

It stands eighteen yards high and the inner measurements show it to consist of &quot. one-third yard wide. The stone is about two yards long. &quot. cemetery the tombstone of Ahmad Ghazali may This cemetery lies southwest from still be seen.WANDEEINGS. the chipping appears to begin there is a straight line cut about one inch deep across the top of the stone. the more distant part that lies on the higher ground beyond the waterway has been kept a cemetery. that a large chip has been taken from one corner of the grave. Donaldson gives this interesting informa The walls of the old city of Tus still stand. It is miles. three and a third There are many fragments of towers and The in nine places there are remains of gates. . It is the part that is chipped in the About at the point where picture.The picture I have enclosed of Ghazali s tomb is It shows not as satisfactory as I would have liked. and one-third yard high. Mr. On the road that runs through the city from the southwest gate the old mosque is imposing even in its ruined condition. one farsakh around them. LATEE YEAES. DEATH ! 141 was not given to him because his father was a It must have been an old family spinner of wool name. tion: &quot. There are positive indications of an effort having of been made to cut off the portion on which the name Ahmed Al-Ghazali appears. the city and while the bulk of it is now under culti vation. In the largest wall was originally five yards wide.

is the Kashf Rud. I can now say that I believe it is the tomb of Abu Hamed ibn Mohammed ibn Mohammed ibn Mohammed Al- Ghazali. dated January writes : 17. the Rev. Four gigantic corner fragments of the fort are now standing. the carefully Ghazali. it is sur lies rounded by a moat and a wall. then an octagonal structure eight yards high.) Outside the southwest gate an ancient bridge &quot. for the reason that we can clearly read . In another letter from Mashad. 1917. In the courtyard they are now raising the best water melons we have eaten in Persia. as caravans from Mashad come through This bridge has eight arches. At present we could walk around the wall and approach the fort by a passage in the rear. (See illustration. examining again tombstone of As I wrote you before. on the point of doubt as to whether the stone photographed was really the one mutilated. marking Mohammed Al-Ghazali s tomb. &quot. the old city of Tus. within which a large courtyard and the high approach to the fort it self. is The fortress itself interesting . five yards high. The name of the stream &quot. Donaldson made another trip to Tus.142 A MOSLEM SEEKEE AFTEE GOD a square base. In the midst of the debris of bricks within these old walls we found interesting fragments of pottery. each four and one-half yards wide.&quot. is still in use. or the tomb of another Ahmad Al-Ghazali. This week Dwight M. the stone has been badly worn and in addition to that has been However. I Persia.

and that on this grave the middle letter of the name is double. and in deference to the authorities of Moslems themselves. would seem to settle two points that we have at Tus the neglected : and mutilated grave of the great mystic and theo logian. And as one studies the the name stone he is almost willing to declare that the &amp. In view of the common usage.Ji name is fully intelligible with the exception of The whole top is badly worn in the initial aleph. the end which some one in times past attempted to cut off. Ahmad cannot &quot.lt. but the word that my mirza first read as deed. clearly not Ahmad.&quot.WAKDEEINGS. LATEE YEAES. however. This investigation. DEATH 143 on the corner of the top of the stone. . Al-Ghazali. we have uniformly written Ghazali. is tell. it is we will notice that Ghazzali appears in the stone to have been spelled with a tashdeed and yet the mark we have considered a tashdeed is not the You usual form (v instead of w). therefore. and ^. but what The damage is too complete.


V His Creed and Credulity .

noble.&quot. was truly a divine/ and he may be justly placed on a level with Origen. so remarkable was he for learning and ingenuity. worthy the assent of Christians. and he adorned the doctrines of the Koran with so much piety and learning that. &quot. and sublime that his great soul had compassed he bestowed upon Mohammedanism. August Tholuck. (Al-Ghazali) if ever any have de served the name. in the form given them by him. and gifted with tion of doctrine. Dr. they seem. from every school he sought the means of shedding light and honour upon religion.This man. . He was the first of Mohammedan divines. in my opinion. while his sincere piety and lofty conscientiousness imparted to all his writings a sacred majesty. such a rare faculty for the skilful and worthy exposi All that is good. Whatsoever was most excellent in the philosophy of Aristotle or in the Sufic mysticism he discreetly adapted to the Moham medan theology.

was the Koran. and his faith rose triumphant above all his doubts.V HIS CREED AND CREDULITY according to his own testi mony ALTHOUGH. his prac tices and his precepts handed down in orthodox faith.&quot. Whether he ever read the Old and New Testa ment is a question we consider unanswered. uncreated word Moslem teaching. He did not draw his creed from this source. it. This is one of the outstanding facts in his biography. was troubled to in his &quot. Confessions. the Epistle to the Hebrews that faith is the sub stance of things hoped for and the evidence of Not only did he find God in things not seen. but he was a firm believer in revelation. Al-Ghazali gives the distinction very clearly. nature and in his own conscience and conscious ness. Naturally the only revelation to which Al-Ghazali turned as the basis. and also to the life of the Prophet Mohammed. the very bed-rock of religious eternal. from his earliest years with he was not willing to yield He could say with the writer of &quot. the to of God according Tradition this also was a revelation from God. al- H7 . Al-Ghazali doubt and scepticism.&quot.

as we shall see in this chapter. In his great work. The Sunni doctors of Islam. and faith says: &quot. enumerates the following classes of believers: He who combines inner belief with outward theoretical &quot. but that nevertheless by com mitting deadly sins he does not become an un is in an intermediate state between a and an infidel. is a true believer and He who combines inner belief with outward confession and some good works but commits one or more great sins. not and scholastic. pilgrimage. and a life of utter devotion to the will of God. between He was a dogmatic theologian faith and works. An infidel is an impious person and goes into everlasting hell-fire. however. His faith was living and practical. does not thereby cease to be a believer. &quot. cannot exist without them. though his faith is not of the highest de that such a one can be gree.148 A MOSLEM SEEKEE AFTER GOD most as clearly as the Epistle of James. and laid down. confession and good works enters Paradise. The Mu tazila deny considered a believer. reject this opinion as absolutely . the he discusses the whole subject of faith. The opinions with regard to the person who com believer but believer bines inner belief with outward confession. with punctilious care every point of dogma but he was also a moralist and a man of high ideals which he sought to attain through prayer and fasting and . and Ihya. Abu Talibu l Makki Good works are part of the faith.&quot.&quot. but has no good works are divided.

believes in his heart. is a true believer and enters Paradise. and assent. a sign with the hand is as good as confession with the tongue. dogma. to the Sunni &quot. even Murji a go too far by saying that a he act wickedly. intellectual conviction and this belief does not cease to exist through the want of outward confession. that man who good works cannot consequently be considered as a necessary part of faith. that a a truth accepted by believes and and dies before he has done any good confesses work. hell-fire. is nevertheless a believer in the sight of God. He who believes in his heart. He who and has time and opportunity of confessing. AND CEEDULITY is 149 for they say that it general agreement. and for faith will not be cast into everlasting hell-fire. an opinion absolutely contrary dise. is nevertheless a true believer and enters into Para Those who consider confession a necessary of faith naturally consider that such a one has part died without faith. &quot. and does not confess his faith. The sect of the believer. Such a man is a believer in the sight of God. and knows that it is the duty of the Moslem to do so. but an un believer in this world before the court of justice and with regard to the rights of Moslems. In case of an impediment of the tongue. is the mere belief. and that faith can exist without them. but dies before he has either confessed or performed good works. will never enter The orthodox doctrine on this subject if .HIS CEEED false.

even the will enter hell-fire. and if these two are not the same thing. to make a man a Mos lem in this world. will remain that every one. intellectual conviction and assent. Islam . In this world.&quot. taken to be the interpreter of the thoughts of the In order. for &quot. Al-Ghazali answers this difficult question in this way: Iman (Faith). however.&quot. in the sight of is necessary. and will be cast into eternal hell-fire. for which he only infidels. held by the orthodox school. in it forever. can they exist separately or must they necessarily be combined ? Some say &quot. but he also discusses the question.&quot.150 is A MOSLEM SEEKEE AFTER GOD perfect believer. and Mohammed is His apostle/ but does not believe it in his heart is an infidel in the sight of God. however. from the linguistic point of view. He who is There confesses with the tongue saying: no God but God. that Islam that consequently every believer and Iman are synonymous terms and is a Moslem and This is every Moslem a believer. free from com must enter fire. most no one is mitting some sins. means belief. confession Not only does he ful first classify believers in this care way. the opinion Others say that they are distinct things but joined together. whether Islam is the same thing as iman (faith) or not. he is to be considered and treated as a believer and a Mos man cannot penetrate into the secrets of the heart. the Qadi. before the law. however. in the book of his Ihya. and the confession of the mouth must be lem. for heart.

Islam comprises belief with the heart and confession with the tongue. includes one of the component parts of Islam.HIS CEEED means submission. of AND CEEDULITY 151 Iman is subjection. linguistic point of not synonymous. and two terms are sometimes used as being synonymous. and Islam exists sepa him who outwardly observes the precepts of Islam. does not include Islam. nor does good works. and good works by the members of the body. Islam exists separately in the individual. The seat the heart or mind. and sometimes as having different meanings and as being intermingled. without inner belief. but Iman. view the two terms are therefore From the point of view of the in a theological sense the law and religion. it. and the tongue is its interpreter. What the faith of Islam meant to Al-Ghazali we rately in know from of all his works. The may judge for himself both the contents and omissions of Al-Ghazali s credo from the following reader brief exposition which he wrote for his pupils: . being a more re From a stricted term. comprised in each other. Iman and Islam are found in the individual who believes in his heart and outwardly observes the precepts of Islam. who only believes in his heart. and Islam. Iman is therefore. and is consequently a more comprehensive term than Iman. obedience. but neither con fesses. especially from the Ihya. which besides other topics gives a full exposition Moslem belief in regard to the six articles of their creed and the five pillars of practice.

the Doer of what He willeth. It forms the first section of the second book of Ghazali s Ihya. the Granter of benefits to them after the witness to the Unity (tawhid) by guarding their articles of belief from obscurities of doubt and op position. We ous Throne and of Mighty Grasp. through His aid and right guidance revealed to them in His essence and His works by His beau tiful qualities which none perceives. We are indebted for the translation to Professor Macdonald (Muslim Theology and Jurisprudence) * . from eternity (asali) without any beginning. Eternal without any opposite. abiding in existence with none after Him. save he who He is the witness who maketh inclines his ear. substi- An exposition of the Creed of the People of the Sunna on the two Words of Witnessing (kalimatai sh-shahada) which form one of the foundations of Islam. 1 to eternity (abadi) without any end. known to them that He in His essence is One with out any partner (sharik).152 A MOSLEM SEEKER AFTER GOD HIS CREED 1 say and in God is our trust Praise belongeth unto God. the Lord of the Glori &quot. the Beginner. VoL II. 17-42 of edit. He is One. the most hon oured. Separate without any like. the Bringer-back. He that bringeth them to follow His Apostle. This creed is intended to be committed to memory by children. the Guider of His chosen creatures to the right path and to the true way. of Cairo with commentary of the Sayyid Murtadha. the Chosen one (Al-Mustafa) and to imi tate the traces of His Companions. pp. Single without any similar. Prior (qadim) with nothing before Him.

He hath not ceased and will not cease to be described with glorious epithets . abiding without termination.HIS CEEED AND CEEDULITY He 163 tuting without ending. He does not resemble bodies. boundaries do not contain Him. He knoweth everything. the directions do sembles Him. He f upon His throne ( arsh). and in the sense in which He willed a being-seated firmly (istawa). which is far removed from contact and fixity of location and being established and being enveloped and being removed. nothing not surround Him and neither the earth nor the Him. though the cutting off of the ages and the ter minating of allotted times have no rule over Him. but He is the First and Last. and no entity re like is like Him and He is not measure does not bound Him and anything. after the manner which He has said. with an aboveness which does not bring Heavens are on is different sides of seated firmly . nor a substance possessing bounds and lim its. either in limita tion or in accepting division. He is above the Throne and the Heavens and above everything unto the limit of the Pleiades. nay He does not resemble an entity. and substances do not exist in Him and He is not an accident and accidents do not exist in Him. the External and the Internal. The Throne does not carry Him. &quot. We witness that He is not a body and He is not a substance . finishing and end ing. possessing form. but the Throne and those that carry it are carried by the grace of His power and mastered by His grasp. Lo.

in the Abiding Abode and a completion in beatitude from Him. is since His nearness does not resemble the nearness of bodies. and He. . and through His perfect qualities to be independent of perfecting increase. He was before He had created Time and Place and He is now from He was above. a benefit from Him and a grace to the pious. Him Him. Nay. He is far removed from change of state or of place. just as nothing exists in Him He has exalted self far therefrom that a place should contain . He does not cease.154 A MOSLEM SEEKEE AFTEE GOD Him it nearer to the Throne and the Heavens. He does not exist in anything. to be far removed through from changing. just as does not make Him further from the earth and the Pleiades. . The ex istence of His essence is known by reason His es sence is seen with the eyes. Events have no place in Him. through gazing upon His gracious face. nor in His equal His es sence. There is not in His essence His equal. haps do not befall Him. and He witnesseth everything. is near to every entity and nearer to a creature than the artery of his neck (Koran 50. in spite of that. just as He is exalted by degrees from the earth and the Pleiades. and mis above that which Nay. just as His essence does not resemble the essence of bodies. His glorious epithets. and distinct His creatures through His qualities. He is exalted by degrees from Throne and the Heavens. just as He has sanctified Himself far therefrom that time should limit Him. the Nay. 15).

slumber seizes Him not. comprehending that which happeneth from the bounds of the earth unto the topmost heavens no grain in the earth or the heavens is dis . We witness that He knoweth all the things that can be known. He has not ceased to be describable by it. &quot. the things which He hath decreed cannot be reckoned and the things which He knoweth have no end. conquering inadequacy and weakness be fall Him not. the Visible and the In visible. nor death. tenance and their terms of life . AND CREDULITY He is living. He knows the secret and the concealed and has knowledge of the suggestions of the minds and the movements of the tant parts. 155 We witness that . not a decreed thing escapes His grasp and the mutations of things are not distant from His power. from the . Passing away does not happen to Him. com manding. He pos sesses Rule and Conquest and Creation and Com mand the heavens are rolled in His right hand and the created things are overcome in His grasp. He knows the creeping of the black ant upon the rugged rock in a dark night. He . Yea. from His knowledge. nor sleep. He is separate in creating and inventing. Lord of the Worlds. that of Force and that of Might.HIS CEEED &quot. He is one in bringing into existence and innovating He created the creation and their works and decreed their sus is . and He perceives the movement of the mote in the midst of the air. thoughts and the concealed things of the inmost by a knowledge which is prior from eternity . powerful.

wills is. advan tage or disadvantage. His essence as one of His qualities . they would be too weak His will subsists in for that. knowledge or ignorance. small or great. He hath not ceased to be described through it as a Wilier. success or loss. witness that He is a Wilier of the things that are. in His infinity of the exist hath decreed. They hap pen according to the agreement of His knowledge . except by His will. &quot. We little or much. and what He wills not is not. and no strength to a creature to obey Him Even though mankind and the except by His will. the Bringer back. What He thinks is obedience or rebellion. looks. There is no opponent of His command and no re peater of His destiny and no refuge for a creature from disobeying Him. faith or unbelief. or a slip of one Not a glance of one who who outside of His will. there does not come about in the world seen or unseen. Jinn and the Angels and the Shaytans were to unite to it remove a single grain in the world or to bring to rest without His will. increase or diminu tion. not by a knowledge which renews itself His essence by arrival and re moval. He is the creator. the Doer of that which He wills. ence of things at their appointed times which He So they come into existence at their appointed times even as He has willed in His in finity without precedence or sequence.156 A MOSLEM SEEKEE AFTEE GOD and arises in ages of the ages. except by His help and His mercy. good or evil. a Director of the things that happen.

commanding.HIS CEEED and His AND CEEDULITY 157 will. nor with arranging of thoughts or ning awaiting of time. is prior subsisting in the essence of God. and hears without earholes or ears. not subject to division and separation . And the Koran and the Tawrat moving (the Law of Moses) and the Injil (the Gospel) and the Zabbur (the Psalms) are His books revealed to which separated off down a His Apostles. He sees without eyeball or eyelid. preserved in hearts . is or striking of bodies. from all speaks. is He hears and sees and no audible thing distant from His hearing. since His quali ties do not resemble that quality of created things. without exchange or change in plan of things. It is not a sound which originates through the slipping out of air. subsisting in His essence praising. witness that He not resembling the speech of created things. in spite of that. prior. &quot. just as He knows without a brain and seizes without a limb and creates without an instrument. just as His essence does not resemble the essences of created things. Distance does not curtain off His hearing and darkness does not dull His seeing.And we forbidding. witness that He is a Hearer and a Seer. And the Koran is repeated by tongues. threatening. nor is it a letter lip or by closing a tongue. and no visible thing is far from His seeing. with a speech eternity. yet it. written in copies.And Him from we another. however fine it may be. and therefore one thing does not distract &quot.

is an originated thing. since tyranny conceivable in the case of a creature. Powerful. Knowledge. has those qualities. a Seer. but tyranny is not conceivable in the case of God. when he deals with the prop erty of some other than himself. And Musa heard the speech of God without a sound and without a letter.158 A MOSLEM SEEKEE AFTEE GOD through being transferred to hearts and leaves. after the most beautiful and perfect and complete and just of ways. And since He Speaker. Power. and which He in it had not been a thing. He is wise in His actions. He is living. in the other world without a sub stance or an attribute. consisting of men and Jinn and Angels and Shay tans and the heavens and the earth and animals and plants and inanimate things and substance and attribute and things per ceived and things felt. there is no analogy between His justice is and the justice of creatures. Everything besides Him. a Wilier. Speech. For He never en counters any property of some other than Himself so that His dealing with it might be tyranny. essence. since He . We witness that there is no entity besides Him. which He created by His power before any other had cre ated it. Seeing. just in His determinations. a &quot. Knowing. Hearing. not by a thing separated from His &quot. a Hearer. Will. through Life. just as the pious see the essence of God. after it vented after that had not existed. except what is originated from His action and pro ceeds from His justice.

He rewardeth His be lieving creatures for their acts of obedience by a of generosity and of promise and not of right and of obligation. since He is able to bring upon His creatures different kinds of punish ment and pains and to test them with different varieties of ailments. not because He has any lack of it or need of in it. and verification of that which had preceded of His Will. not by reason alone. . and is decision which tyranny is inconceivable in Him. and would not be a vile ac tion or tyranny in Him. since no particular action towards any one is incumbent upon Him. And His binding upon binding through the tongues of His But He sent apos prophets. So He the creation thereafter. And He for the is cious in creating and making first gra time and in is He imposing of duty not of necessity and generous in befitting. and there was not along with Him any other than He. and well-doing and gracious helping belong to Him.HIS CEEED in eternity AND CBEDULITY 159 was an entity by Himself. So. belief in them as to what they have brought is incumbent upon the creation. tles and manifested their truth by plain miracles. by way of mani originated festation of His power. and no one pos sesses a right against Him. of obedience is right to acts the creatures because He has made it and they brought His commands and forbiddings and promisings and threatenings. And if He did that it would be justice on His part. and of that which existed in eternity of His Word.

both soul and body. as to all which He narrated concern ing the things of this world and the next. and who is thy Prophet ? They are the two testers in the grave and their questioning is the first Munkar and who com his grave. Mo hammed. And He abrogated by his law the other Laws except so much of them as He confirmed and made him ex . A MOSLEM SEEKEE AFTEE GOD The second Word of Witnessing is witnessing that the apostolate belongs to the apostle. so long as he did not believe in that which the Prophet narrated concerning things after death. The first of these is the question of Nakir. which cellent saying. judgment upon the body and according to what God wills. Who is thy Lord. and what is thy religion (din). and they will ask him. There is no god except God. with his apostolate to the totality of Arabs and foreigners and Jinn and men. over the rest of the prophets and made him the Lord of Mankind and declared incomplete the Faith that consists in witnessing the Unity. these are two awful and terrible beings will cause the creature to sit up in plete. And . then He would not accept the faith of a c r eature. so long as there is not joined that of witnessing to the Apos is * is saying Mohammed is the Apostle of And He made obligatory upon the creation belief in Him. which God.160 &quot. and that God sent the unlettered Qurayshite prophet. And tle. And that he should be lieve in the punishment of the grave its that it is a Verity and that the soul is just. testing after death.

In deeds are weighed by the power of God Most High and its weights in that day will be the weight . numbers like the stars of heaven. Its breadth is a journey of a month its water is whiter than milk and sweeter than honey. into it flow two . that he should believe in the Tank (Hawdh).HIS CEEED AND CEEDULITY 161 that he should believe in the Balance two is scales like it. by the grace of God. never thirst again thereafter. But the feet of believers stand firm upon it. it is a bridge stretched over the back of Hell (Jahannam). the Tank of And Mohammed from which the believers shall drink before entering the Garden and after passing the Whoever drinks of it a single draught Bridge. and the Balance will be light with them. around it are ewers in will . sharper than a sword and finer than a hair. to which the people shall go down. and fall with them into the Fire. And the leaves of evil deeds will be cast in a vile form into the scale of darkness. to show the exactitude The leaves of the good deeds will of its justice. that the Bridge (as-Sirat) is a Verity. the magnitude of which unto the stages of the heavens and the earth. it with the and the tongue. of motes and mustard seeds. be placed in a beautiful form in the scale of light. The feet of the unbelievers slip upon it. by the grace of God. through And that he should believe the justice of God. by the decree of God. and so they pass into the Abiding Abode. and then the Balance will be weighed down by them according to the measure of their degree with God.

but whoever has in his heart the weight of a single grain of faith brought forth therefrom. should believe in the intercession of the prophets. next of the martyrs. concerning the carrying of His message. lieve that the attestors of Sunna and the Mos . go hard in the oured (muqarrab). next of the rest of the believers each according to his dignity and (shafa a) God Most High. And that he should confess the excellence of the Companions May God be well pleased with them and their shall be . and him who enters these are the hon the Garden without reckoning. And he who remains of the believers. and He will ask the innovators (Mubtadi s) concerning the lems concerning works. so that there will not remain in Hell an attestor of God And that he s Unity. and has no intercessor. whose are Might and Majesty. And that he should believe in the Reckoning and in the dis tinctions between men in it. him with whom it will Reckoning and him to whom com passion will be shown therein. shall be brought forth of the grace of God. God Most High will ask whomsoever He will of the prophets. So there shall not abide eter rank with nally in the Fire a single believer. concerning the rejection of the messengers. and whomsoever He will of the unbelievers.162 canals A MOSLEM SEEKEE AFTEE GOD from Al-Kaivthar (Koran 108). next of the learned ( ulama). after vengeance has been taken on them. And God that he should be s Unity (muwah- hids) will be brought forth from the Fire.

is of the People of the Truth and the Company of the Sunna. and His Apostles. from the followers. and there- . next Uth- man. and Mohammed is Allah s Apostle. next AH May God be well pleased with them. Surely he gave of all creeds its full significance and the value. he was always and everywhere an orthodox Moslem. Once was overcome. however. not only to see in it faith of Al-Ghazali but his credulity as well. if we desire to understand the his early scepticism man and his times. He who confesses relying upon it. next Umar.&quot. It is necessary. and hath separated himself from the band of error and the sect of innovation (bid a).HIS CEEED . whose are Might and Majesty. So we ask from God perfection of certainty and firm standing in the Faith (din) for us and for all Moslems through His compassion. ! The above lation is Doctor Macdonald s careful trans of what Al-Ghazali taught was involved when Moslems this shortest say: There is no God but Allah. And that he should think well of all the Companions and should praise them like as he praises God. All this is that which has been handed down in tradition from the Prophet and in narratives all this. after is Abu Bakr. Lo He is the Most Compassion ate! and may the blessing of God be upon our Lord Mohammed and upon every chosen creature. AND CEEDUUTY 163 the Prophet rank and that the most excellent of mankind.

so he says. quent (See the special chapter in the Ihya on this subject. and that. : fire/ He Thou then asked them: they replied: art Am I not your Lord? that And Certainly. They . the gushing out of water from between his fingers. God has estab Mohammed prophetic character by mir such as the splitting of the moon. tined for Paradise and these are destined for hell&quot. we .164 A MOSLEM SEEKER AFTER GOD Koran ap fore swallowed the Traditions and the parently without any philosophic doubt. victories. prophets. for none of the Arabs were able to produce any Another sign of his prophetic char thing like it. then He opened both His hands before Adam. and Adam looked at them and saw them like imper Then God said: These are des ceptible atoms. is the greatest the Koran. In one place he writes When God Almighty let His hands pass over the back of Adam and gath ered men into His two hands. acter is his being able to foretell things which are to come such as his victorious entry into Mecca. lished acles. He placed some of them in His right hand and the others in His left.&quot. proving his divine mission.) He was a predestinarian in the fullest sense. One of miracles. lieved that He all be the Mohammed was s the greatest of &quot. the defeat of the Greeks and their subse to pass. testify our Lord/ God then asked Adam and the angels to be witnesses to the act after this God replaced them into the loins of Adam. and the praising of him by stones.

it remains there till its body sufficiently developed. When God Almighty breathes into the spirit.&quot. He it restores to it its most precious part in of which had been deprived while preserved the receptacle near the throne.. Then God places man in this world till he has reached the term fixed for him. 1303) as an inex plicable. The great Mystic was also superstitious. of magic. It may in terest in conclusion to give an account of this form &quot. is called the Square of Al-Ghazali or Al-Buduh. text or of celebrated magic squares used on amulets. or seal. This is the first death and the second life. taken up by Al-Ghazali and cited in his Munkidh (pp.the &quot. the soul in the same is then dead yet. etc. approved by Al-Ghazali. 46 and 50 of ed. Some of his books deal with magical formulae taken from the the Koran and the medicinal use of its names of God. One of the most &quot. 165 were at that time purely bodies. because it is one of the things by which he is best known among the masses in the world of Islam.HIS CEEED AND CEEDULITY spiritual beings die. came to be universally known as &quot. without but gathered them and kept them in a receptacle near His throne. three-fold talisman. but certain assistance in cases of it difficult labour. or table of Al-Ghazali . When the germ of a new being is placed in the He then caused them to womb is of the mother. of Cairo. In the older Arabic books on magic this formula plays a comparatively minor part but after it was .

