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INTERNATIONAL

AID SERVICES
’Creating a positive reaction’

POLICY HANDBOOK
VERSION 1.0 - 2006

Our mission is ‘to save lives, promote self-reliance and dignity


and enable people to invest in their future, regardless of race,
creed, gender or nationality of the recipient’.
TABLE OF CONTENTS

PREAMBLE ...............................................................................................................................................8
INTRODUCTION TO IAS........................................................................................................................9
INTRODUCTION .........................................................................................................................................9
IAS Mission Statement .........................................................................................................................9
IAS Vision Statement............................................................................................................................9
OBJECTIVES ..............................................................................................................................................9
ACTIVITIES AND WAYS OF IMPLEMENTATION............................................................................................9
AGRICULTURE ......................................................................................................................................10
INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................................................10
OBJECTIVES ............................................................................................................................................10
Goal ...................................................................................................................................................10
Purpose..............................................................................................................................................10
Outputs ..............................................................................................................................................10
ACTIVITIES AND WAYS OF IMPLEMENTATION..........................................................................................10
Areas of intervention .........................................................................................................................10
Specific programme implementation .................................................................................................10
Sector intervention guidelines. ..........................................................................................................11
ASSUMPTIONS AND RISKS .......................................................................................................................11
EDUCATION ...........................................................................................................................................12
INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................................................12
OBJECTIVES ............................................................................................................................................12
Goal ...................................................................................................................................................12
Purpose..............................................................................................................................................12
Outputs ..............................................................................................................................................12
ACTIVITIES AND WAYS OF IMPLEMENTATION..........................................................................................12
Activities ............................................................................................................................................12
Other guiding principles concerning implementation .......................................................................13
Community inputs ......................................................................................................................................... 13
IAS Education Inputs..................................................................................................................................... 13
Support and encourage .................................................................................................................................. 13
Special Criteria for support to community based schools and training institutions:.........................13
IAS can terminate support to any school or schools on the following grounds ............................................. 14
ASSUMPTIONS AND RISKS .......................................................................................................................14
HEALTH...................................................................................................................................................15
INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................................................15
OBJECTIVES ............................................................................................................................................15
Goal ...................................................................................................................................................15
Purpose..............................................................................................................................................15
Outputs ..............................................................................................................................................15
ACTIVITIES AND WAYS OF IMPLEMENTATION .........................................................................................15
Promotional activities........................................................................................................................15
Operational activities ........................................................................................................................16
Capacity enhancement activities .......................................................................................................16
ASSUMPTIONS AND RISKS .......................................................................................................................16
WATER AND SANITATION .................................................................................................................17
INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................................................17
OBJECTIVES ............................................................................................................................................17
Goal ...................................................................................................................................................17
Purpose..............................................................................................................................................17
Outputs ..............................................................................................................................................17
ACTIVITIES AND WAYS OF IMPLEMENTATION..........................................................................................18
Activities ............................................................................................................................................18
Approaches ........................................................................................................................................18
Community-based.......................................................................................................................................... 18
Training and capacity building ...................................................................................................................... 18
Inter-agency cooperation ............................................................................................................................... 18
ASSUMPTIONS AND RISKS .......................................................................................................................18
CRITERIA FOR STARTING A PROJECT .........................................................................................20
INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................................................20
OBJECTIVES ............................................................................................................................................20
Goal ...................................................................................................................................................20
Purpose..............................................................................................................................................20
Outputs ..............................................................................................................................................20
ACTIVITIES AND WAYS OF IMPLEMENTATION..........................................................................................20
ASSUMPTIONS AND RISKS .......................................................................................................................21
CRITERIA FOR CLOSING A PROJECT............................................................................................22
INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................................................22
OBJECTIVES ............................................................................................................................................22
Goal ...................................................................................................................................................22
Purpose..............................................................................................................................................22
Outputs ..............................................................................................................................................22
ACTIVITIES AND WAYS OF IMPLEMENTATION..........................................................................................22
ASSUMPTIONS AND RISKS .......................................................................................................................23
EXIT STRATEGY ...................................................................................................................................24
INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................................................24
OBJECTIVES ............................................................................................................................................24
Goal ...................................................................................................................................................24
Purpose..............................................................................................................................................24
Outputs ..............................................................................................................................................24
ACTIVITIES AND WAYS OF IMPLEMENTATION..........................................................................................24
Exit criteria........................................................................................................................................25
When is the exit point? .................................................................................................................................. 25
When should you plan to exit? ...................................................................................................................... 25
Who should be involved in the process?........................................................................................................ 25
What needs to remain in the area? ................................................................................................................. 25
How will IAS prevent a recurrence of the original problems?....................................................................... 25
Handover process .......................................................................................................................................... 25
Checklist of other vital points to consider before exit ................................................................................... 25
ASSUMPTIONS AND RISKS .......................................................................................................................26
EMERGENCY RESPONSE....................................................................................................................27
INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................................................27
OBJECTIVES ............................................................................................................................................27
Goal ...................................................................................................................................................27
Purpose..............................................................................................................................................27
Outputs ..............................................................................................................................................27
ACTIVITIES AND WAYS OF IMPLEMENTATION..........................................................................................27
ASSUMPTIONS AND RISKS .......................................................................................................................28
ENVIRONMENT .....................................................................................................................................29
INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................................................29
OBJECTIVES ............................................................................................................................................29
Goal ...................................................................................................................................................29
Purpose..............................................................................................................................................29
Outputs ..............................................................................................................................................29
ACTIVITIES AND WAYS OF IMPLEMENTATION..........................................................................................30
Check list ...........................................................................................................................................30
ASSUMPTIONS AND RISKS .......................................................................................................................31
ETHICS AND INTEGRITY ...................................................................................................................32
INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................................................32
OBJECTIVES ............................................................................................................................................32
Goal/purpose .....................................................................................................................................32
Outputs ..............................................................................................................................................32
ACTIVITIES AND WAYS OF IMPLEMENTATION..........................................................................................32

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Actions instituting corruption, fraud, theft and/or maladministration...............................................32
Protection of whistle blowers ............................................................................................................33
The IAS Code of Conduct ..................................................................................................................33
ASSUMPTIONS AND RISKS .......................................................................................................................33
GENDER...................................................................................................................................................34
INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................................................34
OBJECTIVES ............................................................................................................................................34
Goal ...................................................................................................................................................34
Purpose..............................................................................................................................................34
Outputs ..............................................................................................................................................34
ACTIVITIES AND WAYS OF IMPLEMENTATION..........................................................................................34
ASSUMPTIONS AND RISKS .......................................................................................................................35
HIV/AIDS..................................................................................................................................................36
INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................................................36
OBJECTIVES ............................................................................................................................................36
Goal ...................................................................................................................................................36
Purpose..............................................................................................................................................36
Outputs ..............................................................................................................................................36
ACTIVITIES AND WAYS OF IMPLEMENTATION..........................................................................................36
The key elements of our policy are: ...................................................................................................36
HIV/AIDS and conflicts .....................................................................................................................37
Specific activities during programme implementation include: ........................................................37
ASSUMPTIONS AND RISKS .......................................................................................................................37
INTEGRATED COMMUNITY EMPOWERMENT PROGRAMME ...............................................39
INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND ........................................................................................................39
What is Integrated Community Empowerment Programme? ............................................................39
OBJECTIVES ............................................................................................................................................40
Goal ...................................................................................................................................................40
Purpose..............................................................................................................................................40
Outputs ..............................................................................................................................................40
ACTIVITIES AND WAYS OF IMPLEMENTATION..........................................................................................40
The Approaches of ICEP ...................................................................................................................40
The Stages of ICEP............................................................................................................................41
ICEP Functions .................................................................................................................................41
ICEP Programme Implementation ....................................................................................................41
ASSUMPTIONS AND RISKS .......................................................................................................................41
PARTNERSHIP – PROGRAMME COUNTRIES ...............................................................................42
INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................................................42
IAS believes in the 10 following principles of partnership ................................................................42
OBJECTIVES ............................................................................................................................................42
Goal ...................................................................................................................................................42
Purpose..............................................................................................................................................42
Outputs ..............................................................................................................................................42
ACTIVITIES AND WAYS OF IMPLEMENTATION..........................................................................................43
Cross-sectoral collaboration within IAS ...........................................................................................43
Co-operation with beneficiaries. .......................................................................................................43
Co-operation with International- and national organisations...........................................................43
ASSUMPTIONS AND RISKS .......................................................................................................................43
PEACE BUILDING, RECONCILIATION, DEMOCRACY AND HUMAN RIGHTS ....................45
INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................................................45
OBJECTIVES ............................................................................................................................................45
Goal ...................................................................................................................................................45
Purpose..............................................................................................................................................45
Outputs ..............................................................................................................................................45
ACTIVITIES AND WAYS OF IMPLEMENTATION..........................................................................................45
General ..............................................................................................................................................45
Role of IAS .........................................................................................................................................46
Check list ...........................................................................................................................................46

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ASSUMPTIONS AND RISKS .......................................................................................................................46
POST TRAUMATIC STRESS TRAINING ..........................................................................................48
INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................................................48
OBJECTIVES ............................................................................................................................................48
Goal ...................................................................................................................................................48
Purpose..............................................................................................................................................49
Outputs ..............................................................................................................................................49
ACTIVITIES AND WAYS OF IMPLEMENTATION..........................................................................................49
ASSUMPTIONS AND RISKS .......................................................................................................................49
POVERTY REDUCTION .......................................................................................................................50
INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................................................50
Categories of Poverty ........................................................................................................................50
Dependants .................................................................................................................................................... 50
The transitory poor ........................................................................................................................................ 50
The economically active poor........................................................................................................................ 50
The landless and pastoralists ......................................................................................................................... 50
Internally displaced persons and refugees ..................................................................................................... 50
The urban poor .............................................................................................................................................. 50
OBJECTIVES ............................................................................................................................................51
Goal ...................................................................................................................................................51
Purpose..............................................................................................................................................51
Outputs ..............................................................................................................................................51
ACTIVITIES AND WAYS OF IMPLEMENTATION..........................................................................................51
ASSUMPTIONS AND RISKS .......................................................................................................................51
SECURITY MANUAL ............................................................................................................................53
INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................................................53
The Use of the Security Manual.........................................................................................................53
OBJECTIVES ............................................................................................................................................53
Goal ...................................................................................................................................................53
Purpose..............................................................................................................................................53
Outputs ..............................................................................................................................................53
ACTIVITIES AND WAYS OF IMPLEMENTATION..........................................................................................53
Responsibilities..................................................................................................................................53
Responsibilities of IAS.................................................................................................................................. 54
Responsibilities of IAS employees ................................................................................................................ 54
IAS provision .....................................................................................................................................54
Protection ..........................................................................................................................................54
Property security............................................................................................................................................ 54
Vehicle security ............................................................................................................................................. 54
Travel security ............................................................................................................................................... 55
Communication..................................................................................................................................56
Mine awareness .................................................................................................................................56
Land mines .................................................................................................................................................... 56
Typical mine areas......................................................................................................................................... 56
Precautions when walking in high risk areas ................................................................................................. 57
Vehicle and Land mines ................................................................................................................................ 57
How to get out from a minefield?.................................................................................................................. 57
Facing Hostility .................................................................................................................................58
When IAS is a target ..........................................................................................................................58
Hold-ups and hostage .................................................................................................................................... 58
The Aftermath ....................................................................................................................................59
Relocation and Evacuation................................................................................................................59
To stay or leave..................................................................................................................................59
Contingency plans .............................................................................................................................59
Type of evacuation ........................................................................................................................................ 59
Duration of withdrawal.................................................................................................................................. 60
Means of withdrawal ..................................................................................................................................... 60
Project equipment.......................................................................................................................................... 60
Evacuation plan.................................................................................................................................60
Contents of the plan....................................................................................................................................... 60
ASSUMPTIONS AND RISKS .......................................................................................................................60

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SPECIAL NEEDS EDUCATION ...........................................................................................................61
INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................................................61
OBJECTIVES ............................................................................................................................................61
Goal and Purpose..............................................................................................................................61
Output ................................................................................................................................................61
What are special educational needs? ................................................................................................61
Basic principles .................................................................................................................................62
Guiding principles ......................................................................................................................................... 62
Provision............................................................................................................................................62
ASSUMPTIONS AND RISKS .......................................................................................................................63
VEHICLE .................................................................................................................................................64
INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................................................64
OBJECTIVES ............................................................................................................................................64
Goal ...................................................................................................................................................64
Purpose..............................................................................................................................................64
Outputs ..............................................................................................................................................64
ACTIVITIES AND WAYS OF IMPLEMENTATION..........................................................................................64
Approved Drivers ..............................................................................................................................64
Driver Responsibilities ......................................................................................................................65
ASSUMPTIONS AND RISKS .......................................................................................................................65
VOLUNTEER...........................................................................................................................................66
INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................................................66
OBJECTIVES ............................................................................................................................................66
Goal ...................................................................................................................................................66
Purpose..............................................................................................................................................66
Outputs ..............................................................................................................................................66
ACTIVITIES AND WAYS OF IMPLEMENTATION..........................................................................................66
ASSUMPTIONS AND RISKS .......................................................................................................................67
EMPLOYMENT ......................................................................................................................................68
INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................................................68
People in Aid Code ............................................................................................................................68
OBJECTIVES ............................................................................................................................................68
ACTIVITIES AND WAYS OF IMPLEMENTATION..........................................................................................68
IAS as employer .................................................................................................................................68
Job-description .............................................................................................................................................. 68
Requirement for employees........................................................................................................................... 69
The employee .....................................................................................................................................69
Service........................................................................................................................................................... 69
Moral standard............................................................................................................................................... 69
Teamwork...................................................................................................................................................... 69
Background and education ............................................................................................................................ 69
Cultural adjustment ....................................................................................................................................... 69
Termination of Services .....................................................................................................................69
Temporary Employment.....................................................................................................................69
Short term Contract Employees/Consultants.....................................................................................70
Duration of the contract ....................................................................................................................70
Payment policies and procedures ......................................................................................................70
Salaries/Wages .............................................................................................................................................. 70
Working hours ............................................................................................................................................... 70
Allowances .................................................................................................................................................... 70
Loans ............................................................................................................................................................. 70
Terminal Benefits/Gratuity............................................................................................................................ 70
Death ............................................................................................................................................................. 70
Staff development...............................................................................................................................71
Training ......................................................................................................................................................... 71
Promotion ...................................................................................................................................................... 71
Leave and sickness.............................................................................................................................71
Annual Leave ................................................................................................................................................ 71
Sick Leave ..................................................................................................................................................... 71
Maternity Leave............................................................................................................................................. 71
Compassionate Leave .................................................................................................................................... 71

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Unpaid Leave ................................................................................................................................................ 72
Holidays ........................................................................................................................................................ 72
Disciplinary procedures ....................................................................................................................72
Minor offences............................................................................................................................................... 72
First or Second Offence................................................................................................................................. 72
Failure to react positively on First Warning .................................................................................................. 72
Second Warning ............................................................................................................................................ 72
Third/Final Warning Suspension ................................................................................................................... 72
Suspension without Pay and Summery Dismissal ......................................................................................... 72
Serious Offences............................................................................................................................................ 73
Appeals.......................................................................................................................................................... 73
Gross Misconduct.......................................................................................................................................... 73
Grievances procedures ......................................................................................................................73
First point of Grievance................................................................................................................................. 73
Second point of Grievance............................................................................................................................. 73
Grievance against the Country Director/Representative or the Organisation represented by the
Director/Representative ................................................................................................................................. 74
ASSUMPTIONS AND RISKS .......................................................................................................................74
RECRUITMENT......................................................................................................................................75
INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................................................75
OBJECTIVES ............................................................................................................................................75
Goal/purpose .....................................................................................................................................75
Outputs ..............................................................................................................................................75
ACTIVITIES AND WAYS OF IMPLEMENTATION..........................................................................................75
Equal Employment Opportunity ........................................................................................................75
Confidentiality ...................................................................................................................................75
Employment of Relatives....................................................................................................................75
Recruiting ..........................................................................................................................................76
Recruitment Process ...................................................................................................................................... 76
Recruitment ................................................................................................................................................... 76
Interviews ...................................................................................................................................................... 76
Hiring Process ............................................................................................................................................... 77
ASSUMPTIONS AND RISKS .......................................................................................................................77
REST AND RELAXATION....................................................................................................................78
INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................................................78
OBJECTIVES ............................................................................................................................................78
Goal ...................................................................................................................................................78
Purpose..............................................................................................................................................78
Outputs ..............................................................................................................................................78
ACTIVITIES AND WAYS OF IMPLEMENTATION..........................................................................................78
Authority for Rest and Relaxation (R&R) Leave ...............................................................................78
Eligibility for Rest and Relaxation Leave ..........................................................................................79
Rest and Relaxation Leave Entitlements............................................................................................79
Timing of Rest and Relaxation Leave ................................................................................................79
Cancellation of Rest and Relaxation Leave .......................................................................................79
Location of Rest and Relaxation Leave .............................................................................................79
Accommodation for Rest and Relaxation Leave ................................................................................79
Expense Allowance during Rest and Relaxation Leave .....................................................................80
ASSUMPTIONS AND RISKS .......................................................................................................................80
STAFF HEALTH .....................................................................................................................................81
INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................................................81
OBJECTIVES ............................................................................................................................................81
Goal ...................................................................................................................................................81
Purpose..............................................................................................................................................81
Outputs ..............................................................................................................................................81
ACTIVITIES AND WAYS OF IMPLEMENTATION..........................................................................................81
Pre-employment Medical examinations.............................................................................................81
Employment Medical examinations ...................................................................................................81
Out-patient care.................................................................................................................................82
Staff insurance ...................................................................................................................................82
Chronic illness...................................................................................................................................82
ASSUMPTIONS AND RISKS .......................................................................................................................82

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STAFF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT ........................................................................................83
INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................................................83
OBJECTIVES ............................................................................................................................................83
ACTIVITIES AND WAYS OF IMPLEMENTATION..........................................................................................83
Responsibilities..................................................................................................................................83
Education department .................................................................................................................................... 83
The Individual ............................................................................................................................................... 83
Line Managers/Supervisors ........................................................................................................................... 83
Employee orientation programmes....................................................................................................84
Performance review and development plans .....................................................................................84
Forms of training in IAS ....................................................................................................................84
In- House Learning........................................................................................................................................ 84
External Training........................................................................................................................................... 84
Location of Learning .........................................................................................................................84
In-house learning ........................................................................................................................................... 85
External Training........................................................................................................................................... 85
Nomination for training.....................................................................................................................85
Full time studies.................................................................................................................................85
Priority Areas for Full Time Studies.............................................................................................................. 85
Study leave .................................................................................................................................................... 86
Scholarship .................................................................................................................................................... 86
Applications................................................................................................................................................... 86
Applicants Responsibilities ........................................................................................................................... 86
Distance learning ..............................................................................................................................86
Training evaluation system................................................................................................................86
Pre-course...................................................................................................................................................... 87
End of Course ................................................................................................................................................ 87
Post Course Evaluation.................................................................................................................................. 87
Staff library........................................................................................................................................87
ASSUMPTIONS AND RISKS .......................................................................................................................87

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PREAMBLE
Since the inception of IAS in 1989 there has been a considerable amount of policy documents
circulating within the organisation. A policy working committee was therefore appointed to
consolidate and streamline these documents into one single working document. The policy
handbook is intended to be used on all levels of the organisation and towards all stakeholders. It
consists of living documents which will be updated on a regular basis. There are many different
types of policy documents. In this handbook they are divided into the following categories:

• Introductory paper; giving a brief introduction of IAS and stating the organisations mission
statement:
o Introduction to IAS
• Sector policies; outlining the strategies and approaches of IAS various sectors:
o Agriculture
o Education
o Health
o Water and Sanitation
• Project cycle policies; policies related to the project cycle:
o Criteria for Starting a Project
o Criteria for Closing a Project
o Exit Strategy
• General policies; policies mainly not directly linked to any specific activity or sector, but
applicable in all interventions:
o Emergency Response
o Environment
o Ethics and Integrity
o Gender
o HIV/AIDS
o Integrated Community Empowerment Programme
o Partnership – Programme Countries
o Peace Building, Reconciliation, Democracy and Human Rights
o Post Traumatic Stress Training
o Poverty Reduction
o Security Manual
o Special Needs Education
o Vehicle
o Volunteer
• Human resource policies; policies linked to the management of IAS personnel:
o Employment
o Recruitment
o Rest and Relaxation
o Staff Health
o Staff Training and Development

The method being used in this handbook is based on the logical framework. It is assumed that
this will provide a logical and easy way of examining the contents of each policy. It also has
advantages in the stage of programme planning and proposal writing.

