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Project Tiger Reserves of India S.No.

Name of PTR 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 Achanakmar Annamalai Bandhavgarh Bandipur Bhadra Buxa Corbett Dampa Dandeli-Anshi Dudhwa Indravati Kalakad-Mundathurai Kanha Kaziranga Manas Melghat Mudumalai Nagarhole NagarjunsagarSrisailam Namdapha Nameri Pakhui Palamau Panna Parambikulam Pench (Maharashtra) Pench (M.P.) Periyar Ranthambhore Sanjay Dubri Satkosia Satpura Sariska Shahyadri Simlipal Sunderbans Tadoba-Andhari Udanti-Sitanadi State Chhattishgarh Tamil Nadu Madhya Pradesh Karnataka Karnataka West Bengal Uttarakhand Mizoram Karnataka Uttar Pradesh Chhattishgarh Tamil Nadu Madhya Pradesh Assam Assam Maharashtra Tamil Nadu Karnataka Andhra Pradesh Arunachal Pradesh Assam Arunachal Pradesh Jharkhand Madhya Pradesh Kerala Maharashtra Madhya Pradesh Kerala Rajasthan Madhya Pradesh Orissa Madhya Pradesh Rajasthan Maharashtra Orissa West Bengal Maharashtra Chhattishgarh Year of Establ. 2009 2.4.2007 1993-94 1973-74 1998-99 1982-83 1973-74 1994-95 2007 1987-88 1999-2000 1982-83 1988-89 1973-74 2006 1973-74 1973-74 2007 1999-2000 1982-83 1982-83 1999-2000 1999-2000 1973-74 1994-95 2007 1992-93 1992-93 1978-79 1973-74 2008 2007 1999-2000 1978-79 2008-09 1973-74 1973-74 1993-94 2008 Total Area (sq.km.) 553.286 958.59 1161.471 880 451.69 760.92 1318.54 500 875 883.739 551 2799.086 895 1945 859 2837 1676.49 321 643.39 3568.09 1985.245 344 861.95 1026 542.67 648.5 664.3 757.86 777 1334.64 831 964 1486 866 741.22 2750 2585 575.78 1580

Katerniaghat Extension Uttar Pradesh

39

Valmiki

Bihar

1989-90

840.26 46600

Biosphere Reserves in India (as on January 1, 2012) S. No. 1 Name Date of Notification 2005 Area (in km2) 3835.51 (Core 551.55 & Buffer 3283.86) Location (State) Covers parts of Anupur and Dindori districts of M.P. and parts of Bilaspur districts of Chhattishgarh State. Neyyar, Peppara and Shendurney Wildlife Sanctuaries and their adjoining areas in Kerala. Pin Valley National Park and surroundings; Chandratal and Sarchu & Kibber Wildlife Sancturary in Himachal Pradesh Part of Siang and Dibang Valley in Arunachal Pradesh.

Achanakamar Amarkantak

Agasthyamalai

12.11.2001

1828

Cold Desert

28.08.2009

7770

Dehang-Dibang

02.09.98

Dibru-Saikhowa

28.07.97

5111.50 (Core 4094.80 & Buffer 1016.70) 765 (Core 340 & Buffer 425) 885 (Core 705 & Buffer 180) 10,500 km2 Total Gulf area (area of Islands 5.55 km2) 12,454 km2 2619.92 (Core 1819.34 & Buffer 835.92) 2837 (Core 391 & Buffer 2,446) 5860.69 (Core 712.12, Buffer 5,148.570) & T. 546.34) 5520 (Core 1240 & Buffer 4280)

Part of Dibrugarh and Tinsukia Districts (Assam) Southern most islands of Andaman And Nicobar (A&N Islands). Indian part of Gulf of Mannar between India and Sri Lanka (Tamil Nadu). Part of Kachchh, Rajkot, Surendra Nagar and Patan Civil Districts of Gujarat State Parts of Khangchendzonga hills and Sikkim.

Great Nicobar

06.01.89

Gulf of Mannar

18.02.89

Kachchh

29.01.2008

Khangchendzonga

07.02.2000

10

Manas

14.03.89

11

Nanda Devi

18.01.88

Part of Kokrajhar, Bongaigaon, Barpeta, Nalbari, Kamprup and Darang districts (Assam) Part of Chamoli, Pithoragarh, and Bageshwar districts (Uttarakhand).

12

Nilgiri

01.09.86

Part of Wayanad, Nagarhole, Bandipur and Madumalai, Nilambur, Silent Valley and

13

Nokrek

01.09.88

820 (Core 47.48 & Buffer 227.92, Transition Zone 544.60) 4926

Siruvani hills (Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Karnataka). Part of Garo hills (Meghalaya).

14

Pachmarhi

03.03.99

15

Seshachalam Hills

20.09.2010

4755.997 4374 (Core 845, Buffer 2129 & Transition 1400 9630 (Core 1700 & Buffer 7900)

16

Simlipal

21.06.94

Parts of Betul, Hoshangabad and Chindwara districts of Madhya Pradesh. Seshachalam Hill Ranges covering parts of Chittoor and Kadapa districts of Andhra Pradesh Part of Mayurbhanj district (Orissa).

17

Sunderbans

29.03.89

Part of delta of Ganges and Brahamaputra river system (West Bengal).