Lane against temporary impotence. to 1 Others trace the formula back Adam. g. 1331. &quot. 1327) by Ahmed Al-Zarkawi. and it is inscribed at the begin of books as a preservative. Mafatih Al- (Cairo. . It is also engraved upon jewels and metal plates or rings which are carried as per manent talismans. Cairo. al-jadwal.Al-Faidh al Mutawalli of Ahmed Damanhtiri. H. Al-Buni is s Shems ul Mu arif 622). al-khatam. magician also used it with his ink mirror ern Egyptians/ chap. of the Koran. to render oneself invisible. and which by themselves are also used as talismans. The uses of the word are most varied to invoke both good and bad for tune. ( Ilm ul-huruf) A. etc. 170 et seq. the sixth and seventh Risalas in that volume. see pp.166 A MOSLEM SEEKEE AFTEE GOD (al-wakf. al-muthallath lilGhasali) and finally has become the starting point for the whole (e. of &quot. Al-Ghazali said to have developed the formula. from the com binations of letters which open Suras xix. and xlii. from 2 whom it passed down to Al- Ghazali. For the popular mind Buduh has become a Jinn whose services can be secured by writing his name either in letters or numbers. Cf. and on the subject in general. against pains in the stomach. under divine inspiration (ilham). xii. 2 Cf. Cairo Mod in We find the same magical treatises. s (&quot.Science of ( Letters&quot. ) . a contem porary Egyptian magician. It is used against menorrhagia. But by far the ning most common use is to ensure the arrival of letters For the process Ghalb&quot. f &quot.

Witch (Um-as-Subyan). ! Encyclopaedia of Islam. see thousands of children in Egypt his And one may who have never letters heard of Al-Ghazali and cannot read the of name wearing his magic square on lead or silver amulet to protect them from the hideous power of the Child. 1 167 No letter from one pious Moslem to another is ever posted in the Near East without putting the figure 8642 in Arabic on the outside of the envelope where it is sealed. In the Azhar University men study his creed but in the villages they follow his credulity and to all the fellahin of Egypt Buduh has become a guardian Angel 1 &quot.&quot.HIS CEEED ASTD CBEDULITY and packages. article Buduh. .


VI His Writings .

saw the Prophet in a dream.&quot. and it is sufficient for you (to know) that it was he regarding whom the Prophet contended with Moses and Jesus. . and say Have you had in your sects such a ing to them. Abu l. the Master. and to whose great and extreme veracity the most truthful have borne &quot. Al-Ghazali in Risalat Ayyuha l walad (sec. I Imam. No/ The Shaikh. learned and righteous man ? alluding to Al-Ghazali.Abbas alMursi said. when mention was made of Al-Ghazali. the support of religious law and truth. the &quot. Verily I saw in the Gospel of Jesus (on him be peace) that he said: From the moment the dead is placed on the bier until he rests on the edge of the &quot. 5). Testimony has been already borne to his great and extreme veracity. open grave God Most High asks of him forty ques tions. testimony Ad-Damiri s Hay at al-Hayawan. one acquainted with God. and they both replied. and he was con tending with Moses and Jesus regarding the superi ority of excellence of the Imam Al-Ghazali.

on ethics. the Prophets was the . Imams but hammed. They include systems of theol ogy. are disputed. was the Prince of Writers.VI HIS WRITINGS by far is known of Al-Ghazali The meagre facts of the life. however. and have never been published. the son of Mohammed the son of Mo Mohammed Al-Ghazali. and even the spelling of his name.Mohammed the all son of Abdullah was the Prince of the son of Idris Al-Shafi .&quot. and on canon law. &quot. and Brockelmann in his History of Arabic Literature catalogues sixty-nine which are &quot. Ismael Ibn Mohammed Al Hadrami Mohammed Prince of says: &quot. have interesting evidence of Al-Ghazali s position as a writer even in his own day in the pre171 We . still in existence. Moslem writers mention ninetynine works. Many have assigned to Al-Ghazali the highest position among all Moslem writers. lectures on mysticism. eschatology. works on philosophy. left so large a legacy that many of his works are still of his MORE from his writings than from the records found only in rare manuscripts. as biographers we have seen. His pen.

even an inkstand. This bronze is the oldest piece of damascened metal work and the only example of that epoch with naskhi inscription in the possession of the That the case was not made at a later and presented to Al-Ghazali s library after period his death is evident from the fact that it was the custom to present a book or celestial globe to a library. But this objection may be answered by stating that the case was not made to the order of Al-Ghazali personally.&quot. does not appear on it meaning de does on other of a de &quot. the most illustrious among his contemporaries. Kyticas and is made of brass overlaid with ing inscription : silver. as Then. al-marhum.&quot. our revered Leader. the Restorer illegible of religion.172 A MOSLEM SEEKEE AFTER GOD shown in cious relic our illustration. It bears the follow &quot. the greatest Scholar of the world. too. but not a pen-case or Museum. An objection to the authenticity of the bronze is the use of silver in a pen-case de signed to be used by a Sufi doctor pledged in some measure to an ascetic life. the word &quot.&quot. the King of wise men.Made for the library of our Mas ter. [an word] Hujjat ul-Islam. the most great and noble Imam. It was pre sented to the Museum by M. the Mouthpiece of verity. is In the Arabic pen-case Museum at Cairo there a maqlama or which once belonged to Al-Ghazali. the Stay of all living. the Treasury of truth. objects which were offered in memory ceased person. Mohammed Al-Ghazali. but by his . it ceased.

Cairo. . preserved in the Arab Museum. made of brass inlaid with silver.Pen case of Al Ghazali.


1 72 For critical notes on his works see R. the Precious Pearl (Al- Durrat Al-Fakhira) is a treatise on the last judg ment and the end of the world. be surprised at the ap parent lack of modesty which the inscription on the Judging from other instances pen-case indicates. pp. Sur Deux Bronzes du Musee Arabe Bulletin de 1 Inst. Gautier. cation of the Religious Sciences) The Misan Al- amal (The Balance of Works) has been translated See a paper on this subject by Ali Bey Bargat. need not. 249s 300. Al-Ghazali himself might well have written the inscription. We An almost complete list as well as of the translations of his of Al-Ghazali s writings works into other man. e. and was published by Pococke in his Specimen. moreover. tics The morality and theology of the mys are codified in the Ihya ulum id-din (Revivifi .. Egypt. Ger 2 is given in the Be appendix. IV: &quot. and English. Gosche. of this period. Latin. also Gardner remarks and list. . the Aqida is a statement of the articles of the Moslem faith. French. of some of his more important works The Jazvahir al-Koran (Jewels of the Koran) contains observa tions on some of the verses of the Koran which have special value. especially Hebrew. fore languages. his eschatology and has been translated and published by L.HIS WEITINGS disciples in order to obtain his good-will 1 173 and pat ronage.&quot. we speak a summary will interest the reader. i.

was published in the Journal Asiatique for 1877. Barbier de Meynard. It describes the development of his philosophy. and Wajiz are all abridgments of them. which was printed in Venice in 1506. which has been translated into German and published by mer-Purgstall. by re- the learned savant. Wasit. the Tahafut al-Falasifa (Collapse of the Philosophers) is an attack on the adherents of the Greek Philosophy. and published by Goldenthal. translated and published by Schmolders in his Essay on the Schools of Philosophy Among the Arabs a second and greatly improved translation &quot.174 into A MOSLEM SEEKER AFTEE GOD Hebrew by Ibrahim bin Hasdai of Barcelona. Al-Munqidh min ad-Dalai (The Deliverer from Error). More . on Shafi ite reputation in the Moslem world his Basit. his treatises Ham- Among works on jurisprudence. Homes in 1873 and more Child!) recently by Claud Field. law have earned great . . Ayyuha l-walad (O is a celebrated moral treatise. Beer. this work which was originally written in Persian. and a Latin translation by Gondisalvi is in existence. written after the author commenced his life as a teacher at Nishapur for the second time. it has been edited by De Boer. The Maqasid is al-Falasifa (Aims of the Philosophers) tion to the above. The Kimiya assa ada (Alchemy of Happiness) is a popular lec ture founded on mysticism. has been twice trans lated into English. was &quot. In the domain of philosophy. by H. a sort of introduc The text has been published by G. A.

A smaller work already O mentioned is the Risala Ayyuh Al-Walad In it he defines faith and works and Child!&quot. 175 cently appeared in English under the title The Confessions of Al-Ghazali. Augustine. in the numerous works are very tractates.&quot.HIS WRITINGS &quot. (upon * From Him be prayers and the hour in which the is put upon the bier until the time when he on the edge of the grave God will ask him forty questions. the ideal pupils. prepared for the use of his It speaks of the ideal pupil. the first of which is. (&quot. and do what you will. It is one of his it shortest but most famous books and can be com &quot. s the question as to which says: accuracy of statement. curious passage distinguishes between them. Verily I saw in child. Several of Al-Ghazali brief. drinking. love whom you wish. marriage and the religious life. John Bunyan of Sinners. s of St. or at least raises Gospel he refers to. for you are bound to be separated. teacher. pared with the Confessions &quot. &quot. for you are sure to be judged for it. live as O my the Gospel of Jesus peace) that He said. of the ethics of eating. you have purified yourself to appear before dead rests . O my serv ant. shape of epistles or Among his shorter mentioned: Al-Addb works the following may be fi Din. you please for you are already dead. a short treatise on the ethics of politeness. or Grace Abounding to the Chief s &quot.).&quot. occurs in the introduction which reflects on Al- A Ghazali &quot. He &quot.

there used regarding that lay siege against man s parable soul and the enemies The reminds one very much of Bunyan s &quot. Al-Qawa id has been Al-Ashara (The Ten Articles) this frequently reprinted.&quot. The soul is a unit and its various powers are knit together and are come.Alchemy &quot. there is a beau chapter on Know it Thyself.176 A MOSLEM SEEKER AFTEE GOD men many years and not for one hour have you purified yourself for my gates. celebrated treatise on ethics and conduct is entitled It might be compared to the ul Amal book of Ecclesiastes or the first chapters of the book of Proverbs. called . In the introduction Al-Ghazali shows the folly of those who neglect to secure the happiness of their immortal souls as well as the peril of those who despise faith in the world to Mizan of happiness consists in knowing the right and doing it. What you do for others why do you not do for me who sur but you were deaf rounds you with my mercy and not willing to hear/ ! In his tiful &quot. The is shortest of his works. of Happiness &quot.&quot. Of a similar scarcely longer than character is His most Risalat-ut-Tair the parable of the birds. as far as I am aware. and every day a voice was sounded in your ears saying.Holy War. The path of the mystic unites true faith with true practice. of faith and conduct. He also speaks of the of change of character through religious possibility . The true way interdependent. and It consists is of ten principles an ordinary letter.

Although is which . encyclopaedia of Moslem teaching and ethics and covers the whole range of Moslem thought. Although the moral its end of task.HIS WEITINGS 177 devotion and mentions the virtues that are to be cultivated and the vices to be shunned on to true happiness. it is after all based entirely on the principle of salvation by works. in ten large volumes. It is a veritable &quot. the most celebrated of by Mohammed-uz-Zubeidi Al-Murtadha. but teaching of this book is very noble.&quot. The work itself consists of four volumes of ten books each and has a total of over one thousand closely printed pages. There is no hint of the possibility of the transformation of character through regeneration of the heart. We know that there would be an nothing would have been taken away from the everlasting character of that eter nity which has no end. &quot. Many editions of this work have been printed and com mentaries written on it. nor is the way pointed to the victori ous that life is by overcoming temptation through a power not our own. this path way to God and life with its and the supreme importance of eternity brevity Al-Ghazali says: Suppose we imagine that the whole world is filled with dust and that a little bird should come and snatch up one atom of dust every &quot. To emphasize the importance of thousand years. Of all his writings none is celebrated more justly than his greatest work The Revival of Religious Sciences (Ihya ulum id Din).

Conditions of Debate and Controversy. soul. which has four divisions 1. .&quot. What Kind of Knowledge The is Forbidden and Permitted. ological is Jamal-ud-Din of Da used as a text-book on Islam in the The in Mohammed Seminary of the American Mission first Cairo. the second part. &quot. part of the original that pertain to worship Things Things that pertain to practice The work . fourth part. &quot. : 2. divisions 1. 3. The Moslem Creed. I. II. 4. God.. popular demand has called forth several abbreviated compendia of the work. 4. the third part. 3. The Relation of Teacher and Pupil. . e. 6. 7. THINGS THAT PERTAIN TO WORSHIP The Book of Knowledge. Work.&quot. &quot. i. Benefits of Learning. The Dangers of Learning. Attributes. The Book of Dogma. the vices soul. . &quot.&quot. Things that deliver the i. the e. 5. the virtues. The contents are as follows: &quot. His Being. Things that destroy the &quot.A Homily for mascus. Faith and Islam.. Believers. : 2. The Mind and its Uses. One by of them entitled &quot. Degrees of Faith.178 A MOSLEM SEEKEE APTEE GOD widely read in its original form. which has seven &quot. Theological Learning and Nomencla ture. is entitled &quot.

The Book of 1. the Mysteries of Prayer. VII. which has three divisions : Its Necessity. 179 The Book of 1. 2. The Benefits of Prayer. which has three divisions : Purification Purification Purification 2. which has four divisions Kinds of Alms. . 5. 3. Its Mysteries. How they are Observed. The Order of Procedure. 4. ears. 2. 4. Its Inward Significance. 3. 3. The Book of 1. 3. which has three divisions: Its Benefits and Character. the Mysteries of Purity. The Imam. Miscellaneous Matters. IV. The Book of 1. : 6. which has seven divisions : 2.HIS WEITINGS III. from Unclean States. Conditions of Prayer. the Mysteries of Almsgiving. Conditions of Giving. 3. 7. Body (finger-nails. Outward Observance of Prayer. To Whom. from Unclean Matters that cling to the etc.). the Mysteries of the Pilgrimage. from Unclean Objects. VI. Special Prayers. The Book of 1. Obedience through Fasting. V. Friday Prayers. the Mysteries of Fasting. 2.

and IX. &quot. II. II. X. Ethics of True Living and the Virtues of X. THINGS THAT PERTAIN TO PRACTICE The Ethics of Eating and Drinking. &quot. IV. &quot. The Book of the Night Meditation. I. the Prophet. Evils of Anger and Envy. Ethics of Friendship and Conversation. I. &quot. Favours and Offenses. The Ethics of Trade. VIII. The Ethics of Marriage. THINGS THAT DELIVER THE SOUL The Book of Repentance. Ethics of Music and Poetry.180 VIII. Despising Vanities. IX. Things that are Allowed and Forbidden. . The Exercise of the Soul. On The Ethics of Journeying. IV. VI. V. On Despising Property and Greed. V. The The the Appetite and of Lust. The Book of Zikr and Prayer. On Despising the Love of Honour Hypocrisy. III. A MOSLEM SEEKER AFTER GOD The Book of the Perusal of the Koran. On Despi sing the World. of &quot. The Life of Seclusion. The Book of Patience and Thankfulness. The Dangers of the Two Desires. On &quot. III. The The IX. VIII. VII. THINGS THAT DESTROY THE SOUL The Wonders of the Heart. Evils of the Tongue. VII. I. II. namely. VI.

gives a diagram of the prayer kibla and the rules to be observed in facing it correctly. Cairo Ed. II. page 180.). It .t-ji^ A facsimile page of the Ihya (Vol.


X. the longest in God to have many names and The second part of the book names of and treats of the ninety-nine God order showing how they are comprehended in the seven attributes and the one essence. Especially the third and great &quot.The Highest Aim: the Explanation of the Beautiful Names of God. entitled Al-Maksad ul-Asna Sharhthoughts. Book of Good Intent and Sincerity. His ten books on furnish material Things that deliver the soul from which it would not be difficult to collect a beautiful anthology or a daily calendar of spiritual Such a rosary of pearls from Alworks might well be used for devotion by Christians as well as by Moslems. Book of Poverty and Asceticism. Book of the Unity of God. fourth parts of his as a mystic and a &quot. divided into three parts of which the deals philosophically with the meaning of the &quot. V. Book of the Remembrance of Death. The The The The The The The The Book of Fear.HIS WEITINGS III. 181 IV. word name &quot. &quot. VIII. Another most interesting book is that on the names of God. VI. IX. and its distinction from the nam itself: also ing of the thing and the thing named how is it is possible for yet to be one essence. VII.&quot. The . Book of Love. work show us Al-Ghazali preacher cf righteousness. Book of Meditation. Ghazali s Asma -Allah The book first is ul Husna. Book of Self-examination.

182 A MOSLEM SEEKER AFTER GOD is brief and shows that there are really more than ninety-nine names. He &quot. but that this was the number fixed upon for good reasons. and in this respect he says: &quot.&quot. s attributes is the highest happiness for the There are three degrees in the knowl virtues edge of God.&quot. God. He must statements are true in regard to believer. not tion or place. Saints . of His creatures in He has only revealed His names.&quot. approach to by which he means that the nearer we God the more perfect is our standard of character. (3) that of actual acquirements of God s attributes such as the angels. book Al-Ghazali wrote was the Minhaj Guide of True Worshippers. says that two God and the &quot.&quot. and &quot. It is said to have been written for those who could not understand the Ihya and deals with the creed and last The al-Abidin or &quot. which He hides Himself.The of the righteous are the faults of the &quot. three degrees of knowledge are (2) that of admiration and at tempted imitation. and therefore even to the best is to God by rank and degree. And finally third part there is a section telling how God may and may not be described. The (1) intellectual. . Nearness in regard to posi with approval the famous quotes No one knows God save God saying of Junaid: Himself Most High. The but true believer nothing God. I I know know nothing of say. Al-Ghazali teaches in this book that the imitation of God believer.

things that delay the soul in its onward progress. in an hour. such as the world and senses. &quot. The first stage is that of knowledge. recent Cairo edition. so free from the care and perplexity of the world. then follows repentance. the Beginner s These two works of Guide. that they finish the journey and arrive at the goal in a year. a month. &quot. its allurements. however. some in twenty. So difficult is the road which Al-Ghazali de scribes that he says: &quot. the flesh. Others there are. Other hindrances are the cares of gaining the perplexities and troubles of life. whose souls are so enlightened. already spoken Al-Ghazali are very popular and have recently had an increasing circulation. Some seekers can only finish these stages in seventy years.HIS WEITINGS ritual 183 Our illustration of Islam from the standpoint of the mystic. the a living. what do I say. while the last stages in the road of the mystic are those of praise to God under all circumstances. the devil. so that they awaken like the Companions of . a list of the hindrances on the road to God. shows in facsimile the first page of this celebrated work from a of. some in ten. and ear nest endeavour to attain to the reality of the ex perience of His presence. The Minhaj shows that Al-Ghazali at the close of his life had adopted the vocabulary of the mys the tics On margin of the text we have even for popular teaching. The various chap ters are called stages in the progress of the soul towards salvation and peace.

prayer prays when He who is the very marrow of invoked takes possession of it is the soul of the suppliant. and only by a most reso lute effort. sorbed in the Absolute is it is a blemish. or of movements of anything that happens externally. His teaching on prayer as given tainly rises in the Ihya cer above that of the ritualist very high &quot. and the change they see in themselves and those about them is to them as a dream. and the soul of is him who and. soul and God. all consciousness of self has de and to such a degree that all thought what soever of the praying is felt as a veil between the parted. This state is called by the Sufis absorption/ for the reason that the man is so ab sorbed that he takes no thought of his body. to whom he prays. or even of the his own soul. for that absorption only worthy of the name.184 A MOSLEM SEEKER AFTER GOD the Cave. they are of the third kind when one finds it difficult to turn away But the mind from dwell ing on divine things. his prayer ceasing. though they will be called.&quot. absorbed into God. the soul is able to fix its thoughts on divine things without being disturbed by evil im aginations. but foolish babbling . who puts all his attention on the punctiliousness of outward observance. and finally is wholly in his If even the thought occurs that he is ab Lord. Prayers are of three de of which the first are those that are simply grees. spoken with the lips. as I well know. Prayers are of the second kind when with difficulty. but is first engaged in going towards his Lord.

that they do speaks to them. while the majesty of Deity discovers itself. surely explains in a large degree why his influence has been so deep and permanent. the most pure essential essence meeting it. he encour aged moral philosophy. far greater than that of the merely in tracts tellectual philosophers. While he discouraged scholastic philosophy. are yet by no means without For consider: The condition of significance. or pleas see such persons so carried away with their love. so absorbed are passing before their eyes. but afterwards. Elsewhere Al-Ghazali says : The commence ment of This at this life is the going to God. nor see those Nay. Jurn it away from that which is the object of it/ &quot. in their passion that they do not perceive their they absorption . such as wealth. honour. where. We object.HIS WEITINGS 186 by raw theologians. as the lightning swiftly glancing upon the eye. you necessarily. &quot. After his death several famous ethical . fills the soul with the images of the spiritual world.\ evident sincerity and the moral earnestness of Al-Ghazali shown in his works and in the ex The which we have quoted. momentary. which I speak resembles that of a person who loves any other ure. and others with not hear one who their anger. The reader will remember how he carried a book of ethics with him on his journeys. then follows the finding Him. when first is the absorption takes place. it introduces the soul into a higher world. confirmed by use. such as Averroes.