If there are any questions related to the contents of this handbook, please do not hesitate to
inform us accordingly.

/IAS Policy working group


Stockholm, October 2006

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INTRODUCTION TO IAS

Introduction
International Aid Services (IAS) is a non-political and non-profitable humanitarian relief- and
development organisation. It was founded in 1989 with the purpose of assisting people in need.
Over the years, IAS has grown considerably and is now represented in 18 countries with
approximately 400 employees.
During the first 15 years the organisation used ‘Sweden’ in its logo; and therefore was called
International Aid Sweden (IAS). In the last couple of years, IAS northern offices have expanded
to also include Denmark, Norway, Germany and USA. To make the organisational name more
suitable for the partners in these countries, IAS changed its name to ‘International Aid Services’
with effect from January 2004. IAS desire is to support projects with a ripple, multiplying and
reproducing effect.

IAS Mission Statement


“To save lives, promote self-reliance and dignity and enable people to invest in their future,
regardless of the race, creed, gender or nationality of the recipient.”

IAS Vision Statement


“A world where resources and opportunities are distributed in a just and fair way and where
poverty is eradicated and communities are self reliant.”

Objectives
The goal and purpose for this policy is to create an overview of IAS as an organisation and the
beliefs and values it represents.

Activities and ways of implementation


IAS is currently involved in four major sectors, namely:

• Water and sanitation


• Agriculture
• Health
• Education

The geographical focus is mainly the Eastern parts of Africa, but IAS also supports projects
elsewhere, for example West Africa, South America and Asia. IAS activities are guided by the
Sphere Project standards (Humanitarian Charter and Minimum Standards in Disaster Response)
and United Nations Millennium Development goals. The organisation is also a signatory to the
ICRC Code of Conduct. For more information, see IAS policy documents and www.ias.nu.

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AGRICULTURE

Introduction
The policy guideline developed by the agriculture sector will act as reference tool for the
implementation of agricultural projects in the organisation. Attempts were made to include
conditions under various operational environments in respect of tropical agriculture.

Objectives
Goal
The goal of the sector is to promote self-reliance in food and agricultural development for better
living conditions. Relief interventions will still be conceivable in areas of sporadic conflict
scenario.

Purpose
The purpose is to create a better standard of living for the beneficiaries.

Outputs
It is IAS aim that the outputs will contribute to raising the standard of living for the
beneficiaries through promoting self-reliance in food and agricultural development.

Activities and ways of implementation


Based on the interpretation of the organisational mission statement, the agriculture sector would
want to translate this into action plans to meet food and income security in order to attain an
over all individual and community relative security. Hunger, poverty and limited access to
resources are recipes for insecurity in any given unit area of livelihood.
The sector will focus mainly on planned interventions. However, flexibility will remain the
key as these plans may be affected by variation from one geographical area and scenario
disparities from another in terms of action plans and implementation procedures. Ideally every
element of service provision is to target sustainable livelihood even at emergency level.

Areas of intervention
The intervention strategy is based on the nature of the scenarios on the ground. The
responses are in the following areas:

• Relief
• Recovery
• Development

Specific programme implementation


• Felt need assessment.
• Provision of tools and seeds.

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• Seminars and Skills training.
• Promotion of appropriate technology (PAT).
• Supporting local initiatives on improved storage facility.
• Supporting processing of produce for value addition.
• Training on market/marketing of agricultural produce.
• Promoting projects that are environment friendly.
• Develop livestock sector for both quality milk and meat production.
• Provision of revolving funds/ loans.

Sector intervention guidelines.


• The agriculture sector is aware of the political situation facing third world countries, and
would therefore appreciate playing a role in provision of tools and seeds in disaster affected
communities.
• The sector will also play a role in ensuring food and income security and any other aspect of
agricultural development within its capacity during Recovery and Reconstruction phases in
any country where its services are needed.
• The sector would work with the community to promote food and income security in areas of
need.
• Agricultural services shall be provided without discrimination in terms of colour, tribe,
creed, ethnic background, nationality, gender or political affiliation.
• The sector shall ensure efficient utilization of resources to benefit the intended target
community.
• The agriculture sector appreciates and values the role of Indigenous Community Based
Organisations (ICBO) and shall identify partners to work with to promote sustainable
agriculture.
• The sector shall respect the norms and cultures of the community where its services are
needed
• The sector shall endeavour to promote coordination and collaboration with relevant
authorities and other service providers in areas of operation.
• Projects shall be approved for implementation on the basis of community initiative and
participation; however, emergency intervention shall be handled as the situations may
dictate.

Assumptions and risks

• Willingness of the communities and local authorities to actively endorse and take part in the
project.
• The community is willing to be self-reliant and not dependent on continual external
assistance (aid-dependency syndrome).
• The community is able to accept and adapt to knowledge, attitudes and practice of the
project objectives.
• The organisation, IAS, is able to progressively build the capacity of its staff to deliver
quality service while maintaining close links with the community.
• Sustained security access to and within the project areas is assured.
• Sustained donor funding that allows for the project goal to be met.
• Overall policies for conditions relating to the project objectives adapted by the national
government in order for the project to be in line with the national development.
• Cultural acceptance of the policy.

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EDUCATION

Introduction
Education is essential for any long term development and a vital tool in fighting poverty. The
importance of proper educational systems cannot be overemphasized. IAS is working in areas
where education is very poor, especially when it comes to girl child education, due to various
reasons.
The causes of the low access, low retention and high drop out of children particularly for girls
include: shortage of well trained and committed teachers; over age pupils or girls; negative
cultural attitudes towards girl education; inadequate parents support; poverty; poor resource
mobilization and management; shortage of learning/teaching materials; in conducive learning
environment: monitoring/ evaluation, and standardization/quality. This policy outlines IAS aim
and beliefs in its support in the education sector.

Objectives
Goal
The goal of this policy is to promote and form recognized education programmes with
sustainable strategies in terms of access, equity, retention, quality, relevancy (dignity) and
sustainability.

Purpose
The purpose is to raise the standard of education on a general and national level, as well as
individual level for the specific beneficiary.

Outputs
Quality educational programmes meeting the needs of the beneficiaries and the society as a
whole.

Activities and ways of implementation


Activities
To meet the objectives outlined in this policy, IAS will conduct the following activities:

• Support the training of competent, highly motivated and committed teachers to enhance
access, equity, retention, and quality.
• Support the provision of basic essential school supplies.
• Provide assistance for school reconstructions in terms of building materials etc.
• Encourage community ownership and sustainability of their schools.
• Assist in the integration of education activities into the sectors of water, health and
sanitation, food and economic security, women and youth programmes, income generating
activities and others.

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• Promote the development of special programmes, policies and strategies for marginalized,
traumatized and mentally handicapped persons.
• Participate in collection and analysis of information, which will enhance sustainable
education in the beneficiary communities.
• Jointly participate with local partners in planning, co-ordination, monitoring/ supervision
and evaluation exercises.
• Incorporate IAS general policies when forming the education programmes.
• Literacy for adults.

Other guiding principles concerning implementation


In all IAS interventions, it is crucial to involve the local communities as early as possible and
work in close partnership with the local authorities and stakeholders. IAS therefore expects the
community to be active and contribute to meet the objectives of the education programmes.

Community inputs
• Positive attitudes towards ownership of education.
• Positive response to invest in education both in kind and cash.
• Readily available human and material resources to support education.
• Positive initiatives to improve household food security and household incomes to support
children both at home and in schools.
• Active community participation in sharing of ideas (planning), knowledge and experiences
on matters relating to development in education.
• Development of supportive education policies.
• Enforcement of education policies.
• Promotion of Regional and National Education Campaigns.
• Parents and Teachers Associations.

IAS Education Inputs


• Support and strengthen the teachers’ education and training.
• Conduct wide community sensitization workshops or meetings on ownership and
investment in education.
• Encourage and support development of coherent education policies.
• Support provision of basic essential school supplies and encourage the development and
production of local education materials.
• Promote and support provision of Integrated Sustainable Education Programmes.

Support and encourage


• Data collection and analysis in education.
• Regular monitoring and evaluation exercise in education processes.
• Inter and intra-collaboration linkages.

Special Criteria for support to community based schools and training institutions:
As IAS continues its support in the education sector to many communities, it is important to
understand the basic rationales behind this venture. This criterion stipulates the area of concern
to IAS in the provision of support in the area of education. IAS together with the donor agencies
expects a very high degree of transparency and accountability in the management of the
projects.
The following points will serve as IAS education guidelines or the criteria for support to
schools or training institution:

• The schools must be physically established entities with children, staff and a capacity for
learning to take place.
• The day-to-day running of the school must be done in collaboration with recognised
representatives of the community who have positive interest in the school and community.
This would take the form of an officially recognised body such as School Management

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Committee (SMC), Parents and Teachers’ Association (PTA), Board of Governors (BOG)
or any other relevant name that it may have in the community.
• The schools must be local initiatives with the support of community leadership. It must be
understood that IAS does not start or own any school, they are community properties and
IAS depends on the kind support of donors that is not permanent. The communities should
therefore play a greater role in making the schools self-supporting with the local resources
available.
• The SMC, PTA, BOG, etc. should solve any problems arising within the schools without
getting IAS involved. The local authority/agency supporting education should however be
informed on all developments within the schools.
• IAS will also be furnished with the latest data on school’s statistics, staff establishment and
pupils’ performance regularly by the school management who will also have the
responsibility of ensuring that teaching and learning is taking place in a conducive
environment.
• IAS will create empowerment programmes aimed at building the capacity of the school
management towards greater independence in decision-making and self-reliance.
• It is the responsibility of the SMC, PTA, BOG and School Administration to mobilize the
community so as to develop the schools in a sustainable manner in partnership with IAS.
• The school management should facilitate the regular inspection and supervision of their
schools by the mandated IAS staff for monitoring and evaluation purposes.
• Finances and any other support given to the school must be used for the stated purposes and
the leadership of the school must be accountable and trustworthy in this regard. The schools
will be provided with guidelines on managing their school finances through PTA /BOG
workshops. IAS will not be bound to extra expenses without prior administrative
arrangements.
• Recruitment and termination of services of teachers and any other workers in the schools is
the responsibility of school administration.

IAS can terminate support to any school or schools on the following grounds
• When the donor agencies cease to fund the project.
• When the budget is exhausted.
• If there is misappropriation of funds or school materials supplied.
• Security reasons.
• For any other reason deemed serious enough in accordance with our memorandum of
understanding or terms of partnership.
• The above will also affect any school on any phase of renovation.

Assumptions and risks

• Willingness of the communities and local authorities to actively endorse and take part in the
project and that the community is willing to be self-reliant and not dependent on continual
external assistance (aid-dependency syndrome).
• The community is able to accept and adapt to knowledge, attitudes and practice of the
project objectives.
• The organisation, IAS, is able to progressively build the capacity of its staff to deliver
quality service while maintaining close links with the community.
• Inter-agency partnership and the existence of coherence between the organisation, IAS´
project design and other agencies in the operational areas such that the latter’s activities and
strategies do not hamper negatively the project goals and purpose.
• Sustained security access to and within the project areas is assured.
• Sustained donor funding that allows for the project goal to be met.
• Overall policies for conditions relating to the project objectives adapted by the national
government in order for the project to be in line with the national development.
• Cultural acceptance of the policy, in particular to female education.

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HEALTH

Introduction
In the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), three out of eight goals, eight of the 16 targets
and 18 of the 48 indicators relate directly to health which is also an important contributor to
several other goals. These goals form an important benchmark in determining minimum
standards for the provision of relief and development aid. Regrettably, the situations of conflict
and disasters in which relief and development work is undertaken have a negative impact in the
achievement of the MDGs. The destruction of facilities, systems and institutions affect the
delivery of healthcare. Conflict also results in physical, emotional and mental trauma,
immigration and transmigration, spread of diseases and malnutrition among other ills with all
their attendant implications on the health of the affected persons. These make the dream of
health for all continue to be nothing but a mirage in the desert.

Objectives
Goal
The IAS health sector hopes to contribute towards the achievement of “health for all” in the
communities where IAS is operating.

Purpose
To promote wholesome living in the beneficiary communities so as to realize the personal and
social political and economic ideals cherished therein.

Outputs
The IAS health programme provides Primary Health Care services in beneficiary community.
The package provides integrated, accessible health care services by health workers and
clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs,
developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and
community. Promotion of health and self care are core components of this approach.

Activities and ways of Implementation


The Primary Health Care approach necessarily focuses on preventive measures of promoting
health. Consequently, the activities in the IAS programme are informed by this in method and
implementation. They fall under three broad categories namely; Promotional, Operational and
Capacity enhancement.

Promotional activities
• Community Health Education.
• Awareness raising and advocacy through appropriate multimedia.
• Community mobilization including the formation of community health committees.
• Extended programme on immunization in conjunction with partners and other authorities.

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• Coordination and information sharing with other actors at various forums.

Operational activities
• Delivery of out patient medical services.
• Maternal and Child Health services.
• Horizontally integrated programmes such as TB, leprosy HIV/AIDS etc.
• Out sourcing and provision of technical support for common problems such as eye cataract.
• Case management and referral procedures.

Capacity enhancement activities


• Training of health workers.
• Health Information System Management.
• Formation and training of community health committees.
• Provision of essential drug supplies tools and equipments.
• Improvement of basic facilities at medical centres.

Assumptions and risks

• Willingness of the communities and local authorities to actively endorse and take part in the
project.
• The community is willing to be self-reliant and not dependent on continual external
assistance (aid-dependency syndrome).
• The community is able to accept and adapt to knowledge, attitudes and practice of the
project objectives.
• The organisation, IAS, is able to progressively build the capacity of its staff to deliver
quality service while maintaining close links with the community.
• Inter-agency partnership and the existence of coherence between the organisation, IAS´
project design and other agencies in the operational areas such that the latter’s activities and
strategies do not hamper negatively the project goals and purpose.
• Sustained security access to and within the project areas is assured.
• Sustained donor funding that allows for the project goal to be met.
• Overall policies for conditions relating to the project objectives adapted by the national
government in order for the project to be in line with the national development.
• Cultural acceptance of the policy.

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WATER AND SANITATION

Introduction
The following document outlines IAS water and sanitation policy for its donors, partners and
staff. The water and sanitation policy serves to create and promote an understanding on the IAS
water and sanitation sector with emphasis on the activities undertaken and approaches used;
promote an inter-sector understanding within the organisation on the water and sanitation sector
objectives and to promote sound implementation of water resource management within the
sector.
The IAS water and sanitation sector and its related activities seek to contribute to meeting the
standards related to access to water in accordance with the Sphere project (Humanitarian
Charter and Minimum Standards in Disaster Response) and the United Nations Millennium
Development Goals.

Objectives
Goal
The goal of the IAS water and sanitation sector is increase access to safe water and, in
connection to safe water, the provision of appropriate sanitary facilities.

Purpose
The purpose of this policy is three fold:

1. Improve the quality of life by providing access to safe potable water and appropriate
sanitary facilities.
2. Reduce the incidence of water borne diseases.
3. Develop a sustainable water point maintenance strategy for both old and new water points.

Outputs
The main results expected from the interventions are:

• Healthier populations due to increased access to, and consumption of safe water and proper
use of available sanitary facilities.
• Reduction in time and energy spent obtaining water due to better and nearer water delivery
systems.
• Improved livelihood capacities due to increased productive capacities for the community to
meet basic needs and generate income for themselves.
• Improved hygiene and sanitation practices among the beneficiary community.
• Improved capacities of the beneficiary community to maintain and repair water points.

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Activities and ways of implementation
Activities
At the onset of the project activities, participatory situational analysis is carried out in the
proposed project area to ascertain among others the following: number of water points/ sources;
number of beneficiaries; hydro-geological surveys to determine the water; the ground water and
recharge levels. Apart from the initial situation analysis, the following are the other activities
involved in this sector:

• Drilling of deep boreholes and installation of hand pumps.


• Spring protection.
• In-service training for hand pump technicians.
• Construction of latrines.
• Construction of shallow wells.

Approaches

Community-based
The water and sanitation interventions are undertaken through a community centered approach
considered instrumental in not only increasing the community participation and ownership of
the water points but also in enhancing local sustainability mechanisms of the project. From the
onset of the project, the organisation seeks consultative meetings with the community to discuss
allocation of water points and sanitary facilities, and to define the roles and responsibilities of
the community and IAS as an implementing organisation.

Training and capacity building


The service delivery component is complimented with training on two levels. Firstly, the
organisation conducts general hygiene education and sanitation. This is done through
community workshops and seminars addressing issues related to proper use of water; especially
handling of water containers and cleanliness at the water source and in the home. Secondly,
community based hand pump technicians are trained on operation and maintenance of water
points.

Inter-agency cooperation
In order to enhance the impact of the water and sanitation sector, the organisation seeks to
create and work within linkages and partnerships, where relevant and possible with other actors
both national and international organisations involved in water and sanitation.

Assumptions and risks


The progress and impact of the water and sanitation policy and sector interventions will depend
on the following risks and assumptions:

• Climatic conditions and ground water potential are favourable for the implementation of the
project activities.
• Willingness of the communities and local authorities to actively endorse and take part in the
project.
• The community is willing to be self-reliant and not dependent on continual external
assistance (aid-dependency syndrome).
• The community is able to accept and adapt to knowledge, attitude and practice of good
hygiene and sanitation practices.
• The organisation is able to progressively build the capacity of its staff to deliver quality
service while maintaining close links with the community.

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• There is coherence between the organisations project design and other agencies in the
operational areas such that the latter’s activities and strategies do not hamper negatively the
project goals and purpose.
• There is synergy between the organisation, local authorities and line ministries in relation to
spare parts procurement and delivery.
• Sustained security access to and within the project areas is assured.
• Sustained donor funding that allows for the project goal to be met.
• Overall policies for conditions relating to the project objectives adapted by the national
government in order for the project to be in line with the national development.
• Cultural acceptance of the policy.

