Essay Questions 1.

Describe the factors that contribute to the development of oppositional children and analyze how these factors are impacting your job. It seems that we are seeing more and more children with severe emotional needs, which often include extremely aggressive, defiant and physical behavior. Unfortunately, it is very challenging and difficult to deal with these behaviors within the regular classroom because the behavior negatively impacts the learning environment. There are many factors that contribute to this type of behavior. There are three main factors that typically contribute to a child's oppositional behavior: Temperament, Parenting skills, and Stress. The first factor, a child's temperament, is a key factor in his/her emotional well being and development. Some children are born with a temperament that makes parenting very challenging and difficult. Their temperament may cause defiance, aggression, oppositional behaviors and emotional disturbances. There is research to support that a difficult temperament can be genetic. Many children have several challenging behaviors as a result of their temperament. For example, oppositional defiant behavior is usually linked with ADHD, which also is very genetic in nature. A second factor that contributes to an oppositional child is a consistent lack of parenting skills. Many times, parents avoid stressful and unpleasant situations, which means their child is not held accountable for their choices and behavior. It is easier to avoid confrontation and let the child have his/her way, rather than deal with a power struggle, which ultimately ends in physical violence. However, parents are not to blame for their child's behavior, and it is a destructive way of thinking. The third contributing factor is a high level of parent stress. Many parents are single parents who are struggling financially who may be unemployed or working a high stress job. Often times, these parents are alone, and they do not have any support system or resources. Parents of oppositional children also report having significant marital stress, and they are struggling to have a healthy relationship with their spouse. Unmarried mothers and/or unhappy mothers are reported as being highly critical of their oppositional child and using punishment to attempt to manage their child's behavior, which results in defiance and noncompliance. Many times, these mothers are clinically depressed and often times resort to substance abuse as a coping mechanism. Fathers of oppositional children frequently have ADHD and struggle with personality disorders as well as substance abuse. In the last few years our school has become predominantly a lower socio-economic school. The changes in our families have been evident in the types of children that we see in our classrooms. More than 50% of our children are from single parent homes, and we find that our population has become very transient as a result. Most classrooms have at least two children who have oppositional, defiant behaviors, and these are children who have not qualified for an emotional behavior program, which means they do not have any support within the classroom. The number of children that we see with emotional issues has grown significantly, which certainly is a result of struggling families. I can definitely see how a stressful home life contributes greatly to a child's behavior at school and within the community. Often times, parents do not have anybody that can help them, and they are trying to do the best that they can with their child. Too often, I think parents accept their child's inappropriate behavior and give up on finding ways to help their child find coping mechanisms and ways to control their behavior. This can appear like the parents don't care, but really it is likely that they are feeling helpless and unprepared to deal with their child's difficult behavior. In my experience I find that parents are very defensive when it comes to their child's behavior because they are blaming themselves and/or feel that the educator is judging them negatively. This really impairs everyone's judgement and ability to be problem solvers because we get caught up in who is to blame, instead of ways to help the child. I see this type of behavior becoming more and more prevalent in our school district, and it really helps to understand what an Oppositional and Defiant disorder entails, the contributing factors, and ways to help support the child and their family.

