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THE INDIAN INSTITUTE OF PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT

PART 1 – AN OVERVIEW

Challenges for Today's HR

1. Globalization
2. Changing Faces of Business
3. Employees' Aspirations Mix
4. Work-Life Balance
5. Intense Competitiveness ( At Organisational and Individual
Levels)
6. Societal Changes and so on

In such and a scenario, HR becomes very important a part of any
organization. For long HR was viewed as an 'Administrative
Department' doing the daily tangible transaction related to Human
Resources. But the present shift in the nature of the business is
bringing a sharp change in the HR operations. From an Administrative
Department, HR is now shaping up as a 'Strategic Department'. But
there are few factors to be ensured before we can see HR playing that
much-desired Strategic Role. Those factors are -

Fundamentals of Successful HR

1. Being Proactive
2. Treating HR as a Business
3. Seasoning Impulses (Going for Step-by-Step Decision Making)
4. Being a Part of the Strategic Decision Making Process.

PART 2 – GOAL ALIGNMENT

Have a look at the following model -

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THE INDIAN INSTITUTE OF PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT

2.
Business Goals

8.
Groups

5.
Departments
1. 3./6./9./12
Business Objective Several Activities

11.
Teams

4./7./10/13.
Specialisation

14.
Individual Jobs

The model is explained below –

• 1. Business Objective ---(Broken into)--- 2. Business Goals ---
(Can be Achieved through) - 3. Several Activities --- (Separated
by)--- 4. Specialisation --- (Gives birth to)--- 5. Several
Departments
• 5. Each Department --- (Will have) --- Departmental Goals --
(Can be Achieved through) 6. Several Activities --- (Separated
by )--- 7Specialisation --- (Gives birth to)--- 8. Several Groups
• 8. Each Group --- (Will have) --- Group Goals --(Can be
Achieved through) 9. Several Activities --- (Separated by )--- 10.
Specialisation --- (Gives birth to)--- 11. Several Teams
• 11. Each Team --- (Will have) --- Team Goals --(Can be Achieved
through) – 12. Several Activities --- (Separated by )--- 13.
Specialisation --- (Gives birth to)--- 14. Several
Individual/Individual Jobs

This is how the goals at each level of the organisation should be
designed (classroom examples should be emphasised here. If you can
recall, we understood this model with the help mainly 3 three

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THE INDIAN INSTITUTE OF PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT

examples, i.e., the Al-Quida Example, IIPM’s goal example and an IT
Company’s goal example).
All the more, few factors should be remembered are –
1. Entire organisation functions as a circle,
2. The goals at different layers can be ‘different’, but not
‘contradictory’,
3. Different goals should be ‘complementary’ in nature,
4. Proactive and periodical reviews are important to sustain this
goal-paradigm.

PART 2 – JOB ANALYSIS

It’s a mechanism for systematic exploration of a job, related duties,
responsibilities, accountabilities, skills and qualities required to
perform that job. It’s a Job-focused tool, not the job-holder focused
tool.

Following the model of Goal Alignment, we can easily find out how a
particular JOB is to be created. It goes hand in hand with the Business
Objective and plays as a part of the integrated system. Now, when we
reach an Individual Job (14), that Job also will be having some
objective of its own which will help the job-holder to meet the Team
Goal; If the Team Goal is met, then only Group Goal cane be
achieved, if the Group Goal is achieved only then the Department
Goals can be achieved and only then the Business Goals can be
achieved which will enable the organization to achieve the Business
Objective!
If you look at the model now, you will see, we’ve connected the model
in backward-connection as well (14 – 11 – 8 – 5 – 2 - 1)

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THE INDIAN INSTITUTE OF PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT

2.
Business Goals

8.
Groups

5.
Departments
1. 3./6./9./12
Business Objective Several Activities

11.
Teams

4./7./10/13.
Specialisation

14.
Individual Jobs

That’s why, the success of a particular Individual Job is very important
for the Organisation, or else, the Business Objective can not be
achieved. For the reason, analysing a job (Job Analysis) becomes
imperative.

Methods of Job Analysis –

There are several methods of Job Analysis, namely –
1. Observation Method
2. Diary Method
3. Questionnaire Method
4. Interview Method
5. Group Interview Method
6. Supervision Method
7. Technical Support Method
8. Expert’s Meet Method
(For details of each of these methods, please refer to the class
notes.)

Each of these methods has few positive things and few negative
things. None of them stands as sacrosanct or absolutely full-proof. So
the organisation has to adapt as per its own necessities. Most of the

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THE INDIAN INSTITUTE OF PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT

organisations go for creating a combination between these methods
to get a better analysis of a particular job.