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CRITERIA FOR STARTING A PROJECT

Introduction
From its vast experience as a Relief and Development organisation, IAS deems it fit that certain
strategies for initiating a project in order to utilize the maximum of every specific intervention
are a vital tool. This policy will serve as a guideline, in the light of IAS mission statement, to
what circumstances that should be taken into account when starting a project.

Objectives
Goal
The goal is to provide a foundation for better run projects.

Purpose
The purpose is to utilize the maximum of every project in order for IAS to best serve the people
benefiting from the project.

Outputs
Projects that are more carefully planned and therefore are implemented in a more efficient and
professional manner serving in the best possible way the community amongst which IAS works.

Activities and ways of implementation


The following points are to be considered before starting a project:

• Humanitarian concern; In accordance with IAS vision and mission statement as well as
ICRC code of conduct, the humanitarian concern is imperative when initiating aid projects.
• Need; No project should be started unless there is a clear identified need for assistance by
IAS. One of IAS targets is also to provide assistance to the forgotten and lost people getting
deprived of aid from elsewhere – to reach out to the un-reached.
• Holistic view
• Geographical focus; IAS will give priority to projects that are within the geographical focus
of the organisation.
• Sector focus; IAS will give priority to projects that are within the sectors of the
organisation.
• Local partners; IAS strongly believe that, in order to achieve sustainable projects, local
partners and stakeholders must be involved from the very first step of the project.
• Capacity of organisation and local partner; this include the following; financial resources,
personnel resources, knowledge and experience as well as administrative and logistics
capacity.
• A clear exit strategy, in line with IAS Exit Strategy Policy.

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Assumptions and risks

• Adequate funding for the proposed intervention.


• Willingness of the communities and local authorities to actively endorse and take part in the
project.
• The community is willing to be self-reliant and not dependent on continual external
assistance (aid-dependency syndrome).
• The community is able to accept and adapt to knowledge, attitude and practice of the project
objectives.
• Sustained security access to and within the project areas is assured.
• Overall policies for conditions relating to the project objectives adapted by the national
government in order for the project to be in line with the national development.
• Cultural acceptance of the policy.

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CRITERIA FOR CLOSING A PROJECT

Introduction
The intensive focus of resources on an area for a limited period of time is expected to catalyze
self-sustaining development, but reality shows that this is often not the case. There are several
different circumstances that can serve as criteria for closing a project, some are forced by
external unwilling circumstances and others are a natural part of every project. This policy will
serve as a guideline to what criteria should be achieved or can be justified for closing a project.
The policy will in most cases reflect what is outlined in IAS policy “Criteria for starting a
project” and is intended to be implemented together with IAS “Exit strategy policy”.

Objectives
Goal
The goal is to provide a foundation for closing projects in the most appropriate way.

Purpose
The purpose is to utilize the maximum of every project in order for IAS to best serve the people
benefiting from the project.

Outputs
The results that should be achieved are projects that are closed in the most appropriate and best
possible way causing the least harm to the community in which IAS is working.

Activities and ways of implementation


As mentioned in the introduction, some circumstances force a closure of a project while other
circumstances form a natural end of the project. The points mentioned below are criteria that
should be achieved or can justify a closure of a project.

• Project objectives accomplished; this is the most wanted outcome of any project and will
form a natural end to a successful project. This will include a correct implementation of IAS
exit strategy policy meaning that the project is self sustaining due to the involvement of
local stakeholders.
• Needs, geographical and/or sector focus changed; what used to be needs have become
resources. This can be both material and human.
• Security situation deteriorating; in the event of risk of life for staff and the communities.
• Changed donor focus; the donor community is need driven and therefore might shift its
focus to other geographical areas.
• Lack of continued funding.

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Assumptions and risks

• The project objectives have been accomplished.


• Changed donor focus.
• The community is willing to be self-reliant and not dependent on continual external
assistance (aid-dependency syndrome).
• The community has accepted and adapted to knowledge, attitude and practice of the project
objectives.
• Sustained security access to and within the project areas is assured. .
• Cultural acceptance of the project has been achieved.

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EXIT STRATEGY

Introduction
The transition from acute emergency to sustainability affects all stakeholders - local people, the
employees, civil authorities, community leaders etc. IAS realizes that the intensive focus of
resources on an area for a limited period of time is expected to catalyze self-sustaining
development but the reality is that there are no quick fixes. IAS also realizes that development is
a continuing process and that it is important to maintain that continuity.
It is also important to note that when an aid programme comes to an end, there may be tasks
left to do as community expectations may not have been satisfied. Getting into an area is often
easier than getting out. Reminding oneself why the programme was developed in the first place
and what the programme was designed to achieve is the key factor that will help one focus to
the exit of a project. This Exit Strategy will ensure that maintenance and utilization for all
investment that has been made in the area is secured and planned for.

Objectives
Goal
The goal is to ensure the sustainability of impacts after a programme ends.

Purpose
The purpose is to improve the chance of sustainable outcomes of the programme.

Outputs
The result should be sustainable programmes that can continue even when IAS has ended the
programme.

Activities and ways of implementation


There are three basic approaches to exit strategies. They are:

1. Phasing down
2. Phasing over
3. Phasing out

Phasing down is a gradual reduction of programme activities and is often a preliminary stage to
phasing over and/or phasing out. Phasing over is when a sponsor or agency transfers its
programme activities to local institutions or communities. Phasing out is when a sponsor or
agency withdraws completely without turning it over to any local institution for continued
implementation.
IAS believes in the importance of continued sustainability and therefore all programmes
should have as an aim to phase down and phase over, not phase out.

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Exit criteria

When is the exit point?


Aid programmes should be limited to a specific period of time and should have a known end
date. Ideally the programme would be phased over a period of time; different projects within the
programme would have different exit points according to the achievement of predetermined
objectives. In a time-bound programme there should still be set targets. These would be
regularly monitored and evaluated, so that the organisation can predict what is being handed
over.

When should you plan to exit?


Plans for exit should be at the start of the programme. IAS will not wait until the end is in sight.
As the aid programme develops, every individual project should incorporate an exit strategy into
its development. IAS shall beware of projects requiring continuous funding to keep running.
Donors may not want to fund such projects after the end of the programme unless the donors are
willing to support a local NGO or institution that IAS will be handing over to.

Who should be involved in the process?


IAS will involve all stakeholders; the recipients of aid (beneficiaries), project partners etc.
IAS will also involve the main organisations and bodies such as civil authorities or municipality
departments that will continue to have a management or maintenance function.
Those responsible for looking after individual projects when the aid programme is completed
will also be involved - these may be interim successors or local organisations.

What needs to remain in the area?


A problem that might arise when exiting a programme is that the momentum can easily get lost,
despite the best intentions of the organisation for taking on the activities.
IAS must ensure that there is focus within the area for development e.g. a community
organisation, which can monitor continuous improvement.

How will IAS prevent a recurrence of the original problems?


IAS realizes that there are no easy answers to this question, especially in chronic complex
emergencies or natural disasters when causes of the crisis are beyond control. However, below
are some basic points to consider:

• The initial needs assessment; the regular programme monitoring and final evaluation should
form the basis of a few indicators. These should be agreed upon by all, easy to measure and
should be regularly checked to monitor progress.
• IAS should encourage the local authorities and the local organisation to plan to meet on a
regular basis to review the results of the monitoring.
• Further deterioration in any of the indicators may lead to the need for further intervention.
“IAS should develop a mechanism that this does not happen.”

Handover process
IAS is to make sure that the handover is done formally, so that all the stakeholders are aware
when it takes place and the commitments, which new people are entering into, or re-
commitments by existing partners can be acknowledged. In the areas where IAS has worked for
a long time, the point of exit is a "Rite of Passage" and needs to be marked with celebratory
events within the community. Much as exit is never wanted, it should end in style.

Checklist of other vital points to consider before exit


IAS realizes that there is no standard pattern while planning to exit. Each activity or project
should be reviewed to consider what should happen to it after the aid programme is finished.
Below is a checklist that IAS will use to exit.

• IAS will ensure that competent officers to handle the exit activity are in place.

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• There should be a local NGO or agency e.g. the municipality or a community organisation
to which the project should be transferred.
• The process on how the activity be transferred must be in place.
• All performance specifications to be maintained must be clarified.
• If the project is to be funded when handed over, such will be clarified by IAS.
• IAS must have a mechanism on how the project will be monitored.
• The role of the community in managing or monitoring must also be clarified.
• If need be IAS must clarify how the community’s role will be supported.
• IAS must ensure that the role of the local authorities is clearly stipulated out.
• IAS officers on the ground must know whether the successor organisations or persons need
any training.
• IAS must have on record such assets as need to be retained by the organisation and which
ones can be transferred to the successor?

Assumptions and risks

• Funding problems; the project/funding cycle can force an exit even when IAS is not ready
to handover the programme. Uncertainty of continued donor support can cause considerable
constraints on IAS as an organisation, IAS staff and the local stakeholders.
• Political instability.
• Lack of local stakeholders to take over the responsibility of the programme.
• Limited follow-up capacity.
• The community is willing to be self-reliant and not dependent on continual external
assistance (aid-dependency syndrome).
• The community is able to accept and adapt to knowledge, attitude and practice of the project
objectives.
• The organisation, IAS, is able to progressively build the capacity of its staff to deliver
quality service while maintaining close links with the community.
• Need for training among IAS staff in order to make clear exit strategies a natural part of all
programme planning and implementation.
• Inter-agency partnership and the existence of coherence between the organisation, IAS´,
project design and other agencies in the operational areas such that the latter’s activities and
strategies do not hamper negatively the Exit Strategy goals and purpose.
• Sustained security access to and within the project areas is assured.
• Cultural acceptance of the project has been achieved.

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EMERGENCY RESPONSE

Introduction
Despite efforts to reduce the risk of disasters of various kinds, such as famine, drought,
earthquakes, floods and acts of war, they continue to affect human lives all over the world.
Lack of planning for such catastrophes or the breakdown of normal coping mechanisms has
caused increased suffering for the people who are affected. Within the context of IAS work it is
imperative that mechanisms be put in place to help guide IAS response to disasters, especially in
communities among whom IAS is already working.

Objectives
Goal
The primary goal of emergency response is to minimize the effects of a disaster on a population
through the delivery of appropriate emergency relief services and materials in a timely and
efficient manner.

Purpose
The purpose of all emergency response is to improve the quality of life for the beneficiary to the
level that was status quo before the disastrous event occurred.

Outputs
Appropriate delivered emergency relief services in order to improve the quality of life for the
beneficiaries.

Activities and ways of implementation


In order for IAS to make the best impact it should focus on the activities that are the strength of
the organisation and the type of activities that is best suitable for an emergency response.
Lessons shall be taken from previous interventions and experiences. Local governmental
authorities should always be informed of any planned intervention, preferably prior to the actual
implementation.
Regardless of sector, the emergency response must, in order to achieve substantial
sustainability, involve the beneficiaries in the implementation. IAS also believes that emergency
response must work towards preparedness, why mechanisms must be set in place to decrease a
community’s vulnerability to a disaster and to help communities prepare for the unforeseen and
unexpected.
The intervention shall also raise community awareness and public education about possible
future hazards and vulnerabilities for people living in high-risk communities as well as provide
knowledge of basic coping strategies that can minimize the loss of life and property.
Finally, special attention must be given to the more vulnerable and marginalized in the
response. Such people include unaccompanied minors, the elderly, mentally

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challenged/handicapped, victims of physical abuse and violence, and pregnant or lactating
women.

Assumptions and risks

• Adequate funding for emergency and disaster response must be secured.


• Special consideration shall be taken to the political stability in the area of operation. IAS
upholds the right to stop any activities when security measures so require.
• IAS will, based on the knowledge obtained by previous emergency interventions,
continuously improve the emergency response mechanism.
• Improved mechanism for disaster preparedness. Country Representatives and Sector Heads
will be more equipped with material about possible negative future scenarios based on
reports from the field where IAS operates and other relevant reports, such as FEWS –
Famine Early Warning Systems. IAS must be prepared to respond to disasters and
catastrophes that might occur to the people it’s working among.
• For future purposes, IAS will ensure that all IAS projects have a component where
sustainability, disaster mitigation and reduction are included.
• In some cases, the help provided will result in a better state for the beneficiary than previous
state. If that is the case, it is a welcome output but does not have to be the aim for the
intervention.

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ENVIRONMENT

Introduction
Man is completely dependant on nature for existence and survival. On the other hand the
situation for the environment is very alarming as a result of an increasing degree of pollution.
This is due to short-term use of natural resources, lack of knowledge about the environment and
lack of willingness to act in an environmental way.
In view of the above, IAS has an active and self-critical way of using the environment
resources.
There is a clear link between environmental degradation and poverty. Poor people are more
dependent on renewable natural resources than others. The pollution of the environment is
classed as one of the reasons why poverty is on the increase and not decreasing in the world.
The poor have few resources and are forced to live on very limited geographical areas. It is
therefore high risk that the eco system is exhausted. The livelihood of the rural poor is
extremely dependent on the fragile environmental resource-base that the poor are often
compelled to inhabit. Further degradation and depletion of the nature in their local community
will invariably worsen the lot of the poor. An aggravation of poverty, in turn, will compel the
poor to make use of the marginal natural resources at their disposal in a way that may not be
sustainable.
IAS is closely following the international discussions and signing of conventions relating to
environmental issues. The use and the management of natural resources by the present
generation must not take place at the expense of future generations. There is no doubt that the
present generation must take serious action if a sustainable development for future generations
will be achieved.

Objectives
Goal
The overall goal is for IAS interventions to be as beneficial to the environment as possible.

Purpose
The purpose of this policy is to protect the environment through taking precautions in
minimizing the harmful effects that a humanitarian programme might cause on the environment,
working towards upholding a sustainable environmental future for generations to come.

Outputs
The outputs that can be expected through this policy are increased awareness of the importance
of including environmental aspects in planning and implementing humanitarian interventions,
and minimized harmful effects on the surrounding environment.

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Activities and ways of implementation
IAS will include the environmental aspects in all sectors from the planning stage to the actual
implementation of the programmes. This will include the following:

• IAS will give priority to interventions that contribute towards use of alternative energy
resources.
• IAS will strengthen its education programme by ensuring that environmental issues are
included in all curriculum at all training workshops on all levels.
• IAS will conduct training for its personnel in environmental related issues.
• IAS will carefully study and examine the link between interventions addressing poverty
reduction and how poverty affects the environment.
• IAS will use an environmental analysis on all proposed projects.

Check list
IAS will also have a check list of points to be considered before commencing the actual
implementation of a programme:

• How will the proposed project have consequences for the environment?
• Effects, such as pollution, on soil, water and air.
• Cause possible erosion.
• Overgrazing or overuse of the soil, resulting in destruction.
• Lowering of the groundwater.
• Increase or decrease of carbon dioxide.
• Are the environmental issues properly taken into consideration before refugee camps and
camps for displaced people are planned?
• Analysis of water quality.
• What are the provisions for future availability of fuel wood and wood for construction?
• Biological consequences.
• Will sensitive eco-systems be negatively affected?
• Risk for the spread of diseases on plants or animals.
• Threats on the biological variety?
• Effects on human beings.
• Risk for the spread of diseases on human beings.
• Will the living standard of the national population including nomadic population get better
or worse?
• Will the project change traditional behaviour negatively?
• Risk for conflicts between people groups.
• Are traditional or religious sites protected and respected?
• Are personnel and beneficiaries, including teachers and medical personnel, given necessary
education about environmental issues and its effect on health?
• Chemical consequences.
• Are dangerous chemicals used that will have future negative consequences?
• Are the personnel well informed about the handling procedures of dangerous chemicals?
• Will the chemicals affect those who handle them and/or the population at large?
• Procurement/Logistics.
• Are the transports well planned to avoid unnecessary movement of vehicles and material?
• Are all inputs including food culturally accepted?
• Can packing material be used for other future purposes?
• Energy.
• Are energy saving stoves and cooking utensils used?
• Are there provisions of re-forestation in areas where fuel wood is used for cooking?
• Have other energy sources, such as sun and wind, been considered?

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Assumptions and risks

• Willingness of the communities and local authorities to actively endorse and take part in the
project.
• The community is able to accept and adapt to knowledge, attitude and practice of the project
objectives.
• The organisation, IAS, is able to progressively build the capacity of its staff to deliver
quality service while maintaining close links with the community.
• Inter-agency partnership and the existence of coherence between the organisation, IAS´
project design and other agencies in the operational areas such that the latter’s activities and
strategies do not hamper negatively the project goals and purpose.
• Sustained security access to and within the project areas is assured.
• Sustained donor funding that allows for the project goal to be met.
• Overall policies for conditions relating to the project objectives adapted by the national
government in order for the project to be in line with the national development.
• Cultural acceptance of the policy.

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ETHICS AND INTEGRITY

Introduction
Ultimately, the struggle against corruption will entirely depend upon the morality of all the
employees of IAS; which stipulates that the employees’ egoistic interests do not come before
those of the communities they serve. We can take all kinds of preventive measures and they can
be broken down and subverted. But if the moral fibre of IAS staff in the delivery of services is
high, then no amount of corruption can subvert the organisation’s preventive measures. If we
are honest and open in our everyday dealings and communication with other people, if we fulfil
our commitment at all times and practice trust, tolerance and respect, only then can we achieve
dignity and integrity.

Objectives
Goal/purpose
The goal and purpose of this policy is to eradicate all forms of corruption, fraud, theft,
maladministration or suspected irregularities of this nature involving the following:

• All IAS Employees.


• Suppliers.
• Contractors.
• Consultants.
• And any other providers of goods and services to IAS.

Outputs
The results attained should be achieved dignity and integrity by being a truly honest and
transparent organisation which fulfils the commitment of practice trust, tolerance and respect.

Activities and ways of implementation


It is the policy of IAS that corruption, theft, fraud, maladministration or any other acts of
dishonesty of a similar nature will not be tolerated. It is the responsibility of the persons
mentioned above to report all incidents of corruption, fraud, theft, maladministration in their
countries, sectors or area of operation. All IAS Staff in Senior Management level are
responsible for the detection and prevention of all corruption, theft, fraud and
maladministration.

Actions instituting corruption, fraud, theft and/or maladministration


• Any dishonest, fraudulent or corrupt act.
• Theft of funds, supplies or other assets.
• Financial misconduct in handling or reporting of money, financial transactions or other
assets.
• Disclosing confidential information to outside parties.

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• Irregularly accepting, requesting, offering or giving anything of material value to or from
contractors, suppliers or other persons supplying services/goods to IAS.
• Irregular destruction, removal or abuse of office records, furniture and equipment.
• Deliberate omitting or refusal to report or act upon reports of any such irregular or dishonest
conduct or any similar irregularity.

Protection of whistle blowers


Any employee/official who suspects or reports suspected dishonest activity or any such activity
that he/she has witnessed, may remain anonymous if he/she so requires.
Allegations made by employees/officials which allegations are false and made with malicious
intents, should be discouraged by IAS Senior management. Where such malicious or false
allegations are discovered, the person who made the false allegations should be subjected to
firm disciplinary action. There will be no reprisal against an employee/official who in good faith
reported a violation or a suspected violation.