Those portions of the Koran which deal with natural theology and the proof of God s existence from the starry heavens. these were composed which derived much from the most important of &quot. and named Akhlaq enriched with some important additions Nasiri. its pres ent name. That Al-Ghazali was a careful student of nature evident in all his writings. . from Avicenna. the animal crea tion. One long chapter is devoted to embryology and the physical wonders of the human frame. from the fertile ground. F. In the fifteenth century it as into Persian sumed a still further improved form under &quot. Another is on birds.The Mystics of Islam. The con&quot. especially seem to One of his books is entitled Al appeal to him.186 A MOSLEM SEEKEE AFTER GOD Claud Field says is treatises him. itself is largely The Akhlaq-ia translation into Persian from the Arabic. another on quadrupeds and on fishes. the Akhlaq-i-Jalali.&quot. the * Akhlaq-i-Jalali. the earth and the sea. Thompson. and the four primal elements. It is one of is his shorter writings but full of beautiful passages on the glory of the starry heavens. the original of which appeared in the tenth century under the name of Kitab-utTwo centuries after it was translated Taharat. by Jalaluddin Asa ad Aldawani. which has been ably translated into English by Mr. Jalali W. by Abu Nasr. Hikmat fi Makhlukat Allah (The Wisdom of God Shown in the Marvels of Creation). and the sea with its terrors.

is memorable among the theologians of Islam in that by his breadth of sympathy he forbade the cursing of Yazid. Al-Ghazali was also a dogmatic theologian and He wrote a commentary on the in forty volumes. and it lem. for the goodness and greatness of the Cre What he says in re ator as shown in His works. never printed. the notorious slayer of Hussein. controversialist. was a Moslem. and gave his opinion in these It is forbidden to curse a Moslem: Yazid &quot. Al-Ghazali. death cannot be certain that he ordered his really we cannot be certain of the cause of the death of any great man. delights the lover. comforts the pas sionate. and a dozen books against various heretics. who was himself cursed for alleged heresy. takes away idle fear. To look up into the vault of Says Al-Ghazali heaven drives away anxiety. including one en The Best Reply to Those Who Have Tam titled: &quot. banishes evil thoughts. removes the whisper ings of Satan. It is is not certain that he slew Alill forbidden to think of a Mos We . brings the heart to magnify Him.&quot. cures pessimism. Husain. gard to the benefits to be obtained from gazing into the starry vault may be compared with David s words in the eighth and the nineteenth Psalms. reminds us of &quot. Moham s med words: grandson. Koran pered with the Gospel.HIS WEITINGS elusion of the whole treatise is 187 the argument from design. and it is the best Kibla for those who call to God in prayer.&quot. especially at such a . : God.

if he has cursed him he cursed ones of * Again. . goes to the extreme of intellectual scepticism seven hundred years before Hume he cuts the bond Macdonald. may have repented before he died. but simply that one thing follows an other/ 1 Macdonald. the Qawa id. according to ophers. to abstain from cursing is no crime. of causality with the edge of his dialectic and proclaims that we can know nothing of cause or effect.&quot. he is only disobedient to God. he may be asked. the Tahafut ul Falasifa which overthrows their views and shows that they are untenable to those who would follow Islam with heart and mind.188 A MOSLEM SEEKEB AFTEB GOD We have also to remember the distance of time. he is not an unbe liever because of that. 72. up smites the philosophers hip and turns their own weapons against them and thigh. one will be asked if he ever cursed Satan. if he did kill him. No Further. party spirit and false statements in this particular case. They are the Maqasid-ul-Falasifa. a statement of the true teachings of the philosophers and a presentation of their views of the world. . Why ? The only ac die whom we know are those who infidels. Again. p. he &quot. which shows the truths that must be built to take the place of the errors of the philos In the first-named book. Among his books against the philosophers we must mention three which are closely related to one another.

The Revival of Re ligious Sciences. They had no place for the religion which Ghazali preached. both by Moslem writers and European critics. He has been accused. According to Dozy. But this opinion was not shared by Moslems In his lifetime and especially after his elsewhere. and possession of a copy was interdicted on pain of death and confiscation of property. and not without good rea son. and he drew up a fatwa condemning all copies This fatwa. declared that any man who read Al-Ghazali s book was an infidel ripe for damna tion. which was personal and passionate. he touched these pharisees of the law at the quick and they not only squirmed but screamed the Kady of Cor loudly. of the book to the flames. a religion of the heart.&quot. &quot. the Fakihs of Cordova. AH. Ibn Hamdin.HIS WEITINGS Al-Ghazali s 189 great work &quot. dova. all bounds because of the narrowness of their Their theology was limited to minute knowledge of Canon Law. death his works against philosophy and his great exposition of Islam found ever larger circles of readers and commentators. signed by Al-Ghazali s was formally approved by book was accordingly burnt in Cordova and all the other cities of the Empire. caused great scandal in Anda There the intolerance of the learned passed lusia. When he attacked contemporary theologians busy with questions of legality and the externals of re ligion.&quot. of carelessness and inaccuracy in his quotations . views.

Tradi him as authoritative and yet which from the standpoint of Moslem criticism are on tions quoted by this account absolutely worthless. e. H.&quot. Now we have no reason to doubt that As-Subqi (d. i.) was an ad mirer of Al-Ghazali and esteemed his teaching. 771 A. is made own dis When reading this collection of of the Prophet (which are after all to him without any authority or foundation) one true sayings often ascribed is &quot. also the &quot.190 A MOSLEM SEEKEE AFTEB GOD 1 and references to other books.. This section of the book referred to covers many pages and by actual count I found over six hundred Traditions each catalogued by reference to the chapter in which they occur. he quoted from charitable when he says that memory too freely. Deferences to The Gospel. shocked both at the credulity and the lack of love 1 Compare the two statements facing this chapter . yet what shall we s say when in this collection of the lives of the saints so strong an indictment of Al-Ghazali ciples ? inaccuracy by one of his &quot. because he was a man of too &quot. . large a calibre to watch his quotations and they were loose to the end of his life. One of the charges brought against him by his assailants is that he Macdonald s judgment is very falsified Tradition.&quot.A Ihya which have no isnadf or pedigree. As-Subqi in his Tabakat-ash-Shafa iya al Kubra devotes a special section to what is entitled List of all the Traditions given by Al-Ghazali in his &quot. in Chapter IX.

all 191 Moslem apolo so If even Al-Ghazali handled Tradition so carelessly as to ascribe to is Mohammed much that altogether puerile. some supposed him to be actually drift and his works were eagerly studied and used by Jewish writers. their theories from the Maqasid and Al-Ghazali s attacks on philos ophy were imitated by Judah ha-Levy in his Cumri. and used it for the subject of his beautiful admonition Yeshene Leb. to such an Judaism &quot. Al-Ghazali exercised a command on Jewish thought in the Middle In the appendix is a list of some of the Ages. translations of his books made in Hebrew. fabulous and often immoral. Jewish ing influence students of drew many of philosophy. than through his philosophy that Al-Ghazali at tracted the Jewish thinkers.HIS WEITINGS for veracity in this greatest of gists. what confidence can we put in other and later tra dition-mongers and how can we clear Al-Ghazali from the charge of using pious falsehood? We add another fact of great interest in regard to his writings. Abraham ibn Ezra borrowed from Al-Ghazali s Misan al Amal his comparison between the limbs of the human body and the functionaries of a king. extent that ing in that direction. but it was chiefly his ethical teaching rather his other works. Abraham ibn Dawud borrowed from the same work the parable used by Al-Ghazali to prove the difference in value between various branches of . including Maimonides. approached the ethical ideal of He Broyde says.

&quot.&quot. the true source of Islam. difficul In dreams and visions we are in contact with the two other worlds. Doctor Macdonald admirably summarizes his influence on Islam as four-fold.Jewish * Bible bible. and Simon Duran : cites in his Keshet a pas calls sage from the Mozene ha-Iyyunim. always the Moslem article &quot. Johanan Alemanno recommends &quot. First of all he led men back from mere scholastic dogma to a liv ing contact with the Koran and the Traditions as &quot. Biblical theologian in He might be called a our modern use of the word.Ghazali.&quot. There are four elements only. ties Al-Ghazali avoids the this of concrete Moslem teaching by method. . which he Mozene ha-Hokmah&quot. In regard to science. was built on the Ptolemaic system. Macdonald. the world of God s eternal de cree. Encyclopaedia. The translations of his works into Hebrew were made as early as the thirteenth century. Not less than eleven Hebrew commentaries are known on the Maqasid. There may be things which are real and actual and 2 yet do not belong to the world of sense. Ghazali s hermeneutic methods. and the world of ideals or of God s power. Existence has three modes: the world of sense. and compares the order and graduation of lights in Ghazali s theory with those of the theory of the cabalists. understanding by &quot.192 science A MOSLEM SEEKER AFTEE GOD . Al-Ghazali s views were His world naturally those of his contemporaries.

text. but looked upon in many quarters as heret received its birthright through Al-Ghazali s and teachings. Lastly. R. Nearly every paragraph of his Ihya begins with a Koran quotation.HIS WEITINGS 193 namely the Koran. It is characteristic how his influence has The later mystical portions of his Ihya have es- . In the second place he reintroduced into Islam In the earliest days. already existing in Islam. example in the Koran itself. 1 Christianity. which has to this day great acceptance among pious Moslems. In the third place mysticism. he brought philosophy within the range ical.&quot. warning the people against principles dangers as well as showing them its fundamental and above all illustrating through his writings how true philosophy and true Islam are its not contradictory. witness his little book Al-Durra al-Fakhira. s In regard to the influence of Al-Ghazali : writings. the terrors of the day of judgment and the horrors of hell operated in order to lead men to repentance. life of the ordinary mind. and his interpretation of the book is not a slavish following of the earlier commentators but a spiritual interpre tation of the &quot. as for the element of fear. and from his day on held an assured position in orthodox Islam. In this respect he resembles Raymond Lull who also desired to use philosophy as the 1 handmaid of &quot. Al-Ghazali em phasized this part of the Moslem teaching to the utmost.&quot. Gosche remarks spread.

Mohammedan works on philosophy exerted influence in Spain . for the best manuscripts of the Tahafut are found in Maghrabi character. These alone made him a reformer of the first rank in the history of Islam. pecially influenced circles in India.194 A MOSLEM SEEKER AFTER GOD Macdonald thinks that of these four phases of his work and influence the first and the third were undoubtedly the most important. His two and among later Jewish writers.&quot.

VII His Ethics .

.&quot. and AH below St. Haroun below Alfred. R. as Averroes is below Newton. boundless progress to his mind its motive power is stronger. The but outside the religion of Mohammed. sided. better than a king and love higher than obedience. far more inspiring even as the life of greatness have been the founder of Mohammedanism Christianity. Paul. even as a friend . far more majestic. sacrifice of self to man s moral nature it gives scope . purity of heart. development.whole fields of and whole realms of thought which are all morality religion of Christ contains &quot. Bosworth Smith. for toleration. Finally. the ideal life of all is far more elevating. is below the life of the Founder of &quot. It opens humility. forgiveness of injuries. Its realized ideals in the various paths of human is more commanding. more manymore holy. Life of Mohammed&quot.

mental concepts of Christian ethics are challenged by the teaching of Islam. through be found And the moral law &quot.&quot. &quot. p. 197 .&quot. The ethics of Islam bear the character of an out wardly and crudely conceived doctrine: of righteous ness. and the bringing of an action into relation to God. conscientiousness in the sphere of the social relations. character of This is evident both from the Mohammed himself and from his re to corded Ideal virtue is sayings.Christian Ethics. 172. I. Adolf Wuttke. imitation of Mohammed. is as to its practically abrogated because of loose views real character.VII HIS ETHICS defines Christian ethics as MARTENSEN hammedan and the science of morals conditioned by But the three funda Christianity. faithfulness to conviction and to one s word. of Virtue of the Moral Law are not in accord with those of Christianity. of a basing of the moral in love. are its bright points. highest good is the very outwardly and very sensu ously conceived happiness of the individual. all of them The Mo idea of the Highest Good. &quot.&quot. Vol. but there is a lack of The heart-depth. its teaching and finality.

the Koran Professor Margoliouth uses lan its This statement needs no proof to those know Islam from and Tradition. by cruelty or lust. lights. The measure of the moral stature of Mohammed is the source foundation of duct is all moral ideals in Islam. and His con the standard of character. that the ethical standard is so low even in Al-Ghazali.&quot. A stream higher than its source.198 A MOSLEM SEEKER AFTER GOD who original sources. on Him be peace. and the mos* eloquent of all in He is . and assign some cannot rise limits to the fourth. &quot. We need not be surprised. he pays this high tribute to Jesus Christ (page 24 Cairo Edition).Go to Jesus. therefore. there is Precious Pearl/ however. although he ofttimes rises high above the Koran and the Prophet. In nearly every one of his books on morals the Prophet of Arabia is held up as the highest ideal of character. and the most ascetic in life of them all. and who knew most of God. for the truest of those who were sent as apostles. the companions and followers of Moham Those who recount the history of Islam all have to lay aside else the picture would have no ordinary canons of morality. a passage quoted from a tradition in which In his &quot. they could not write at all if they let themselves be shocked by or bloodthirstiness. guage which is strong but not unfair when he says in regard to the saints of the Moslem calendar that is med &quot. yet perfidy both the Koran and Tradition forbid the first three. a tower cannot be broader than its foundation.

&quot. good and bad. lived consider the age in which Al-Ghazali and his Moslem education in ethics. Macdonald 1 the position of Al-Ghazali is a simple one. the prophets Macdonald. refers to the day of resur rection when the various nations seek God s favour and forgiveness. 118-119. The quotation. the tracing of hidden defects to their causes. says. When we All our laws and theories upon the subject.&quot. Where 1 the saints leave off. the analysis of the qualities of the mind. It may be major revelation. and without them and their labours and the light which God has vouchsafed to them we could never know ourselves.HIS ETHICS 199 wisdom. and the methods of combating these causes. pp. . all these things [Al-Ghazali teaches] we owe to the saints of God to whom God Himself has revealed them. or it may be minor revelation subsidiary and explanatory through the vast body of saints of different grades to whom God has granted immediate knowledge of Himself. however. Of these there have been and in all countries. perchance He will intercede for you. many at all times God has never left Himself without a witness. divinely sent and sup ported by miracles and by the evident truth of their message appealing to the human heait. Here as everywhere. through accredited prophets who come forward as teachers. comes out clearly Al-Ghazali s funda mental position that the ultimate source of all knowledge is revelation from God.

which are. at the sayings The Prophet.200 begin . no greater and lesser sins. But we must add to this clear statement of AlGhazali s theory of ethics. and their followers. define sin as &quot. of ignorance and of childhood are not reckoned as and lit great there are seven great sins sins. lest it be wholly misun derstood. false charge of adultery. &quot. including Ala conscious act of a respon Ghazali. saints of the early Caliphate. is and whosoever has done so is worthy of hellfire. witchcraft and perjury among them. tle Some say idolatry. Moslem Therefore sins sible being against known law. &quot. . man. said. that the revelation referred to is the Koran and that the saints were the Moslem &quot. doctors of jurisprudence. Take one example: &quot.&quot. and include winedrinking. &quot. desertion from Jihad and disobedience to parents. Others say there are seventeen. but everything which are &quot. &quot. taking interest on money. murder. physical science. lesser.&quot. The lack of all distinction between the ceremonial and the moral law is very evident in the traditional of Mohammed. A MOSLEM SEEKER AFTER GOD and. Orthodox Moslems divide sins into greater and There Al-Ghazali quotes one who said. even in would be groping in the dark. apart from such teaching. upon him be prayers and peace.&quot. basis of ethics. They divide sin into : the substance of orphans. of course. wasting real sin. &quot. One dirhem of usury which a man takes knowing it to be so more grievous than thirty-six fornications.

rather than to the keeping of the ten command ments or of the principles that are fundamental to This becomes very clear when we noble character. malice. conceit. and when he the . etc. &quot. Yet in all of Al-Ghazali s works on ethics and many there of his smaller treatises are on this subject.&quot. brutal and cruel. like stone sin dropping of water wearing away a and when the servant of God reckons his great. the first he puts pride. God reckons it small. overcome the heart satanic. and anger. and decency in outward behaviour. etiquette. cursing. for example..HIS ETHICS is 201 sin. lust. murder. deceit. of one of his study shorter books entitled Al-Adab fi Din (Ethics in Religion) . contrary to God s will is a great this but gives Koran passages contradicting and then escapes the moral difficulty by showing that the smaller sins may become great if we continue in them: &quot. adultery. boasting. selfishness. cor ruption and unbelief. is no clear distinction made between the ritual and the moral law. gluttony. passion. while greed. etc. abuse. the contents.&quot. and the robbing of orphans are classed as brutal sins. politeness. are cruel. reverence in the presence of superiors. belong to the second. then God reckons it great. He Under divides the sins which into four classes: egoistic.. . &quot. sodomy. In fact one word used for ethics in Arabic (adab) refers to propriety of con duct. rob bery. reckons it small. theft. hatred. envy.

&quot. teacher. . of the bath . These have shown us He what it is duct. clearly enlightened us concerning this in the Koran. is our example. is cor rect behaviour as regards religion. ethics of sleeping. of nightwatching. of the preacher. and hath given us the example of conduct in his Prophet Mohammed according to his Traditions. and the best of good works. necessary for us to follow in their con all those The paragraphs or are entitled: sections of this handbook Ethics of the believer in the presence of God. Truly the . The book teaching in these created us and perfected our creation.202 A MOSLEM SEEKER AFTER GOD begins by giving the basis of ethical words: Praise be to God who &quot. to honour him. of washing. of those who seek to understand Tradi tion. which we have here recorded for who would follow. and taught us morals and beautified our morals. of those who hear the Koran read of the reader of the school . and honoured us by sending His Prophet (upon and hath taught most perfect ele us how ment in character and the most elevated. of the ascetic. of the scribe. of the nobleman. of entering the mosque. of the teacher. of the call to . of fulfilling a call of nature . which teaches what a true believer should know of the work of the Lord of the worlds and the Creator of the prophets and apostles and God hath taught us and Mohammed whom may God s blessing rest). of the pupil. and the most glorious. and likewise are his companions and immediate followers.

And one should eat from the edge of the platter and not from the middle. of the prisoner. . chew the food thor oughly. which is about the same length as the other paragraphs. of the child with its parents.HIS ETHICS 203 prayer. . and wipe his meal. of the feast-days. of mar of fasting . Judge.One should wash one s hands before partaking of food and and pronounce the name of God before be after. of the master with the servant. riage (this has several subdivisions) of sitting by the wayside. . of almsgiving. of neighbours. of pilgrimage of the merchant of the money-changer. ginning to eat. Take small portions from the dish. of conduct during an eclipse of conduct during drought of sickness of funerals. of eating and drinking. and do not look into the faces of the other guests while you are eating nor should you recline . . fingers after the Nor should one . and you should ask to be excused as soon as you have had enough. of the Friday sermon. of intercession. and eat with the right hand. so that your guest may not be embarrassed or any one who has greater need. nor eat to excess beyond the demands of hunger. of brothers. of the witness. of the rich and the poor. parent with the child. of the Sultan with his subjects. of prayer. will give a clear idea of the contents: &quot. and return praise to God. of the chapter of this interesting The final with miscellaneous maxims on polite behaviour under all circumstances. . of the . treatise deals A translation of the section on eating.

in the means. All this is interesting and important.204 A MOSLEM SEEKER AFTEE GOD at dinner for fear of bringing mention death bad luck upon those who are present. a lie believe something that is not really the Ignorance sometimes is an advantage. for the Moslem mility child. hu in in outward behaviour.&quot. for a lie is forbidden in this . respect to those above us in age or sta tion. for such a lie is lawful. Ibn Muhran sometimes a duty to lie. But the omissions of the Book sur prise us. One section of the Ihya (Vol.&quot. and many other social virtues are likewise commended. the realm of truth at least. the mosque. and clearly shows that according to Al-Ghazali.) deals with the question as to when lies are justifi able.&quot. There is nothing on truth. as table etiquette. mak him case. truth: for instance. Obedience. moral courage or the nobility of chivalry the things that make a man. you must tell the truth. and if causes this kind of ignorance it may be al It is lowed. what do you We the end justifies the means/ &quot. Ill. &quot. haram (wrong) ing in itself. 96 ff. he says. . &quot. Maimun A lie is sometimes better than said. p. if you see a man seeking for reply to the question as to where he is ? Of course you will reply thus. reverence &quot. but only because of the evil conclusions to which it leads the hearer. heart-purity. the end justifies that a lie is not Know. say that kill another in order to him.If lying and truth both lead to a good result.

In all cases we must be careful not to lie when there is no necessity for it. Ly sults. and by making promises to please &quot.HIS ETHICS case. We get another view of Al-Ghazali s ethics in his . he has to it and say. must conceal nor done any vice/ when he has done. If the only path to duty. or the safety of an oppressed depends on a lie. lest it be haram (wrong). reconciliation be tween two separated friends. it is it is the only way to reach a good re allowable (hallal). I have not stolen/ when he did Prophet said. is loved the most. also false promises and false threats. ing is allowed in persuading children to go to school . 205 If a sult. and so if a sultan asks a man deny steal . then a lie is allowed. other disgrace/ others as well. lie is lawful when lie is A For example. We must lie when truth leads to unpleasant re but tell the truth when it leads to good re Lying for one s pleasure. for revealing one disgrace is an person must deny the sins of A Making peace between wives is a even by pretending to each of them that she duty.&quot. If the outcome of war. not lie for her husband to tease another wife. or for fame is forbidden. her. about a crime he has committed. or for increase of One wife must wealth. sults. a wicked person asks a man about his wealth he has to deny having any. you are obliged to lie in order to save him. if a Mos lem flees from an unjust one and you are asked about him. The He who has done a shameful deed it.

and his pure heart is a precious jewel like a tablet without inscription. guard yourselves and your family and even as the father would guard To this end he will only give his to be nursed by a good. Allah has said. for a boy is a trust in the hands of his father. to neglect like the dumb cattle. It is not surprising that nothing is said as regards the education of girls.&quot. and his sin will be on the neck of his guardian. do good and is taught it. from the fire his son from the fire of this world. O ye who believe. pious woman who eats boy the proper food. . for even now many Moslem authorities consider it inadvisable that they should be taught to read and write. p. section in the Ihya (Vol. by how much the more should he guard him from the fire of the world to come? He will guard him from it by chastising him and educating him and teaching him the best virtues. for the milk from forbidden food has no blessing in it. Ill. he grows up accord ingly. and is happy in this world and the next and his parents and teachers will have the reward for But if he learns evil and grows up in their action. 53) which deals with the education of boys and the improvement of their morals. The It is most important to know how to bring up a boy.206 A MOSLEM SEEKER AFTER GOD There is a special teaching regarding education. he will turn away from the truth and perish. . It is therefore ready to re If he learns ceive whatever impression is applied. chapter referred to begins as follows: &quot.

and he should be kept from reading erotic poetry and pre vented from mixing with those people of education who think that this sort of reading is profitable and elevating. He advises parents to dress their children in costly clothing. on the contrary. because. bold in the future.After To quote once teaching him these things it is wise to send him to school where he shall learn the Koran and the pious traditions. on the contrary. nor to lay bare his fault. Whenever the boy shows a good character or an act it which is praiseworthy. and has determined to hide for exposing would only make him more If he should repeat the fault. If. especially if the boy himself conceals it. gluttony and impolite ness. it produces in the hearts of children the seeds of corruption. Such of good is the strange ethical teaching a mingling and bad advice on the part of one who .HIS ETHICS 207 He then goes on to show that the education of a child consists in teaching him table manners. . and the tales of the righteous and their lives. in order that a love of the pious may be imprinted in his heart. he should act otherwise once and again. the avoidance of unclean food. it is necessary to take no notice of it.&quot. he must be honoured for and rewarded. so that he will be happy and this should especially be done in the presence of others. simply and not more: &quot. he can be punished in secret. as though you imagine no one would dare to do such a thing. it.