Applied Behavior Analysis. punishments. There truly isn't a motivation or agenda behind their behavior. In hindsight they may be able to analyze their behavior and choices.#2. Sometimes. There certainly isn't one approach that works with every ODD child because each child has unique needs and behavior characteristics. Ignoring inappropriate behavior is another practice that proves to be ineffective with oppositional children. Describe the components of “environmental engineering” and analyze how you currently engineer . which means ignoring the behavior would hold little to no value. and they are not looking for a specific reaction from their peers or their teachers. and reinforcement of positive behavior results in better behaved children. these children are not capable of making conscious decisions as to how they choose to behave at a given moment. but definitely does not hold true with oppositional and defiant children. Our ultimate goal should be providing an environment that is optimal for all children to experience success. it is apparent that it's extremely important to understand each individual child and what he/she needs to succeed. Neither positive or negative consequences prove to be effective with oppositional children. is a popular approach to controlling and managing children's behavior. This approach assumes that punishment guides and/or controls behavior in children. These children wouldn't even necessarily understand or notice that their behavior is being ignored because attention is not their focus or motivation. which means any kind of behavior approach that focus on rewards and consequences is setting an ODD child up for failure. Their impulsivity makes it impossible for them to consider rewards or consequences. there isn't an easy fix or simple solution to help oppositional children find success to manage their behavior. Sadly. In these circumstances the child would likely respond well to a behavior approach that uses rewards and consequences as a basis for monitoring and controlling behavior as they have the capacity to think proactively. Processing and reacting appropriately are skills that some ODD children are capable of doing when they do not struggle with other aggressive and impulsive issues. but there are definite approaches that research has proven to be ineffective. It is important to recognize that not all ODD children are impulsive and inattentive. Rewarding appropriate behavior is also very ineffective because again this is assuming that children are able to control their impulses and emotions. Flexibility is key and setting up the classroom in a way that promotes success can have a tremendous impact. A reward may work short term. but long term it will not hold any value. When children are also impulsive with attention difficulties. These children are not seeking attention by acting out. understanding what does NOT work with a specific child helps us see what could possibly work. Rewards and consequences are the basis for this type of behavior model. Typically. They are impulsive in nature. Research has shown that there are many practices that will NOT work with the typical oppositional and defiant child. The problem with punishment is that the assumption is made that oppositional children are able to process and consider the possible consequences of their behavior. As an educator. Alternative plans need to be used for children who have ODD as well as other defiant behaviors. There is no consideration as to how their choices will affect others. These types of measures seem to upset these children because they resent adults trying to control their behavior. Research has shown that children with high emotional needs do not respond well to a reward and punishment system. and ignoring behavior do not work with these children. Oppositional children are not considering anything other than their emotions and how they are feeling at that moment. otherwise known as Behavior Modification. which clearly an oppositional child is unable to do during stressful times. so they act without thinking. This philosophy works well with most children. this ultimately changes what approaches will prove to be effective. What behavior methods should not be used with oppositional children and why? Unfortunately. this is often times the only approach that is used with oppositional children in the regular classroom. Rewards. which means considering punishment or rewards at the time of intense emotions is not possible. #3.

we need to find approaches that do help these children succeed. the classroom. Which antecedents are you sometimes using which need to be avoided and which ones are you using that have a positive impact. and other children need less support depending on their ability levels. This is imperative with Oppositional children since they do not handle any kind of verbal directives. #4. I need to do a better job at differentiating learning for different learners.The longer that I have been teaching. daycare etc. Some children need individualized instruction with much assistance. structured. Since rewards and consequences do not work with oppositional children. The components of environmental engineering in the classroom are the organization of the physical environment. and any other observable stimuli. but I need to also have activities that are very clear cut and provide immediate feedback and self checking for children who need very clear expectations. over stimulating classroom. such as the doctor's office. it can also be effective in the school environment. so children do not become defensive. The physical environment is set up in a way that requires little to no verbal direction. The activities need to be easy to understand visually without any verbal direction. even if given gently and with empathy. For example. the right response is the easiest response. These children need to be seated away from windows. the work structure. hallways. objects or written words to define the daily routines. A written schedule is an excellent resource for children when they become distracted. Schedules can use pictures. The given tasks need to be developmentally appropriate and at the child's academic levels. the daily schedule. I like using open-ended activities because they prove to be enriching and thought provoking for many children. purposeful and create a sense of order.your own learning environment for oppositional children. Environmental engineering can be arranged in a multitude of different settings for Oppositional children. Work structures need to be effective and well established for children. It requires careful planning and effective strategies to use with children who struggle with defiance and aggression. In other words the various materials in a typical student's desk may be destructive for a child with attention deficits because there are too many