The IAS Code of Conduct


• IAS assumes that the employee lives a moral life that can be examined and serves as an
example to colleagues and the environment.
• The code is intended to be a guide for staff in sustaining behaviour in their professional and
private life which is in line with IAS ethical principals and guidelines.
• The Code is intended to help the employee to better understand the special obligations he
/she has as a humanitarian worker in assisting vulnerable individuals or groups of people.
• By accepting employment with IAS all employees shall know and accept the special duty of
a humanitarian worker and the ethical conduct that goes with their responsibility.
• Any senior manager must acknowledge their special duty to personally set a good example
and maintain the IAS ethical working environment in which their colleagues can sustain an
ethical behaviour fulfilling their duties.
• IAS is a drug free working environment. It is dangerous and unlawful to manufacture,
distribute, dispense posses or use any kind of drugs.
• IAS shall maintain the basic ethics of integrity, stewardship, transparency, accountability,
diligence, fairness etc. These ethical standards shall be expected of all IAS employees and
volunteers.
• IAS´ values like, truthfulness, honesty, transparency, respect for humanity as created in
Gods image, shall be the bottom line in maintaining linkages and networking with other
organisations.
• IAS expects every employee to initiate and maintain cooperation and teamwork with
colleagues and other partners.
• The employee shall acknowledge, respect and show sensibility to local culture and
traditions as long as these are not in conflict with the Christian morals and standards.
• The employee shall not sexually harass their colleagues and locals, or in any other way live
in a way which is shamefully and not in accordance with Christian morals.
• Every employee shall respect, submit and obey their superiors, be it at the workplace or in
the organisation as a whole.
• The employees shall promote human rights of all regardless of social status, race, ethnicity,
colour, religion, gender or age.
• Never commit any act or harassment that could lead to physical or physiological harm,
especially to women and children.

Assumptions and risks

• Sustained donor funding.


• Highly committed IAS staff.

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GENDER

Introduction
International Aid Services humanitarian mandate is to prevent and alleviate suffering without
discrimination as expressed in the IAS Mission Statement. Gender equality ensures that there is
no sex-based discrimination in the allocation of resources, benefits or in access to services.
Gender refers to the roles, responsibilities, needs, interests and capacities of both men and
women as opposed to looking at the special interests and needs of women alone. Male and
female roles, responsibilities, needs, interests and capacities are influenced by social and
cultural factors. It is important to understand that men and women play different roles in society
and that gender does not mean that men and women should necessarily change their behaviour
and execute the other’s duties. IAS believes that the gender issue must be looked at in a broader
context where the different needs of men and women are distinctively addressed.

Objectives
Goal
The goal of this policy is to make gender-related issues a part of every intervention from the
planning stage to the implementation, in order to make sure that both men and women equally
benefit from an intervention.

Purpose
The purpose is to understand the underlying causes that contribute to an unjust balance between
men and women when it comes to relief and development interventions. Natural disasters,
conflicts, social and political instability affect men and women differently, and by
understanding these differences it will be possible to meet the needs of both men and women
accordingly. All people should have access to humanitarian aid, regardless of sex, age or race.

Outputs
Sufficient balance between the needs of men and women addressed in all IAS interventions.

Activities and ways of implementation

• IAS will ensure that the needs of boys and girls, men and women are met accordingly in all
interventions.
• IAS realizes the importance of having to be extremely sensitive to culture and religion.
Gender issues must be addressed contextually.
• IAS believes in the importance of having full participation of men and women in its
programmes. This will not only strengthen gender balance but also make the programmes
more efficient.
• IAS will continue supporting women development initiatives. Project proposals for women
programmes will be considered on the same level as other proposals.

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• IAS will continue to encourage girls’ education and take measures through its Integrated
Community Empowerment Programme (ICEP) to educate all parties concerned about the
importance of girls’ education. IAS is aware that the consequences of girls’ education in
some societies will drastically change traditional systems and therefore will take precaution
to approach in a non-offensive way.
• IAS will continue addressing the needs of women and children specifically in armed
conflicts. This includes involving women in conflict resolution and negotiations.
• IAS will continue to lay emphasis on the importance of maintaining its status as non-
discrimination and serve as a model for partner organisations and individuals. Gender
therefore plays an important role in capacity building as well as institutional development
programmes.

Assumptions and risks

• Willingness of the communities and local authorities to actively endorse and take part in the
project.
• The community is willing to be self-reliant and not dependent on continual external
assistance (aid-dependency syndrome).
• The community is able to accept and adapt to knowledge, attitude and practice of the project
objectives.
• The organisation, IAS, is able to progressively build the capacity of its staff to deliver
quality service while maintaining close links with the community.
• Inter-agency partnership and the existence of coherence between the organisation, IAS´
project design and other agencies in the operational areas such that the latter’s activities and
strategies do not hamper negatively the project goals and purpose.
• Sustained security access to and within the project areas is assured.
• Sustained donor funding that allows for the project goal to be met.
• Overall policies for conditions relating to the project objectives adapted by the national
government in order for the project to be in line with the national development.
• Cultural acceptance of the policy.
• Men and women benefiting equally from IAS interventions.

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HIV/AIDS

Introduction
In the first 20 years of its known existence, the HIV/AIDS virus (Human Immuno-Deficiency
Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) has been essentially considered as a long term
development problem due to implied costs and timeframe, and also for reasons of political
sensitivity. More than 23 million people have been killed by the virus and the World Health
Organisation body (WHO) in October 2003 declared HIV/AIDS to be a global health
emergency.
IAS is working in some of the most affected nations and feels the need to make its own
contribution towards eliminating the outbreak of further HIV/AIDS. Studies also indicate that
HIV/AIDS needs to be considered across the full spectrum of the sustainable livelihood
framework, which IAS intends to do.

Objectives
Goal
The overall goal is for IAS to make HIV/AIDS related issues a natural and vital part of every
intervention. This is in order to reduce the spread of HIV/AIDS and to encourage/enable already
affected victims to go on with life.

Purpose
The purpose is to reduce the possibilities of further HIV/AIDS outbreaks among the
beneficiaries in the areas of IAS operations, all in accordance with IAS mandate to save and
promote life.

Outputs
Results to be achieved are a noticeable decrease in the spread of HIV/AIDS related cases among
the beneficiaries and more consideration for HIV/AIDS issues in all IAS interventions.

Activities and ways of implementation


IAS will have most of the activities in its operations focusing on making HIV/AIDS a cross
cutting issue in the already existing programmes in all relevant sectors. IAS will also ensure that
HIV/AIDS considerations will be included in all programme planning, carried out through the
actual implementation and be a sustainable component after IAS phase-out.

The key elements of our policy are:


• The provision of information to employees on HIV/AIDS, its magnitude, impact ad
preventative measures.
• Implementation of non-discriminatory policies, procedures and practices in managing
individuals who have HIV/AIDS.

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• To approach individuals who have HIV/AIDS in the same manner as those with any other
progressive or debilitating illness.
• To join forces with other organisations to counter HIV/AIDS and alleviate its impact by
sharing the results of our internal research and supporting their efforts where appropriate.
• Increasing focus on women and strengthening the linkages between gender equality, sexual
and reproductive health and HIV/AIDS programmes.
• Increasing focus on the synergies between HIV prevention and treatment.
• Increasing focus on young people and on children orphaned or made vulnerable by
HIV/AIDS.
• Strengthening the involvement of the civil society in the planning and implementation of the
HIV/AIDS response.
• Support the promotion of HIV prevention initiatives in primary and secondary schools.
• Support interventions aimed at ensuring that orphans and other vulnerable children remain
in the education system.
• Support community mobilization and capacity building to mitigate the effects of HIV and
AIDS on orphans and vulnerable children.
• Fighting stigma and discrimination.

HIV/AIDS and conflicts


HIV/AIDS is both a long-term crisis in its own right and a contributory factor in acute
emergencies. HIV/AIDS is one of many factors contributing to food insecurity. It is important to
understand how the impact of HIV/AIDS relates to other factors, such as drought and conflict,
to create acute humanitarian crises.

Tackling the wider implications of the HIV/AIDS epidemic on the security situation in the
highly affected countries among refugees and internally displaced people and among uniformed
services and peacekeepers is an important element in the fight against HIV/AIDS.
Conflicts and other emergency situations create conditions such as increased vulnerability of
women and girls, collapse of health systems, break down of traditional sexual norms etc. that
increase the risk of contracting HIV-infection and may lead to the further spread of the
infection. In view of the above IAS will deploy the following below to try to reduce the rate of
infection of HIV/AIDS.

Specific activities during programme implementation include:


• Designing safe environments in the activities in order to minimize risks of rape for women
and minors.
• Include HIV/AIDS education in all IAS programmes, i.e. holding courses/seminars at
schools targeting HIV/AIDS related issues.
• Training of IAS staff in HIV/AIDS.
• Close collaboration with other partners in HIV/AIDS related matters.
• Care for victims and the sick.

Assumptions and risks

• Willingness of the communities and local authorities to actively endorse and take part in the
project.
• The community is willing to be self-reliant and not dependent on continual external
assistance (aid-dependency syndrome).
• The community is able to accept and adapt to knowledge, attitude and practice of the project
objectives.
• The organisation, IAS, is able to progressively build the capacity of its staff to deliver
quality service while maintaining close links with the community.

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• Inter-agency partnership and the existence of coherence between the organisation, IAS´
project design and other agencies in the operational areas such that the latter’s activities and
strategies do not hamper negatively the project goals and purpose.
• Sustained security access to and within the project areas is assured.
• Sustained donor funding that allows for the project goal to be met.
• Overall policies for conditions relating to the project objectives adapted by the national
government in order for the project to be in line with the national development.
• Cultural acceptance of the policy, in particular when it comes to HIV/AIDS related matters
such as family planning etc.
• IAS interventions creating a positive effect on the eradication of HIV/AIDS virus.

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INTEGRATED COMMUNITY EMPOWERMENT PROGRAMME

Introduction and background


For many years IAS has used the Integrated Community Empowerment Programme (ICEP) to
address issues related to community ownership of IAS supported projects and has recorded little
success. Much of the reason behind this has been that IAS, as well as other international
agencies have been focused mainly on the emergency type of intervention in the many
countries/areas of operation. Unfortunately, the relief oriented type of intervention, whose
objective is to quickly intervene in emergencies, does not take community development and
ownership related issues into account during the implementation process. Furthermore, the
relief oriented type of intervention does not take project sustainability into account either. This
resulted in the creation of a “dependency syndrome” among beneficiary communities in many
areas of IAS operation.
In addition to the problem of dependency, minimal co-ordination between the different sectors
of IAS intervention led to diminished impact in beneficiary communities. IAS’ intervention is
through the sectors of Water and Sanitation, Education, Agriculture, Christian Ministries and
Health. There are many occasions where the above sectors worked independent of each other.
And so with time the need for concerted, integrated efforts among the sectors became very
apparent especially when one thinks about bringing a holistic and sustainable intervention.
In many countries/areas of IAS operation the situation is characterized as an emergency by
any standards. However many parts of those countries/areas are more stable than others and
therefore offer an opportunity for alternative means of international agency intervention. In the
more stable parts of those countries/areas, IAS would evaluate its ways of operation and begin
to adopt methods of intervention that would facilitate sustained development. This is easily
affected using the Integrated Community Empowerment Programme (ICEP) tool. The ICEP tool
is to encourage a unified approach among sectors during the planning and implementation of
projects. Furthermore, the programme should encourage community participation and
ownership from the outset of any project with all the IAS sectors having input, bringing about
holistic development. Using the Integrated Community Empowerment Programme IAS is to
work among beneficiary communities in a much more coordinated, holistic and concerted
manner.

What is Integrated Community Empowerment Programme?


The Integrated Community Empowerment Programme was established to incorporate all IAS
activities in the sectors of Water and Sanitation, Health, Agriculture, Education and Christian
Ministries so as to address jointly the issue of joint community dependency. The programme
aims at motivating positive community behavioural change towards project ownership, dignity,
participation, sustainability and self-reliance. It was developed as a means to help bridge this
gap in IAS implementation policies. The programme also draws heavily on experience gathered
over the years and bases a lot of future implementation on the results of an evaluation process.
Through integration and empowerment of communities, this programme is deemed to bring
about the restoration of dignity and self-confidence.

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Objectives
Goal
In line with the overall mandate of IAS, the overall goal of ICEP is to promote sustainable
community based programmes in all IAS' served areas regardless of race, creed, gender or
nationality of the recipient. This will be done by strengthening the capacity of the communities
through training, which will increasing their sense of ownership of the projects.

Purpose
The purposes of this policy are:

• To encourage and strengthen community participation in the planning and implementation


of projects through dialogue, community mobilization, and sensitization meetings, all done
in an effort to bring about an increased sense of ownership of projects.
• To identify and prioritize community needs using a problem tree, after which intervention
measures will be coordinated with all key players.
• To build the capacity of given communities through workshops and seminars on the
identified needs.
• To identify and empower vulnerable groups through training, workshops and seminars
enabling them to become self reliant e.g. the disabled, widows and orphans.
• To help improve household economies, by supporting emerging income generating
activities with materials and training.
• To encourage a change of attitude within given communities on gender related issues
through mobilization, sensitization and training.
• To train IAS programme/field staff in data collection techniques who will then use these
techniques, together with pre-defined indicators, to carry out continuous monitoring and
evaluation of all IAS programmes.
• Encourage the development of inter- and intra-sectoral collaboration within IAS and with
all international and indigenous agency partners.

Outputs
The result should be sustainable programmes by integrating and empowering the communities
which are benefiting from the programme.

Activities and ways of implementation


The Approaches of ICEP
The programme opts to encourage and strengthen the communities to adopt sustainable
practices. Through the programme IAS staff will endeavour to work with communities and learn
from them what they know, what the communities do and what they want to do. IAS staff will
also endeavour to offer concrete ideas about participatory development and effective
communication as well as help communities put these concrete ideas together to plan an
effective empowerment promotion programme. At the same time the programme is to target
individuals and bodies involved directly or indirectly in the empowerment of communities.
These include:

• Local leaders, government officials and other organized groups.


• Community based organisations, other NGOs and implementing agencies.
• Water technicians, agricultural extension workers, health promoters, PTAs, and BOGs.

It will be through such as the above that the capacity for sustainable and continuous
empowerment will be sought.

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The Stages of ICEP
The programme will be implemented in the following stages:

• Planning of the local strategic implementation framework.


• Identification and analysis of dependency practices and to target these practices for positive
change.
• Motivating stakeholders' positive behavioural change towards ownership, dignity,
participation, sustainability and self-reliance.
• Implementation and effective communication of the programme.

ICEP Functions
The programme management committee will be comprised of a community development
officer, an administrator, a sector head, a programme support officer and a field coordinator.
The management committee will meet regularly and oversee the integration and implementation
of the programme. All the sectors will have an opportunity to have an input in the communities
that IAS is involved in hence synergistically encourage lasting change in the communities
IAS staff through this programme will use the available means at their disposal to enter the
communities in the most effective way. These will include civil and local authority channels,
churches and other influential groups within the communities. These structures will be crucial in
the mobilisation and eventual sensitisation of the communities IAS hopes to reach.
The programme will aim at having a "bottom-up" participatory approach in all the
communities that IAS is involved in. Each of the sectors will lay down its strategies to meet the
identified needs within the communities and the core committees will co-ordinate their
implementation. Through a series of workshops and seminars focusing on the training of
trainers IAS hopes to initiate change. All activities of the programme will encourage gender
sensitivity and the development of all strata of society.

ICEP Programme Implementation


In order to be more effective in planning and implementation of programmes, establishing a
database of baseline information is the first objective of the Integrated Community
Empowerment Programme. Then this will be followed by the sensitization and training of all
IAS staff including the evaluation and collection of baseline information. The information
collected will be analyzed for the creation of a database which later will help in the planning
and implementation.

Assumptions and risks

• Willingness of the communities and local authorities to actively endorse and take part in the
Empowerment programme.
• The community is willing to be self-reliant and not dependent on continual external
assistance (aid-dependency syndrome).
• The community is able to accept and adapt to knowledge, attitude and practice of the
Integrated Community Empowerment Programme objectives.
• The organisation, IAS, is able to progressively build the capacity of its staff to deliver
quality service while maintaining close links with the community.
• Inter-agency partnership and the existence of coherence between the organisation, IAS´
project design and other agencies in the operational areas such that the latter’s activities and
strategies do not hamper negatively the empowerment programme goals and purpose.
• Sustained security access to and within project areas is assured.
• Sustained donor funding that allows for project goals to be met.
• Overall policies for conditions relating to the programme’s objectives adapted by the
national government in order for the programme to be in line with the national development.
• Cultural acceptance of the programme.

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PARTNERSHIP – PROGRAMME COUNTRIES

Introduction
There are principles that need to be developed in order to have quality partnership in the
implementation of projects. With true partnership, efficiency in project implementation is
improved. A good partnership also creates trust between beneficiaries and the organisations
involved in the projects’ implementation.

IAS believes in the 10 following principles of partnership

1. Partners jointly determine objectives, principles, values and criteria related to humanitarian
action. Flexibility and equity (non-discrimination) are seen as shared core values.
2. Each partner knows and respects the mandates, charters or statutes of the other.
3. Partners establish a climate of mutual trust and respect.
4. Partners inform and create networks.
5. Partners share responsibilities.
6. Partners promote accountability of the whole system, in particular to the recipients of aid.
7. Partners ensure monitoring and evaluation of the partnership.
8. Partners share successes and failures to develop best practices.
9. Partners promote a learning environment by engaging in the dissemination of experience
and best practices.
10. Partners commit to reinforcing the linkages between relief, rehabilitation and development,
with the view to help the recipients of humanitarian aid regaining a minimum if not
maximum of self-sufficiency.

Objectives
Goal
The overall goal is to create lasting and trustworthy partnerships for the implementation of
humanitarian programmes.

Purpose
The purpose is to reach out to those in most need/target groups by utilizing the network and
trust that the partnership creates.

Outputs
To create lasting and trustworthy partnerships establishing more efficient means in reaching out
to the target group.

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Activities and ways of implementation
IAS believes in the importance of cooperation and partnership in all interventions. There are
three levels of co-operation that IAS will continue to maintain, and where needed, continue to
improve:

1. Cross-sectoral collaboration within IAS.


2. Co-operation with the beneficiaries.
3. Co-operation with international and national organisations.

Cross-sectoral collaboration within IAS


It is very common that each programme sector tends to develop its own strategies independently
of other sectors. This sometimes causes unnecessary confusion among the beneficiary
communities. A community is in need of health, education, water and sanitation and agricultural
support. In the community these sectors are tightly linked together. IAS believes in a holistic
approach where all the sectors are integrated and a joint approach is conducted. Although this
approach is not always possible, IAS will strive to improve the cross-sectoral collaboration
within the different sectors and encourage sector heads to agree on joint policies on programmes
targeting the same communities.

Co-operation with beneficiaries.


To create self-reliance the target group must be involved from day one in the planning and
implementation of a project. The project belongs to them and the issue of ownership should be
addressed at an early stage. IAS has developed a strategy called ICEP – Integrated Community
Empowerment Programme. This document will serve as a guide in all IAS programmes and in
IAS’ relationship with the beneficiary communities. In a situation where the local authorities are
not amongst the target group, IAS will endeavour to foster such co-operation.