Marriage. for the wife becomes the slave of her &quot. my is people. The duties of the husband to the wife and the duties of the wife to her husband are given in detail by Al-Ghazali in . &quot. (5) ability to bear children. and celibacy is discouraged.&quot. Marriage is enjoined upon every Moslem. is my custom.&quot. Marriage one-half of true Even the members of the ascetic orders in Islam are generally married. it is in everything In the selection of a wife. The vow among the denned by Moslem jurists as mystics. (8) that she be not of near relation.&quot. if there be no legal impediment preventing the same. (3) beauty. said Marriage. is a kind says Al-Ghazali himself. in another tradition: religion. husband and her duty to obey him absolutely he requires of her. of celibacy was therefore not known is &quot.208 A MOSLEM SEEKER AFTEE GOD has always been considered as the pillar of ortho doxy and one of the great authorities on Moslem morals. (4) a moderate dowry. and he &quot. Al-Ghazali advises his disciples to look for the following qualifications: (1) piety. except in what is contrary to the laws of Islam. The ethics of marriage holds a large place in Moslem literature.&quot. Marriage a contract by which the husband obtains posses sion of the wife and is allowed to enjoy her. (2) good character. and also in the works of AlGhazali. who And dislikes it does not belong to &quot.&quot. &quot. of slavery. (7) of a good family.&quot. (6) that she be a virgin. Mohammed the Prophet.

Ihya. Mizan al Amal. 126-128. but be careful not to wound her in the face. 32-33. he means that there should be no excess of kindness or excess of harshness in any of these particulars: (1) the marriage (2) feast. &quot. abstain from intercourse with her for three days. (8) granting every wife her rights (in the Moslem sense) . threaten. . etc. (4) maintaining his dignity. pp. according to this teaching. and even indicates that it may become a duty 1 if practiced in order to escape from greater sins. (5) jealousy. pp.&quot. make her blood flow abundantly or break The teaching of Al-Ghazali on divorce and slavery is so thoroughly Moslem that much of a bone! it is untranslatable. admonish. (3) playfulness or caressing. (7) teaching. The hus band. (10) the rules of cohabitation. ought to main tain a golden mean in dealing with his wife in twelve points. ex hort. II. (12) divorce. (6) pecuniary allowance. behaviour. (9) chastisement. the husband has the right to punish her and force her to obey him. Vol.HIS ETHICS his 209 Ihya and in some of his other works. beat her so as to let her feel the pain.&quot. In spite of his Islamic conception of the sexual 1 &quot. that is. Suffice it to say that he agrees with other doctors of Moslem law in excusing onanism and other sins under certain circum stances. (11) childbirth. but he must proceed gradually. In one place he says if the wife be disobedient and obstinate.

the contrary to is Wise men have said. fore be borne with patiently. &quot. He who bears the ill-humour of his wife patiently will earn as much merit as Job did by the patient endurance of his trials/ On Continue his deathbed also he was heard to say. His biographers are silent. is created concealment weak. you will break her. Al-Ghazali certainly inspires by what he says on the kindly treatment of the wife and the evil of divorce. patiently. whether by her unreasonable ness or ingratitude. if you try to bend her. Woman was formed of a crooked rib. but that he should bear any annoy ance she causes him. arid requiring Woman . in prayer &quot. and kept secluded.210 A MOSLEM SEEKEE AFTEE GOD our respect relation. they get out of control altogether. for they are your prisoners. to use a mixture of severity and tenderness. The Prophet said.A man should remain on good terms with his wife. and act what they advise/ In truth there something perverse in women. with a greater proportion of the latter. she should there The Prophet said. and if they are allowed even a little license. and treat your wives well. Consult women. This does not mean that he should never cause her pain. Only one would like to know whether he himself had more than one wife and whether she was a worthy helpmeet to her husband and he to her. if you leave her . and it is difficult to reduce them to order In dealing with them one should endeavour again.

and what ornaments are allowed all this comes under the &quot. How to to eat a pomegranate correctly. for. how behave towards Jews and Christians. and said. yet God disapproves of word divorce it because the very utterance of the causes a woman pain. the formula for it should not be repeated thrice occasions. or tooth-brush. how to use the Misivak.Alchemy of Happiness. is permitted.HIS ETHICS alone. been divorced for such and such a Of a man who was instituting divorce proceed ings against his wife it is related that people asked are you divorcing her ? He answered. how to take a bath. not through anger and contempt. and how can be right to pain any one ? When divorce is abso lutely necessary. Why I do not reveal my wife s secrets/ When he had actually divorced her. and not tell others that she has fault.&quot. She is a stranger to me now . &quot.The greatest care should be taken to avoid divorce. 94-96. though divorce it. I have nothing to do its pleasures and duties pass under review in books on Adab. all at once. . but on three different A woman should be divorced kindly. grow more and more crooked * there fore treat her tenderly. she will 211 . Every de tail of outward conduct is regulated by what is said to have been the practice of the Prophet. mer wife a certain present. him. and not without a After divorce a man should give his for reason. pp. he was asked again. with her private affairs/ All the relations of life.

head of Moslem Ethics. and renders These beside himself with ecstasy. whether it be earthly . for he even justifies erotic poetry if sung for the glory of God: &quot. and produce in him an emotion so deep and strange that he himself is powerless to explain it. .212 A MOSLEM SEEKEE AFTEE GOD We &quot. . There was much dispute among theologians as to the lawful &quot. The effect of music and dancing is deeper in proportion as the nature on which they act are simple and prone to emotion they fan into a flame whatever love is al ready dormant in the heart. like fire has been so constituted by a flint. and sensual. and at the same time rather doubtful conclusion. The Sufis had already introduced the practice. give the reader one The Alchemy of Happiness.&quot. striking example. . . harmonies are echoes of that higher world of man beauty which we call the world of spirits. they remind man of his relationship to that world. The heart of man the Almighty that. The following paragraphs show Al-Ghazali s com his mon sense. Music and Dancing a chapter concerning as Aids to the Religious Life/ The question of there is musical instruments was discussed as earnestly in the days of Al-Ghazali as it has been more recently among Christians who dread the desecration of God s house by the cist of whistles. ness of music and dancing as religious exercises. or divine and spiritual. In his work. &quot.&quot. it contains a hidden which is evoked by music and harmony. keen humour.

. and of minstrels whose music and songs stir up martial ardour in the breasts of their auditors and incite them to fight against the infidels. as that which com mands that a man should leave his mother the sixth verses of the part of his property and his sister the half. repentance. &quot. mournful music which excites sorrow for sin and failure in the religious life is lawful. These above. we come to those cases where they are Such are those of the pilgrims who quite lawful. are often the result not only of hearing verses of the Koran. is But dirges which in it crease sorrow for the dead are not lawful. for instance. or that Koran . but it should be remembered that all the are not adapted to stir the emotions such. 213 Passing over the cases where music and danc ing rouse into a flame evil desires already dormant in the heart. Similarly. Despair not over what you have lost/ On the other hand. The states of ecstasy into which the Sufis vary according to the emotions which predominate in them love. fear. the glories of the House of God at Mecca celebrate in song. as we have mentioned of poetry. for written in the Koran. is law fall . on these occa sions. desire. and thus incite others to go on pilgrimage. but erotic poetry. etc.HIS ETHICS &quot. joyful music at weddings and feasts and on such occasions as a circumcision or the return from a journey ful. of this nature was the music of David. as well as of the Koran. Some have objected to the reciting states. .

When in the crucible of abstinence the purged from carnal passions it attains to the highest. man finds his heaven in the con templation of Eternal Beauty. At taining that state. and again he plunges us into the sloughs of sensuous and worldly discussion themes unworthy of his pen. and no longer in fleshly delights. Let us get back to the mountain tops where the air is healthier. The spiritual operates this change in him. he says. the ideals of eternity. is not easily dis covered.214 A MOSLEM SEEKEE AFTEE GOD which orders that a widow must wait four months after the death of her husband before becoming espoused to another man. the great truths of Theism. Al-Ghazali. Sometimes he leads us to high peruse mountain ranges whose summits are gilded with the light of heaven. The Alchemy of Happiness &quot. like mutes base metals into gold. In his &quot. nor to be found in the house of every old alchemy which that which trans . The natures which can be thrown into religious ecstasy by the recital of such verses are peculiarly sensitive and very rare. whatever may have been his failure in other respects. soul is &quot. * They certainly are! The inconsistencies and Ghazali s contradictions in Al- theory of conduct surprise us when we his works. had high ideals for the attainment of morals from the Moslem standpoint. and in place of being a slave to lust and anger becomes endued with angelic qualities.

He us a picture of this Holy War almost in the gives For the carrying on language of John Bunyan. or prime minister. The struggle is. as they have their king. and anger the police-officer.&quot.The good that I would I do not. therefore. A faculties to dominate the higher is as one who should hand over an angel to the power of a dog or a Mussalman to the tyranny of an unbeliever. own proper functions to fulfil. these. Under the guise of col lecting revenue. passion the revenue-collector. and the is evil that I would not. Like St. the body may be figured as a kingdom. Both of officer. Paul. passion plunder on its own is continually prone to account. Reason may be called the vizier. that I do. of oneself and of God is to be obtained. of this spiritual warfare by which the knowledge &quot. the soul as its king and the different senses and faculties as constitut ing an army.HIS ETHICS 215 And in the attainment of this ideal he is sure that there must be a fight for character. Al-Ghazali must have experienced that which he describes: &quot. The The war goal is not to be reached by easy stages. the revenue-collector and the police- have to be kept in due subordination to the but not killed or expelled. between the flesh and the spirit. the ruin of the soul in soul which allows its lower fallibly ensues. . while resentment is always inclined to harshness and extreme severity. He conscious of the inner. But if passion and resentment master reason. fare against passion is real and costs sacrifice.&quot.

and he will perish in the desert. but Wis Al-Ghazali says are dom. both show His Both are of God. temperance.&quot.&quot. No one shall enter paradise in whose heart there their opposite virtues.&quot. and perishes while the soul tn- dures. is simply the riding animal of the soul. Alchemy of s &quot. Again and again he contrasts the body their eternal value in their and the soul as to struggle for supremacy.&quot. just his way to Mecca takes care of his if the pilgrim spends his whole time in and adorning his camel. other good qualities ! has borrowed from Plato with so much else on the He explains all these virtues theory of conduct. His wisdom and His power.The body.216 A MOSLEM SEEKER AFTER GOD in struggle between the higher and the lower natures man. Happiness. so to speak. and modetation (or the This classification he golden mean of conduct). Mizan al Amal. The as a pilgrim on soul should take care of the body. but there is no comparison when we try to estimate their real values. bravery. a &quot. the caravan will feeding leave him behind. He begins by quoting the saying of the Prophet. . He is at his best when he speaks of vices and No one can read his chap and boasting without seeing that he gives us again a page from his own experience. &quot. in terms of the Koran and illustrates them from the lives of Mohammed and the early saints of Islam as well as the later mystics. &quot. The four leading virtues the mothers of all camel. gift to us. ter against pride &quot.

Mohammed is evidently taken Whoso humbleth himself be fore God. His definition of True humility is to be sub humility is beautiful: &quot. nor did his pride forbid him carrying his own pack-* . the weight of a grain of mustard seed of And another &quot. who said. Khudri. of race and blood. Pride is my mantle and majesty is my cloak. of wealth. of worship. self as all of these and there them pride or hypocrisy it is disobedi Whatever you do in your house do it your did the Apostle of God.&quot. But whatsoever thou doest of enters into ence. for he used to milk the goats and patch his sandals and sew his cloak and eat with the servants and buy in the bazaar. and whosoever is proud God will bring him low.HIS ETHICS is 217 pride. God will exalt him. and also Abl &quot. of He quotes Mo bodily strength. of leadership. and whosoever takes away one of them from me I will cast him into hell. my son. of beauty and dress. saying. and to be corrected by it even thou shouldst hear it from a mere boy on though In this connection he quotes also a the street. Oh. Pride is He shall shown in different ways. Said God Most High. and I care not/ Another say &quot. ing attributed to from the Gospel. &quot.&quot. ject to the truth saying of Jesus: &quot.Said the Messiah (upon Him be peace). hammed Saeed el as an example of humility. eat unto God and drink unto God and dress unto God. Blessed is he to whom God has taught His book. never die in his pride/ Al-Ghazali enumerates pride of knowledge.&quot.

&quot. Al-Ghazali tried hard but failed to find in heart.218 ages A MOSLEM SEEKEE AFTEE GOD home and he was . friendly to the rich and to first to the poor and he gave greetings himself met. Mohammed the ideals of his own This is the tragedy of Islam. . which we collate our final chapter. every one whom he It is ethical teaching noteworthy that when he rises to the highest he bases his remarks on the sayings in (mostly apocryphal) of Christ. etc.

VIII Al-Ghazali as a Mystic .

and the human self is not so big that it makes any large difference where within yourself you take your center. you but the choice between Mysticism and Ration There is not so much choice between these it is true. Each centers himself in himself. Benjamin B. in the &quot. Nevertheless just because Mysticism blows hot. its eccentricity is the more attractive to men of lively religious feeling.&quot. the Rationalist cold. as enthusiasts on either side are apt things. Mysticism Once Tyrrell both expounded and illustrated for us.Princeton Theological Review.&quot.men is religion. The Mystic blows hot. chill down a Mystic and find yourself with a Rationalist on your hands. and supplies a refuge for of religious minds who find it no longer possible as George for them to rest on external authority &quot. a matter of temperament. from revelation and little choice remains turn away to alism. Warfield. The difference between them is very to imagine. up a Rationalist and you you The history of thought illustrates repeatedly the easy pas sage from one to the other. or perhaps we may even say of temperature. . much Warm inevitably get a Mystic .

the praise in both. however.VIII AL-GHAZALI AS A MYSTIC ONE of the earliest mystics in Islam was Rabia who was buried in Jerusalem. Jerusalem as early as the second century Her tomb. was an ob in the Middle Ages. received their name through Abu Khair. iv. of Islam. as worthy is of Thee. and was ject of pilgrimage The following probably visited by Al-Ghazali. and from 221 . 298): &quot. Not mine the praise in that or Thine is this. according to Ibn Khallikan. She was a native of Busrah and died at . Tis selfish love that I do naught : Save think on Thee with every thought Tis purest love when Thou dost raise The veil to my adoring gaze.&quot. His the disciples wore a woolen garment. who lived at the end of the second century of the Hegira. I wis. are quoted from her in the Ihya (vol. verses p. I love Thee : selfishly. Two ways And next. The Moslem mystics. or Sufis.

barren monotheism and the rigid ritualism of leader of tlie Islam.In the next century. According to Nicholson. the one of Al-Ohazali great favourite authorities. is adored as the source ot is actual and possible. the litanies (/ikr). John. ~U7). Many Gospel texts and sayings of Jesus. the vows of silence. he the Perfect Man . are cited in the oldest Suti writings. Paul. which spread It was a reaction from the throughout Islam. word nainc. Mohammed is called the concerning Christ. he all life. which WKKKKll APTKR GOD their 11. lie is said to have existed before the creation ot the world. Light of Cod. Their teaching also has manv interesting parallels which Nicholson sum The same expressions are marizes as follows: applied to the founder of Islam which are used by St. although always pro fessing to base their teaching on the Koran and Tradition. and other ascetic practices. The preachers of the new doctrine travelled everywhere and mixed with In this men ideas of all conditions. most of them apocrvphal. This kind ot orthodoxy did not meet the needs of the more imaginative mind ot the Kastern races who accepted Islam. they obtained s . al-Junaid (\. St. was movement.JIM A MOSLKM suf. but from (Gnosticism and Buddhism. way they adopted from many sources. the Mystics of Islam bor rowed not only from Christianity and Neoplatonism. &quot. and later mystical theologians Thus. means wool. Kroni Christianity they took the use of the woollen dress.

and a Suii tradition ascribes to him the saying. the One reality.&quot.&quot. Otherwise. In the Moslem scheme. veils of darkness. the passage through the veils has brought with it for get fulness (nisyan): and for this reason man is called insan. it is because the soul remembers something of what it has lost. as ex dervish. He is his body. . Canon Gairduer by a modern soul passes before his birth through these seventy thousand.The it were. it quality . as it obviously must when the whole duty of man is believed to consist in realizing the unity of God. in this journey towards birth. Thus the child is born weeping. in prison in these thick curtains from by now. The inner half of these are veils of light: the outer half. separated &quot. the soul puts otT a divine and for every one of the dark veils. Seventy Thousand Veils separate Allah. however. pounded shows clear traces of Gnosticism. Neoplatouism gave them the doctrine of emana The following version of the tion and ecstasy. from the world of matter and of sense. And every &quot. the one Reality. He that hath seen me hath seen Allah. doctrine of to the seventy thousand veils. puts on an earthly quality. as Mystics of Islam. the Logos doctrine oc cupies a subordinate place. for the soul knows its separation from Allah.AL-GHAZALI AS A MYSTIC in whom all the divine attributes are manifested. And when the child cries in its sleep. For every one of the veils of light passed through.

18. p. &quot. Fana has an all ethical aspect : it involves the extinction of The pass passions and desires. a city famous for the number of Sufis who dwelt in it. &quot. 171.The Way of of a Mystic. like To know God was to be like Him p. While fana/ says Nicholson. The Moslem World. In regard to Buddhist influence. . a recovery of the original unity with The One.Mystics Islam. The cultivation of character in a mystical sense by the contemplation of God was the real goal.&quot. From the Buddhists came the use of trine of &quot. of evil qualities and of the evil actions ing away which they produce is said to be brought about by ! ties the continuance of the corresponding good quali and actions. in its panthe istic form is radically different from Nirvana. while still in this body. the is to give him an escape from prison. Professor Goldziher has called attention to the fact that in the eleventh century the teaching of Buddha ex erted considerable influence in eastern Persia. especially at Balkh. and perhaps also the doc fana or absorption into God.&quot. Vol.&quot. the rosary (afterwards adopted by Christians in Europe). and to be Him ended in absorption or II. the terms coincide so closely in other ways that we cannot regard them as being altogether uncon nected.&quot. * Way this sand Veils. &quot. A MOSLEM SEEKEE AFTEE GOD But the whole purpose of Sufism. an apocalypse of the Seventy Thou of the dervish.224 Allah.

Ihya. and I learned all that was possible to learn of their methods by study and oral teaching. II. Abu Yezid. in this connection. It became by clear that the last stage could not be reached *Yet strange to say there was often an utter divorce be tween these high ideals and practical morality.&quot. Vol. man is to the Sufi the mirror of the uni If he look into his would know God own heart. Shibli. and the fragments which still remain. &quot. by Abu Talib of Mecca. to learn their doctrine than to practise I studied first of all those of their The Nourishment of Hearts. I desired to I was that was a hidden I treasure and be known. . I acquired a thorough knowledge of their researches. A surprising statement is made by Al-Ghazali regarding Junaid &quot.The aim which the Sufis set before as follows: To free the from the tyrannical yoke of the passions. so created the creation in order that I might be known. attributed to One of their favourite God by the Prophet.&quot. Bustami and other leaders (whose souls may God sanctify). so the heart of verse. 225 ecstasy.AL-GHAZALI AS 1 A MYSTIC sayings &quot. the works of books which contain it: Hareth el Muhasibi. 19. them is or Truth he must To soul quote Al-Ghazali himself: &quot. p. of Junaid. in order that in the purified heart there should only remain room for vocation of His holy name. to deliver it from its wrong inclinations and evil in stincts.As God and for the in it was more easy it. Just as the universe is the mirror of God s being.

or union with is the goal of all the Sufi teachings and prac tices. however.Confessions&quot. Some of the Sufis went so far as to set aside external and showed an utter indifference to the moral law. therefore. 41. 13. extinction. He teaches. the Great Truth of Humanity. Sell.&quot. and the transformation of the moral being &quot. the Possessor of the Ray of Light the Nur-i-Muhammadi from God s own splendour. &quot. ritual as well as to the * &quot. (p. . for he is still in bondage to dogma and wanreligion.). ecstasy. love.Among the teachings of the Sufis was that of the preexistence of Mohammed the Prophet in the Essence of Light. mere instruction. E. Essays on Islam. yet between prophet after This identification of Mohammed with the Primal Spirit. Him Absorption in God.&quot. p.226 A MOSLEM SEEKER AFTEE GOD ecstasy. The entire negation of self clears the way for the apprehension of the Truth. &quot. that the ordinary theologian cannot enter on the mystic path. I was a prophet while Adam was earth and clay. truth. knowledge. union. According to the Traditions. and There is no me/ Sufis hold that Mohammed was a prophet even before the creation and that he still holds office. Madras. 1901. such as Universal Reason. by Rev. Al-Ghazali was not of their number. This journey towards God has its stages which are generally : given as eight in number service. but only by transport. abstraction. the Element explains the names sometimes given him.

and in its antinomian practices. Al-Ghazali was thoroughly aware of the dangers of Sufism both in its creed by way of becoming pantheistic. was an incarnation of the spirit of . real. . Omar Khayyam: . altogether more fundamental. ! He that sins not can make no claim sinners sin to mercy sad.&quot. Khayyam why weep you that your life is bad What boots it thus to mourn ? Rather be glad. and which is esoteric significance the spiritual. 227 age in all their requirements Prayer. pilgrim and the details of their observations have. as we shall see later. a twofold signifi cance the outward and formal one which is under . therefore. only grasped by those who give themselves entirely to God. Others believed that had descended upon Abdallah Ibn Abu Muslim. He saw that divorce between religion and morals would be disastrous and must therefore have been shocked by such verses as those of &quot. separated itself and paid such high veneration to The sect of the Khattahiyah worshipped the Imam Amr. fasting. The old idea of incarnation emerged when the Shiah sect Ali.AL-GHAZALI AS A MYSTIC ders about in darkness. From the earliest times pantheistic Sufism found a home in Khorasan among the Moslems. In Khorasan the opinion was widely spread the great general who overturned the dynasty of the Ommeyads and set up that of the Abbassides. that the divine spirit Jafar Sadik as God. Mercy was made for His teaching regarding be not and repentance was. stood by the common people.

the Ostasys professed to be an emanation of the God He collected thousands of followers. and movement was not suppressed without much Under the Caliph Mahdi a self-styled Avatar named Ata arose. themselves by quoting his saying. and so far as to say The Most High spoke thus and thus. these specu What Al-Ghazali himself thought of lations of the Sufis &quot. who on account of a golden mask which he continually wore was called fighting. They wish to imitate Hallaj. the second Abbasside Caliph.228 A MOSLEM SEEKEE AFTEE GOD God. D. being closely invested in his castle. and justify . a religious leader named head. * in check for several years. Many of them allege that they have attained to com plete oneness with God that for them the veil has been lifted that they have not only seen the Most High with their eyes. or the veiled prophet. He also had Mokanna. who is ! re in- ported to have exclaimed. he. I am the Truth/ They also refer to Abu Yazid * Bistami. but have spoken with Him. which according them compensate for all outward works. Praise be to me . In the same province under Al Mansur. a numerous following. and held the Caliph s armies &quot. put an end to themselves. till in A. who was crucified for using such expressions. . with his whole harem and servants. 7T9. and the danger of this kind of we learn from his book: The specula mysticism tions of the Sufis may be divided into two classes: to the first category belong all the phases about love to to God and union with Him.

but which on closer inspection prove to be devoid of any real sense. as they hold out to men the prospect of laying aside active work with the idea of purging the soul through mystical ecstasies and transports. but he was aware that such religious enthusiasm often led to gross hypocrisy. speculation. Ghazali sagely. it As regards the second class of Sufi consists in the use of unintelligible phrases which by their outward apparent meaning and boldness attract attention. . Not only did Al-Ghazali realize the danger on the side of pantheism. left their occupation to make similar Such speeches are highly popular. He divides the ecstatic conditions which the hearing of poetical recitations produces into four . oneself &quot. In his Ihya he mentions that the prophet com &quot.&quot.AL-GHAZALI AS stead of A MYSTIC 229 This kind of specu lation is extremely dangerous for the common people. adds Al&quot. vastly increased the number of those who claimed mystic illumina tion. in these matters to one begins by do what afterwards comes spontaneously.&quot. the fact that religious excitement was looked upon as the mark of a fervent mind and devout intensity. The common people are not slow to claim similar rights for themselves and to catch up wild and whirling expressions. Moreover. manded that whoever did not at the recitation of the weep and forcing to feel moved to tears Koran should pretend to be deeply moved for. and it is notorious that a number of crafts Praise be to ! God men have assertions.