materials too manage. the seating arrangement.. The environment is purposefully arranged. distracting children. The physical environment is very important to all children. they often respond with physical aggression and defiance. When ODD children are given any kind of negative feedback. These children do not function in a cluttered. Just as environmental engineering is effective in the clinic environment. which eliminates the need for an adult to intervene verbally or physically. . For example. children need a one-on-one aide with them to help keep them focused and on task. Less verbal direction is ideal. The seating arrangement impacts these children very directly and careful thought needs to be given when considering the seating chart. and they should not be open-ended. A daily schedule works well with children because it gives them a sense of direction and order to their day. I am starting to appreciate that less is more for most children. Environmental engineering makes it less likely for a child to make a poor choice. The environment needs to be organized. so it is very easy for the child to make the right choices with little thought. These children need assistance in adopting an organizational system . The beginning of the year can be a trial and error time because many times we do not have any background on the children. arranging the clinic environment is done prior to meeting with the child. so the child is able to transition from one area to another independently without any feedback or guidance from the doctor. Ideally. Sometimes. I know that I have to be conscious of not overpowering the learning environment with visual stimuli because it is very distracting to children. which comes naturally and with ease. The activities also need to have a clear finish. but it is particularly important to children who have attention deficits. which helps keep them on task. I am definitely very observant and reflective when it comes to seating arrangements and how the classroom is organized. which makes specialized instruction challenging. Arranging the environment in an optimal way is called environmental engineering or the setting events. the tasks and additional assistance. Evaluate your own antecedents with oppositional children.

As a result. Once they feel that their control is lost. average day in the classroom because I think that I assume that all of the children are comfortable with when and what is expected of them throughout the day. I also try to provide choices for children. Foreshadowing is an incredible practice to use with all children. Teaching with Love and Logic and the Responsive Classroom approach. At times I use foreshadowing in my classroom. but it's the small group times that concern me. especially when it's a behavior that is constantly negatively impacting the learning environment. I do much better foreshadowing when it comes to atypical events or changes in the routine. frustration and exhaustion take over. In the last few years I have also added many new academic choices which I think helps children feel more in control and motivated in their classroom environment. rather than give them explicit directions. I assume that an ODD child is picking up on environmental cues when really he/she is not capable of recognizing these cues. I also need to be much better at controlling the amount of “idle” time throughout our day because I can understand how and why this can cause stress and anguish for an ODD child. not to mention very hard to get the child to the office independently. and the routine is that children get a book from the reading area to bring back to their table until it is time to switch. . It seems like giving choices and/or asking children questions are too very unobtrusive ways to manage behavior.When I earned my master's degree. but I clearly need to use it more and with explicit intent. I do not foreshadow nearly enough on the typical. teaching philosophy and how I deal with all children. #5. rather than having to leave the table and becoming distracted by other groups and activities. I like the idea of using timers with children and helping them really see and understand the passage of time. This knowledge made an enormous impact on my classroom. children really need to be somewhat independent. and I have a hard time not being reactive. especially children with attention deficits. and the choices keep the child “thinking” and responsible for the decisions made. Sending the child to the office is extremely dysfunctional for everyone involved. It may be time better spent if I have a basket of books on the table for the children to choose from as they finish. Many times. I can increase the amount of role playing and role modeling that I do to ensure that the children understand what the expectation looks like. I think ODD children as well as all of the children would find security and success with extra practice and exposure. I use role playing a lot in the Fall semester. I focused primarily on Jim Fay's philosophy and book. I am able to show little to no emotion when dealing with behavior. and he/she will deal with the natural consequences if a poor choice is made. However. I allow more outbursts and inappropriate behavior in the classroom than I should because sending an upset child to the main office is ineffective at best. Without an assistant in the room. I learned the importance of empowering children to make their own choices. The ODD children may even feel comfortable being the “role model” during our role playing time. ODD children become defensive and apt to show aggression as a result of their lack of control. It makes it hard that we are lacking a physical space for children when they are out of control and aggressive. During our kindergarten station time children finish activities at various times.. but that isn't always the case. “No” since that is taking the thinking away from the child. It seems like children do much better when they think that they are in control of their environment and experiences. especially when we do not have a place for the child to go when conflict arises. There are times when I believe that I am foreshadowing for children. The large group teaching times are extremely routine and guided. which means that I try to avoid using the word. Most of the time. Sometimes. but I think that children would truly benefit from role playing throughout the entire year. sounds like. I can see how this would help children manage their time too. Develop a plan for removing an oppositional student from your classroom using information from chapter 5. feels like etc. yet I think that I need to take it a few steps further. There are days when I struggle to be 100% calm and collected. This is effective because the responsibility lies on the child. and it does nothing to help the child find peace with the current conflict.