Co-operation with International- and national organisations


• IAS is a member of several consortiums. No organisation can claim to have enough
resources to meet all the needs in a given community. It is therefore imperative to link up
with organisations, both international and national, to compliment each other.
• IAS will continue to seek ways of channelling support through local indigenous
organisations where feasible. IAS recognizes the expertise that is available in these groups.
However, it is important to understand that in order for local organisations to effectively
operate, the international organisations must build their capacity by providing training and
logistics support.
• A guiding rule is that IAS will only pay for expenses occurring in the country of operation
and not support regional office expenses for local partners.

Assumptions and risks

• Willingness of the communities and local authorities to actively endorse the policy.
• The community is willing to be self-reliant and not dependent on continual external
assistance (aid-dependency syndrome).
• The community is able to accept and adapt to knowledge, attitude and practice of the policy
objectives.
• The organisation, IAS, is able to progressively build the capacity of its staff to deliver
quality service while maintaining close links with the community.
• Shared common vision and goals with partner agencies.
• Inter-agency partnership and the existence of coherence between the organisation, IAS´
project design and other agencies in the operational areas such that the latter’s activities and
strategies do not hamper negatively the policy goals and purpose.

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• Overall policies for conditions relating to the policy objectives adapted by the national
government in order for the policy to be in line with the national development.
• Cultural acceptance of the policy.

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PEACE BUILDING, RECONCILIATION, DEMOCRACY AND
HUMAN RIGHTS

Introduction
The message about reconciliation plays an important role. Without reconciliation there will be
no peace. Peace is more than a bureaucratic and diplomatic agreement between warring parties.
Issues like visions and values are important in peace building processes. Furthermore,
reconciliation is the platform for democracy and the principles for human rights. A person who
has been reconciled is a person who has been restored.
Experience has proved that humanitarian interventions have not been linked to peace building
interventions, as should have, resulting in little or no future sustainability. Humanitarian aid
only addresses the symptoms and not the root cause of conflicts. Much as it is deemed difficult,
the aim should be to stop conflicts before they turn into disasters.
As the cost for prevention of conflicts is much less than the cost for delivery of emergency aid
there is a great need to further develop Early Warning Systems at all levels.
In order to create sustainable solutions in countries with conflicts an analysis of peace and
security political aspects of the dynamics in the conflict is essential.

Objectives
Goal
The goal of this policy is to highlight the importance of peace building, reconciliation,
democracy and human rights in the context of a relief- and development programme.

Purpose
The purpose is to prevent further conflicts by implementing programmes that adhere to seeking
the root cause of the conflict and not only address the obviously displayed symptoms.

Outputs
More attention focused on peace building, reconciliation, democracy and human rights issues
when planning and implementing a programme, resulting in the prevention of further possible
conflicts.

Activities and ways of implementation


General
For any organisation it is imperative that the humanitarian principles are adhered to:

• Impartiality; humanitarian aid should be delivered without discrimination.


• Neutrality; humanitarian actors should not favour any of the parties in a conflict.
• Access; warring parties should guarantee access to people in need and not use humanitarian
aid as a weapon.

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• Responsibilities of the warring parties; the warring parties and other local authorities are
responsible and should see to it that all parties concerned adhere to the basic principles of
delivery of humanitarian aid.

Role of IAS
IAS will seek to prioritize interventions that lead to improvements of the conditions of
marginalized people groups and prioritize interventions addressing:

• Civic Education at all levels.


• Trauma Counselling.
• Grass root Peace and Reconciliation.
• The support to local institutions or organisations that promote peace building and
reconciliation.
• The support to disabled persons as per the United Nations declaration on rights for people
with disability.
• The support to discriminated ethnic groups as per the United Nations convention on rights
for indigenous people groups.
• The support to minorities as per articles 18-20 in the General declaration of human rights.
• The increased understanding among its staff, project beneficiaries and local authorities
about the conflict preventive role of human rights conventions.
• Strengthening people’s identity, self-esteem and dignity in order to create a platform for
democracy as per the IAS mission statement.
• Encouraging partner organisations to develop democratic decision making structures and
methods.
• In countries where war or ethnic conflicts exist, the focus on interventions that promote
peace building and reconciliation.
• All projects that enhance reconciliation.
• The rights of the children in armed conflicts.
• The learning from, and co-operation with, other organisations that have experience in
human rights, democracy development, and peace building and reconciliation activities.

Check list
Questions to be asked in all interventions:

• Will certain individuals or groups be discriminated as a result of the intervention?


• How can negative effects be minimized or eliminated?
• How are target groups or partner organisations involved in the planning, implementation
and evaluation of the intervention? How can the target groups’ involvement be
strengthened?
• How can components in the intervention that encourage development of democracy and
public involvement be strengthened?
• Will the intervention affect the relationship between warring parties?
• How will the intervention encourage peace and reconciliation? How can these components
be strengthened?

Assumptions and risks

• Willingness of the communities and local authorities to actively endorse and take part in the
policy implementation process.
• The community is willing to be self-reliant and not dependent on continual external
assistance (aid-dependency syndrome).
• The community is able to accept and adapt to knowledge, attitude and practice of the policy
objectives.

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• The organisation, IAS, is able to progressively build the capacity of its staff to deliver
quality service while maintaining close links with the community.
• Inter-agency partnership and the existence of coherence between the organisation, IAS´
project design and other agencies in the operational areas such that the latter’s activities and
strategies do not hamper negatively the policy goals and purpose.
• Sustained security access to and within the project areas is assured.
• Sustained donor funding that allows for the policy goal to be met.
• Overall policies for conditions relating to the policy objectives adapted by the national
government in order for the policy to be in line with the national development.
• Cultural acceptance of the policy.

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POST TRAUMATIC STRESS TRAINING

Introduction
The world today is full of monuments to conflicts that have affected different countries from
time to time. Destroyed schools, hospitals, homes and entire cities are telling testimonies to the
bitter conflicts that the world has seen. No sooner is one conflict resolved than another starts.
Fuelled by all manner of reasons from ideological differences to competition for scarce
resources, conflicts continue to have serious impacts on world civilizations today. Whatever
their motivation, conflicts have a common and invariable outcome in the destruction of human
life and underdevelopment. The most visible part of a conflict is the polarized struggle between
a mass of opponents. The protagonists in the conflict engage in protracted talks towards
peaceful resolution while the international community focuses on rebuilding the broken
economies and social institutions through relief and development aid.
The nature of conflicts has changed dramatically in the last few decades. Positive values that
have been carried even through conflicts in the past are no longer adhered to. Women and
children are today as much victims as they are combatants in conflicts. The world today has to
deal with cases of outright terrorist attacks. The strain on the lives of peoples is appalling. Vast
numbers of people that go through conflicts are not able to adjust to normal life because the
conflict has put ugly scars in their lives. They spend the rest of their lives in this state which
consequently affects their productivity as useful members of the society. This also has an impact
on the next generations as they become open to abuse from their traumatized parents. And the
cycle of violence continues.
A fundamental fact is that though every conflict is the result of differences existing between
parties, each is started and sustained by individual persons. Each individual sufferer in a conflict
setting is also a potential perpetrator. The effects of the same, though affecting entire societies,
are also experienced individually. There is need to address the conflict at both levels. There is
need to develop policies that support and enhance peace building and also respond to the need
of individual persons suffering from the result of conflict. More attention needs to go towards
the rebuilding of the broken people in conflicts. The truth is that for every broken building in a
conflict setting, several impaired lives are struggling to survive somewhere. Though it is helpful
to provide food, clothing and shelter to the victims of conflict, this does not restore their fullness
of being. Post traumatic stress training is an essential component of conflict transformation.

Objectives
Goal
The goals of the post traumatic stress training are:

• To provide the avenue for healing of the inner wounds inflicted by war or any other disaster.
• Build strong interpersonal relationships based on love and mutual trust among all members
of the society starting from the family unit.
• Provide a tool with which individual members of the society can look at their life situation
with a new perspective. Participants will have a deeper understanding of their conflict
circumstances and how to solve their problems amicably.

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• Transform participants into powerful agents of change as healers in their strife torn
societies.
• Support conflict transformation by promoting wholesome personal living and peaceful
coexistence between communities.

Purpose
This policy is designed to promote emotional health of persons that have gone through traumatic
stress. This will also raise the standard of living by reducing conflicts at the family and society
level.

Outputs
Emotionally stable and well adjusted persons that make meaningful contribution to their
families and community at large. It is also expected that family and society conflicts will be
reduced as stress is managed effectively.

Activities and ways of implementation


The main implementation strategy is the provision of personalized and group therapy
counselling services to traumatized persons. The curriculum consists of a flexible and adaptable
content to suit a variety of situations. It is designed to not only enhance healing of individuals
that have gone through traumatic stress but also transform them into powerful agents of change.
The family unit is targeted as the basis of expected social transformation. The training is offered
by teams of trained trainers that will visit various conflict stricken communities assessing the
level and degree of trauma in the societies. Three day group therapy counselling sessions will be
given in a participatory manner. A few selected trainees that show promise and capacity to reach
others will then be given a three-week training of trainer course after which they will also be
dispatched to offer more training.

Assumptions and risks


It is risky to assume the willingness, cooperation and participation of survivors of conflicts in
the training workshops. Political and ideological differences among the conflicting communities
may also affect the success of the programme while political instability and recurrence of active
conflict could snap at any time and derail the programme.

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POVERTY REDUCTION

Introduction
Poverty could be defined as the state of being poor, resources existing in too small amounts,
scarcity or lack of and the state of being in want. As one looks at poverty, one must understand
that poverty engulfs more than just the lack or scarcity of money. There are many dimensions
that interlink to bring about poverty for an individual or a given community. These dimensions
include, but are not limited to, culture, religion, infrastructure, economics, and politics.
Examples of these different actors are a poor economy, lack of education, ignorance, natural and
man-made disasters, the HIV/AIDS epidemic, lack of investment, and political instability.
Finally, food, shelter, clothing, health, security and freedom of choice all have an important
bearing in determining poverty in any given society.

Categories of Poverty

Dependants
Many of the destitute such as the elderly, disabled and orphans are dependant on others for their
livelihood and yet the very hosts they depend upon are equally chronically so poor that their
economic status in the community is not sufficient to maintain themselves. Hence the level of
dependence aggravates the degree of poverty.

The transitory poor


Many of those who are economically active may move in and out of poverty. Causes for this
include person’s health, theft, conflict, disasters and the number of children in the family or
economic crises.

The economically active poor


Many people may be active and productive, especially in agriculture, but are incapacitated to
have access to services and markets because of remoteness, gender, and ethnicity. For example:
in most countries in Africa, the majority of the poor live in rural areas with poor infrastructure
that limit their capacity, giving them little or no access to services and markets.

The landless and pastoralists


Pastoralists are often illiterate and are geographically and politically remote. Despite the wealth
they physically own they still lead a poor and primitive life in the community.

Internally displaced persons and refugees


Refugees and internally displaced persons often have little or no access to food and social
services. They need external assistance in order to become stable: such conditions expose them
to dependency on others and therefore more prone to poor livelihood earning.

The urban poor


These are those who live in crowded slum conditions and are a security risk to themselves and
to others as people of low income earnings in the urban social strata.

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Objectives
Goal
The overriding goal is to provide an environment for improvements in the living conditions of
the poverty stricken sections of the population through poverty reduction strategy.
The method to reduce poverty is to create awareness for the people concerning their human
rights, such as social, political and religious freedom, and access to resources. IAS will
contribute to reduce poverty through long-term and short-term partnership and engagement with
local communities and organisations. For further reference regarding the latter, see IAS
Integrated Community Empowerment Programme policy.

Purpose
To reduce poverty among the people affected by IAS various interventions.

Outputs
Improved standard of life for the beneficiaries in terms of increased awareness of human rights
and increased access to resources.

Activities and ways of implementation


IAS seeks to reduce poverty by:

• Promoting human development through programmes in the social sectors such as education
and health.
• Promoting local participation in the development process.
• Supporting public administration that is accountable and transparent.
• Supporting education and integrating education into other sectors like health, water etc.
• Contributing to reduction of vulnerability of the poor and empowering them
• Involving vulnerable groups like the elderly, ethnic minority groups and disabled into
development programmes.
• Contributing to the elimination of ignorance rooted in cultural traditions and faiths that
impoverish people or groups and preventing them from attaining positive social and
economical development.
• Promote peace and reconciliation between ethnic and religious groups that are hostile to
each other by using local initiatives as mediating tools.
• Promoting capacity building of local staff and personnel to enable local people to participate
in poverty reduction.

Assumptions and risks

• Willingness of the communities and local authorities to actively endorse and take part in the
implementation of the policy.
• The community is willing to be self-reliant and not dependent on continual external
assistance (aid-dependency syndrome).
• The community is able to accept and adapt to knowledge, attitude and practice of the policy
objectives.
• The organisation, IAS, is able to progressively build the capacity of its staff to deliver
quality service while maintaining close links with the community.
• Inter-agency partnership and the current existence of coherence between the organisation is
maintained.
• Sustained security access to and within project areas is assured.
• Sustained donor funding that allows the policy goal to be met.

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• Overall policies for conditions relating to the policy objectives adapted by the national
government in order for the policy to be in line with the national development.
• Cultural acceptance of the policy.
• Long history of poverty results in low morals culminating into depression which takes a
long time to change.

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SECURITY MANUAL

Introduction
IAS is operational in many severely insecure areas and ensuring the safety of all IAS staff and
other personnel under IAS responsibility is an obligation to the organisation. This policy is
intended to serve as a security manual for these categories of people.

The Use of the Security Manual


Each IAS staff with an assignment of field work should receive a copy of the manual, read it
and sign the attached form before leaving for the field. The manual should work as a reminder
on what to observe while working in the field. It should be read by the Field Coordinators at
least every month and proposed amendments should be submitted to the Country Director.

Objectives
Goal
The goal for the security manual is to prevent incidents caused by insecure working
environments towards the persons who fall under the responsibility of IAS.

Purpose
The purposes for the security manual are:

• To enable IAS staff to best protect their staff and other persons under IAS responsibility
working in conflict zones.
• To prepare staff for incidents that might occur while working in an insecure environment.
• To state clearly the responsibilities of both IAS, as an organisation, and the employee
working for IAS.
• To give practical guidelines and procedures on how to best deal with security incidents.

Outputs
The results that are expected from this security manual are:

• Fewer incidents related to hazardous and insecure working environments.


• Guidelines and full overview for IAS staff on practical ways to protect IAS staff and other
persons who fall under the responsibility of IAS. Such persons like Volunteers and
International staff on field visits.

Activities and ways of implementation


Responsibilities
The guiding principle within IAS is that security is everyone’s responsibility. Each individual
staff member bears as much responsibility for their own safety as does IAS.

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Responsibilities of IAS
• IAS is concerned about the well being of its staff and believes that its human resources are
central to the achievement of mission. IAS is therefore enforcing certain security principles
to be implemented throughout the work of the organisation in order to protect its staff.
• IAS is a relief and development organisation with a mandate to respond to crises situations.
For this purpose staff is essential.
• IAS will provide as much of security as possible for its staff but can not guarantee safety.
• IAS will provide information on possible risk for its staff on a monthly basis through their
Field Coordinators. Town offices will get their information through their Administrators.
• IAS will train its staff on security awareness at different levels relevant to their duties.

Responsibilities of IAS employees


• All IAS staff shall always carry IAS ID card in order to identify themselves. Where
applicable, passport, visa and travel permit should also be carried.
• All IAS drivers should have a valid driving license which should be carried by the driver.
• When travelling in insecure areas the employee should carry a Satellite telephone or radio.
An up-dated list of emergency contacts should be attached.
• Each staff shall submit to the Field Coordinator details on next of kin, blood group,
allergies, insurance details etc. It is the responsibility of the Field Coordinator that these are
regularly up-dated.
• Before leaving the field the employee must be sure he/she is up-dated on the security
situation.
• If large amounts of money is carried it should, where possible, be divided between several
staff. It is the responsibility of the Field Coordinator to ensure that maximum protection is
provided.

IAS provision
IAS will not negotiate or pay ransom to any individual or organisation threatening or abducting
IAS personnel. IAS will however use every national or international means to support, help and
save its personnel. IAS will decide to remain operational in a specific area of armed conflict
considering the impact and effect on the local population as well as the staff of IAS.

Protection

Property security
• Robbery is a most probable threat in the field. It is therefore extremely important to ensure
that maximum care is taken to protect staff, buildings and inventories from damage.
• Each IAS office should be clearly marked.
• All compounds should be as secure as possible. All keys should be clearly labelled and easy
to find in case of emergency.
• Keys to the vehicles should always be kept in a safe place and easy to find.
• All field offices and camps should have first aid kit, emergency stock of food, water and
fuel.
• A list of emergency contacts should be known by key personnel and easy to find.
• If large sums of money are kept it should be stored in two or three different places.
• Maintain a good relationship with local staff and guards in particular.
• Armed guards can be used in certain situation. The Country Director is to approve this.

Vehicle security
• Vehicles operating in the field must be in good mechanical condition. Each vehicle must
have a spare wheel, jack, wheel spanner and a small set of tools. In addition there should
always be a first aid kit in the vehicle. The Field Coordinator should on regular bases check
the vehicles and ensure that all is in good condition.
• Vehicles should only be driven by drivers specifically employed by IAS. Others should be
authorized by the field coordinator to drive the vehicle.

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• Where vehicles are fitted with radios, the drivers should be trained in using the equipment.
• Seat belts should be used at all times for driver and passengers in front seats.
• Speed limits should be followed. SPEED KILLS! The speed should be adopted based on
weather and road conditions.
• When parked for the night the vehicle should have at least half tank.
• All IAS Vehicles should wear IAS stickers. In certain conditions they should also have
flags.
• Weapons are strictly forbidden in IAS vehicles.
• Care should be taken when asked to give lifts to military and government personnel. If there
is a risk that the neutrality stand of the organisation might be at stake, carrying of non IAS
passengers should be avoided.
• Photocopy of vehicle documents should be kept in a safe place in the vehicle.
• All staff should know how to change a wheel and where the tool kit is.

Travel security
• It is a known fact that most security incidents happen during travel. Precautions should
therefore always be taken before and during travel.
• IAS vehicles should only carry passengers authorized by the Field Coordinator. It is not
allowed to pick up passengers at road blocks unless they have a letter of authorization by
the IAS office.
• Prior to departure the Field Coordinator should be informed about details of the journey.
This includes names of passengers, goods and destination.
• Changes in the travel plan should be communicated to the Field Coordinator who also
should be informed when the vehicle has reached its destination.
• Before departure the driver should ensure that all passengers have the necessary documents.
• Before travelling on a new road, check if it is safe. Contact other NGOs, business people
and local people who might have used the road recently. If there is any doubt special
clearance should be obtained by the Field Coordinator who will consult with the security
focal point.
• Dependant on the security situation, driving by night should be avoided. Staff should ensure
that they will reach the destination before dark.
• Never travel alone in the car.
• Always park the car facing the direction to which you want to leave.
• Convoys:
o During certain conditions it might be advisable to travel in a convoy of 2 or more
vehicles. The convoy might or might not be escorted.
o IAS vehicles should not take part in a military or civilian non-humanitarian convoy
unless specific permission has been granted by the Country Director.
o Convoys of more than 5 vehicles should have a convoy leader.
o Radio contact should be kept between the first and the last vehicle.
o All drivers should be briefed before departure in case the convoy is obstructed.
Designated stops should also be decided prior to departure.
o When driving in a convoy the speed should be low enough for all to stay together. Never
overtake a vehicle.
o A distance between the vehicles of 100 meters in day and 50 meters at night is
recommended.
• Road blocks:
o A road block should be treated as any other military instillation. You may not be afraid
of them but remember they might be afraid of you until they see who you are. Also
remember that driving through checkpoints at night is much more dangerous than during
daytime. It is more likely that soldiers are drunk late afternoon/evening.
o Always slow down the vehicles when approaching a check point. Remove sunglasses,
turn down all background noise such as radio and fan and wind down the window so that
you can hear any command from the people at the road block.
o Always dim the light if driving by night.