.The perience. of lament over a departed joy or longing for a look.&quot. In order to compass this aim the Sufi has a special path to follow he must perform various ascetic practices and overcome certain spiri ate into Sufism. Longing and love overpower him and unfold to him manifold vistas of spiritual ex &quot. during the mention made of blame or praise. The sec ond class is that of pleasure in the melody and of understanding the words in their apparent sense. is that of classes. and whose minds are closed to Such an one is wholly everything except God. initi He has goes on to say. and the removal of the veil which conceals Him. fourth and highest class is that of the fully initiated who have passed through the stages above mentioned. the simple sensuous delight in melody. of union with the Beloved or separation from Him. the Sufi hears when. Now recitation of poetry. The third class consists of those who apply the meaning of the words to the relations between man and God. He tual obstacles in doing so. a goal marked out for him to aim at. meeting Him and union with Him by the way of secret contemplation. .230 A MOSLEM SEEKEE AFTEE GOD The first. which is the lowest. necessarily and this goal is the knowledge of God. one or the other of these accords with his spiritual state and acts upon him like a spark on tinder. as often occurs in Arabic poetry. To this class belongs the would-be &quot. of acceptance or refusal. to set his heart aflame.

through which alone Al-Ghazali the soul can receive its fundamental impulse to wards God. until by repentance the rust of guilt and passion are removed. The mere form is nothing in itself. Again and again he comes back to this metaphor in his books. but the rays are no longer clear.&quot. This condition the Sufis characterize (Fana). Yet Al-Ghazali size s mysticism leads him to empha always the spiritual side of worship. The author of the Masnavi had mastered Al-Ghazali and absorbed spirit when he wrote: &quot. his Fools laud and magnify the mosque. spirit and . and. sinks into the ocean of the contempla tion of God. as though with senses sealed.&quot. Light is reflected in it. s mysticism was always accompanied orthodox insistence on the six articles of faith by and the five pillars of practice. Sin is like rust on the mirror of the soul. heart.The as self-annihilation Confes sions. (&quot. A MYSTIC knows 231 his so that he no longer own experiences and practices. the latter truth. While they strive to oppress holy men of But the former is mere form.AL-GHAZALI AS denuded of self.) Elsewhere he compares this highest condition of of ecstasy of the human soul to a clear mirror course he means the mirror of the ancients made of polished brass or bronze which reflects the colours of anything towards which it is directed.

rise of Sufic teaching. What he most says on the imitation of God is based al literally on Al-Ghazali s book describing God &quot. also of Khorasan (A. God calls Himself Hearing/ to the end that You may close your lips against foul discourse. a negro may be called Kafur (white) They are names derived from God s attributes. God calls Himself Seeing/ to the end that His eye may every moment scare you from sinning.&quot. These names are not mere accidental names of God. its and character. Snouck Hurgronje re The lamp which Allah had caused Mo marks hammed to hold up to guide mankind with its light.&quot. for* God dwells there. God calls Himself Knowing/ to the end that You may As be afraid to plot evil. origin it.&quot. s attributes. In regard to the &quot. Abu Sa id bin Abu-1-Khair. was one of Al-Ghazali s teachers When he was asked in the school of mysticism. H. was raised higher and higher after the Prophet s : . give and whatever happens to thee. Dr. essential Not mere vain titles of the First Cause. it forget it. The mosque that is built in the heart of the saints Is the place of worship of all. C. . said : Whatever is in thy head. 396-440). disregard away. whatever is in thy hand.232 A MOSLEM SEEKER AFTER GOD The only true mosque is that in the hearts of saints. what a Sufi was he &quot.

&quot.&quot.Facsimile &quot.Minhaj-Al-Abidin. last book Ghazali wrote. entitled the margin this Cairo edition gives another of his celebrated works.Badayat-al-Hadaya.&quot. title page of the On .


to which so of morality. however. and which so often engendered disregard of the revealed law. ferent . some the profession of faith : was reduced to the I am Allah/ blasphemous exclamation But he goes on to say that although many went to such extremes and in their pantheistic ideas lost sight of the moral law and the restriction of con duct large it was Al-Ghazali who rescued Islam to a He recommended degree from this danger. in order to shed its light over an ever in This was not possible. liberated the spirit that it might rise and become united with the origin of all being to such an extent that with it. and its Neoplatonic origin was quite unmistakable . Persia and India also contributed to tian circles. There were those who. danger of pantheism.AL-GHAZALI AS creasing part of humanity. A MYSTIC 233 death. moral perfection of the soul by asceticism as the only way through which men could approach nearer His mysticism wished to avoid the many others were led by their contemplations. It is ethical These now form the sacred trio of religious . without its reservoir being replenished with all the different kinds of oil that had from time immemorial given light to those different The oil of mysticism came from Chris nations. vby dif methods of mortifying the flesh. by asceticism. or even to God. therefore from the days of Al-Ghazali that mysticism obtained its birthright in the world of Islam together with law and dogma.&quot. &quot.

the noblest minds in Islam restrict true religious not for the multitude. are not as other men. For dogma other more authoritative. the cism shows * the earthly pilgrim the way to Heaven. and. The following opinion has come to prevail in wide circles: the Law offers the bread of life to all the dogmatics are the arsenal from which the weapons must be taken to defend the treasures of religion against unbelief and heresy. Snouck Hurgronje. &quot. ticular class who are filled life to an aristocratic minority. this ethical teaching Al-Ghazali s mysticism is utterly disappointing.&quot.&quot.234 A MOSLEM SEEKER AFTEE GOD and are taught in every great centre of sciences. for a par with religious pride that Even they. is In one particular. 1916. in this respect. but in matters of ethics Al-Ghazali still holds his own. New York and London. consider the ignorance of the multi tude an evil that cannot be remedied. however. . For Moslem law writers are there is the study of the great writers of the four Schools. and the possibility of attaining &quot. The quote once more from Hurgronje: ethical mysticism of Al-Ghazali is generally recog nized as orthodox. like the Phari teach sees of old. but mysti faithful.Mohammedanism. C. The ing of Al-Ghazali was intended not for the masses but for the initiates. Moslem learning. To to a higher spiritual sphere asceticism by means of methodic and contemplation is doubted by few. It is esoteric.

and shows conclusively that whatever may have been Al-Ghazali s method he was sincere. ous religions and sects from the Divine Light are . Ghazali been made of one of Alworks on mysticism entitled Mishkat at. T. nearly approximate to Absolute Truth (al-Haqq the Real The veils which veil the vari Allah). Gairdner. Ghazali Him oppor tunity to graduate various religions and sects ac cording as they are more.AL-GHAZALI AS It is A MYSTIC 235 remarkable that while he founded a cloister Tus and taught and governed there himself during the closing years of his life. H. he left no established order behind him. Professor Macfor Sufis at donald thinks that in his time the movement to wards continuous corporations and brotherhoods had not yet begun. In expounding the tradition of the Seventy veiled finds Thousand Veils with which Allah had self from the vision of man. popular among the Dervish orders of to-day. methods of devotion. according as they more or less . 456) we already find a list of the various schools of Dervishes and their peculiar ing.. We borrow from this interesting and scholarly paper two paragraphs to illustrate the method of Al-Ghaspecial study has s A esoteric zali: &quot.Anwar. thickly veiled from the light i. is Al-Ghazali all s teach however. e. by Canon W. or less. for in the Kashf-al-Mahjub (A. in which he answers the critics of this work. H. But this is a mistake.

(a) . The recital which tells us that the Attainers (al-wasilun) have had the Sufi doc trine of kashf in its most explicit and striking closes with a short passage form. They have two main divisions. cause. These we might style the Egotists. (b) by dark and light mixed. is not definitely said to be than the first). are those who deny the existence of Allah and of a Last Day.236 A MOSLEM SEEKEE AFTEE GOD conceived of as twofold in character. It is curious that nothing further is said of their evil conduct. . those who have inquired for a cause to account for the world and have made Nature that cause and those who have made no such inquiry. they are ranged in ascending order into (1) seekers of sensual pleasure. The former are clearly the Naturists or dahriya who were the very abomination of desolation to &quot. (4) lovers of vain-glory. or in fact to think of anything except their vile selves. or (c) by light veils only. (3) money-grubbers. Ghazali. light veils and dark veils. and the principle of graduation is ac cording as the followers of these religions and sects are veiled (a) by dark veils. composed of those who are higher too greedy and selfish so much as to look for a (which. (2) seekers of dominion. Those veiled by pure darkness. called here the mulhida. and it is entirely characteristic of mediaeval thought that the deepest damnation is thus reserved for false opinion. Evil doers form the second division however. rather than for evil life.

beauty. which the human mind is deluded into making by the gross and limited ele ments in its own constitution. their veils are the veils of the bestial attributes. while those of the second are the ferocious ones (saba iya). The denotation of the latter class is quaintly given as Arabs. majesty. because they fix upon some one aspect or attribute of deity. The light veils. the dark veils are shown to be the false section conceptions of deity. etc. and so forth. and be lieving it to be all in all proceed to deify all ma jestic. the Phantasy or Imagina and the Discursive Reason. as well as the philosophers of sensualism.AL-GHAZALI AS In the first A MYSTIC 237 he has the ordinary sensual herd in view.. are the true but partial intuitions whereby man rises to the idea himself. Thus they half re- . for comment. things. namely (in ascend do not call tion ing order) by the Senses. The third and fourth subdivi sions &quot. some Kurds and very numerous Fools. or to a something at least higher than These intuitions are no more than partial. from these regions of unmitigated Mounting darkness we come to (&). beautiful. of deity. accordingly. without a thought of deity. Ghazali s idea of the dark veils in general may be gathered from a com In this parison of this and the previous section. those veiled by light and darkness mixed. The dark veils of the previous section were the unmitigated ego tism and materialism which employed these facul ties for self and the world alone.

Al-Ghazali s Problem. Allah. 111 article.&quot. the Apostle.&quot. and finds that a wonderful palace has been built for the king in Paradise with the Alms Der Islam. Abu Talib takes over the dialogue in the Gospel eschatology be tween the Saviour and those who are taunted with having seen Him hungry and refused Him food. and Not for the least of these his Moslem brother. only for the questioner he substitutes Allah. In the Acts of Thomas. is especially true in s Abu Talib. Commonplaces which are found in Christian homiletic works re appear with little or no alteration in the Sufi ser mons. Sometimes the matter is taken over bodily. when employed by a king to build a palace. H. half conceal. literally veils * veal. Al-Ghazali favourite writer on this subject. T. face to face. by Canon .238 A MOSLEM SEEKEE AFTEE GOD and so are St. a few of the Beatitudes are taken over sometimes with the name of their author. light. &quot.&quot. Band V. Does not this remind us of ? Paul s words: Now we see through (in) a glass darkly but then etc. of &quot.&quot. Did Al-Ghazali borrow from the Gospel here also ? It others that has been pointed out by Margoliouth and Mohammedan Sufism is largely based teaching. Gairdner. on Christian the case of This &quot. thus the Parable of the Sower is told by the earliest Sufi writer. spends the in charity to the poor. money Presently the king s brother dies. Heft 2/3 Mishkat Al-Anwar and the Ghazali W.

and in this he follows the Absorption in God during prayer was their ideal. = Not only in Qut-ul-Qulub. Al-Ghazali prescribed forms for morning and evening prayer which do not differ greatly from the prayers recommended in Christian manuals of de votion. salat told their women. but in all Al-Ghazali s famous book of works we have to the Gospels numerous quotations and references apocryphal or genuine. 143-144. he continued praying. To avoid distrac tion men were advised to pray towards a blank teaching of the older Sufis.AL-GHAZALI AS A MYSTIC 239 which Thomas bestowed in his name.folk as much as they liked that they might chatter and even beat drums. he asked. the Abu Talib.&quot. Others boasted that they could attain to absorption under any circumstances. pp. This story reappears in the doctrine of Abu Talib that when a poor man takes charity from the wealthy. how ing his salat in fell. . spiritualize the His teaching on prayer is an effort to ceremony. Development of Mohammedanism. wall. prayer to hear. and when after he had finished the people congratulated him on his Great names were escape. as we shall see later. they in were too much absorbed ever loud the noise. There were saints who when they started their &quot. what from? 1 &quot. one of them was say the Mosque of Basrah a column When bringing down with it an erection of four storeys. lest tract their any architectural ornament might dis attention. he is thereby building him a house in Paradise.&quot.

And your God and will be returned to on the great day of judgment. occasioned and how may how they are be secured. Prayer. says he.&quot. quotes with approval a saying of Mohammed True prayer is to make one s self meek and and adds that the presence of the heart the soul of true prayer and that absent-minded ness destroys all its value. &quot. is a nearness to King of God and a gift which we present kings even as one who comes from it to the a dis tant village brings gift is accepted of before the ruler. fear. is &quot. * &quot. Al-Ghazali. believed in reverence and emphasized outward and inward preparation for this act of devotion. however.&quot. and a sense of shame. We secure the presence of our hearts by a deep sense of the eternal. True prayer.240 A MOSLEM SEEKER AFTER GOD quoted for the practice of praying hastily. hope. so that you are you responsible to present it as beautiful as possible. by remembering our shortcomings in . Our sense of shame is quick ened. and so shortening the time taken by the devotion as to give Satan no chance of distracting the thoughts. magnifying God. consists of six things: the presence of the heart. humble. What he says in regard to God s greatness may well be compared with such passages as the eighth Psalm. mindful of him ? &quot. he says. : He &quot. He then treats successively these elements of true prayer. &quot.&quot.&quot.&quot. he continues. understanding. showing in what they they consist. What is man that Thou art &quot.

himself. also worth turning away of your out quoting. . &quot. . within. . of the heart is still more important. required of you? Nothing else is required of you in prayer than this. so that I would say the face of your heart must turn with the face of your body. is as a devouring lion. When you stand up to pray. he says. is What he says about the true kibla &quot. Be clear of hypocrisy in Do not follow those who profess to wor prayer.AL-GHAZALI AS A MYSTIC 241 worship. and even as no one is able to face the house of God save by turning away from every other direction. so the heart does not truly turn towards God save by being separated from every thing else than &quot. ship the face of God and at the same time seek the he is Flee praise of men.&quot. re member the day when you must stand before God s throne and be judged. for can any one who a lion or an enemy who would devour pursued by How . The only way we can secure the presence of the heart in prayer is by drawing oun thoughts away from outward diversions and from those should not pray in the public streets. It is the that the turning aside of your heart things to the consideration of God from all other Most High is It certainly is.&quot. ward gaze from everything save the direction of Do you not then think the holy house of God. If we can pray for there our mind is diverted. We towards a dead wall on which there is nothing to But the inward withdrawal see it will be helpful. from the devil.

which are the lurking place of Satan and the abomination of the Merciful. for God is supremely good and He will only take the best. alms to the right persons.&quot. * &quot. the gift must not be spoken of as great. And when you give the final who sit on your In the giving of alms he says seven things are this connection required: promptness. the righteous. I take refuge with God from them in this castle or in this fort/ and still linger without entering the fort? Surely this will not The only way to secure protection is profit him. In like manner whoever fol to change his place. gives a long spiritual interpretation of the &quot.&quot.At the conclusion of fatihah which is beautiful. salaams remember the two angels shoulders. the mere say lows his I take refuge in God will not profit.242 A MOSLEM SEEKEE AFTEE GOD him or kill him say. He your formal prayer. reign of the devil and not in the safe keeping of his Lord. lusts. and we must give our Of these he mentions six classes: the pious. secrecy. offer your humble petitions and thanksgivings and expect an answer and join in your petition your parents and the rest of true believers. he says. the deserving poor. our best is demanded. example (and in he quotes a Tradition ascribed to the Prophet about the left hand not knowing what the right hand doeth) absence of boasting or pride. Who soever takes his passions for a God he is under the ing. the learned. those in need because of sick- .

.A Mihrab or prayer-niche made of cedar wood and dat (Cairo Museum.) ing from the Eleventh Century.


He tells us we must regard eight things: the greatness of the revelation. and relatives. universal brotherhood in Islam. tians are outside the pale.&quot. The true reading is when the tongue and the ated. meditation. not twisting its meaning.AL-GHAZALI AS A MYSTIC 243 ness or family distress. ends at home. With him. There is no Jews and Chris the save as they have &quot. The greatest chapter of his opus doubtedly that on Repentance. mind and the heart are is associ The part of the tongue words is is clearly in chanting. It magnum is un may well be . to interpret the meaning. understanding the content of the passage. however. to translate it The The So to pronounce the part of the mind part of the heart that the tongue is chants and the mind interprets and the heart a preacher and a warner. must read the application to ourselves. Christians might well regard Al-Ghazali s mys tical method of reading the Koran in their perusal of the Scriptures. we mean not the reading but the following of the teaching. the need of a prepared heart. charity It is clear. from Al-Ghazali s teaching that only Moslems are intended in his classification of those who may receive the Zakat. for the movement of the tongue in pronouncing the words is of little value. into life. rights of neighbours. the majesty of the Speaker.&quot. we are to make lives. and finally we it so that its effect may show in our By the word Koran. he &quot. says.

al &quot. I was accus- . no one can doubt.&quot. &quot. That Al-Ghazali himself had a deep sense of sin. Truly a faintness comes over my heart until I ask God forgiveness every day one hundred times/ And said the Prophet (on i him be peace). or as the numbers of the leaves on the trees or the days of the world/ And said the Prophet of God (upon him be peace). who &quot. He was not a Pharisee but an earnest He teaches clearly that all the al prophets. of (upon him be peace) Verily. and I repent of times. * Whosoever says when he goes to sleep. the Prophet of God. God will forgive him his though they were as the foam of the seas or its sands piled up. than other.&quot. One of the most important passages is that in which he speaks of the benefit of asking pardon. so says Al-Ghazali. the living.244 A MOSLEM SEEKEE AFTEE GOD fifty-first compared with the Psalm or the seventh chapter of St. I whom there is no my sins three sins even ask forgiveness of the Great God. &quot. were sinners. We have for though God had already testified. said. I ask forgiveness God and repent towards Him every day seventy : times/ He said this. seeker after God. Paul s Epistle to the Romans. including Mohammed. though he nowhere mentions any sinfulness in Jesus Christ. It reads as follows: Said Mohammed the Prophet &quot. Said given thee. Whosoever says that word I will forgive his sins Al-Ghazali relates though he deserts the army/ a story of one Hudhifa. thy former and thy latter sins.

O. I am afraid lest my tongue should cause me to enter the fire. and what I have hidden and what I have revealed and what Thou knowest better than I do. and then the Prophet of God (upon whom I be peace) said. tells this about Mohammed and his need for forgiveness. And was ness the Apostle of God (upon whom be peace) accustomed to say when he asked for forgive : O God. and what Thou knowest better than I do. forgive me that which I have committed in the past and that which I will commit in the future. forgive me my my mistakes and my and all that I have done. compared with me. forgive my sin and my ignorance and my excess in what I have done. wrong intentions &quot. O God. Where art thou in asking for forgiveness ask forgiveness of God times/ And Ayesha said &quot.AL-GHAZALI AS tomed to speak sharply to A MYSTIC and I said. 1 he naturally deals with repentance in no superficial fashion but as one &quot. Apostle of God. concerning the Prophet. turning away from it and asking forgiveness. Thou who art * the first and the last and Thou art the Almighty/ How different all this is from the present day trifling and my earnestness.&quot. for every day one hundred (may God favour). 245 my wife. O God. superficial teaching about the sinlessness of Mo hammed which is Since Al-Ghazali current in popular Islam.&quot. If you have committed a sin ask forgiveness of God and repent to Him. chapter on Repentance. who Ihya. for true repentance for a sin is give her His He said to me. .

God loves those who repent and loves those who are puri The context is in relation to the infamous statement Your wives are your tillage. although he does not speak on the text quote St. (4) Of what a man pentance should (5) repent. the character of sm. 1 are a terrible indictment of the Prophet. &quot.246 A MOSLEM SEEKEE AFTEE GOD has tasted the bitterness of remorse and has dis covered his own inability to meet the demands of the Moral Law. says the necessity of repentance always and for all men is evident because no one of the human He For even though in some from outward sin of his bodily members. (8) How become truly One can only give a summary of his teaching. (3) True re (2) The necessity for repentance. commentators interpret as a license for immorality. expected by God. How small sins become great. Verily. . or of coming short of the knowledge of God and His race is free is from free &quot. though free from passion he is not free from the whisperings of Satan and forgetfulness of God. In fact in some cases his proof texts. when we consider the context. penitent.. &quot. sin. its pentance. cases he fied. namely. (7) The to degree of repentance. His book on repentance has the following sections: (1) The reality of repentance. he is not free from sin of the heart.&quot. One of the texts he uses is (Surah 2.&quot.all No wonder that Al-Ghazali was led in this connection to begin to have sinned&quot. Paul s first chapter to the Romans. verse 222). which many Moslem &quot. conditions and its (6) Perfect re duration. He rises far above the Koran. 1 etc.