This meeting needs to result in the “Child's plan. modeled and practiced with the child. Since our situation is less than ideal I feel that there needs to be more than one plan in place which will depend largely on the issue at hand and how the child is behaving. It is very important for the child to recognize and observe the adults being on the same page with the same set of expectations and consequences. and damaging anything in the classroom environment. We will also have a discussion about the types of behavior that would result in having to be removed by an adult. #6. The need certainly arises when a child must be removed from the classroom for everyone's safety. This is something that will need to be role played many times throughout the year to ensure success and clear expectations.It is imperative to always have the following key concept in the back of my mind as I deal with ODD children.” Often. When the timer runs out. it is at that point the child may choose to start the timer again or speak with the teacher about returning to his classroom. Removing an oppositional child is difficult in our building as we do not have an EBD program and/or any physical space for the child to go to during times of high stress. We will have a sand timer in the backroom. If our principal is unavailable. not a lecture or telling. unless the child is hurting himself in the process. that is something I can chose to ignore at that given time. “The child is removed only to protect people and property and to ensure a viable teaching and learning environment. aggressive and defiant than the plan will entail Mr. they can brainstorm different ways that the child could have behaved and why they would have been better choices. The main behaviors that will result in removal are any kind of physical violence. and it benefits everyone when classroom teachers as well as support staff work together to find solutions. Together. We also do not have any extra staff who could be a regular resource person. What are the strengths and weaknesses of the plan. This is the time that the educator would help the child reflect on why he needed to vacate the room at that given time. Dealing with Oppositional children must be a team effort in order to truly be effective. . If a child is upset and truly just needs a change in environment.” After the plan is established both verbally and written. and he may come back to the room when he is ready. “Who is being negatively affected by this behavior at this moment?” If it truly is only the ODD child who is being impacted. our principal. Again this will be discussed. These meetings need to truly be a discussion. Having the ODD child help create the list of “zero tolerance behavior” is an imperative part of the process Several adults who work with the child need be involved either directly or indirectly in this process as well as the child's parents. The only true way for this meeting to be effective and worthwhile is if the child and teacher (or person running the meeting) have a positive relationship and mutual respect for one another. My student may have some alone time in her back room. so the child is in the room for a minimum of 5 minutes. then it's time to focus on the teachable moments as they surface. I think having a very specific plan as to what behavior will require removal is key. The educators involved must praise the child for his ability to follow the intended plan. coming down to the classroom to usher the child down to his office for some down time until the child is back in control and able to make appropriate choices. Describe the plan that is currently in place in your school for oppositional students. I have an agreement with a first grade teacher who is next door to my classroom. The second teachable moment comes after following the plan becomes the child's routine. throwing things. White. This decision will be based on the teacher and student's thoughts. than our guidance counselor or school psychologist will take over in the same manner. The first teachable moment occurs the first three to four times that the child engages in the established plan. In the event that a child is out of control. During this meeting the child also needs to be part of planning what will happen in the event that any of the listed inappropriate behaviors occur. The third teachable moment occurs when the child recognizes his responsibility for his behavior and accepts his own natural consequences. I question myself during times of conflict.