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o Always obey an order to stop. If the persons manning the checkpoint point their guns
towards you all in the vehicle should remain calm. Never make any fast move or jump
out of the vehicle.
o Answer all questions accurately.
o If asked to open the boot or luggage, don’t argue.
o Report any abuse to the local authority. Try to identify the person concerned by taking
the name.
o Resist pressure to give lifts to unauthorized people.
o If waved through a checkpoint, make sure his fellow soldier agrees with this. Drive
slowly and watch the mirrors and be prepared to stop immediately.
o If you hear gunshots, stop immediately and remain calm inside the car. Wait and see.
o Don’t give bribes or ‘gifts’. You might be passing though regularly and you spoil for
yourself and others.

Communication
• IAS considers good communication important for safety. Even if the best equipment is used
and the staff does not know how to use it, it is of no use. IAS is mainly using two
communication systems; radios and sat phones. Both systems have strengths and
weaknesses. Remember that radios can be monitored by anyone who has a radio and tuned
in to your frequency. The sat phones can be monitored by the country security organ.
• Communication should be brief and straight to the point. Avoid unnecessary greeting
phrases etc. Use SMS messages for Thuraya sat phones but remember that it sometimes
takes long time to send and receive.
• Make sure that you have the knowledge to use the equipment.
• Make sure you have enough credits on your sat phone.
• The radio and sat equipment should be on standby 24 hours in emergency situations.
• Details in an emergency situation to be communicated to IAS Field office and UN when
applicable:
o Give details on who you are
o If possible give the coordinates for your location.
o Give report on the incident. What happened, where did it happen, when did it happen,
what response made, what help wanted
o Make sure that your messages have been received.

Mine awareness

Land mines
Land mines are widespread and are a serious problem in armed conflicts. They are a threat to
civilians long after the conflicts are over. Areas with land mines are difficult to clear as there are
seldom accurate maps and mines are spread randomly. They might even move as a result of
heavy rains and floods.

Typical mine areas


• Former or existing military bases, camps and stores and the area surrounding them.
• Around former military routes, roads and paths.
• On or around mountain tops or areas of high ground that once have been used as military
positions or observation points.
• Around airfields, power stations, telecommunication centers and similar installations of
military and strategic interest.
• Dry riverbeds near former or existing military positions.
• The scenes of fighting in the past.
• To the rear of blockhouses or road checkpoints.
• Near bridges and river crossings.
• Under shady trees.
• Overgrown disused areas.
• Near water sources.

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• Abandoned villages.

Precautions when walking in high risk areas


• Try to avoid high risk areas but if you find yourself in one of these areas there are some
basic guidelines to follow.
• Be alert at all times.
• Travel with a guide at all times.
• Do not take short cuts.
• Look for warning clues.
• Do not step over or cut a trip-wire.
• Do not touch mines or unexploded ordinance.
• Ask the local people about known or suspected mined areas.
• Stick to well worn paths on roads and follow animal and human, cart or motor tracks
wherever possible (this will not necessarily work if mines have been laid recently).
• Travel in single file.
• Stay at least 10 meters apart.
• Report any sightings of mines or unexploded ordinance to the local authorities and the local
people – but do not tell children who may go and look.
• Do not explore ruins or abandoned villages.
• Do not go ‘souvenir-hunting’.

Vehicle and Land mines


General precautions:
• Never assume that a road is clear of mines just because a light vehicle or a few heavy
vehicles have passed along it without incident.
• Do not consider any road that has been reportedly cleared as entirely safe if the clearance
did not extend into the verges.
Basic precautions:
• Never travel along possibly mined roads unless they have been tested over time by the
passage of large number of heavy vehicles.
• Where there is a known risk of old mines but no evidence of new ones, stick to the well
worn roads and never drive where there are no previous vehicle tracks.
• Drive with extreme caution, keeping your eyes open for obvious holes in the road surface. It
is NOT TRUE that if you drive fast enough, you will escape the blast of a land-mine. In fact
all this will do is to make your vehicle to come off the road even faster, so increasing your
chances of being injured.
• Never overtake on the verges.
• Always wear seat belts. If the vehicle turns over because of a mine explosion, it is better to
be well strapped-in and turn with it.
• If a vehicle is involved in a land-mine incident, remember that anti-personnel mines may
have been laid in conjunction with the mine. Personnel on foot and other vehicles arriving at
the scene should be told to stick to well worn vehicle tracks in the middle of the road and
not to walk or drive on the verges.
• If you leave the vehicle in such an area, always exit with care from the side of the vehicle
nearest the centre of the road.
• Sandbags placed under the seats and on the floor of the vehicle can absorb some of the
blast.

How to get out from a minefield?


• If suspicion have been raised that mines are found, remember that there could be many
mines in a limited area. There fore treat the whole surrounding area as a minefield.
• The most likely indicator of a minefield will be a casualty.
• Uninjured people MUST observe the following procedures rather than immediately rushing
to the aid of the injured person as this could lead to further casualties.
• As soon as you realize you have entered a minefield:

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o Stop.
o Stand still and check the ground around your feet.
o Identify the nearest safe area, such as a tarmac road or a patch of ground upon which
vehicles have drive or many people have walked.
o Facing this safe area, carefully check the ground in front of you for signs of disturbances,
depressions where the soil has subsided, visible fuses or trip-wires. If seems clear,
advance.
o If you discover a mine do not touch it. Mark the spot, using twigs within reach or items
of discarded clothing and circumvent it.
o If you have reached a safe area, you need to re-enter the minefield to assist a casualty
follow the route you have just marked to where you started. Then, following the same
technique, check and mark the rest of the route to the casualty.
o When you reach the casualty, try to avoid giving them first aid while you are still in the
minefield, since while doing so you may not be able to confine your body movements to
the safe area. Drag the casualty from the minefield following your previously checked
and marked route. (But if you have to travel a long distance to get out of the minefield, it
may be better to treat the casualty on site. Treated casualties who cannot see their blood
pumping out will be easier to handle in the middle of a minefield than those who think
they are dying).
o Upon reaching the safe area, give emergency first aid to the casualty. Your first priority
is to stop the bleeding.
o Mark the mine area with a sign or other means of identification.
o Organize the immediate evacuation of the casualty to a centre where they can receive
proper medical care.

Facing Hostility
The general principle in hostility situations is to ALWAYS REMAIN AS CALM AS
POSSIBLE AND AVOID PANIC. The following precautions should be taken when hostile
situations occur:

• If fighting occurs it is in most cases safer to stay put.


• Moving to a safer place should only take place when fighting stops or gets less, or if reliable
information suggests that this is the safest thing to do.
• Staff should try to stay together, or at least within easy communication distance of each
other.
• If someone is injured in the fighting, you should weigh the seriousness of the injury against
the risk of going for help.
• Members of staff who become separated from the main group or base should report their
position, or report that they are safe as soon as it is possible.
• When reporting on the fighting itself, staff should give factual information only, using
predetermined code and keeping the messages brief.
• Always listen to the advice of local people.
• If in a building – stay clear of the windows.
• Do not go out on the balconies or roofs to watch.
• If in a vehicle when shelling or bombardment is likely to occur, immediately leave the
vehicle and run for cover as far away from the vehicle as possible. If you have no time to
stop the vehicle and run, make U-turns or zigzag rather than to drive in a straight line.

When IAS is a target


Being a target of a local armed group requires adopting a very different approach to security.

Hold-ups and hostage


If you are held up or taken hostage:

• Cooperate
• Remain where you are – never try to run away.

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• Make sure your hands are clearly visible.
• Do not be aggressive.
• Remain passive.
• Move slowly with precise gestures.
• Speak quietly and distinctly.
• Do not talk among yourselves more than necessary, particularly if it is in a language not
understood by your assailants.
• Do what you are told. Give what they request.
• Identify yourself.
• Ask for assistance in returning to safety.

The Aftermath
• No one sees a disaster and is unaffected by it. Disasters and crisis stress reactions are
normal responses to an abnormal situation. IAS offers staff that suffers from crisis stress as
much help as possible.
• Staff will be debriefed by a qualified person on the field.
• If the staff has undergone intense stress and they need further help IAS will offer them
critical incident stress debriefing locally or if more appropriate by sending a qualified
professional de-briefer, or otherwise by repatriating the victim.

Relocation and Evacuation


When the security situation deteriorates too far, the emergency evacuation of staff is sometimes
the only response. For this reason an up to date contingency plan for emergency evacuation
should be prepared in the field. This plan should, wherever it is feasible, follow agreed plan by
the plans of UN and other NGOs. Evacuation is needed when:

• It becomes clear that an escalating local conflict will continue for a long time.
• Severe fighting seems likely to break out in the near future.
• Staff is exposed to unreasonable risk.
• Told to leave by the controlling forces.
• The relevant embassies or High commissions have advised foreign nationals to leave.
• If staff is not exposed to unreasonable risk, there may be a cause of scaling down to a
skeleton staff and staying to observe events. This could mean that certain project activities
temporarily need to close or be reduced.
• In case of an urgent emergency situation, the evacuation can be imposed immediately and
unilaterally by the Country Director or person mandated by him/her and the IAS
headquarters in Europe.
• The reason is that any of these parties can have information that is so urgent and sensitive
that it can not be communicated over radio, email or telephone.
• The decision to return to the evacuated area must be made by the authority that issued the
evacuation order in close collaboration with IAS senior management team.

To stay or leave
IAS will never force any staff to stay in an insecure place against their will. If a staff member
wish to withdraw due to inadequate security this will be respected and facilitated when possible.
Where possible staff will be offered work in alternative locations.

Contingency plans
Contingency stock of essential supplies should be prepared at all times. The following factors
should be considered when drawing up the contingency plan.

Type of evacuation
• Partial withdrawal. Should a small group of staff remain in order to maintain a presence in
the area? How many project activities should close? Any foreseen time frame?

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• Total withdrawal. The IAS office will close completely and all staff should be evacuated.
All IAS activities should cease leaving behind no official presence.

Duration of withdrawal
• Temporary
• Permanent
• Destination
o Temporary or permanent relocation to a nearby place that is outside the area of
immediate danger.
o Another region in the same country.
o Another country.

Means of withdrawal
• Form of transport – cars, foot, air.
• Who will provide the transports?
• Is escort needed?

Project equipment
• Should all, some or none of the equipment be taken along?

Evacuation plan
A written evacuation plan should be prepared in each location that that IAS senior management
team considers ‘high risk security area’. It is the responsibility of the Field Coordinator to
prepare this. The plan should be sent to the IAS Country Director for endorsement before it is
shared with the staff. After endorsement it is a must that each staff member is made aware of the
security procedures in the plan.

Contents of the plan


The evacuation plan should cover the following aspects, a series of indicators/measures of
security levels:

• A set of actions and procedures to take place when security levels change.
• Identify priority targets and risk areas for each field location.
• List of all staff that are included in the plan, divided into groups, with group leaders.
• Individual responsibilities in plan.
• Possible evacuation routes with maps.
• Means of transport and the regulations governing them. (Contingency plans should be made
for hiring transport in case IAS vehicles are commandeered).
• Communication arrangements on route. This should include emergency codes.
• Personal documentation needed and rules about which personal belongings can be brought
out.
• Project equipment to evacuate.
• Vehicles and equipment to be left behind.

Assumptions and risks

• Politically tense working conditions for IAS staff.


• Sustained security access to and within project areas is assured.
• IAS staff trained in security related matters and having full insight and awareness of the
local security conditions surrounding them.
• Full provision of up to date technical equipment and materials.
• Sustained donor funding that allows for the policy goal to be met.

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SPECIAL NEEDS EDUCATION

Introduction
The purpose of education for all children is the same; the goals are the same. But the help
individual children need in progressing towards the goals is different. IAS values all input
placed in all education as an investment and aims to ensure that appropriate education provision
is made for children and young people of all abilities through special needs education.
The IAS policy on special needs education is a wide-ranging one, extending well beyond the
education service. It requires us to take into consideration of the health and psychological needs
of the children and young persons with special needs, together with preparing theme for
integrating them into their societies. The policy takes into consideration the social aspects of
their needs, to relations between the different professionals engaged in meeting the needs of
special needs, to the contribution of their parents and the parents own needs for support children
with special needs. IAS is committed to its mission to save lives, promote self-reliance and
dignity and enable people to invest in their future, regardless of race, creed, gender or
nationality of the recipient and will therefore ensure equal opportunities in order that all children
benefit fully from their educational provision and develop their full potential. The policy also
supports the need for research and development in the provisions for special needs.
The extent of special needs education is very difficult to assess. The scale on which children
are ascertained as requiring special needs education varies widely from one society to another.

Objectives
Goal and Purpose
The goal and purpose of this policy is to train all children including those who may:

• Have sensory impairments.


• Have severe learning difficulties.
• Exhibit severe disruptive behaviours.
• Have severe physical problems that interfere with learning.
• Be exceptionally intelligent or talented.

Output
The output is to have quality educational programmes meeting the needs of the beneficiaries and
the society and as a whole.

What are special educational needs?


A child has Special Educational Needs if he/she has a learning difficulty, which calls for special
educational provision to be made for him/her. Such children may require specially designed
education programmes to meet their individual needs. They may also require supportive
services from specialized teachers, speech therapists, audiologists, physiotherapists and
occupational therapists, psychologists, counselors and others. IAS believes that exceptionally
intelligent or talented children also fall under this category, since they require special attention

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for their personal growth which the ordinary school might not be able to cater for. Therefore,
they shall also be given the provisions as stipulated in this policy.

A child has a learning difficulty if he/she:

• Has a significantly greater difficulty in learning than most other children of the same age
• Has a disability which either prevents or hinders him or her from making use of educational
facilities of a kind generally provided for children of his or her age in schools within the
area where IAS works.

Learning difficulties may be due to, for example:

• A physical or mental disability.


• A medical or health problem.
• Difficulties with sight, hearing or speech.
• Emotional and behavioural difficulties.
• Difficulties with language, reading or number work.

Basic principles

Guiding principles
The major guiding principle of IAS is its commitment to its mission to save lives, promote self-
reliance and dignity and enable people to invest in their future, regardless of race, creed, gender
or nationality of the recipient and will therefore ensure equal opportunities in order that all
children benefit fully from their educational provision and develop their full potential.
This policy therefore aims at helping children and young people to become independent,
caring, able to form independent judgments and aware of what they can contribute to and expect
from society. This is done through:

• Encouraging effective participation of all key stakeholders in education to provide inclusive


education to all children.
• Work collaboratively with schools, encouraging and supporting them in taking
responsibility for the learning of all the children in the areas of IAS’ operation.
• Make arrangements for the early identification of pre-school children with special education
needs and provide appropriate specialist
• Make arrangements for the identification and assessment of the educational needs of
children experiencing complex and significant learning difficulties.
• Work with parents as partners in the interests of children who require special educational
provision.
• Support the professional development of staffs who work with children with special
educational needs.
• Monitor and evaluate the effectiveness of the policy for children with special educational
needs.

Provision
• IAS will enable children with special educational needs to be educated in local schools
where possible and desirable, provided this takes into account parental views, and is
compatible with the child’s receiving the special educational provision which his/her
learning difficulty calls for.
• Every effort will be made to ensure that special educational provision will be consistent and
coherent for all children with educational special needs.
• It should be planned carefully to allow continuity between phases, with agencies/other
schools and between mainstream and specialist provision.
• In making a suitable provision, IAS will be aware that children and young people:
o Have different educational needs and aspirations.
o Have different strategies for learning.

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o Learn at different rates.
o Need a range of different teaching approaches and experiences.
o Achieve different levels of attainment in line with their different capabilities.
o Have differing skills, interests and personalities resulting in differing needs.

Therefore a variety of teaching approaches and methods are required to meet this variety of
need. IAS’ provision will be monitored to ensure that children’s needs are met appropriately and
adequately, consistent with the efficient use of resources. It will be supported by an
administrative procedure which is collaborative and understood by parents, partners,
professionals and volunteers. IAS field office will work closely with colleagues from nearby
Hospitals or Health Centres in a partnership which will aim to meet the needs of the whole
child.

Assumptions and risks

• Willingness of the communities and local authorities to actively endorse and take part in the
project.
• The community is willing to be self-reliant and not dependent on continual external
assistance (aid-dependency syndrome).
• The community is able to accept and adapt to knowledge, attitudes and practice of the
project objectives.
• The organisation, IAS, is able to progressively build the capacity of its staff to deliver
quality service while maintaining close links with the community.
• Inter-agency partnership and the existence of coherence between the organisation, IAS´
project design and other agencies in the operational areas such that the latter’s activities and
strategies do not hamper negatively the project goals and purpose.
• Sustained security access to and within the project areas is assured.
• Sustained donor funding that allows for the project goal to be met.
• Overall policies for conditions relating to the project objectives adapted by the national
government in order for the project to be in line with the national development.
• Cultural acceptance of the policy.

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VEHICLE

Introduction
The safety of the staff and guests is a central concern of International Aid Services. The policy
governing the use of IAS vehicles by staff is designed to support safe prudent use of vehicles.
Vehicles cost a lot of money to purchase, maintain, and insure. As such a policy guideline in
place is deemed necessary so that IAS gets the best out of its vehicles life spans. The following
rules not only protect the employer from unnecessary losses but also benefits the employee in
that higher vehicle costs means endangering project goals which might lead to termination of
projects before the projected time.

Objectives
Goal
The main goal for this policy is to make IAS staff aware of the importance of vehicle
maintenance, and good practice of using the vehicles.

Purpose
The purpose is to ensure safe travel of all IAS staff and to avoid any accidents involving both
IAS staff and others; also to minimize costs towards maintenance.

Outputs
IAS staff maintaining and handling vehicles in a responsible and correct manner.

Activities and ways of implementation


IAS will make sure that this policy is implemented and maintained by using some important
guidelines and rules, see below.

Approved Drivers
• IAS vehicles are to be driven by IAS employees who are 18 years and older, holding a valid
driver’s license and having driven for at least one year. The employee must also be
authorized by the relevant IAS authority to drive the vehicle. In order to drive, employee
drivers must have a driving record free of any two moving violations in the past year, or one
moving violation and one accident, or two accidents, or any single alcohol related stop.
• A driver could also be a non-IAS staff who has been authorized by IAS to drive an IAS
vehicle, provided that the same conditions as for an IAS driver are met.
• IAS shall ensure adequate funds, spare parts and skilled personnel to handle maintenance

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Driver Responsibilities
• Drivers must be in possession of a valid drivers license or a copy whenever driving an IAS
vehicle. Also, drivers must report any change in status of their driving record immediately
to the Management.
• Drivers shall be alcohol and drug free. This includes prescription and non-prescription drugs
that may impair a driver's judgment or other faculties.
• Drivers are responsible to ensure that the vehicle is used only for IAS business.
• Drivers are responsible for inspecting the vehicle prior to going on any journey or errand.
• Drivers must observe all traffic regulations. Drivers are personally responsible for any
traffic tickets that may be issued as a result of operating an IAS vehicle.
• Drivers must not drive when driving conditions are hazardous – this includes but not limited
to fog, heavy rains or any conditions that might endanger the driver and those with whom he
is in the vehicle let alone the vehicle itself.
• Drivers must report all accidents to their immediate IAS supervisor and when relevant also
to the nearest police station or local authority.
• Drivers must report any irregularities on the vehicle to those responsible for maintenance.