However, once Job Analysis is done, data are gathered and they can be
used for the further use. We can extend the goal alignment model and
can see how a particular job is attuned with this model…

14.
Individual Jobs

16.
15.
Job Specifications
Job Description

Here we can clearly see that based upon our analysis, we can come up
with two different attributes of a particular job, namely, Job
Description (15) and Job Specification (16).
Job Description is a detailed written document that talks about the
job content, nature of the job, timing of the job, responsibilities,
accountabilities, posture of the job. While, Job Specification talks
about the qualities and skills required for the job to be preformed.
Further, the qualities required under the Job Specification can be
divided into four major parts, namely –

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THE INDIAN INSTITUTE OF PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT

16.
JOB
SPECIFICATIONS

MANAGERIAL LEADERSHIP TECHNICAL BEHAVIOURAL

Now we are at a position to see,
• What an Individual Job means to us,
• How that can be performed,
• Which way it’s related with the organisation’s business goal.

But again, business goal is not static in nature. Due to the nature of
the business, fundamentals of the organisation, fundamentals of the
market, market composition, market competition etc, the business
goal keeps on changing or altered. If the Business Goal is changed and
altered, then it spreads a Shock Wave on the Goal Alignment model.
The change at Business Goal must have impact in the Individual Job
Goals as well. We need to analyse if the impact is considerable or not.
If it indeed leaves greater impact, then we go for Job Evaluation
(15). Job Evaluation is a systematic way of evaluating a particular job
vis-à-vis the business goal and market fundamentals.
If the result f Job Evaluation says that, we need changes in the
particular individual job, then we go for Job Design (16). Job Design
is actually redesigning the previous job based upon the need of the
current hour.
There are mainly three types of Job Design, which are Job
Enlargement (17), Job Enrichment (18) and Job Morphing (19).

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Job Enlargement means horizontal integration of several jobs
belonging to same level of the hierarchy.
Job Enrichment means vertical integration of several jobs belonging
to different hierarchies.
Job Morphing means a combination of the previous two, where a
job is integrated with both horizontal as well as vertical integrations.

14.
Individual Jobs

14.
14.
Job Specifications
Job Description

15.
Job Evaluation

16.
Job Design

18.
17. 19.
Job Enrichment
Job Enlargement Job Morphing

If any organisation goes for designing a particular job they might opt
for any one of these three ways or a combination, depending upon the
need of the hour. Whichever way they go, the newly designed job
becomes the new Job Description for the future and accordingly Job
Specifications are set.
(Please refer to the class room examples for brighter understanding
and clearer appreciation of the whole episode.)

PART 3 – MANPOWER PLANNING
Manpower planning is a systematic mechanism to find out the status of
human resources profile inside the organisation so that the
organisation can ensure that there are right number and type of
people present at the right time, at the right place and are doing the
job rightly.

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THE INDIAN INSTITUTE OF PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT

For an effective manpower planning, the following steps should be
followed –

STOCK
TAKING

DEMAND
FORECASTING

SUPPLY
ANALYSIS

HRAP

STOCK TAKING – It means taking the stock or looking at the human
inventory of the organisation. In most of the organisation, it’s done
through HRIS (Human Resources Information System) where the data
about each individual working inside the organisation are kept. This
entire detailing can be based upon each division inside the
organisation. Then under each division, the people’s data can be
gathered and regularly updated on these major fonts –
Name, age, designation, personal details, professional details,
qualifications, achievements, awards, trainings, total experience,
experiences with us, objections (if any) etc. etc!
These data, combined together, will clearly depict what’s the human
resources competency of the organisation and where it lacks! Then the
management should do the following analysis –
• What kind of industry we belong to?
• What are generally followed industry standards?
• What is our long term and short term business goals?

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• What the shape of the human sources should look like for our
future goal?
• What are the necessary changes that we should bring in?
(Please refer to the graph-examples given in the class room.)

DEMAND FORECASTING – Once Stock Taking is done, we know
where we stand today. Now analyse the future business goal and see
what will be no and type of people we will be requiring and at which
division. It means determine how the Demand side would look like
with every specific detail.

SUPPLY ANALYSIS – Once demand is set, we need to see the supply
side. It means, we need to identify each division singularly and
determine its human inflow and outflow trend. Inflow sources can be
recruitment into it, transfer into it, promotion into it, whereas outflow
sources can be, transferring from it, promoting from it, sacking,
retrenchment etc.

HRAP – Once we conduct an efficient demand and supply analysis, we
can have mainly two possibilities – Positive Demand (which demands
inflow of people) or Negative Demand (which demands outflow of
people). Depending upon the nature of this result and depending upon
our business fundamentals, we should determine the HRAP (Human
Resources Action Plan). There can be several of them, like promotion,
demotion, transfer, training and development, recruitment,
retrenchment, VRS etc etc. HRAP should be finalised based upon the
need of the hour.