Another as illustration he uses that of the heart a goodly garment which has been dragged through filth and needs to be washed again with soap and water. All this if a failure of attainment and has its reasons. and the significance of re You cannot imagine that pentance is the return.&quot. but it effect that enters deeper and deeper into the heart until the image of God on the is mirror of the human soul is effaced. he teaches that the result of the forgiveness of our sins is that &quot. Paul! Did Al-Ghazali ever hear some our pious Jew quote Isaiah s statement that far &quot. any one of us in us. but a man should forsake the causes of this forgetfulness and employ himself with the opposite virtues it would be a re turn to the right way.AL-GHAZALI AS attributes A MYSTIC is 247 and His works.&quot. but the root only undoubtedly exists sin. Although he does not touch the deeper problem of how God can be just and justify the sinner. It is for you to rub it rubbing clean and then God will accept How near and fore it wash in the it. ? True repentance has a twofold result according Moslem theologian.we stand . We water of tears and by the of repentance. is free from this defect. for differ in degrees. must there &quot. but he makes a great deal of the unrepented sin causes. we Of course he ignores original being a Moslem. Using the heart in the exercise of our passions makes it filthy.all how righteousnesses are as filthy rags to this &quot. from the teaching of David and Isaiah yet and St.

and when soever you remember Him He is sitting beside you. when you are asleep or when you are awake. Morals&quot.&quot. is the missing link in Al-Ghazali s we The He comes very close to Christianity and He is yet always misses the heart of its teaching.Know. for God hath said. In his &quot. is your Lord and Master. and that &quot. I am the close com panion of those who remember me/ And when ever your heart is contrite with sorrow because of your companion who keeps close to you. I forsake men for His sake. For God Himself hath said. cross of Christ creed. I am with therefore. God &quot. It is all a righteousness by works and an attainment of the knowledge of God by meditation without justifica tion through an atonement. all unable to do this at warn you But as you are that you .248 before A MOSLEM SEEKEE AFTEE GOD God as though we had none. the Presence of is very much like that of Brother Lawrence in his celebrated Essay.&quot. whether you are dead or alive.Beginner s Guide to Religion and &quot. your Creator and Preserver. that your deserts you at home or your neglect of religion those He is who if are broken-hearted on And Him you only knew you would take all my account. Him as you ought to know Him as a companion and times. attain a higher degree of righteousness. Yet Al-Ghazali s teaching on the Practice of &quot. (Al Badayet) he writes: companion who never abroad. towards the light but does not grasp the groping hand of a friend or find a Redeemer.

Which the King of Kings. like a parched scroll. &quot.&quot.: that of women when J their eyes swim and p. I should lightly hold this tissued fold . of the veils At times. especially when he speaks that hide reality and God. The hoped-for Vision of God was always full of fear and dread The fear of God was the beginning of judgment. 41. By from the following passage Revival of Religious Sciences the fear of God I do not mean a fear like is God clear &quot. as in truth they be. And without a screen at one burst be seen in The Presence which I have always s been. minded of the of Whitehead on &quot. O er But the dreadfulness of eternal things.Al-Badajet. . of Creation : I gaze aloof at the tissued roof Where time and space are the warp and woof. and end of wisdom. With its marvellous curtain of blue and gold For soon the whole. Shall before my amazed eyes unroll. the Second Day &quot. their &quot. like a curtain flings. Cairo Edition. The glories that encircle me. What he understood by the fear of taken from the &quot. if I could see. But Al-Ghazali did not know God nearness through the Incarnation of Christ.&quot. we are re lines &quot.AL-GHAZATI AS set aside A MYSTIC 249 a certain time by night and by day for communion with your Creator that you may de light yourself in Him and that He may deliver you from * evil.&quot.

&quot.&quot. Included with his fear of God there was always a fear of death which can best be described as mediaeval or early Moslem. his life he composed a short &quot. thee from the terrors of His judgment unless thou really take refuge in Him. God the shallow fear of women and fools. no less lurid in its terrible pictures of death than some of his older works. He who to frivolity. know that he is damned. that his lips are contracted. while there a fortress at no great distance away. fears a thing flees from it.250 A MOSLEM SEEKER AFTER GOD hearts beat at hearing some eloquent religious dis course. Satan man who is laughs at such pious ejaculations. and the only fear that will save thee is and instils that fear that forbids sinning against Beware of obedience to Him. and he who hopes for a thing strives for it. which they quickly forget and turn again That is no real fear at all. should stand exclaim I take refuge in God/ God will not protect ing.When and the judgment In it he says: see that the saliva has run you watch a dead man and from his mouth. his face black. who. They are like a should meet a lion in a desert. and when he sees the ravenous beast. say lightly. when they * hear of the terrors of the Lord. We take refuge in God/ and at the same time continue in the very sins which will destroy them. &quot. the whites of his eyes showing. Towards the close of work on eschatology It is called The Precious Pearl. and that the fact of his damnation in the other world has just .

and their good and is evil deeds weighed.As St. is During only one with all this time each man believes he dealing. &quot. . . and Descartes in self-conscious ness. Augustine found de liverance from doubt and error in his inward ex perience of God. his eyes half -closed. surrenders himself to the will of God. the whom God Though peradventure at the same moment God is taking account of countless multitudes whose number is known to Him only. In the Middle Ages his fame was eclipsed by that of Averroes. he finds God revealed in the depths of his own conscious ness and the mystery of his own free will.On . He is a unique and lonely figure in Islam. the day of Judgment. But if you see the dead with a smile on his lips. to this day been only partially understood. a serene countenance. Leaving others to demonstrate the existence of God from the external world.AL-GHAZALI AS A MYSTIC 251 been revealed to him. In summing up the character of the Mystic Claud Field says: &quot. unsatisfied with speculation and troubled by scepticism. know that he has just received the good news of the happiness which awaits him in the other world. . so Ghazali. whose commentary on Aristotle is al luded to by Dante. when all men are gath ered before the throne of God. Averroes Thomas system . and has . their accounts are all cast up. Men do not see each other or hear each other speak. . and was studied by Aquinas and the schoolman.&quot.

and that is why progress in mere worldly knowledge renders the sinner more hardened in his True knowledge. him sympathizing with his religious earnestness. Educated Moslems of to-day may well heed the Con warning with which Al-Ghazali closes his The knowledge of which we speak is fessions not derived from sources accessible to human dili gence. of those was rounded and complete. defense between him and stumble. : trary.252 A MOSLEM SEEKER AFTER GOD . on the con revolt against God. and raises a barrier of sin. and we may hope that when his works are carefully studied and com pared with the teaching of Christianity many may find in him a schoolmaster to lead them to Christ. Renan. though far from tained. &quot. true. I pray God the Omnipotent to place us in the ranks of His chosen. encom but these slips and The true Mos lem succumbs occasionally to temptation but he repents and will not persevere obstinately in the path of error. but Ghazali was one he whose reach exceeds their grasp was always striking after something he had not at and stands in many respects nearer to mod ern mind than Averroes. calls the most original mind among Arabian philosophers/ The disciple of Al-Ghazali is perhaps of all Mos lems the nearest to the Gospel. stumbles will not weaken his faith. as is He may slip inevitable with one passed by human infirmity. &quot. among the number . inspires in him who is initiated in it more and fear and more it is reverence. &quot.

admits that no man has seen God at any time.&quot. in Christ Those who dwell (Colossians 1: 15-17.&quot. . or principalities. or powers . but . To such Al-Ghazali a conception the Sufi never attained. in Him are all things. whether they be thrones.) and in whom He dwells are a part of His spiritual body. there what would have met his heart-hunger and satisfied his soul the manifestation of God not in intangible principle. that nothing may remain whom He in them except Himself . Al-Ghazali was either too proud to search for the true historical facts of the Christian religion. Otherwise he could have found &quot. al remain conscious evermore of their though they own individual existence they are fitted progress living Vine. in is the image of the invisible Jesus Christ.&quot. that they may adore none beside Him. who the first born of every creature. visible and invisible. and by Him all things con sist. &quot. in whom He inspires fervour lest they forget Him. For by Him God.AL-GHAZALI AS A MYSTIC of those 253 whom He directs in the path of safety. ively for a deeper communion with God. and that are in earth. but in a living person. in spite of his quotations and misquotations from the Gospels. or perhaps it would be more charitable to say that he had no adequate oppor tunity. yea of those indwells completely. They are the branches of the They are one in life and purpose. Being a Moslem. whom He cleanses from all defilement. some were all things created that are in heaven. or dominions.

&quot. hath declared Him. as the next chapter will make clear. . &quot. as for centuries afterwards. the Father. hid the light of the knowl edge of the glory of God in the face of Jesus Christ.254 A MOSLEM SEEKEE AFTER GOD realize that he failed to is in the bosom of the Only Begotten. Yet not altogether. Who The artificial glory of Mohammed in his case.

Jesus Christ in Al-Ghazali

Jesus, the very thought of

breast ;
to see,

With sweetness fills my But sweeter far Thy face







Nor voice can sing, nor heart can Nor can the memory find,
sweeter sound than






Saviour of mankind

O hope of every contrite heart O joy of all the meek






how kind Thou



How good to those who seek
But what

to those who find ? Ah this Nor tongue nor pen can show The love of Jesus what it is None but His loved ones know.


-Bernard of Clalrvaux rary (1091-1152).

almost a contempo


is the Touch-Stone of char Master of all spiritual leaders and the one supreme and infallible Judge who can pronounce an unerring verdict concerning the



acter, the

What truth of any religious system or teaching. place has Jesus in the teaching of the greatest of
all Moslem theologians, what place had He in the heart of this great mystic, this seeker after God,

who, whatever
the Koran,



may have




sincere in his search

Al-Ghazali, as a student of
that in this

must have noticed


Christ occupies a high place; no fewer than three of the chapters of the Koran, namely, that of

Family (Surah III), that of The Table (Surah V), and that of Mary (Surah XIX), de rive their names from references to Jesus Christ and His work. The very fact that Jesus Christ
has a place in the literature of Islam, and is acknowledged by all Moslems as one of their
greater prophets in itself therefore challenges

Amram s


parison between


and Mohammed.

Did Al-


It is

Ghazali ever meet this challenge and in did he compare Mohammed with Christ ?



purpose in this chapter to answer the question by
collating all the important references in the Ihya and his other works and then to draw some con

clusions both as to his sources

and his opinions.

The reader may judge

for himself


far Alto

a schoolmaster to




search in vain




works for a

sketch of the life of Christ or of His teaching, Al-Ghazali doubtless had read and was probably
well acquainted with the only popular

work known

which gives a connected account of the
Jesus Christ according to



sources, namely, qusus al Anbiya by Ibn Ibrahim AthTha labi, a doctor of theology of the Shafi School,


who died in A. H. 427 (A. D. 1036). The fabulous character of this mass of traditions has been shown
in a translation of the section

which deals with

Al-Ghazali does not give altogether the same stories as are given by Ath-Tha labi but
Jesus Christ.
gives a great

number of other


and re

ported sayings, many of which resemble those found in the Gospels and others which are wholly


gain this

question again arises where did Al-Ghazali knowledge of the Gospel ? Did he have

access to a Persian or Arabic translation; or






all this


material which

we have

collated, the result

of hearsay, gathered from the lips of Christian monks and Jewish rabbis ? It is perfectly clear that

he was acquainted with Old Testament tradition even more than with that of the New Testament.

There are scores of passages in which he refers to the teachings of Moses, the Psalms of David, and the lives of the Old Testament Prophets. We have
already referred to translations of the Bible into Arabic before the time of Al-Ghazali in our first

There is a tradition that chapter. the Book used to read the Torah in


the People of

Hebrew and


Arabic to the followers of


Ka ab the Rabbi Another tradition says that a book to Omar the Caliph and said, Here brought We learn from the Jew is the Torah, read it. that "The fihrist of al-Nadim ish Encyclopaedia

mentions an




Allah ibn Salam


translated the Bible into Arabic, at the time of


ar-Rashid, and that Fahr ud-Din ar-Rasi

mentions a translation of Habbakuk by the son of Rabban At-Tabari. Many of the Arabic His
torians as At-Tabari,

Mas udi, Hamza, and


passages and recount the early history of the Jews in a most circumstantial manner. Ibn Kutaibah, the historian (d. 889), says that he read

and he even made a collection of Biblical passages in a work which has been preserved by
the Bible

Ibn Jauzi of the twelfth





Goldziher, in


Z. D.







portant Arabic translation

that of

in its


influence of this translation

Sa adia Gaon was


as great as that of




was made by Hafiz aland from internal evi dence we know that the author had been Christian. Another translation of the Old Testament in Arabic was made by the Jews in Cairo in the middle of
version of the Psalms


Quti in the tenth century

The translation of Sa adia had become a standard work in Egypt, Palestine and Syria, by the end of the tenth century, and it 1 was revised about A. D. 1070. As regards Persian translations of the Bible we learn from the Jewish
the eleventh century.

Encyclopaedia that according to Maimonides, the Pentateuch was translated into Persian many hun

But this years previous to Mohammed. statement cannot be further substantiated. In re

gard to Arabic versions of the Gospels we have
already given Dr. Kilgour s statement. Is it not probable that one or other of these
versions of the Gospel was known to Al-Ghazali? I have read in the Does he not himself state:




Not only does he reproduce

the stories

and sayings of Christ from the Gospels but in some cases, as the reader will see, the very words of the
It is true that there is much apocryphal matter also of which the canonical Gospels know




are in ignorance and

we must




Bible Versions.

23. the devils woman I is has ever given birth before to a child in this case/ when that was not present except And why men now p. espe the Ihya as given by Michael Asin et Palacios in et Logia Patrologia Orientalis. Paris 1917. He it replied: The word &quot.) his Jesus one day was pillowing head on a stone. &quot. Ill. after you/ (Vol. Ill. p. or did he invent it even as the men of his day invented stories about Mohammed? In the Ihya we find the following incidents. 26. curse him) appeared to there is no God but God/ true but I will not repeat &quot.) Again: It is related that came to Satan and said: All the idols have fallen on He said: This has happened on your their faces/ account/ Then he flew until he reached the regions of the earth. So he returned to the devils and said to them: No Truly a Prophet was born yesterday. is said Ghazali s witness to His sinlessness: &quot.. real and apocryphal. regarding the life of Christ on 1 We begin with Alearth as a prophet and saint. and the devil passed by and It is related that After completing this research I found a fuller account of all cially references to Jesus Christ in Moslem Literature. when Jesus was born. etc. there he found Jesus had been born and the angels were protecting him. Agrapha Domini Jesus apud Moslemicos.JESUS CHRIST IN AL-GHAZALI main in ignorance 261 this whence Al-Ghazali derived material. .It that the devil (may God Say is Jesus and said. in Tome XIII fascicule 3. despair of worshipping idols/ (Vol.

Son of Mary. Jesus the Prophet was of those who were espe one. But these titles mean little because he endorses the . p. Spirit of God. (Vol. for he Peace be on day and I shall die me the day I was born and the and the day I shall be raised up was because of his peace of alive/ And this mind his loving kindness towards men. We to Jesus : : Who No gave you your education ? He But I beheld the ignorance of replied the foolish despicable and so I departed from it. p. Among that he called said : down the proofs of it is this peace upon himself. 26. and I have never seen them used elsewhere as an argument for the superiority of Christ to John. of God. who said: Peace be upon him the day he was born and the day he died This is an in and the day he was raised again/ critical comment on the two passages re teresting ferred to.) of His youth in Nazareth: Some one said days &quot. &quot. namely.262 said : A MOSLEM SEEKEE AFTEE GOD O Jesus. Prophet and Apostle. him and said: Take it and the world. IV.) Al-Ghazali gives Jesus the usual in the titles given Him Word latter Koran. he took the place of awe and fear towards God and did not utter these words until after they were re peated to him by his Creator. cially favoured. find this reference to the (Vol. But as for John the son of Zachariah (on him be peace). now you have ! shown your love for the world it threw at Then Jesus picked up the stone. Ill. which occur in the same chapter of the Koran. 245.

that . says: It is related that . Joshua. 83-86). Mary. And : behold an old man came to him and Jesus said Call God bless you.) The following story seems to be based on the in &quot. Solo mon. Aaron. Moses. Shu aib. anything is brought to even thinking what it me is. Ill.Al-Iqtasad &quot. a loaf of bread appeared between his hands. Al-Ghazali Jesus (on him be peace) for sixty days without eating. Zachariah. basing In his Jazvahir ul-Koran he even (pp. Jesus. ment to prove to the it a prophet. engaged in remained prayer then he began to think of bread and behold &quot. if departed/ thou knowest any occasion when the thought of bread entered my head when I was praying do not forgive thought of bread until Then the old man prayed: my prayer O me ! Then he said to Jesus : When without p. John.JESUS CHEIST IN AL-GHAZALI strange less 263 Moslem theory that there have been no than 124. Abraham.000 prophets since the world began. to eat I eat &quot. classes Jews that Jesus was indeed upon his teaching and miracles Mary the Virgin with the prophets and gives the list of these worthies in the following curious order: Adam. O I servant of God. upon God Most High. 61. Khudra. Lot. Noah. he devotes a long argu In his book &quot. Idris. junction of the Gospel to pluck out the eye &quot. it (Vol. for I too was in a sad condition and God. and Mohammed! Regarding the fasting of our Lord. Elijah. David. then he sat weeping because he had forgotten his prayers.

I Have you any sin? He do not know of any except By God. Said the disciples to Jesus: working Christ: What do you think of the ^war-piece (money) ? They said: We think it is good/ He said: But as for me I value it and ashes the same/ (Vol.&quot.) robber waylaid travellers among the children of Jesus passed by that way and behind him walked a saint of the worshippers of the people of Israel.264 A MOSLEM SEEKER AFTER GOD &quot. upon God that I may Then the man prayed 217.It is related that a certain (Vol. Then Jesus believe in said to him.) &quot. p. . Said Israel for forty years.) (Vol. he Had he still more striven * would have walked on the air/ : * &quot. II. replied: that one day when I was praying a woman passed by me and I looked upon her with this eye and when she had passed I put my finger in my eye and plucked it out and followed her to ask her pardon. 161. was said to him be peace) used Jesus (upon Ill. one of his disciples. He replied after holiness. offends: It is related of Jesus (on him be peace) that he once went out to pray for rain and when the people gathered together Jesus said to them. p. And Jesus said unto him. p. IV. Whosoever of you hath committed a sin let him no one turn back/ so they all turned away and there was left in the cave with him save one. Call your sincerity/ and the heavens were covered with clouds and the rain poured down. 71. The following stories are related of the miracle&quot.It the Prophet that to walk upon the water.

He show tried to his humility then goes on to say that the robber by following not Christ &quot. I am better than those in whose heart God has not put anything of knowledge and his grace/ You have spoken truly. accompanied Jesus and worshipped with (Vol.&quot. but his disciple. for Christ as the Merciful One ap We peals to Moslems always and everywhere. So he him.) Al-Ghazali often pictures the power of Jesus to heal the sick. and he was saying: Praise be to God who has good health and saved me from many things which have befallen others of his creatures/ Then Jesus said to him: O thou friend. IV.) that Jesus (on him be peace) passed by a blind man who was a leper and lame of both feet because of paralysis and his flesh was consumed by leprosy. p. (Vol. from what kind of affliction do I see that you are free ? and kept me in he replied: his O Spirit of God. had taken away all his sickness. p. . IV. have for example in the Masnavi-i-Ma anavi this beautiful picture which can be found in prose.JESUS CHEIST IN AL-GHAZALI the robber to himself: 265 This is the Prophet of with him one of his dis God who passes by and If I should come down I would be the ciples. third. Jesus rebukes them both because It is related of their sins. section by section in Al-Ghazali too. 110. 250. and he stretched forth fect health And Jesus said: Stretch forth your hand/ for God his hand and became of per both as to his body and his appearance.

Straightway rush in joy and delight to the haltingplace So did they run upon their feet at his command. Acknowledge the mercy and beneficence of God Then all. troop by troop. As soon had finished his orisons. To the door of the house of Tsa at dawn. so they ate two and one remained. He The spoke to them. Sitting at his door in hope and expectation as he . That with his breath he might heal their ailments. That holy one would come forth at the third hour. Many blind and lame. ! When you loose their feet in the road. quit not this door ! From all sides the people ever thronged.266 &quot. Then Jesus arose and went to the river to drink their meal. down and took Now and returning did not find the remaining He said to the I man: not.&quot. desires of all O stricken ones ! of you have been granted by God: Arise. Many the I of the miracles. are puerile.A in this story: certain man accompanied Jesus Son of Mary (upon him be peace) and said: would like to be with you as your companion/ at the So they departed and arrived and sat bank of a river they had three loaves. loaf. as &quot. Ho ! afflicted one. Who took the loaf? He replied: know So he departed with his . saying. however. A MOSLEM SEEKER AFTER GOD Isa The house of was the banquet of men of heart. as camels whose feet are shackled. walk without pain or affliction. and halt and afflicted. He viewed these impotent folk.

188. Ill. Then he said to the young gazelle God s will/ and it arose and departed. Jesus with his disciples once Said the disciples: passed the carcase of a dog. How noisome is the smell of this dog/ Said !t is related that . It is related of Jesus that once a pig passed by it: him and he to said to him: O He Spirit of God. this miracle before who took the loaf He answered: know not/ whom sion! So they departed to a cave and Jesus (upon be peace) began to collect the pebbles on the Become bread by God s permis and they became bread. replied: I accustom p. up by he turned to the * : Get And your man and ? said : I ask you in the I name of Him who worked eyes. then he divided them into three parts and said A third is for me. Go in peace/ They said why do you say this to dislike to a pig/ &quot.JESUS CHEIST IN AL-GHAZALI 267 companion and saw a gazelle with her two young. Ill.) depart from me/ sand and said: : &quot. a third is for you and a third is for the man who took the loaf/ and the man said: I am he who took the loaf/ Jesus replied: Take all of it and This story (Vol. and Jesus called one of them and it came to him and he killed it and prepared it and they ate to gether. my 87. on greed and covetousness to show that he who loves this world cannot be a companion of the saints That Jesus was gentle in word and conduct seems to be the lesson taught in the following two stories: is related by Al-Ghazali in his chapter ! &quot.) tongue to use any evil words/ (Vol. p.