our school office becomes a very unstable. but he responded so well to older children that he looked to as role models. A few times last year this little boy's 5th grade buddy helped out with him when things began to spiral out of control. and sometimes not saying a word can be more powerful and effective than any other tool. However. As mentioned above. What recommendations would you give to parents of oppositional students and why? First and foremost. our office staff has to assist which is well beyond what they were hired to do. There is a designated space in the classroom. This district plan brings much stress in our school building because we lack the in house support that other buildings possess. This past year. One of the big things that she focused on with the 5th grader was how children with ODD do not handle verbal direction very well. many classrooms have ODD children who either have not qualified for EBD for various reasons or have simply not been through the whole process yet. we certainly deal with children who have emotional needs. Otherwise. He simply walked around the building a few times with this boy. I could see having 5th graders apply for the “position” of being a buddy helper. I would love to see more children try this type of intervention because it was an incredible experience for everyone involved. The only place that we have which is staffed is our school office. This really works well in most cases. It was amazing how well this child could understand what his buddy needed at a given time. Years ago. Because of our changing population. This can be an okay situation at best IF our principal is in the building and is available to monitor the child at that given moment. like a school office. Initially. and they are also not educated in dealing with these types of behaviors. Role playing would be a huge part of the training process. we do not have an EBD program in our building. It really becomes a liability for all involved because the child's needs can't possibly be met in an area of extreme activity. Sometimes. #7. When children qualify for EBD. but he isn't completely out of control. and other children. crayons and paper etc. each classroom has a “buddy classroom” which we use in the case when a child needs a new environment. the frequency and intensity of emotional behaviors were much less. which is typically in a small back room within the classroom. When oppositional children have to be taken to the office in the midst of conflict. behavior is becoming very consuming and a given in our school environment.As mentioned in above responses. I had a little boy who absolutely loved his 5th grade buddy. In the mean time we are trying to have plans in place that do not require having to use the office space. Now. which can be used as coping mechanisms for some children. As a result. He was also very oppositional. staff. We do not have an established place for children to go when they are out of control. Even though we do not have an “official” EBD specialized program. parents need to understand how imperative it is for them to be completely on . and there would be a strong emphasis on finding the right fit as we partnered up children. The 5th grader's presence was all that was needed without saying a word. stressful environment for secretaries. Most teachers make it a very cozy and soothing place with books. Our guidance counselor did an excellent job educating the 5th grader about ODD and ways to help him find success. Safety becomes an issue for the oppositional child and also other children who may interact with the explosive child. it seems that we have at least one major issue every single day to the extent where the police have been called on several occasions because the child became so aggressive and dangerous. It definitely takes creative thinking and involving the entire school community. parents. the selected students could meet as a group and work with our guidance counselor and learn strategies to use with their buddy. I know that our school will be seriously considered for housing an EBD program in the near future because of our high needs. The child knows exactly what to do in this situation and the rules and guidelines. which sometimes are well beyond what can be managed in a regular classroom setting. and he struggled with many behaviors. they go to a different school in our district. Even without an ED program we can find ways to help these children manage their behavior. they talked and other times they didn't say a word.