Assumptions and risks

• IAS staff trained in vehicle maintenance.


• The community is able to accept and adapt to knowledge, attitude and practice of the policy
objectives.
• Sustained donor funding that allows for the policy goal to be met.
• Cultural acceptance for the policy.

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VOLUNTEER

Introduction
A volunteer shall be considered as any individual, 16 years or older, who assists with IAS
Operations within the Operational Areas where IAS works, without remuneration. Exceptions to
the age requirement may be made by the Regional Board. International Aid Services recognizes
that volunteers have a positive contribution to make to the work of the organisation and its
various activities. It aims to encourage volunteers' involvement in all aspects of its work, as a
means of empowering and supporting the local community, as well as creating an avenue for
volunteers to gain practical field experiences in areas of their specialization.

Objectives
Goal
The goals for this policy are to:

• Provide a platform for missions out reach.


• Give opportunity for gaining experience in relief and development work.
• Provide attachment opportunities for learning through experience in fulfilling college
requirements or gaining practical experience.

Purpose
The purpose is to highlight the need and relevancy of reaching out to the most needy people
groups of the world.

Outputs
Expected results are a good foundation for volunteers to reach out with a helping hand to the un-
reached and fulfil their goals in life.

Activities and ways of implementation


IAS will use the following guidelines and principles in the implementation of this policy:

• A volunteer shall apply in writing attaching all relevant documents and thereafter shall go
through a formal interview by a select committee of the relevant IAS office in which the
application is received. One of the relevant documents attached should be a letter of
recommendation from the church leader of the applicant. Those doing internship should
submit both the recommendation from their church and from the learning institution that is
sending them.
• The voluntary service shall be for at least one month. More than one month will require a
contract to be signed with IAS for accountability purposes with a maximum of a one-year
voluntary period.

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• All volunteers shall sign the IAS non-liability claim agreement form. One such signatory
shall be from the closest relation of the volunteer. A non-liability agreement is a document
that stipulates that the said volunteer will not hold liable the organisation and its officials,
employees or agents for any claim or action for any loss, damage, injury or death that might
occur to him or her in the course of service. (see attached form for details)
• Volunteers shall abide by IAS staff code of conduct.
• Volunteers shall submit to and report any issues they encounter while in the field to the field
coordinator or immediate supervisor. Flexibility is required of all volunteers in case of
change of location of service, as the management deems necessary.
• To maintain good working relations and build bridges, volunteers are expected to respect
the customs of the people in areas where they are working
• IAS shall facilitate the transport, food and accommodation of volunteers when in the field,
when feasible.
• Serving as a volunteer with IAS shall not necessarily lead to employment in the
organisation.
• Volunteers are not entitled to any specific benefits during or after the period of their service.
Volunteer service is ministry.
• Volunteers are entitled to rest and recuperation (R & R) after a certain period of time that
will be arranged by the immediate supervisor. Details on location and terms of service will
be mentioned in the contract signed by the volunteer and the organisation.
• Prior to accepting the volunteer a medical examination will be performed as per IAS
medical standards.
• Volunteers shall be required to submit progress reports while in the field and a final report
to IAS after the period of their service.
• IAS will provide an orientation for the volunteer where IAS policies, culture etc. will be
communicated.

Assumptions and risks

• Willingness and administrative preparedness for IAS offices to receive and cater for
volunteers.
• The organisation, IAS, is able to progressively build the capacity of its staff to deliver
quality service while maintaining close links with the community.
• Sustained security access to and within the project areas is assured.
• Cultural acceptance of the policy.

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EMPLOYMENT

Introduction
People in Aid Code
IAS is a member of People in Aid (PIA). IAS therefore agrees to commit itself to an external
‘standard’, which consists of the PIA Code as well as to the PIA message:

• People are central to the achievement of mission


• Accountability towards staff and volunteers
• Good people management can increase the impact of programmes.

The PIA Code is expressed in seven principles:

1. Human Resources Strategy; Human resources are an integral part of our strategic and
operational plans.
2. Staff Policies and Practices; Our human resources policies aim to be effective, fair and
transparent.
3. Managing People; Good support, management and leadership of our staff is key to our
effectiveness.
4. Consultation and Communication; Dialogue with staff on matters likely to affect their
employment enhances the quality and effectiveness of our policies and practices.
5. Recruitment and Selection; Our policies and practices aim to attract and select a diverse
workforce with the skills and capabilities to fulfil our requirements.
6. Learning, Training and Development; Learning, training and staff development are
promoted throughout the organisation.
7. Health, Safety and Security; The security, good health and safety of our staff are a prime
responsibility of our organisation.

Objectives
The goal and purpose of this policy is to abide and fulfil the above mentioned People in Aid
Code. IAS believes that this standard is of vital importance for the management of all staff and
expects an output of highly committed staff being managed in a tight, caring and correct way.

Activities and ways of implementation


IAS as employer

Job-description
IAS provides the new employee with an appointment letter and detailed job description before
the work commences. The objectives for the assignment as well as concrete, well-specified and
limited functions will be spelled out. It will be clear to the employee who will be his superior,
and within which frames the employee can make independent decisions or when the immediate

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senior colleague has to be consulted. The job description can be changed during the contract
period.

Requirement for employees


IAS expects staff members to fit into their assigned positions within the Organisation and obey
lawful instructions from those to whom they are accountable to. All new staff must serve a
probationary period of at least 3 months. At the end of the probation period their status will be
reviewed.

The employee

Service
IAS assumes that all staff are highly committed to the organisation and that the aim for the
employment is to support the IAS motto “Creating a positive change” in peoples’ lives. IAS is a
platform where the employee can use and develop his/her talents.

Moral standard
IAS expects that the employee lives a moral life that can be examined, and serves as an example
to staff and others. The employee is expected to abide by the IAS Code of Conduct. IAS is a
non-alcoholic, drug free and smoking free organisation.

Teamwork
IAS believes that teamwork creates possibilities for success, and gives protection against abuse
of power. The decision making staff is encouraged to communicate with other staff not only in
a hierarchic way, but to listen to colleagues in order to create a two-way communication. Co-
operation between staff is necessary. Every project leader should have a colleague to discuss
ideas and problems with, and has to be open to suggestions and corrections.

Background and education


It is of great value that the employee has an adequate background education to accomplish the
tasks he/she will perform. IAS attaches great importance to personal qualities like social
competence, co-operation ability, creativity, stress management, adjustment to different cultural
environments etc.

Cultural adjustment
IAS employees should obtain information about the conditions and the people in the country or
in the area he/she will be working in. It is obvious that the employee adjusts his/her way of
dressing, ways of treating people, relationship with the opposite sex etc. to local circumstances.
The employee must be willing to listen, and to be corrected by a more experienced colleague.
For expatriate staff IAS recommends special courses for culture adjustment that are available
within different schools and agencies.

Termination of Services
The service can be terminated by the employer or the employee on the condition that any of the
parties gives a written notice not less than 1 month prior to termination of the employment or
otherwise specified in contract.

Temporary Employment
Temporary employee is a casual employee engaged by International Aid Services to do a
specified work and is paid on a daily basis. Such services as rendered by a temporary employee
may be terminated any time without notice being given by either party. No other benefits apart
from wages are applicable to this category.

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Short term Contract Employees/Consultants
A contract employee is one who is hired to discharge a specified job for an agreed time or
period and at an agreed pay. Contracts are administered through agreed terms and conditions of
service. Any change of the conditions of service is to be done in writing. Short-term contracts
do not exceed 6 months.

Duration of the contract


The duration of the contract will be well specified. Possible extension of the contract may be
given with the consent of the employee. Request of extension of the contract has to be given in
writing at least 3 months before the expiry date.

Payment policies and procedures

Salaries/Wages
Staff will be paid a salary according to the agreement, contract or letter of appointment. Any
amendments are to be effected by a written letter from the IAS Senior Management. Salary and
applicable allowances will normally be paid monthly and in arrears on or before the last
working day of each month. Staff may receive their salaries by automatic bank transfers or in
cash depending on their work places. Appropriate taxes will be deducted according to
prescribed regulations in a given country of operation.

Working hours
Working hours per week are adjusted according to the labour regulations of the respective
country. Recommended working hours are 40 hours per week.

Allowances
Gross salaries include all allowances. Medical allowance or reimbursement of medical bills is
only applicable to the employee if clearly spelled out in the contract. No travelling allowance
will be given for field trips. Reimbursement will only be given according to actual costs and
upon submission of accurate receipts.

Loans
International Aid Services grants no loans to any employee.

Terminal Benefits/Gratuity
A gratuity will be paid according to the labour laws of the respective country. In countries
without labour laws or in countries where the labour laws do not cover terminal benefits/gratuity
IAS will pay a maximum of one-month salary after a minimum of 12 months of service.
When a person enters into a new contract of employment with International Aid Services then
he/she may immediately claim the accumulated gratuity on the old contract. This would be
payable at the date when the contract comes into force. Payment would be done at the rate of the
old contract on the final day before it was superseded by the new contract. If International Aid
Services has a claim against the individual for loss of money or property the accumulated
gratuity will be forfeited from the right of the employee.

Death
If a staff member dies, the next of kin will receive 3 months salary on the condition that the
employee has been working for the organisation for at least one year.
In cases where death results from injury connected to the nature of work of the employee the
labour laws of the respective country are applicable. Members of staff are requested to inform
the personnel officer specifying to whom their benefits should be paid in the event of their
death.

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Staff development

Training
International Aid Services supports a policy of progressive development for staff. All training
will be directly relevant to the responsibilities of the officer. Details can be found in the IAS
Staff Development Policy.

Promotion
Promotion may occur for an employee moving to a more responsible job, or in some
circumstances the responsibilities will be extended within the current job. A formal interview
will be held. During the interview clarification will be made to the employee of the implications
of taking on additional responsibilities, his/her competence in being promoted. The promoted
member of staff will be paid the salary according to the contract from the date of assumption of
duty. Under no circumstances will a staff member be promoted when still serving on probation.

Leave and sickness

Annual Leave
An employee who has completed 12 consecutive months of service with International Aid
Services shall be entitled to 21 working days leave with full payment or leave according to the
labour laws of the respective country or if otherwise outlined in employment contract.
Annual leave must be taken in the year it is due at a time mutually convenient to both the
employer and the employee. A schedule for leave must be prepared by the beginning of the
fiscal year, a copy of which should be sent to the Senior Management for approval.

Sick Leave
• Sick leave has to be reported the first day of absence.
• Sick leave of more than 3 days must be evidenced by a doctor’s certificate.
• On the basis of a valid medical certificate, long-term sickness leave will be granted for 2
months or according to the respective labour laws. After 2 months of sick leave
International Aid Services is not obliged to keep the person as an employee.
• Treatment for injury that occurs at work will be covered up to a maximum of $1000 (one
thousand US dollars only), but not necessary the entire value, if the treatment requires less.
• The employee is encouraged to get his own insurance at his own cost in order to add
coverage in case of sickness or injury.

Maternity Leave
• International Aid Services recognises the need for an expectant mother to have adequate rest
both before and after childbirth confinement. Maternity leave shall consist of 60 calendar
days with full pay effective 15 days before childbirth with the exception where the
Employment Act says different in that country.
• Any additional days required will be taken as un-paid leave, except on production of a
doctor’s certificate certifying that one is unable to resume duty on medical grounds.
• When maternity leave is taken, annual leave will be forfeited for that year. Adequate notice
(minimum 4 months before expected delivery) must be given to the Senior Management
when maternity leave will be taken. An employee is eligible for paid maternity leave once
every two years.
• Following the maternity leave, lactating mothers will be allowed 2 hours off to go and
breast-feed their children every working day either before lunch or after 3:00 p.m. for a
period of 2 months.

Compassionate Leave
Compassionate leave of 5 working days will be granted on the occasion of death of spouse,
child, mother or father.

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Unpaid Leave
A person may apply for leave without pay in order to attend to a personal issue.

Holidays
All official public holidays will be observed by the staff and taken. Certain category of staff on
management level will be expected to be on duty.

Disciplinary procedures

Minor offences
These are offences deemed by the management to be contrary to the standards of the
Organisation but not serious enough to lead to dismissal or suspension. Examples are:

• Occasional lateness/unauthorised absence.


• Poor work performance, carelessness, untidiness.
• Poor co-ordination with other staff;
• Breaking specific rules, safety procedures or other procedures set down by the organisation
and known to the employee.

First or Second Offence


On first or second offences, the Senior Management will give the employee a written warning
explaining the nature of the offence, the importance of not repeating it and the penalties that can
be applied if it is repeated. The warning should always be attached to the employee’s personal
file.

Failure to react positively on First Warning


Formal procedures will apply if first warning has had no effect. In such case, the Senior
Management will give a formal second written warning to the employee explaining the nature
and seriousness of the offence. The warning should always be attached to the employee’s
personal file.

Second Warning
Following delivery of the second warning, the responsible person will hold a formal interview
with the employee during which the contents of the letter will be discussed.

Third/Final Warning Suspension


If there is further offence or for even more serious issues, the Senior Management will
automatically issue a second and final warning to the employee. Following delivery of the
warning, there will be a third formal meeting attended by the employee. The Senior
Management will keep records of the meeting. At the meeting, the employee may if he/she so
wishes be accompanied by another member of staff as a witness. Depending on the seriousness
of the offences, this warning may be accompanied by suspension without pay for a maximum of
14 days.
The member of staff being disciplined must countersign all disciplinary letters or minutes of
the proceedings of the disciplinary interviews. Such copies of documentation must be put on the
staff member’s personal file.

Suspension without Pay and Summery Dismissal


If the offences occur after the issuing of the final warning, the Senior Management will
recommend action. This may be suspension without pay for one month or dismissal without
benefits depending on the seriousness of the offence and in accordance with the labour laws in
the respective country. The Senior Management will discuss with the supervisor on site who
will carry out and implement the agreed penalties.

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Serious Offences
These are the offences deemed by the management to be sufficiently serious as to require
immediate application of formal procedures. A typical example of the above offences or more
serious breaches would be:

• Physical abuse.
• Refusal to follow clear or reasonable instruction.

In such cases, the formal procedures will be by-passed and the supervisor on site will
immediately report to the Senior Management to issue formal warning letters. If the offence(s)
is thought to be serious enough, the Senior Management will issue a second warning letter
without having issued the first and will consider disciplinary action to a maximum of suspension
without pay, for up to 1 month.

Appeals
At any stage of the above proceedings, the employee may appeal to the Senior Management.
The Senior Management will then investigate and make a final decision.

Gross Misconduct
There are offences that are sufficiently serious to warrant immediate dismissal with no notice
and no benefits. Examples are:

• Fraud or intent to defraud by falsely claiming sickness or other benefits, or giving incorrect
information to the Organisation in order to receive additional benefits;
• Misappropriation of the Organisation’s funds through false receipts or expenditure
statements or other means;
• Misuse or damage of Organisation’s property or deliberate acts that cause loss and disrepute
to the Organisation;
• Unauthorised disclosure of confidential matters in a manner harmful to the Organisation;
• Physical attack on a colleague or member of the public;
• Engaging in political activities which are detrimental to the interests of International Aid
Services, and other activities than those in the conditions of services;
• Use of alcohol, smoking and drugs whilst on duty;

There may be other types of gross misconduct that may be determined at the discretion of the
Senior Management. All such instances will be immediately reported to him/her.

Grievances procedures
From time to time, a staff member may have a legitimate grievance against a colleague, or the
Organisation in relation to benefits that may apply to him. This for instance could be condition
of work, unreasonable instructions, poor co-ordination or other matters.

First point of Grievance


This will be with the employee’s Supervisor, if the latter is not the one against whom the
grievance is held. The Supervisor may investigate the matter and if possible solve the issue to
the employee’s satisfaction.

Second point of Grievance


If the point above does not achieve satisfactory results, the employee through the Human
Resource Manager may present the issue to the Senior Management. If all those channels fail,
the grievance may be presented in writing to the Regional Board. The Regional Board will
investigate and take appropriate decision. The decision will be final.

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Grievance against the Country Director/Representative or the Organisation represented by the
Director/Representative
For grievance held against the Country Director (Country Representative), or the Organisation
as represented by the Country Director (Country Representative) the employee may appeal to
the Senior Management through the Human Resource Manager. The Human resource manager
will then present the issue to the Regional Board. The Regional Board will investigate the
matter and reach a decision. The decision will be final.

Assumptions and risks

• Sustained donor funding that allows for the policy goal to be met.
• Highly committed staff.

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RECRUITMENT

Introduction
This policy shall be followed for all IAS vacancy openings, with the exception of temporary and
short-term appointments (3 months or less).

Objectives
Goal/purpose
The goals and purposes of this policy are to:

• Ensure that IAS attracts, identifies, and hires the most qualified applicant for the job.
• Ensure that appropriate funding levels are identified and approved for each position.
• Ensure that confidentiality for all is maintained in the recruitment process.

Outputs
The results attained should be highly qualified applicants receiving employment in IAS.

Activities and ways of implementation


Equal Employment Opportunity
It is the policy of IAS to provide an environment free from discrimination, including sexual
harassment and sexual assault. As per IAS Mission, IAS does not discriminate against eligible
persons on the basis of race, creed, gender or nationality. No qualified person shall, on the basis
of race, creed, gender or nationality, be excluded from participation in, denied the benefits of, or
otherwise be subjected to discrimination in IAS programmes or activities.

Confidentiality
To protect the privacy of candidates and to preserve the integrity of the recruiting process, all
committee members are required to maintain confidentiality throughout and after the conclusion
of the recruitment process. Confidential information includes matters discovered or discussed
during the recruiting process. All information relating to the search may only be discussed with
other committee members, the Human Resource Manager or IAS Senior Management.
Employees who violate this requirement for confidentiality will be subject to corrective or
disciplinary action. False information from persons appointed shall be reported to the Human
Resource Manager. The qualifications and experience of successful candidates that they
presented during the hiring process may be publicly shared following the search. Reference
checks of applicants shall be made, and the committee is not limited to those persons listed as
references by the applicant.

Employment of Relatives
IAS permits the employment of one or more relatives. However, staff and administrators shall
not initiate or participate in decisions involving a direct benefit to members of their immediate

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families. Immediate family for purposes of this policy shall mean spouse, children, siblings,
parents, members of the extended family, in-laws and grandparents.

Recruiting
IAS shall require recruitment under the following circumstances:

• When filling a vacancy for a probationary position (more than 6 months).