) ud Din in poetic form: given by Jallal &quot. held his nose. And found Revolting sight! at which each face a poor dead dog beside the gutter laid its hate be : One trayed. one turned away. 150. When in the square remote a crowd was seen to rise And stop with loathing gestures and abhorring cries. One evening Jesus lingered in the market-place.&quot. And all among themselves began aloud to say. . Teaching the people parables of truth and grace. as How if beautiful is the he wanted to rebuke them for abusing the dog and to warn them not to mention anything of what God has created save at This incident is its best. (Vol. The Master and His meek disciples went to see What cause for this commotion and disgust could be. Detested creature he pollutes the earth and air His His ears are foul His eyes are bleared ! ! ! ! ribs are bare ! In his torn hide there left! is not a decent shoe-string No doubt the execrable cur was hung for theft Then Jesus spake and dropped on him this saving ! breath : Even pearls are dark before the whiteness of his teeth! &quot.268 A MOSLEM SEEKEE AFTEK GOD : Jesus (on him be peace) shine of his white teeth. Ill. one shut his eyes. p.

p. p. : It is related that in his wanderings . And Jesus was accustomed to say. go to sleep and after wards return to his work. other man combing his beard with his fingers so he threw away his comb and did not use it again. Adam It ! In another writes: was said to Jesus: If possession of a house and live better for you/ and he said connection he you would take there it would be : Where &quot. humility and homelessness of the Precious Pearl Christ taken from Al-Ghazali s &quot. so he cast away He saw an the cruse and did not use it again. and my dwelling-place among the legs. &quot.: Consider Jesus Christ. In this case He makes an old man cease from his work of cleaning the ground. poverty.) is story that Christ A related (Vol. Ill. My steed is my * and my houses are the caves of the earth. and my drink is from its rivers.JESUS CHRIST IN AL-GHAZALI 269 forth We add the following quotations which set the &quot. IV. for it is related of him that he owned nothing save one garment of wool which he wore for twenty years and that he took nothing with him on all his wanderings save a cruse and a One day he saw a man drink rosary and a comb. ing from a stream with his hands. are the houses of those Vol. sons of &quot. and my food are its vegetables. who lived before us? (Ihya. 326) to in the hearts of show knew what was men and could change their purposes by prayer to God. 140. Another story is as follows Jesus (upon him be peace) &quot.

who saw him and Sleep on then my beloved/ made him made me get up.) is not for the ascetic saint. O them that sleepSo he wakened him and said arise and make mention of God. wrapped up : passed by a est! in his garment. the world to its own/ &quot. IV.270 A MOSLEM SEEKEE AFTER GOD man asleep. He quotes the following prayer of Jesus (Vol. but he replied : arise but verily You have not God made me arise. * He does not wish me to delight in the shade by day/&quot. p. He re What do you want from me? I have for plied: saken &quot.) Do is not desire property/ possible/&quot. I have arisen from my sleep. p. Jesus replied: (Vol.Jesus was accustomed p. pleasures &quot. over me and let not my friends deal ill with me. &quot. And do not allow the world to . Then 114. IV. to say to God. 222): O God. let not mine enemies rejoice poor as I am. p. pledged myself to my work and there God. 163. And I have is no man so O and of let not my afflictions come to me in the matter my religion.) It is related concerning Jesus that he sat in the shade of a wall of a certain man. life s not be angry/ cease Do Said John to Jesus (on them be peace) I am not able to Jesus replied: : from anger altogether for said John: I am human/ Jesus Ill. and am not able to ward off that which I hate and am not able to possess the benefit of that which I desire and the matter rests in hands other than mine. The least of (Vol. 140. replied: That (Vol. I.

II. Namely. 210.) Most High said to Jesus (on him be peace).JESUS CHEIST IN AL-GHAZALI : 271 occupy my care and do not allow the unmerciful to overcome me. He asked whether they had died or been divorced all. IV. Though peace) that God spoke to him saying: serve me with the worship of the people of you heaven and earth and do not have love towards God in your heart but hatred toward &quot. lover of the world is like a man drinking sea-water. he said. . The desire you. p. and &quot.Jesus (on him be peace) said.) In the &quot.God enrich you at all. however. He asked her how many husbands she had possessed. till at last he perishes with thirst unquenched/ Al-Ghazali. that a true renunciation of the world is . who see them what you have done to others. ness&quot.Alchemy of Happi we &quot. she said that she had slain at the fools still I marvel. them love either for come I fill him with my in own him my safe-keeping. (Vol. Him it will not &quot. she replied that they were countless. * Verily when I look upon the secret thoughts of my this servant and do not find in world or the world to love and I put p.Jesus already found allusion to this subject: (upon him be peace) saw the world in the form of an ugly old hag. never seems to have the conclusion ful drawn from the life of Christ which a care study of the Gospel would have made possible. (Vol. the more he drinks. the more thirsty he gets. 258. O Thou Eternal It is related concerning Jesus (on him be ! &quot.



only possible in the service of others and not by

withdrawing from men. Mohammedan mysticism has always resulted in two evils, as Major Durie
It has dug a deep gulf be Osborn points out tween those who can know God and those who must wander in darkness, feeding upon the husks of rites and ceremonies. It has affirmed with em

phasis, that only

by a complete renunciation of the


is it


possible to attain the true end of man s Thus all the best and truest natures

men who might have put a soul in the decaying Church of Islam have been cut off from their proper task to wander about in deserts and solitary places, or expend their lives in idle and profitless
passivity disguised under the




has only been part templation/ (zikr) of the evil. The logical result of Pantheism is the destruction of the moral law. If God be all in all,


and man s apparent individuality a delusion of the perceptive faculty, there exists no will which can act, no conscience which can reprove and applaud.

Thousands of reckless and profligate have entered the orders of the dervishes spirits to enjoy the license thereby obtained. Their af


fectation of piety is simply a cloak for the practice of sensuality their emancipation from the ritual of Islam involves a liberation also from its moral re



thus a movement, animated at


outset by a high and lofty purpose, has degenerated into a fruitful source of ill. The stream which



have expanded into a fertilising river, has become a vast swamp, exhaling vapours charged with disease and death."

Regarding the teaching of Jesus we find the fol lowing passages in the Ihya. I have indicated the New Testament where pos parallel passages in the
according to
of them are taken from the Gospel Matthew, especially from the Sermon on the Mount. These are given first and then the


apocryphal sayings, for
logical order.

it is

difficult to

follow any

you when he is fasting let him anoint his head and wipe his lips that men may not say he is fasting; and if he gives alms with his right hand let not his left hand know; and if he prays let him put a curtain over his door,
Said Jesus:
If a

man come


for verily


divines his trouble even as



our daily food. (Vol. Ill, p. 203. ) Said Jesus (upon him be peace), Whosoever shall do and teach shall be called great in the King


of Heaven.



I, p.







Said Jesus, Do not hang pearls on the necks of swine ; for wisdom is better than pearls. (Vol. cf Matt. 7:6.) Said Jesus, How long I, p. 43



road to those who are and ye yourselves remain with those going astray
will ye describe the right



are perplexed.







23: 13.)




repeated in Vol.







Said Jesus,


stone which has fallen on the

teachers of evil are like a big mouth of a well so

that the water cannot reach the




I, p. 45; cf. Matt. 23: 13.) Said Jesus, How can that man belong to the people of wisdom who from the beginning of his


life until the



end looks only after the things of the (Vol. I, p. 46; cf. Matt. 6: 33.)

Again he makes God address Jesus as follows: Son of Mary, preach to yourself for if you preach to yourself you will be able to preach to man and if not fear him. (Vol. I, p. 47.) him be peace), Blessed are "Said Jesus (on those who humble themselves in this world, for they shall be the possessors of thrones on the day




of judgment.

Blessed are those

who make




in this world, for they shall inherit

Paradise on the day of resurrection.
they hold

Blessed are

who are poor in this world, for they shall be God Most High on the day of resurrection/

Matt. 5: 3-9.) Let me go with you on your wanderings/ He replied: Dispose of all that you have and follow me/ (Vol. IV, p. 170
(Vol. Ill,



Some one

said to Jesus:




57 and Matt. 19: 21.) sages are mixed.


Here two pas

Said Jesus (on him be peace), It has been told of ancient times: a tooth for a tooth and a nose for
a nose

but I say unto you, do not return evil for but whosoever strikes you on the right cheek,

turn to


him the left also; and whosoever desireth go with him a mile go with him twain; and you whosoever taketh away your cloak give him your
inner garment also.
5: 30-41.)

(Vol. IV, p. 52; cf. Matt. These verses seem to be fairly accu


though not without some con from some translation of the Sermon on the Mount.
rate quotations,

Said the disciples to Jesus (on him be peace),



mosque how beautiful

it is.




say unto you, God will not suffer a stone to remain upon a stone in it but he will destroy it because of

O my nation O my nation

In truth

the sins of


Truly God does not care for

gold and silver nor does he care for these stones at which ye marvel; but the things which God loves

most are pure hearts, with them God can build up the earth, and if they are not good they are


Vol. Ill,





24:2.) Said Jesus



not take the world for your

master, for she will

your treasures For he who lays up treasure in the earth fears that which will destroy them but he who has treasures

make you her slave. Lay up with him who will not lose them.

with God does not fear for anything that





And Jesus said (Matt. 6:9-21). of the Apostles, behold I have company

poured out the world upon the ground, therefore do not take hold of it again after me, for the evil of











of the world also

that the other world can

not be obtained without abandoning the present. Therefore pass through the world but do not build


that the root of

all sin is

the love of

the world and perchance the desire of an hour will cause those who follow it to lose the other world

He also said: I have cast the world altogether/ before you and ye have sat upon its back, do not
therefore suffer kings or women to dispute its pos As for kings, do not dispute session with you. with them for its possession, for they will not give

back to you.

selves against

And as for women, guard your them by prayer and fasting/ (Vol.

The love of this "Said 139.) Jesus: world and of the world to come cannot abide in the
same heart even as water and


cannot abide in


(Vol. Ill, p. 140.)

Said Jesus (on him be peace), O ye teachers of wickedness! Ye fast and pray and give alms and do not what ye command others and ye teach
that which ye do not understand.

How evil is that

do. Ye repent only with words but your deeds are without value. In vain do ye purify

which ye

your skins while your hearts are covered with evil. I say unto you, be not as the sieve from which the


flour passes out



that remains in



si f tings.

Thus ye make

the truth to pass out

of your mouths, but deceit remains in your hearts, servants of the world How can any one under-





stand the other world while his desires cling to ? Of a truth I say unto you that your hearts

weep because of your deeds. Ye have put the world upon your tongues and trampled upon good deeds. Of a truth I say unto you, ye have cor

rupted your future life, for ye are more in love with the good things of this world than of the good Which of the chil things of the world to come.

dren suffers greater loss than ye do,
be to you! the right way to those


only ye




long will ye describe

are in darkness and ye It is as yourselves remain in the place of doubt? if ye invite the children of the world to forsake its

pleasure in order to leave Woe be to you



for yourselves a little benefit is it to the

darkened house if the candle be put on its roof while the rooms of the house remain in darkness?
In the same


of knowledge

on your

ye will not be enriched if the light lips, while your hearts re

main in darkness. O ye servants of the world! what of your righteousness or your freedom? Perchance the world will pluck you up by the roots and cast you upon your faces and drag you in the dust. It will expose your sins upon your fore heads, then it will drive you before it until you are delivered up to the angel of judgment, every one of you naked. Then shall you be punished by your

(Vol. Ill,




Matt. 23:



not be anxious about the food of to-mor-

p. . 190. and draw near to God by departing from them. 330.&quot. with whom then shall we keep spirit * God by company ? with those He answered them : Keep company those who make you remember God and whose words improve your conduct and those whose example makes you earnest for the world to come/&quot. it does not sow nor reap nor &quot. p. 110. Seek the good will of O hating them/ They said to him: of God. 221.) (Vol. The &quot. II. for perhaps to-morrow will be your time of death.) of Jesus (on him be peace) that he said to the children of Israel: Where does It is related that which ye sow grow? good ground/ and he said: They replied: In the Verily I say unto you. IV. cf.Said Jesus (on wise who does not rejoice when he enters upon trials possessions &quot. 26:41. know that he has escaped cf.) Garden of Gethsemane. 5: 10.&quot. lay up store and God Most High provides for cf. IV.278 A MOSLEM SEEKER AFTEE GOD row. it. He is not &quot. (Vol. and sicknesses of the body and loss of his for in it he may find atonement for his . reference might be to Christ s words in the all tempta Matt. p. him be peace). cf. It is a young (Vol. Serve God by hating the people who transgress. tions. IV. p. Said Jesus (on him be peace). 205. 6: 34) Behold the bird. Matt. (Vol. Matt. sins/ &quot. &quot. (Vol. IV. p. 6: 26.) related of Jesus that he said: If you see man passionately fond of prayer to God you will &quot. Matt.

247. as Alsayings give other Ghazali himself does. &quot.) Said Jesus (on him be peace). &quot. Matt Said Jesus (on him be peace). 26: 38.Said that are humble and not in the heart of the proud/ &quot. Matt.) soil/&quot. We now &quot. 7: 15. &quot. cf. which this passage occurs is entitled (Vol. Ill. O make I light for you Is this terror. Matt. 279 is in the heart which (Vol. cf. &quot.JESUS CHEIST IN AL GHAZALI wisdom does not grow except good 1-9. For fear death in such a fashion that I stand afraid it of the same/ refers to the in possible that Al-Ghazali here agony in Gethsemane? IV. 240. in somewhat confused order. harvest does not grow on the mountain but in the Thus wisdom works in the heart of those plain. IV. 13: Truly the Jesus (on him be peace). Although not quotations or even misquotations from the Gospels. p. namely.) Said Jesus (on him be peace). p. company of call upon God Most High that he may disciples. 256. death.) p. Matt. Fine garments make proud looks/ (Vol. Ill. they are of interest as completing the list and also because they show what Al-Ghazali . 247. fear/&quot. (Vol.) of Jesus. &quot. What ails you (Vol. rors of death/ p. Ill. p. 13: 23. that ye come in the garments of monks and your Wear hearts are the hearts of ravening wolves? if you wish but humble your the garments of monks hearts with godly &quot. 324. cf. cf. The chapter The ter &quot.

O my disciples. &quot. p. 141. O thou who seekest the world for the sake of pure gold. cf. Which of you can build a house upon the waves of the sea? Such is the world. be satisfied with the least of the world as long as your religion is at peace even as the people of the world are satisfied with the least of religion and their possessions are at peace/&quot. Said Jesus (on him be peace). &quot. James 4:4.) Said Jesus.) Said Jesus. Said Jesus. p. (Vol. (Vol. love of They said God/ will love to Jesus. 383. the best of He replied: whatever God does with pleasure him/&quot. 142.) Said Jesus the Son of Mary (on him be * peace). Woe to the lover of this world how soon he and leave it and all that is in it.280 A MOSLEM SEEKER AFTER GOD and other Moslems thought was the teaching of Jesus the Prophet. p. Ill. p. p. (Vol. IV.) &quot.) is They asked Jesus (on him be peace) which good works. 141. world deceives him and he trusts it and has shall die The confi- . p. Ill. therefore do not take it as an abiding place/ (Vol. Ill. &quot. Ill. 258. How many ! a sound body and beautiful face and eloquent tongue will to-morrow cry out in the fires of hell &quot. the forsaking of the world is greater treasure/ &quot.) &quot. He you/ Teach us the secret of the Hate the world and replied: * God &quot. &quot. (Vol. 142. IV. accept and to love To (Vol.

&quot. He replied: good works? done to God and in which you seek &quot. 162. 56. 8: 13. p. Ill. them that of a woman who commits adultery in and then the result of her crime becomes evi (Vol.) Said Jesus (on him be peace). Blessed is the eye which sleeps and does not regard transgression but is wide-awake for that which is not sinful/ (Vol. J What is the best of is That which &quot. is secret I. Ill. &quot. cf. 281 it. 141. p.) This saying to-day.) * Whosoever Jesus (on him be peace). &quot. p. the praise of no one else/ (Vol. IV. ) Said the disciples of Jesus the Son of Mary: Is there any one on earth like Spirit of God O ! . II. (Vol. 260.Said p.) Said Jesus (on him be peace). 235. your bodies that your soul may Rom. etc/&quot. p. cf. die a proud oppressor/ &quot. Blessed is Jesus (upon him be peace). Mortify then see your Lord. Luke 12:21. he to whom God has taught his book he will not &quot. Ill. from his house the angels will turns away a beggar (Vol. (Vol. The likeness of him who teaches good works and does not do (Vol. p. p. 48. IV.Said . They all often quoted by Moslems believe Jesus was the friend of is * the poor and needy.JESUS CHRIST IN AL-GHAZALI dence in &quot.) Said Jesus (on him be peace).) The disciples said to Jesus (on him be peace). 273. dent to all around her from her condition. not visit that dwelling for seven days/ &quot.

p. is like me/ &quot. lust p. or that he tell something lies concerning what he has seen in his dreams/ p. IV. (Vol. 124. but you would expose him/ God forbid Who would do such a ! word &quot. Ill. and evil desire. but we the company of apostles are free It is related that spreads the report to others O of infidelity/ &quot. Ill.) Said Jesus. company of disciples. whosoever has a bad character punishes himself/ (Vol. (Vol. &quot. IV. IV. for when it is (Vol. 5:28.) Jesus (on him be peace). He When ! (Vol. p. &quot. (Vol. produces T4. Beware of the it evil look. of God. p. Matt. II. he &quot.) Said Jesus: The greatest sin with God is that his servant should say. 142. one of you hears a against his brother he exaggerates it and replied: &quot. 85. &quot.282 thee? A MOSLEM SEEKEE AFTEE GOD He replied: For whosoever is girded with the remembrance of God and is silent because of this and who looks only for the favour Yes. &quot. ) Jesus (upon him be peace) said.) Said Jesus (on him be peace) to his disciples: How would you act if you saw one of your brothers sleeping and the wind had taken off his would cover him/ garment ? They said : We Said Jesus: They thing! said : No. 305.Said Whosoever from him: and multiplies beauty departs whosoever increases care his body becomes ill and lies his .cf. God Knows/ concerning which he knows is untrue. ye are free of trans gression. in the heart p. 98.) .

the abundant remembrance of God and poverty in all (Vol.It Four things do is related that Jesus said: not come to us except with difficulty. IV. IV. IV. This is enough for me/ &quot. IV. Do not look upon the property of the people of this world for its glory &quot. and . With &quot. humility. 19: 23. 164.) Said Jesus (on him be peace). IV. p. 140. Said Jesus (on him be peace). Jesus Israel.) man of the world/ &quot. 159. O children of the water of the brook suffice you and the vegetable of the field and the barley loaf . &quot.) &quot.JESUS CHEIST IN AL-GHAZALI &quot. replied How love with your of can your worship exist together the world? (Vol. which is the first principle of worship. Truly I do not love a fixed dwelling place and I dislike the pleasure &quot. cf. Verily I say unto you. IV. 283 Said Jesus (on him be peace). (Vol. difficulty will the rich 140. Silence.) things/&quot. 158. p. enter paradise/ (Vol. Said Jesus (on him be peace).) &quot. &quot. dogs. is as nothing in the light of your faith/ (Vol. let was accustomed to say. whosoever seeketh heaven let him eat barley-bread and sleep on the dunghill with the &quot. p.) If you will allow us we It was said to Jesus: He re will build a house and worship God in it/ plied said: : Go and How : upon the sea/ They can we build upon such a foundation? build a house He p. Matt. p. p. 144. (Vol. Christ s saying.

but Al-Ghazali loves to repeat his sayings as well. and whosoever seeks finds. p. IV. etc.Said (Vol. (Vol. from his epistle. In the same epistle he refers . p. ground. (Vol. Ill. p. and yet there is no one richer than I am/ (Vol. 149.Said Jesus (on &quot.284 A MOSLEM SEEKEE AFTEB GOD it beware of the white loaf for &quot. O have already quoted the words Child Verily I have seen &quot. 127.: in the Gospels. IV. on it/&quot.&quot. In the &quot. whosoever the Gospel sets out arrives.) him be peace).&quot. Ill. I go to bed and have nothing and arise without anything. p.) be peace). .) This occurs for the second time. 146. 7: 7. often in the same book. thirsts/ (Vol.) The following quotations or references to the Gospel occur in some of his shorter works. &quot. dress . Jesus (on him 164. My food is hunger. Ill.&quot. is Said Jesus (upon him be peace). &quot. : Matt. has driven away the devil. own It is related in the gospels that whosoever shall ask for forgiveness of him who praises him. The world a bridge therefore cross over it and do not build &quot. my steed is my legs.) &quot.Alchemy of Happiness. p. my food is fruit that springs from the all thoughts are fear of God. (Cf.&quot. there is this reference to Whosoever sows reaps. 149. &quot.) We &quot. will keep you from * worship/ &quot. is wool my my my warming-place in winter is the rays of the sun. Whosoever seeks the world is like him who drinks water from the salt sea. my candle is the moon. The more he drinks the more he &quot.

but I was unable to cure the folly of fools. what he says in his &quot. of love to God is. He never ceases to meditate upon God. calls to it. The third sign of a man s love to God is that the remembrance of God is always fresh in his heart. The secret prayer. &quot. little water from that which God has He quotes you to cool our tongues/ granted Give us a was not unable to raise the Jesus as saying: dead. The first is not to be afraid of death. and tender . The great Mystic gives seven signs of love to God. Moslem Version of St. Every man thinks and mind an object in proportion to his love to The fourth is love and respect for the Koran. The second is to prefer the love of God to any worldly object. to find the worship of God delightful. &quot. fifth. 285 When the to the parable of Dives and Lazarus: people of hell will say to the people of the garden. And His com God thus speaks in his eternal word : panions are terrible towards the infidels. and regards He regards all the enemies all as his friends.I and quotes the Golden Rule in several places with out acknowledging its source as being the Gospel of Jesus. All this and &quot. The sixth.JESUS CHEIST IN AL-GHAZALI &quot. God as his enemies and abhors them.&quot. John s Epistles and St.Alchemy of Happiness in is about the love of God leaves no doubt It my mind that he had a sort of read the New Testament. That a And the seventh sign man loves the sincere them of friends and obedient servants of God. John s Gospel.