and I show them our parent section in our library that has a number of wonderful resources for parents to check out and use whenever. “I like it”.” Alpha commands are specific and direct. I make sure that I am very approachable and “real. such as. pats on the back etc. Timeout and compliance. such as “Good Job”. Parents need to participate in parent training to understand how to help their child. This is why I work so hard at making parents feel comfortable in our school setting. The most important arena for change is in the child's home. descriptive and acknowledging what the child is doing at that moment without being judged. If the child is acting out for attention. It would be fun and very helpful to share Forehand and McMahon's four essential parenting skills with my kindergarten families. These essential skills are components of all successful parenting programs: giving attends. It never fails that the parents we really need to see at conferences are the ones who choose not to come for whatever reason.” Next. and giving Alpha commands. Our parents would really benefit from the Behavior Parent Training Program (BPT). ignoring. even if parents are unable to be at school during the school day. Attends should be specific. Ignoring inappropriate behavior is vital. non verbal attention. Behavior parent training has proven to be the most successful treatment for changing a child's oppositional behavior. Parents really need to first be convinced that they are their child's most important teacher. Again praise needs to be specific. and I truly think it would provide our parents with some wonderful background knowledge. As educators. attention to positive behavior. Again this program would be beneficial for all parents. provide child with an opportunity to act appropriately and allow the parent to reinforce positive behaviors. “Brush your teeth and go to bed. descriptive. Attends describe the child's behavior and/or emphasizing the desired behavior. Sadly. so we have some common ground. this will eliminate that reinforcer. Alpha commands are clear concise commands. unlabeled verbal rewards and labeled verbal rewards. we emphasize the importance of parent involvement.” The fourth skill is labeled verbal rewards which are specific statements that reinforce behavior. Change at school will not be nearly as impressionable as change at home.. I really focus on the fact that ALL children can benefit from Parenting with Love and Logic. kisses. which I use with my own children and in the classroom. we can not truly meet the needs of children without the help of their parents. Alpha commands request for positive behavior. which are given in order to give the child attention. During the first meeting with parents I briefly share information about Jim Fay's Parenting with Love and Logic..” I also try to appeal to them as a parent myself. non descriptive. This includes three types of rewards: physical. It really is a proactive approach to parenting.board and involved in their child's behavior plan if they expect to see any lasting improvements in their child overall. verbal contact and physical contact if the child is inappropriate. positive etc. Parents need to become very involved in the school environment. Most importantly parents need to realize how ineffective compliance training and time out are . which isn't easy for a parent who has had years and years of negative school experiences. so I would teach that skill as what NOT to do with oppositional children. My main goal for our first meeting day with parents is to initiate a healthy relationship and to convince parents that we need to be a team throughout the year. The components of effective ignoring are no eye contact. “Nice work”. Attends are comments based on the child's behavior. positive social reinforcement. “I like how you are cleaning up the blocks. given one at a time. The second skill is praise or positive social reinforcement. We share many different ways to become involved in school and their child's classroom. The third skill is unlabeled verbal rewards. Physical rewards are hugs. or “Wow. praise describes what a child is doing and that the parent values the behavior. It must be real and provided in an appropriate way that makes sense. and it certainly isn't just for bad behavior. such as. the parents that would likely attend this program would be the parents who need it the least. At our kindergarten orientation before school even begins. I do not agree with the 5th component.

with oppositional children. Typically. not because they want some physical reward. Which treatment suggestions do you find the most intriguing and why? Treatments are always a hot topic for educators and parents. All children can really benefit by this training because children overall REALLY lack in problem solving skills. but I really don't see that happening anymore in our district. Clinically depressed boys are typically short tempered and irritable. he usually is taken to a time out and told why he is in the time out and exactly how long he has to stay there. I think that this would be the most important thing for parents to understand because this is basically how most people parent. teachers. Sometimes. nor have I given it much thought. I found Chapter 8 to be thought provoking and intriguing because I was unfamiliar with many medications that are used for treating children. Chapter 8 discusses treating the child. but most of the medication was used for treating ADHD. shots. rather than always focusing on extrinsic rewards. the child has five seconds to comply. and we need to give parents more effective options and resources to use with their children. This will take years and years of training. and punishment is very ineffective with oppositional children and really detrimental. After the time out the parent repeats the original command and expects the child to comply. Symptoms of children who struggle with anxiety are also very similar to oppositional children and their conduct. I really try to encourage children to find their own sense of self satisfaction and to stop looking for that constant feedback from outside sources because that feedback is not always going to be there. I am not opposed to extrinsic rewards in moderation. I try to remember that I shouldn't be rewarding for children for doing something that is . Years ago. Children need to find their own motivation for doing the right thing. Medication alone doesn't seem to be an effective long term approach. I can definitely understand how it can take several months of trial and error to truly find the right medication for a child because there are so many options available. which means that medications