PART 4 – RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION

Organisations go for Recruitment and Selection only when they are
convinced that the there’s Positive Demand and they need to increase
the inflow of the people for a particular requirement.
Factors that Influence any Organisation’s Recruitment and
Selection Process –
• Goodwill of the company
• Nature of the labour market
• Nature of the industry
• Business goal
• Nature of the economy
• Budget available
• Time available

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Recruitment is a positive process where, for a particular vacancy,
the no of suitable candidates are maximised, whereas, Selection is a
negative process where, out of the available prospects/ candidates/
applicants/ applications, the right on fitting into the right requirement
are appointed through massive filtration.

Recruitment – if we have to maximise the no of suitable candidates for
a vacancy, then we have to look for the sources through which we can
get the best of the applicants. The sources can be of two types,
INTERNAL SOURCES and EXTERNAL SOURCES.

Internal Sources -
• Own Employees
• Own Website
• Employee References
• Applicants Pool

External Sources –
• Campus
• Placement Agencies
• Advertisements
• Outside References
• Head-hunting/ Roping
• Job Fest etc.
The end of Recruitment gives us maximum no of suitable applicants
ready to be filtered and selected. So the negative process starts here.
The selection process should go like this –
1. Comprehensive knowledge of the requirement – it means,
before starting the selection process, we should know the nature
of requirement in detail. So the Job Description and
Specifications should be clear and absolute.
2. Selecting the selectors – ‘who will select?’ is a predominantly
important question to be answered and answered with supreme
conviction. Because, if the selectors’ selection is wrong, then the
entire selection goes wrong. Hence, select the selectors carefully.
So we should start with the selectors’ Job Specifications (their
managerial, technical, leadership and behavioral qualities +
experience + previous success track record etc.) Then compare
‘Job Specifications of the vacancy’ and ‘Job Specifications of the
selectors’. It’s tough to get all the qualities present at a high rate
in one individual, so we go for a pool or panel of selectors who
will be absolutely comprehensive. Plus, a waited-average-rating

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scale should be fixed, because a technical selector’s rating on
managerial skills can’t be as trustworthy as a managerial
expert’s view on it and vice-versa. Once these are done, proceed
forward -
3. Screening – here the JD and JS are tightened and candidates
are filtered through CVs only to a greater extent. The filtered
candidates pass to the next round.
4. Test – ‘test’ is a sample of performance. There can be mainly
four types of tests, like – Aptitude Test, Technical test,
Psychological Test and Situational or Case-Handling Test.
5. Group Activities – here the candidates are judged on their
group skills through several group games or group discussions.
Few candidates are thrown out here, and remaining ones
proceed to the next round.
6. Interviews* – interviews have mainly two purposes a) all those
qualities which are checked in the previous rounds are personally
validated and b) all those qualities which aren’t checked yet are
checked here. There can be mainly two types of interviews – a)
Multiple Candidates Interview (where 3/4 candidates are
interviewed at a time for a proper ‘inter-view’ and one-time-
evaluation as well.) and b) Individual Interview (where
candidates are interviewed in a one-at-a-time basis). Many
candidates are rejected here, only the remaining ones go to the
next round.
7. HR Round – here HR validates several HR fundamentals
(documentation, experience proof, negotiation, salary proof,
psychological stability etc). The candidates who pass this round,
go to the next round.
8. Medical
9. Reference Check
10. Offer Letter – only the surviving ones here are offered the
Appointment Letters who are ready to start their work for us. 
party time 

*HOW TO CONDUCT A SUCCESSFUL INTERVIEW –
(From the recruiters’ point of view)
Before the Interview –
• Comprehensive knowledge of the requirement – it means, before
starting the interview process, we should know the nature of
requirement in detail. So the Job Description and Specifications
should be clear and absolute.
• Selecting the Interviewers – ‘who will select?’ is a predominantly
important question to be answered and answered with supreme

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conviction. Because, if the selectors’ selection is wrong, then the
entire selection goes wrong. Hence, select the selectors carefully.
So we should start with the selectors’ Job Specifications (their
managerial, technical, leadership and behavioral qualities +
experience + previous success track record etc.) Then compare
‘Job Specifications of the vacancy’ and ‘Job Specifications of the
selectors’. It’s tough to get all the qualities present at a high rate
in one individual, so we go for a pool or panel of selectors who
will be absolutely comprehensive. Plus, a waited-average-rating
scale should be fixed, because a technical selector’s rating on
managerial skills can’t be as trustworthy as a managerial
expert’s view on it and vice-versa.
• Make sure that the place out the interview is nice and comforting
• Study the candidate’s credentials
• Study the candidate’s result in the previous rounds

During the Interview –
• Break the Ice
• Observe
• Encourage him to talk,
• Listen,
• Analyse
• Make records,
• Don’t offend,
• Decide,
• End with honesty,

After the interview –
• Combine the observations.
• Make Conclusive record.

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