• When filling a vacancy for a temporary position with a duration period greater than 3
months but less than 6 months.
• Recruitment is not required under the following circumstances:
o Appointments funded by a grant or contract where the individual is specifically named in
the grant or contract.
o Special or emergency appointments as deemed necessary by the Regional Board.
o Transition of an employee from a lower rank within the same Sector to a higher rank or
position.
• IAS shall only conduct recruitment upon approval of the appropriate budget. It shall be the
responsibility of the Country Director/Representative to obtain all the necessary budget
approvals before submitting the requisition to the Human Resource Manager. The Country
Director shall indicate on the recruitment request the maximum salary level budgeted for the
position.
• IAS will require that all position openings be advertised. In outstanding and unusual
circumstances, the Human Resource Manager may determine and advise that the
advertisement may be waived.

Recruitment Process
IAS shall require that a current position description be submitted to the Human Resource
Manager before recruiting. All posts will be specified in the budgets approved by the Senior
Management team of IAS. Prior to recruitment of any posts, a detailed job description will be
prepared by the prospective supervisor of the staff being recruited and approved by the relevant
office concerned. It shall be the responsibility of the Country Director/ Senior Manager to
identify the minimum qualifications and essential functions of the job; and then present such to
the Human Resource Manager.

Recruitment
Approved posts shall be advertised stating the required skills/competencies and personality of
the staff being sought through any or a combination of the following:

• IAS web page.


• Media.
• Church contacts.
• Existing staff.

In filling the posts, preference will be given to existing staff that have the right qualifications
and experience needed for the position. It shall be the responsibility of Human Resource
Manager to receive, track, acknowledge, and store all applications. Only applications that have
been received by the Human Resource Manager may be considered for interview.
The Human Resource Manager shall provide support to the Senior Management or the
committee in screening applications for minimum qualifications. The Human Resource
Manager shall be available to provide assistance in the development of interview questions.

Interviews
Selection will be on the basis of final short lists. The interviewing panel will consist of decision
making staff within the organisation. The Human Resource Manager shall be available to
provide assistance in the development of interview questions. The panel will include a technical
person from the area in which the staff being interviewed falls.

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Hiring Process
The Human Resource Manager shall review the selection process and recommendation for hire
to ensure that the search was conducted in accordance with this policy. It is the responsibility of
the Senior Management or chair of the committee to submit a recruitment report to the Human
Resource Manager on the recruitment process. An offer of employment shall not be extended to
any candidate before the Human Resource Manager’s review and approval of the process.
Any offer of employment to a candidate above the pre-approved salary amount shall require
prior written justification, including appropriate administrative, fiscal and the Human Resource
Manager’s approval.
The Human Resource Manager will coordinate with the committee to ensure that all
unsuccessful applicants are informed when a candidate has accepted an offer of employment.

Assumptions and risks

• Sustained donor funding that allows for the policy goal to be met.
• Highly qualified applicants for the desired posts.

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REST AND RELAXATION

Introduction
IAS recognizes its full responsibility for the well-being of its staff members. In order for any
programme to run successfully, there is a need for staff to be able to obtain complete rest and
relaxation. However, in some relief aid and development programmes, working and living
conditions are such that it is not possible for staff to achieve complete rest and relaxation within
the locality. IAS has therefore created a Rest and Relaxation Policy, enabling staff to leave their
hostile working environment for some days to regain their maximum momentum.

Objectives
Goal
The goal of this policy is to provide adequate opportunities for complete rest and relaxation for
IAS staff in order to maintain their well-being and, in turn, to run successful and effective
programmes. It’s a long term responsibility for IAS to keep its employees sound and running at
full potential.

Purpose
The purpose of the policy is to provide eligible staff members with an opportunity to leave the
programme where they are based on a regular basis, in order to recover, both mentally and
physically, from the stressful environment in which they work.

Outputs
The results that should be achieved through the policy is successfully completed rest and
relaxation for all staff working in the environments where the rest and relaxation policy is
applicable.

Activities and ways of implementation


The activities in this policy are limited to transport of staff to and from the various places of
work. However, there are a few guidelines needed for the implementation of this policy, see
below.

Authority for Rest and Relaxation (R&R) Leave


The Country Representative, in liaison with the Director, has the overall responsibility for
deciding which Operational Areas are eligible for staff to take R&R leave. He/she will review
the list of locations on an annual basis based on the security situations in those areas, and
frequently on a monthly basis as per the information received in advance from each Field Co-
ordinator. The list of locations eligible for R&R leave during the following year shall be well
known by the Field Coordinator before the beginning of each year.
Should a programme’s working and living conditions change significantly during the year, the
Country Representative, still in liaison with the Director, has the authority to authorize

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additional R&R leave for eligible staff within that programme. Individual Field Coordinators
are responsible for ensuring each eligible staff member receives their R&R entitlement.
Responsibility for planning R&R leave within the programme may be delegated to another
member of staff by the Country Representative. Staff will be consulted before any changes are
made to the R&R policy, except in emergency situations where consultation is not possible
before such changes are required. Field Coordinators are responsible for reporting change of
security to the Country Representative to effect changes

Eligibility for Rest and Relaxation Leave


The Country Representative will publish, on a monthly basis, a list of locations and those staff
working within such areas eligible for R&R leave.

Rest and Relaxation Leave Entitlements


Members of staff in this category are entitled to 10 working days of R&R leave after 8 weeks of
continuous service. They are also entitled to 2 week ends which should cater for their travel at
the beginning and end of each R&R leave period. R&R is leave provided by the organisation as
a response to the working and living conditions experienced by staff in certain locations. It is
therefore not connected to salary or annual leave entitlements and, as such, cannot be
accumulated, exchanged for a monetary value or transferred to another member of staff.

Timing of Rest and Relaxation Leave


Staff will be advised of the date and length of their R&R leave entitlement at least three week(s)
in advance of travel. Staff may request an alternative date for their R&R leave, which may be
authorized by the Field Coordinator after giving due consideration to the effect of such a change
on the programme’s operations and other staff members. No R&R leave may be taken within 4
weeks of the end of service of a particular contract. Any R&R leave due within this period will
be forfeited. R&R leave may be taken in conjunction with annual leave and a public holiday(s)
if authorized by the Field Coordinator.

Cancellation of Rest and Relaxation Leave


The Field Coordinator has the authority to postpone R&R leave in the event of circumstances
requiring an emergency response from the organisation or in the event of a security threat. In
such a situation, staff will continue to accrue R&R leave, which will be rescheduled as soon as
possible.

Location of Rest and Relaxation Leave


The Country Representative is responsible for accepting the location(s) for staff R&R leave,
based on the following:

• Ease of transportation, cost and provision of an environment appropriate for R&R (in the
case of International Staff or International Volunteers from any given country).
• The Head office of each country will arrange travel to and from the R&R location.
• International or Volunteer Staff may request an alternative location for personal reasons not
later than 3 weeks before travel. This may be authorized by the Country Representative.
The individual staff member is liable for any additional costs incurred in travelling to, or
staying at an alternative location and may be helped by the Head Office for their bookings
and arrangements.

Accommodation for Rest and Relaxation Leave


The Head Office of each particular country will be responsible for booking accommodation of a
reasonable standard. Should a member of staff wish to stay in alternative accommodation, they
should communicate their request to the same office not later than 3 weeks before travel. They
will be personally liable for any additional costs incurred.

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Expense Allowance during Rest and Relaxation Leave
Staff will be entitled to travel expenses but will not be entitled to any other allowance of their
R&R leave to cover expenses such as meals. Such expenses incurred will be the responsibility
of the individual.

Assumptions and risks


There are two major assumptions and risks with the implementation of this policy:

• Sustained security access to and within project areas is assured.


• Sustained donor funding that allows the policy goal to be met.

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STAFF HEALTH

Introduction
IAS will aim to have information on education and prevention programmes developed for the
staff for diseases of primary health care, HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases. These
programmes will be developed in line with National Health Development Programmes of each
country where IAS operates.

Objectives
Goal
The goal of this policy is to meet the basic health needs of IAS staff.

Purpose
The purpose is to meet the basic health need when sickness occurs.

Outputs
A vibrant staff while at work.

Activities and ways of implementation


Pre-employment Medical examinations
Because IAS is not and has no intention of being seen as a discriminatory organisation, HIV
testing or the testing for similar life-threatening conditions will not be made a compulsory pre-
employment requirement. It will however remain the informed choice of the employee to have
this test taken and the findings will remain confidential between the employee and the Human
Resource Manager. As the organisation promotes openness in HIV/AIDS related issues, the
organisation recommends dialogue between the employee and their immediate supervisor but
this will be done only with the consent of the employee in question.

Employment Medical examinations


All IAS staff will have a routine medical examination held in confidence at the beginning of a
new contract. The test will comprise of a health questionnaire to be filled by the employee, a
medical examination to be carried out by a qualified medical person and routine blood, urine
and stool examinations. This will be carried out in liaison with the health coordinator and the
respective administrator. The employee will be advised on the results and should the need arise,
be counselled on the implications of the findings. These findings will not be used to affect the
tenure of one’s contract, the availability of training or the security of one’s job. Should the need
arise; at the discretion of the health coordinator, the results will be communicated to the
immediate superior. Leakage of this information is criminal, a breach of professional ethics and
a violation of one’s right to confidence and must not be encouraged lest there be legal
ramifications.

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Out-patient care
Outpatient care is a right for all employees. Therefore, outpatient care will be the responsibility
of the employee and the organisation will not be obliged to meet these costs for the employee or
their dependants.

Staff insurance
IAS has recognised that emergency admission to a medical facility may be inevitable and
sudden. This may occur at a time when one has no sufficient funds to meet the costs. The
organisation will pay 50% of the costs for any reputable company that can insure staff. A
deduction of 50% of the insurance fee will be effected. This will be built in to any new contract
a staff signs with the organisation.
In-patient care will be provided at any one of the hospitals that have been certified by the
various insurance companies or authorized by the IAS Head Office. The maximum amount IAS
will pay for in-patient medial treatment is USD 500 per year.

Chronic illness
Any person with a chronic illness will be entitled to in-patient and out-patient care as laid down
in the health policy above. The organisation will not be obliged to keep any employee whose
illness is affecting the productivity and effectiveness of that particular member of staff. This
will however be done in all fairness and in liaison with all parties and as per IAS Employment
Policy.

Assumptions and risks

• Sustained donor funding.


• Highly committed and healthy IAS staff.

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STAFF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

Introduction
IAS regards its employees as its most important asset, and is committed to ensuring that all staff
are trained to carry out their current jobs and are also equipped in good time to perform future
roles. IAS encourages and supports staff in the overall context of meeting its goals and
objectives.

Objectives
The goal and purpose of this policy is to outline IAS´ commitment to the training and
developments of staff and to support staff attain their maximum potential. It contains guidance
into the procedure for and activities designed to support such training and development. This
policy applies to exclusively all employees of IAS.

Activities and ways of implementation


Responsibilities

Education department
The Human Resource function is responsible for the communication, administration and
information, including preparing budgets, designing training programmes, interpretation of this
policy and also developing manuals to be used for in-house training at IAS. Examples of
specific tasks under this responsibility include:

• Following up applications and other arrangements.


• Facilitating the provision of visas and transport by reasonable means.
• Providing medical insurance when required by the institution.
• Providing other specified requirements accordingly.
• Keeping copies of certificates until reports from the trainee have been submitted.
• Keeping updated files of institutions and will be responsible to secure funding for the
training.

The Individual
Basing on the assessment of training needs identified from staff performance appraisals, the
supervisor should take the lead in identifying areas of training for each individual staff member.
It is also the responsibility of each individual to identify personal training and development
needs and seek assistance from IAS and see to it that he/she acquires the necessary knowledge,
skills and ability to perform current and future roles.

Line Managers/Supervisors
The role of Line Managers/Supervisor is to:

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• Represent IAS when it comes to supporting the development of employees working under
them.
• Encourage staff to learn.
• Work with team members to identify their development needs.
• Create and facilitate learning opportunities.
• Make the most effective use of training and development budgets.

Employee orientation programmes


An employee orientation programme will be conducted for all new staff assisted by other IAS
employees and departments. The programme will be designed to ensure that the common
information required by all the employees is provided in a timely and consistent manner. The
programme will consist of the following:

• The structure and organisation including administrative issues of IAS.


• Operations of IAS may necessitate a sitting with each departmental head to gain a working
exposure.
• A reading and understanding of all IAS policies.
• Any other information peculiar to IAS that may be found necessary to impart to a new
employee.

Performance review and development plans


IAS has an annual performance appraisal. During the appraisal, future objectives are identified
and staff development is examined to identify possible training programmes which employees
may require in order to assist them in their objectives.

Forms of training in IAS

In- House Learning


This describes activities other than formal training. In- house learning is usually focused on
“learning by doing” or self-initiated study, such as:

• On the job coaching.


• Mentoring.
• Reading and research.
• Expert briefing.
• Team-based activities.
• Job rotation.

Such courses will specifically address issues unique to IAS, its history, policies, procedures,
operations basic skills, and knowledge pertinent to the vision and mission of IAS. It is in these
that staff will be introduced to new innovative ideas of operations, uniformity of operations will
be streamlined, and skill and competences enhanced in house.

External Training
This describes formal training programmes. Courses might take place outside the premises of
IAS in areas that might be identified as specifically equipped and designed for staff training.
This form of training will be used to implant highly specialized knowledge or advanced skills
and will broaden the horizons of staff taking part because it will expose them to peers from
other organisations which will facilitate exchange of ideas and networking with potential new
partners.

Location of Learning
Whether formal or informal training will be conducted in the following manner:

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In-house learning
This will be conducted on the job as described above. Each person’s manager/supervisor will be
responsible for imparting to staff the way of doing things by coaching, mentoring, teaching,
demonstrating, counselling, and any other means by which staff can learn how to do their jobs
while on the job.

External Training
This will take place in a location external to IAS’ premises with the facilitation of external
resource persons. IAS will sponsor staff to relevant courses that will assist them in acquiring
managerial, team leading, technical and social knowledge and skills. External training will be
useful in supplying staff with the quality of instruction that might be uneconomical to provide
internally

Nomination for training


Each year the person in charge of the Human Resource function will design a programme
containing all courses on offer whether external or internal. This programme will be forwarded
to all line managers who will nominate the staff in their departments. Such nomination shall be
forwarded to the Country Representative for approval. Staff in agreement with and through their
supervisor/manager whether arising from the performance appraisal interview or in the course
of performance of duty may request for a certain course that is not indicated in the programme.
Approval shall be granted by the Country Representative in consultation with the person for the
time being in charge of Human Resources provided that the course sought after shall be relevant
to the employee’s job and in line with the goals and objectives of IAS.

Full time studies


Staff may engage in full time studies. This is when they are absent from the office studying full
time at institutions of learning whether within or outside their country of operation.

Priority Areas for Full Time Studies


Staff development assistance/scholarships for full time studies or distance learning will be
considered in the following areas:

Organisational Core Needs


These will look at the general and continuing need within the organisation as a whole that need
improvement and to develop professional expertise. The subjects of study will encompass areas
such as peace and conflict resolutions, humanitarian aid in complex emergencies, and the
changing world international relations among others. These courses will be seen as being able to
give more focus and direction to the organisation in view of the happenings in the
relief/humanitarian/ NGO world. For most part the target trainees will be individuals at
management level.

Job Needs
These will focus on the needs for particular jobs to be done well within the organisation. This is
very vital especially at the sectors level and will seek to enhance the technical expertise within
each sector and the organisation at large. For most part, the target trainees will be individuals
involved as sector heads, project leaders, field coordinators, administrators, logisticians etc.

Others
This will be accorded to individuals that have shown exemplary abilities, commitment and
initiatives in their job performances but lack or need improvement in one or two areas e.g.
communication skills. The scope of trainees is wide ranging from team house leaders,
secretaries, and receptionists to drivers, radio operators etc.

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Study leave
At the discretion of the management study leave may be granted up to a maximum of one year.
Once study leave is so granted, IAS will not be responsible to pay the salary of staff in the event
that it will become necessary to fill the vacancy of the employee going to study. IAS will not
support one’s family once they have taken study leave. Should the employee wish to take study
leave and be accompanied by members of his family, IAS will not be in a position to fund such
a move.

Scholarship
IAS may at its discretion offer scholarship whose extent will depend on availability of funds.
Depending on factors to be determined by the Board, IAS may decide to retain a particular
employee after his/her studies. Accordingly such an employee will be required to sign a bond
promising to work for IAS for at least 3 years after the training or pay IAS a sum of money
equivalent to the person’s three years salary or the amount of the scholarship whichever is more.

Applications
• Applications for full time studies will be done on standard application forms available from
the Human Resource department.
• All applications must be done in good time before the studies begin. Preferably, it should be
done six months to a year before to enable IAS source the funds and find a replacement for
the staff proceeding to study.
• All applications must contain as much detail as possible to facilitate expeditious and
informed decision-making.
• Applications must be approved and recommended by one’s immediate supervisor and by
the Country Representative.
• Applications will only be considered if they are relevant to one’s job and are in conformity
with the vision and mission of IAS.
• Once approval to proceed for studies is received, IAS may assist the employee in making
the necessary arrangements e.g. making travel arrangements and visa applications.

Applicants Responsibilities
Applicants will be responsible for the following:

• Give an account of any funds advanced to them by IAS;


• Give a periodical report on the progress of the studies;
• Give an evaluation of the course as per paragraph 11 below
• Pursue the training courses diligently and continue until successful completion of the
course. If the employee gets sick or is unable to complete the studies due to circumstances
beyond his or her control he must immediately inform IAS.
• Conduct himself at all times as an honest and faithful person and to the best of his power
and ability faithfully observe, obey and perform such instructions, directions, rules and
regulations as may from time to time be made or given to him by the trainers all the while
bearing in mind that he/she is representing IAS in the institution of learning.
• Sit for and pass all examinations or assessments/evaluations fixed or set by the trainers
unless prevented from so doing by the circumstances mentioned above.

Distance learning
Distance learning programmes are considered a good option to full time studies. The distance
learning programmes enable staff to continue their duties and at the same time pursue studies.
This form of training is preferred for longer periods of training.

Training evaluation system


To maximize learning and development, a tripartite effort is essential at all stages, pre-course,
end of course and post course. This involves the learner, his/her manager and the provider of
training. The objectives and processes of each stage will be as follows:

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Pre-course
The purpose of pre-course evaluation is to determine the need for the training programme and
the benefits expected to be gained. This has to be agreed by the nominated staff and his/her
immediate supervisor/line manager.

End of Course
The purpose of this stage will be to:

• Help participants ascertain improvement areas and determine on action points.


• Help trainers obtain feedback regarding course conduct and participant training.
• Establish minimum standards for satisfactory course completion.

Post Course Evaluation


The true test of training effectiveness must necessarily be reflected in job performance.
Therefore, both the participant and immediate superior need to be in agreement on an action
plan with precise, measurable, visible performance criteria. To do this, there should be a post-
course debrief and a joint action plan formulation. Discussion of the same periodically and
impact on performance will be noted during the annual appraisal discussion.

Staff library
There is a need to develop staff libraries in each of the hubs of operation with one serving as the
central distributing library. Books can be borrowed and have to be returned within the stated
time limit. The officer in-charge is to search for relevant books spanning a range of subjects for
example in professional, spiritual, personal development or general interest. The staff can also
request for new titles. In addition to books, other publications will be available in the library e.g.
the IAS manuals.

Assumptions and risks

• Sustained donor funding that allows for the policy goal to be met.
• Highly committed IAS staff.

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