that increase the levels of serotonin can help reduce and better control children's aggressive tendencies. and people really have a multitude of opinions regarding treatment in general. I definitely didn't understand the chemical process. simply because it's the right thing to do. Relationship training is a huge part of helping children to find success with or without medication. when an alpha command is given. The time out session should last 3 minutes. After five seconds the command is given again with a warning that time out will be a consequence of noncompliance. However. I think medication is really a bandaid approach at best. It's interesting to me how many of these can be linked. and the long term benefits are truly non existent. I think that medication needs to be partnered with counseling and/or support in other ways as well. I feel that we need to do a better job focusing on intrinsic rewards. I also didn't consider all of the possible medications that can truly help children far beyond Ritalin. This is a form of punishment. but I think we tend to reward children excessively. Over the years I have had many children on different types of medication for different treatments. and I think children need to learn to do the right thing. which are true in oppositional children as well. It truly is becoming a severe deficit in our children at large which impacts all aspects of their lives. Extrinsic rewards tend to be so superficial. there are DEFINITELY children and adults who absolutely need medication in order to truly be successful in society. especially as an adult. especially when children struggle with a difficult temperament. It really needs to be a team approach including the child's doctor. It really seems that educators and schools are very careful when it comes to medications and the treatment of children. protests or promises. I feel that medication needs to be considered only when all other options have been ruled as ineffective. I think that medication was being used to quickly and as a first option. parents and any one else who works closely with the child. It makes sense that many children with oppositional and defiant behaviors also have decreased levels of serotonin. The parent ignores any tantrums. specialists. and it needs to start in the home before children are even school age. #8. If the child chooses to not comply.

which must have been stressful for children. For example. but there will be times that I do not “like” how they are behaving. This happens naturally when staff work together to create a common set of standards and objectives. It is so important to understand a child's strengths as well as their limitations. In our school we spent an entire staff development day writing our school mission statement. #9. Behavioral training should really be part of any treatment plan to provide adequate support for children. Children benefit greatly when they are in an environment that is based on healthy relationships throughout. . It is important that the school principal expects staff to adhere to our staff policies and school mission statement.. and this creates a sense of family and community within the building. and/or what is happening in the classroom at that given time. We found that many of us had different expectations on the playground. It was excellent community building. and then we made the final draft in our large group. Voice Volume 0 is no talking. It is comforting for children to know that the same expectations are required from all of the staff members. the voice volumes are 0-3 based on where they are in the building. but it certainly isn't the only option. which has made a tremendous difference in our school because children and staff are all using the same language throughout the entire building. As a result. this is an excellent resource for ODD children since it's a non-verbal directive. but most certainly during challenging times.expected of them because that is really setting them up for failure because that isn't a real snapshot of what adult life entails. We have signs displayed throughout our building indicating what voice volume is expected in that area. Understanding how a child's brain functions and the chemical makeup of the brain is imperative to considering the most beneficial treatment for a child. especially children who struggle with ODD. The focus is always on the behavior. Again medication needs to be considered as an option for Oppositional children. We also have numbers on our name tags that we can use as a non-verbal reminder for children if their voice volume is inappropriate. It is apparent within minutes of stepping into a school setting if it is a positive. in the lunchroom. and the tricky part is finding the right fit for children. We also have implemented the Voice Volume system school wide. This chapter was a good reminder that there are so many different approaches and treatments that work for children. I always tell my children that there is nothing they could do to make me not love them. and it really created a sense of cohesiveness and consistency that our building was desperately needing because of the various staff personalities and beliefs. not on the child. the school staff is instrumental in creating the ideal school environment for all children. Volume 1 can only be heard an arm's length away. and it's also very effective to use the same language amongst our staff and building. loving environment. We worked in small groups. He is very good about creating community within our staff. in the hallway etc. Children need to know that they can trust their teachers to be there when times are good. Children are extremely perceptive when it comes to recognizing if teachers and staff authentically care about them. Positive healthy relationships are the backbone of any successful school. they should feel a sense of peace and comfort because they know that they will be surrounded by caring. happy people. When children walk into their school. and it takes time and dedication to make certain that this is achieved. which unfortunately many children do not experience at home. What factors create a positive school culture so oppositional students can be successful? Creating a positive school culture is vital for all children. Our principal does an excellent job at checking in with our staff as a whole and making sure that we are using best practices. Volume 2 is a conversation voice and Volume 3 is outside voices. A school wide common set of rules and expectations is key. Continuity and consistency are two vital components of a healthy school environment. especially for ODD children who need black and white rules and expectations.