O Lord. Alchemy of Happiness. than a father or a mother to their chil dren/ (Compare Psalm 103. to penetrate Thy depths. he comes very close to the Chris tian idea of the Incarnation. are constantly reminded of the words of Anselm in his great work on the existence of God: do not attempt. for I I do not seek to understand that I may believe.Alchemy of Happiness&quot. example. referring to the saying of the Prophet: God These last quotations are from the translation by Homes which was from the Turkish. Who are the friends of the exalted and blessed : He replied The friends of God are those God ? who are more compassionate to the friends of God themselves. always compelled to with the Koran. but I believe that I may understand&quot. s Whenever Al-Ghazali speaks of God to us nearness and of the soul s desire for human fellowship with the creator. . zali as We &quot.) There seems a great difference between Al-Gha&quot. and the text varies as well as the 1 number of chapters.286 A MOSLEM SEEKEE AFTEE GOD towards each other/ A Sheikh was once asked. for I by no means think my intellect equal to them. and Al-Ghazali as the Mys agree tic. when he begins to speculate and lift the veil.&quot. for &quot. but I long to understand in some degree Thy truth. which my heart believes and loves. and yet always stops In his short of it. he mentions as the fourth cause of love to the affinity that exists between man and his Maker. * dogmatic theologian. There seem to be several editions of the &quot.

it people. at any is time. clared In speaking of the vision of God he Moslems profess to believe that the says. 287 Verily God created man in his own likeness. for how can a man long for a thing of which he has no knowl edge ? We will endeavour to show briefly why the God is vision of the greatest happiness to which a man &quot.&quot.JESUS CHEIST IN AL-GHAZALI &quot. This is quite natural. man can love God because of the maintain that man own affinity indicated in the saying. but with many this a mere lip-profession which arouses no emotion in their hearts. can attain. In the its has every one of man s faculties function which it delights to appropriate first place.&quot. Immediately afterwards. who not of his cannot love a Being who is However great a distance species. he goes on to &quot. however. and come to believe in incarnation and union with God. between them. He hath de &quot. God created man in His own likeness/ &quot. as common is beyond the understanding of and even intelligent men have stumbled in treating of it. Vision of God is the summit of human felicity be &quot. .&quot.This is a somewhat dangerous topic to say: dwell upon. bosom of the only Begotten Son the Father.All cause is it is so stated in the Law . Still the affinity which does exist between man and God disposes of the objection of those theologians mentioned above. Al-Ghazali would doubtless have accepted the No man hath seen God statement in the Gospel. but he omits who in the Him.

form of mental exertion affords greater pleasure than the satisfaction of bodily appetites. Thus if a man happens to be absorbed in a game of chess. &quot. in a paradise. as the breadth of the heavens and the earth/ a paradise the fruits of which no envy can prevent him plucking. of those &quot. dwells. Thou shalt not see Me. For this reason God said to Moses on Mount Sinai. the knowledge of Him must afford more even in delight than any other.) still But the delight of knowledge falls short of the delight of vision. although it does not prevent our attaining to some knowledge of Him. he will not come to his meal though repeatedly summoned. from the low form of intellec But even a comparatively low all. A MOSLEM SEEKER AFTER GOD This holds good of them est bodily appetite to the highest tual apprehension. in bodies of clay and water and en imprisonment tanglement in the things of sense constitute a veil which hides the vision of God from us. just as our pleasure in thinking of those we love is much less than the Our pleasure afforded by the actual sight of them.288 fulfill. and the extent of which is not narrowed by the multitude it. who occupy (See 1 John 4: 7-21. the greater the greater the subject-matter of is our delight in it . this world. the breadth of which were. for instance.&quot. Seeing then that God is the highest possible object of knowledge. And our knowledge. we would take more pleasure in knowing the secrets of a king than the secrets of a vizier. as is He who knows it God. .

just as in the case of two men with equally powerful eyesight gazing on a beauti &quot. he still finds himself before a blank wall.&quot. is it more than he who For perfect happiness. . and it seems scarcely possible that what Al-Ghazali here teaches is not based on a knowledge of the He says: &quot. of God has prevailed over all else will derive more joy from this vision than he in whose heart it has not so prevailed. &quot. shall see God ! Al-Ghazali sought through all his religious experi ences as the highest good in this world and in the Yet with all his efforts to explain the nature of the soul and of God. ful face. &quot. In him. As Muhammed to define Iqbal says: &quot. like Borger and Solger in Germany. cannot shake himself free from the tion that Moslem concep God is unknowable and that nothing in creation resembles the Creator. and the love of it God is cannot take possession of a man s heart till purified from the love of the world.JESUS CHRIST IN AL-GHAZALI 289 In this book also we are reminded of the state ment that only the pure in heart can see God. He covets the vision of God but next. of Christ.He in whose heart the love Gospel. which purification can only be effected austerity. he who already loves the possessor of that face will rejoice in beholding does not.To this day it is difficult with accuracy Al-Ghazali s view of the nature of God. for they It is the vision of God which &quot. by abstinence and How close is this teaching to the words Blessed are the pure in heart. mere knowledge not enough unaccompanied by love.

exist only in a substance or essence lutely 1 But perception as an attribute can which is abso free from all the attributes of body. cannot conceive an immaterial The latter are led. to all a conception of the soul which sweeps away ference between dif God and the individual soul.&quot. They were probJ &quot. In his Al-Madnun. by their logic. materiality as a condi tion of existence. p. per Lotze. or souls in there a wider love of God? Are His keeping? Al-Ghazali s What were ideas regarding the salvation of those not in the fold of Islam? We have two striking passages in this connection which seem to contradict each other. There are. We have seen what Al-Ghazali teaches regarding the life and character of Jesus and also of God s relation to us through the love of those who seek Him with is all their hearts. . he says. The former who look upon substance. Are these only Mos all lems. therefore. according to Al-Ghazali. a reconciliation it difficult which makes to say whether he was a Pantheist.The Development of Metaphysics in Persia. realized the Pantheist drift of his own inquiry and preferred silence as to the ultimate nature of the soul. ceives things. he explains why the prophet declined to reveal the nature of the soul.290 A MOSLEM SEEKER AFTEE GOD ality Sufi pantheism and the Ash arite dogma of person appear to harmonize together.&quot. 75. Al- Ghazali. two kinds of men: ordinary men and thinkers. or a Personal Pantheist of the type of The soul.

JESUS CHRIST IN AL-GHAZALI 291 The ably written at different periods of his life. And these last. but have not heard of his title and character. be long to the first class as to their hope for the fu ture. according to Tradition. Namely. those who are on the confines of the empire and to whom the call to embrace Islam has not come. other class have heard of his name and title and the miracles which were wrought by him they who live as neighbours among Moslems. be a prophet. who pretended to have the gift of prophecy: in the same way as our children have heard of a false prophet in Khorasan called Al-Mukaffa who pretended to . thousand of his descendants nine-hundred-and- . they consist of three classes: One class has never heard the name of Mohammed (upon whom be An prayers and peace) and they are excusable. This account is the more remarkable be cause in this very chapter he says that &quot.&quot. first passage which is remarkable indeed for his day and his place in Islam occurs on page 22 of his book Faisul Al-Tafriqa Bain al Islam w al Zandiqa I here state that most and reads as follows: Christians of the Greeks and of the Turks in our day will be included in the mercy of God. these are the And the other class are true infidels and sceptics. between these two they have heard of the name of Mohammed (upon him be prayers and peace). . For &quot. On the contrary they have heard from their youth up that he is a liar and deceiver called Mohammed. God told that out of a Adam. in my opinion.

alas. tis barren in spring. Al-Ghaexpresses the opinion that on the day of judg ment not a single Mohammedan.292 A MOSLEM SEEKEE AFTER GOD go to hell ninety-nine saved. namely that Jesus &quot. who confess Mohammed with its and to His decree that hell shall be filled (See Surah 50: 29. and then thou shalt Free. whatever be his zali On character. is the Life-giver: fly ! Thyself reckon dead. and one only will be the last page of the Ihya.) the Ihya. but on granite will grow no green thing It : was barren in winter. remember the more liberal judgment in his other treatise. from the prison of earth to the sky Spring may come. Jallal-ud-Din Ar Rumi. . again shows the Moslem spirit of in Men do not tolerance which prevails even to-day. however. evidently approving this substitution-doctrine as satisfactory to God s mercy Jew or a all towards believers. will enter the fire! tradition He then quotes a which says that for every Moslem de to go to hell God will at the last day substi signed tute a Christian.&quot. free. He ity draws the great Lesson from the life of Christ which Al-Ghazali only hints at in his quotations. quota of un The last page of Al-Ghazali s attitude towards Christian and his quotations from the Gospel narrative did much to leaven Persian thought and gave Jesus of Nazareth a large place in later mysticism espe cially in the foremost mystical poet the immortal author of the Masnavi.

the dervish. crushing it. has been truly described as the Mecca of the Persian Its streets are crowded with a hundred world. with the Word of God. &quot. where Al-Ghazali was born and where he died. it will blossom once The City of Mashad. 293 s heart is.&quot. . is buy the whole No Moslem for now dependent on Al-Ghazali s few quotations from the Gospel. Esselstyn edly been warned some one will kill me if we do not But stop selling the Scriptures and preaching. wrote the City of Mashad in the bazaars I have repeat late Mr. I am with you always continue. The American Church has an important work there.JESUS CHEIST IN AL-GHAZALI And granite man And. every year. it will breathe. we Tartar. heart It will live. clothe the long barren with green. keeps ringing in my ears and The Scriptures that have been sold in and around Mashad are sown seed and in due time we shall reap if we faint To-day the black-browed Afghan. till grace intervene. A new day has dawned . Lo. the Uzbek not. travel-stained and footsore. nay the poorest lad of Khorasan can story of what Jesus did and taught. thousand pilgrims &quot. close to the ruins of Tus. When the fresh breath of Jesus shall touch the s core. Presbyterian and the Bible Societies report thousands of copies We have inundated the of the Bible sold there.&quot.

s to-day will find those who will lead them to CHRIST. Everywhere the New Testament is better known than any of the ninetynine works of Al-Ghazali.All of us who that we live in the love Christ are beginning to realize same street and are on the same telephone. a few that we are within all arm s length under the same roof and and heart reach. some of us that we are lodged next door to one another and can knock on the partitions. Thy soul is a monastery wherein dwells oneness. that the finds a larger circle of readers. without exaggeration. For. J. New Testament Islam are near the Al-Ghazali The mystics in Kingdom of God and for them may be used as a schoolmaster to lead men to Did not the author of the Gulshani-Raz (the Garden of Mysteries) write: &quot. for know His that God Own being rests in the Holy Spirit as in And such seekers after God Spirit. to God. the Holy Spirit works this miracle. and we may also say. where the Eternal is enthroned .&quot. Rendel Harris expressed it: &quot.294 A MOSLEM SEEKER AFTEE GOD Persia and the Near East.&quot. Christ. thou art Jerusalem. as Dr.Dost thou know what Christianity is? I shall tell it It digs up thine own Ego. all . and carries thee thee.

Cara Gazali (Les Grand Philos. H. 1913. Trans. Trans. 1910. by Gha(from Hindustani). Traduction nouvelle du traite de Ghazzali intitule le Preservatif de 1 erreur et notices sur les extases (des Soufis). London (undated). 1912. T. 1909. (Journal Asiatique. Vol. Thomas The Assemblies of Al-Hariri. Brockelmann. T. Felix Alcan). Al-Ghazali 295 s Mishkat-ul-Anwar . 1877. C. De Vaun. IOI-IO2. Weimar. Gairdner. Dozy. (Trans. 2 vols. London. Boston. W. 1878. 1898. London. London. Clark. 1903. IV. 1913. Field. London. by Francis Griffin Stokes) Spanish Islam. London. Mystics and Saints of Islam. zali Claud The Alchemy of Happiness. BIBLIOGRAPHY Abu Nasir Abd ul Wahab Taqi id Din as Subqi. Encyclopaedia Britannica. Fortescue. pp.) Geschichte der Arabischen Litteratur. Paris. Carl 1875- DeBoer. Adrian The Lesser Eastern Churches. Edson L.Appendix A. Paris. Persian Literature. The Arabs and the Turks. The Confessions of Al-Ghazali. J. The History of Philosophy in Islam. Tabaqat-ash-Shafa iya al Kubra. Barbier de Meynard. M. London. Chenery.

Macdonald. G. Clement History of Arabic Literature. New York.. Huart. Macmillan Company. Miguel Asin et Palacios Al Gazel Domatica moral. Journal of The American Oriental Society. Vol. W. D. Ad-Damiri s Hayat AlHayawan (under Al-Hammam). Uber Ghazzali. Ascetica. Leben und Werke. 1911. Le Strange. Spain. Col. G. Hurgronje. 1859. Ibn Khallikan. Emotional religion in Islam as affected by music and singing. A. S. Oxford. London. 1919.: New York. Stanley Mediaeval India under Mo hammedan Rule. . Traite d eschatologie precieuse de avec une traduction musulmane. 1908. Jewish Encyclopaedia. 1898. 1901. Snouck Mekka. etc. 1886. Vol. A Jayakar. (Zargoza. B. Haag. Christian Literature Society for India. Gautier. Aspects of Islam. 1878. Williams the Home of Omar Khayyam&quot.) Logia et Agrapha Domini Jesu apud Moslemicos Scriptores. London. Der Islam. New Haven. public . Lucien Ad-Dourra al-fakhira: La perle Ghazali. V. Baghdad during the Abbasid Caliph ate. Gardner. The. 1900. 1903. 1917. &quot. Geneve. in the Story of the National Series. Heft 2/3. R. : 1911. V.296 APPENDIX and the Ghazali Problem. I.. (Latin and Arabic) Firmin-Didot and Co. Trans. francaise. 1903. Dr. Bd. London. Being a translation of a . 1906. W. Gosche. Lane-Poole. C. Conn. XX. 71-132. Paris. A. Al-Ghazali. Lt. Berlin. From Constantinople to Jackson. von R. pp. In Islam Series. Mohammed Iqbal The Development of Metaphysics in Persia. . London.

the old est Persian Treatise on Sufism by Al-Hujwiri. Encyclopaedia of Islam. TRANSLATIONS OF AL-GHAZALI S WORKS Hebrew. Jerusalem and Damascus. Cairo. Saladin. London. Religious Attitude and Life in Islam. 1907. Gha- The Life of Al-Ghazali with special reference to his religious experiences and opinions (Journal American Oriental Society). H. I. analysis. 13* Kawwanot ha-Pilusufim Judah Nathan. Tahafut al-Falasifah Happalat ha-Pilusufim hiah ha-Levy. Kashf Al-Mahjub. Literary History of the Arabs. Zera- I4th C. Robert Durie Islam Under the Khalifs of Baghdad. Muslim Theology. 1907. 1878. Osborn.) &quot.. De ot ha-Pilusufim Isaac Albalag. 1909. B. Manuel d art Musulman.APPENDIX with 297 book of the Ihya Ulum ad-Din of Al-Ghazzali annotation and appendices. 1911. The Murtadha 1903. Edition. S. Leyden zali. art. Tyrwitt. London. Theodore Vol. . Makasid al Falasifah C. Reynold A. Jurisprudence and Consti tutional Theory. 1901. Chi cago. Sketches from Eastern History. W. London.&quot. Noldeke. Nicholson. (Royal Asiatic Society. London. S. Journal. 1892. 1411. Paris. New York. Introduction to the Celebrated Commen Cairo tary of the Ihya entitled Ithaf ul Sa ada. 1907.

die an ihn gerichtet wurden. Geneve. Strassburg. J.Iyyunin Jacob ben Makir Mizan al- Amal dai ben Mozen Zedek Abraham Ibn HazSamuel ha-Levy of Barcelona. Wien 1838. 1896. Hammer-Purgstall. . Maqasid Falasifa Logica et Philosophia Dom. Gautier. al akhira La Perle precieuse de Ghazali. walad O Kind! Die beruhmte ethische Abhandlung Ghazali s arab. Ihya ulum id Din German translation in course of preparation by H. Text mit deutschen iibers. Gundisalvi. 1839. u. Malter. deutsch. Leipsic. Al munqidh min ad dhalal ed. ed. Schmolders. 1894. Frankfurt. also called Kaw- Ma amar wanot ha-Kawwanot. v. hebr u. Mishkat al-Anwar fi Riyad al-Azhar bi-Taufik alAnhar Maskit ha-Orot be-Pardes ha-Nizzanim Isaac ben Joseph Alfasi. German.298 APPENDIX bi-Teshubot She elot Nish al Mehem (An H. par L. 1506. ha. swers to Philanthropical Questions) Frankfort-on-the-Main. Antworten auf Fragen. 1842. Venetise.W French. arab. Malter. Bauer. 1878. Erklarung und Glossen v. Kitab Tahafut al Falasifa Die iderspriiche der Philosophic nach Al-Ghazzali und ihr Ausgleich durch Ibn Rushd. Kitab aiyuha l &quot. H. ed. 1308). Latin. 1897. Ad durra al fakhira fi kasf ulum Paris. Essai sur les ecoles philosophiques chez les Arabes. Mozene (d. Goldenthal.

pp. Claud Field. In Arabic alphabetical order according to As-Subqi. Nos. 7. (on the Koran). C 1. Al-Iqtasad fi Ttiqad (Speculative Theology). 1909. MSS. 299 in English. The Confessions of Al-Ghazali don. ix. 2.&quot. 41-83). London. There are two manuscript translations of Al-Ghazali s Nasa ih-ul-Muluk in Turkish. . and other sources. Al Imla above). Lon Turkish. Ala Mushkal in Ihya (supplement to 3. 6. A. (on the Koran). II jam al Awam an ilm al Kalam (Warning Al Arba Asma Allah al against scholasticism). (See Browne s Handlist of Cambridge University Library Ara bic The Alchemy 1185 and 220. . Homes. Journal Asiatique. The Alchemy of Happiness Claud Field. Al-Murtadha (Vol. Ihya Ulum id Din (Revival of the Sciences of al Religion). Also an Arabic version of the Persian original. 5.1873. N. vol.APPENDIX Translated by Barbier de Meynar d. Albany. LIST OF AL-GHAZALI S WORKS I. 1908. Husna (on the names of God). 1877.. 4.) of Happiness is also widely known in a Turkish version from which the earliest English version by Homes was made. Kimija as saa da The Alchemy of Happiness H. Asrar Asrar Mu amalat al id Din anwar al ilahiya (Mysticism). 8.

Quran Azim (Brief Koran Com 32. Tanbih Talbis al (Jurisprudence). Al Risalat al Laduniya. Al Tafriqa bain al iman wa l zindiqa Jawahir al Quran (Beauties of the Koran). 39. 22. Al Basit fi furu a al Madhhab Bayan al Qaulain (Creed). Sirr al. (Ethics). Madhab (Written at Jurjan against the Ismailite heresy). (Beginner s 13. 26. 36. Al Durra al Fakhira (The Precious Pearl). Ayyuha l walad originally (O child! written in Persian Ethics and Manners). 33. Khulasat al-tasanif fi 1-tasawwuf. Hujjat al Haqq Haqiqat al Ruh (Mysticism). 18. Risalat al Oudsiya. Sirr al Ma sun (on the magical use of the Koran text). al Maqsud (Sources of Islam). Risalat al Aqtab. Badayat ligion). Ghafalin.300 9. mentary). 12. Haqiqat al Qaulain (on the Creed). 30. 29. 28. Asrar itba a as sunna 11.alamain wa-kashf ma Sharh Da irat Ali ibn Talib. 17. At Takbir fi ilm al Tahafut al filasafa (Interpretation). 23. Asrar al huruf wa l (Tradition). 21. Risalat at Tair (Parable on the Birds). 15. fi 1-darain. Khalasat ar Rasa il (Jurisprudence). al Hadaya book in re 14. kalimat (Koran Myste ries). 19. ta abir Iblis. 27. APPENDIX Akhlaq al abrar wa najat min al ashrar 10. . al al Adilla al 25. 37. Bayan Fadha a al Abahiya Bada a as Saniya. 35. 40. Ta liqa Tahsin Tahsin Tafsir fi furua al (Against Philosophy). 1 6. 20. 24. 31. 34. 38.

47. Al Lubab al Muntaqal versy). 56. 59. several commentaries were written on it later. 301 Shifa al Ghalil (On Logic). 58. Al Maksud fi Khilafiyat bain al Hanifiya wa sh Shafi ya (on these two schools of jurispru dence). al al Anqud Ghayat Mukhtasar. Aja ib Sana a Allah. 45. 44. 51. 64. Al Kashf wa l tabyin fi ghurur al Khalk ajma (Mysticism). Al Manqul fi l Usul. Kimiya as Saa da ness . fi 1 Jadal {On Contro 60. 57. Al Qurbat ila Allah (On Nearness to God). Al Mustasfa fi Usul al Fiqh (Jurisprudence). His most important and largest work on this subject. Fatihat al 48. 50. Al Qanun Qanun ar Rasul. 62. Ulum al Kulli. the corrupting of the Gospel text). 55. Al Madadi Al Majalis wa l Ghayat al fi asrar al Huruf of al Maknumat. Al Fatawa (One hundred and ninety questions answered). Kitab al arba in. in Kanz al Idat. 46. 63. (The Alchemy of Happi written in Persian and afterwards trans lated). Aqidat al Misbah. 49. 52. 53. Ghur fi Misa il al daur (On Di vorce). Ghaur al Daur (also on Divorce) written in Bagdad 484 A. Ghazaliya (Collection his Bagdad sermons). (Encyclopaedia of Sciences). 43. Al Qistas al Mustaqim (Sources of Islam). Al Qaul al jamil fi radd ala man ghaiyar al Injil (On 54. Kashf Ulum al Akhira (Eschatology). 42. H. 61. .APPENDIX 41.

75. (similar to Amal al (A compendium Mawahib Batiniya abbreviated). 79. 70. 73. 66. Several commen taries were written on this work and it is much 84. 81. Al Munqidh min adh-Dhalal (His Confes sions. (Ethics). used. 71. Autobiographical). Nasikhat al Muluk (Written in Persian and called in the Arabic translation Al Tibr al Masbuk. 80. (Logic). Book kept from those unfitted for al-saghir it. 67. (Esoteric. (a celebrated book in Several commentaries. 83. 74. (Contro to be 72. No. 69. APPENDIX Maqasid al filasafa (Philosophy). Wasit Jurispru dence). Al Wajiz (Jurisprudence). al of Ethics). but Al Minhaj A ali 78. 68.). (Commen Printed in the United States of America .) Mishkat al-anwar al (Mysticism).) Book to be kept from those unfitted for (Esoteric. 76. Mi yar al llm fi l Mantiq Mi yar al Nazir (Logic). 71. Yaqut at Ta wil fi Tafsir at Tanzil tary on the Koran in 40 vols.302 65. Al-Madnun Al-Madnun Mizan bihi ala ghairi ahlihi it. (His last work: a popular epistle on the Mys way). 77. Al 85. Miraj as Salikin Mukashafat al qulub Mufasal al Khilaf fi Usul al Qiyas Minhaj al Abidin ila Janat Rab al Alamin 82. Mahal al Nazir Mishkat al anwar fi lata if al akhyar Al Mustazhir fi radd ala 1 Batiniya versial). a book of counsel for kings and tic princes).

NORTH AFRICA AND Dynasty. takenTioSs ibn j The Almoravides. VII. Duke Normandy. . 1079. Toledo&quot. William. Bernard. EUROPE Germany Henry Franconian III. The Morabeths. Abdallah ben Tasfin j founds Mara- Francc Io6 - Reign of Feudalism. 1086. Struggle between Emperors and the Popes.eon. Advance of Christians. defeat of England Conquest of of 1066. Gregory j states. Russia Vladimir the Great adopts Y | i s Tasfiu called to Spain. The Moslems divided SPAIN of Castile and L. 1093. Italy into small Lombard Republics. 1115. 419. 1095.D. Henry IV. Abelard born. Philip. First Crusade. Anselm. Kingdoms End of the Ommiades.] j kash. . Christianity. Moslems. Battle of Zalaca.

Comparative AL-GHAZALI Al-Ghazali born. ARABIA AND SYRIA El Mostanser.or&amp. (492 A. c His death. 1087 480 Seditions in Caliphate. 1104 498 Jerusalem invaded by the sons Ortok. mi r&amp. 427-487 A.gt. 1076. Conversion of Al-Ghazali.gt.) IliOQ. His return to active life. claimed at Bagdad. Jerusalem captured by the Crusader TOGO. 1058 Events A. i 450 Pn Al-Ghazali goes to Bagdad. Siege of Antioch.D. Table of A.H. H. Tripoli taken by the Crusader . 1098. 1095 488 Decline of the Fatimides. H. H. 451 A.

. Fir- dausi. vlalek Shah. Phe kingdom of Gu/na overthrown by the Sultans Gourides of Dolhi.PERSIA El KHORASAN INDIA Ka im B amrillah invests Tughril with temporal authority. Conquest of Asia Minor. DOMINATION OF THE SELJUKS \lp Arslan. Tughril Bey subjects Persia. his empire. Tughril Bey invades India. His four sons divide 1072. 1063. author of Shah Nameh. Death of Tughril Bey.

1063. . urcd by the Crusaders. Tughril Bey invades India. DOMINATION OF THE SELJUKS ! Alp Arslan. H. author of Shah Nameh.A AND SYRIA 427-487 A. H. 451 A. ^. 1 PERSIA KHORASAN INDIA El Ka im B amrillah invests Tnghril with temporal authority. Death of Tughril Bey. aliphate. Tughril Bey subjects Persia. Fatimides.)&quot. of Gaznu overthrown by the Sultans Gourides of Delhi. _ | The kingdom ken by the Crusaders. Fir- dausi. His four sons divide 1072. Proagdad. j Minor. H. Conquest of Asia ided by the sons of Antioch. Malek Shah. his empire.







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