and I am thinking of ways to reduce idle time when ODD children typically struggle the most. By making a few simple changes I think that children will be much more successful and at ease when working independently. Since public schools are in such a financial crisis I am certain that we will see less and less support for unidentified children who have significant needs. so it's so helpful to have this background for all of the children that I work with at my school. and I learned many new techniques that I plan to facilitate this next school year. valued and safe. This is a huge time of growth and development for me as an educator. I have practices and routines that I know work well with children. If this isn't the case. but I didn't necessarily know WHY it worked. my principal. and parents. I will continue to keep materials and activities stored in a very orderly way with an easy system to follow. and I really think this philosophy works with ODD children too. and it's a direct way to make sure that every child has a voice and an important role in the classroom community. I knew that certain things worked with some of my more challenging children. In the past I think that I assumed too much about what children understood and where they were at developmentally. The information in this book is invaluable. increased your knowledge and how it will assist you in changing your current practices. I plan to do what I can to find ways to support our children. I also think that all children have the capability and instinct to be oppositional at any given time. It makes me feel good to know that many things that I have been doing are strong and healthy ways to reach ODD children. even though we do not have the ideal setting in times of high stress and challenge. and I am very excited to share what I have learned with colleagues. I also feel that the Responsive Classroom Approach is another effective way to reach all children. I am already brainstorming ways to give nonverbal directives. I want to do a better job at monitoring growth and skills. and I have more purpose and reason for doing the things that I do each and every day. and I have learned many different things that . I learned a lot of new things that I can add to what I am already doing in my classroom. I still have so much to learn. This is an exciting time in my career because I am not a struggling new teacher anymore. Discuss how it has changed your thinking. so I can keep children at their instructional levels and setting them up for success and optimal learning. which makes it even more vital that I have the necessary information and knowledge regarding ODD children. The Responsive Classroom Approach and Jim Fay's Love and Logic principles fit really well with the suggestions and guidelines presented in this book. then ODD children will likely experience stress and anxiety when attempting the same lesson. It's really helpful to have the background knowledge and understanding of ODD and all that it entails. ODD children need a more purposeful approach and system in order for them to find security and comfort. I definitely need to avoid over stimulating children and keeping the physical environment a little less busy and distracting for children. Most of all. Knowledge is definitely power. “Engineering the Classroom Environment” was a very helpful chapter. and I feel much more ready to meet the needs of ODD children. I like having the idea in mind that a non-teacher should be able to look at the activity without any verbal direction and know what the expectation is for that particular lesson.Summary Summarize how this course has helped you as an educator. Even though I have worked with oppositional children for over twelve years. and my directions need to be even more concise and clear for children to follow. I don't know that we will ever have an EBD program on site. I think that it's important to see the differences in ODD children. Love and Logic is based on empathy and empowering children to make good choices. I will modify many activities that are too open ended for ODD children. regardless of their strengths and weaknesses. I also need to focus on work structure. I am happy to say that I have embraced many philosophies and practices that ODD children seem to benefit from overall. yet I am nowhere near a veteran teacher's status either. but it's possibly more important to see ALL of the similarities between children because all children thrive when they feel loved.

do NOT work. and then apply it to things that I am already doing in my current classroom. It's so beneficial to gain new information. .

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