Elephant Reserves of India


(Source: Elephant Task Force Report of MoEF, August 2010)
Sl. No. 1 Elephant Range East-Central Landscape (South-West BengalJharkhand - Orissa)

Total Kameng-Sonitpur Landscape (Arunachal - Assam) Total Eastern-South Bank Landscape (Assam - Arunachal) Total Kaziranga-Karbi Anglong-Intanki Landscape

(Assam - Nagaland)

Total North BengalGreater Manas Landscape (Assam - West Bengal) Total Meghalaya Landscape (Meghalaya) Total Brahmagiri-NilgiriEastern Ghat Landscape (Karnataka - KeralaTamilnadu- Andhra)

Total AnamalaiNelliampathy- High Range Landscape (Tamilnadu - Kerala) Total PeriyarAgasthyamalai Landscape (Kerala - Tamilnadu) Total North-Western Landscape (Uttarakhand - Uttar Pradesh) Total TOTAL

10

WORLD HERITAGE SITES (Protected Areas)


Sl. Name of WH Site No. 1 Kaziranaga NP 2 Keoladeo Ghana NP State Location Assam Rajasthan Year of Notif. 1985 1985 Area (in sq.km) 429.96 28.73

Manas WS Nanda Devi NP and Valley of Flowers Sunderbans NP

Assam

1985 1982 2005 1984

391.00 630.00 87.50 1330.10

Uttarakhand

West Bengal

2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened species of India


Taxonomic group Number of Species

Mammals 96 Birds 76 Reptiles 25 Amphibians 65 Fishes 40 Molluscs 2 Other Invertebrates 109 Plants 246 Total 659 Wetland
Sl. Name of Site No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Asthamudi Wetland Bhitarkanika Mangroves Bhoj Wetlands Chandertal Wetland Chilka Lake Deepor Beel East Calcutta Wetlands Harike Lake Hokera Wetland Kanjli Lake Keoladeo Ghana NP Kolleru Lake Loktak Lake Point Calimere State Location Kerala Orissa Madhya Pradesh Himachal Pradesh Orissa Assam West Bengal Punjab Area Date of Declaration (in sq.km.) 19.8.2002 19.8.2002 19.8.2002 8.11.2005 1.10.1981 19.8.2002 19.8.2002 23.3.1990 1860 525 31 38.56 1140 4.14 378 86 13.75 14.84 28.73 673 945 17.26

Jammu and Kashmir 8.11.2005 Punjab Rajasthan Andhra Pradesh Manipur Tamil Nadu 22.1.2002 1.10.1981 19.8.2002 23.3.1990 19.8.2002

15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25

Pong Dam Lake Renuka Wetland Ropar Lake Rudrasagar Lake Sambhar Lake Sasthamkotta Lake Surinsar-Mansar Lakes Tsomoriri Lake Vembanad Kol Wetland

Himachal Pradesh Himachal Pradesh Punjab Tripura Rajasthan Kerala

19.8.2002 8.11.2005 22.1.2002 8.11.2005 23.3.1990 19.8.2002

307.29 Not Available 41.36 2.40 736 11.3 3.50 120 4583 265.90 173

Jammu and Kashmir 8.11.2005 Jammu and Kashmir 19.8.2002 Kerala 19.8.2002 8.11.2005 23.3.1990

Upper Ganga River (Brijghat Uttar Pradesh to Narora Stretch) Wular Lake Jammu & Kashmir

Community reserve

EXISTING
Sl.No. Name 1. 2. Keshopur Chhamb Lalwan Year of Estd. 2007 2007 Area (km2) 3.40 12.67 Distt./State Location Gurdaspur, Punjab Hoshiarpur, Punjab

3.

Kadalundi

2007

1.50

Malappuram, Kerala

4.

Kokkare Bellur

2007

3.12

Mandya, Karnataka

What is Sewage Treatment Plant ?


It is a normal question that what is STP and How does it works and what are the technologies involved , So the answer is here Sewage Treatment Plant is a facility designed to receive the waste from domestic, commercial and industrial sources and to remove materials that damage water quality and compromise public health and safety when discharged into water receiving systems.

Objective: - The Principal objective of waste water treatment is generally to allow human and industrial effluents to be disposed of without danger to human health or unacceptable damage to the natural environment. Conventional wastewater treatment processes Conventional wastewater treatment consists of a combination of Physical, chemical, and biological processes and operations to remove solids, organic matter and, sometimes, nutrients from wastewater. Preliminary treatment The objective of preliminary treatment is the removal of coarse solids and other large materials often found in raw wastewater. Removal of these materials is necessary to enhance the operation and maintenance of subsequent treatment units. Preminary treatment operations typically include coarse screening, grit removal and, in some cases, communication of large objects. A. Primary treatment The objective of primary treatment is the removal of settleable organic and inorganic solids by sedimentation, and the removal of materials that will float (scum) by skimming. B. Secondary treatment The objective of secondary treatment is the further treatment of the effluent from primary treatment to remove the residual organics and suspended solids. In most cases, secondary treatment follows primary treatment and involves the removal of biodegradable dissolved and colloidal organic matter using aerobic biological treatment processes. Aerobic biological treatment is performed in the presence of oxygen by aerobic microorganisms (principally bacteria) that metabolize the organic matter in the waste water, thereby producing more microorganisms and inorganic end-products (principally CO2, NH3, and H2 O). Several aerobic biological processes are used for secondary treatment differing primarily in the manner in which oxygen is supplied to the microorganisms and in the rate at which organisms metabolize the organic matter. Common high-rate processes include the activated sludge processes, trickling filters or bio filters, oxidation ditches, and rotating biological contractors (RBC). A combination of two of these processes in series (e.g. bio filter followed by activated sludge) is sometimes used to treat municipal wastewater containing a high concentration of organic material from industrial sources.
According to the latest report by research firm Crisil, Indian projects are estimated to receive 246 million CERs by December 2012, a three-fold rise from 72 million in November 2009. This will cement Indias second position in the global CER market. But industrial houses in the country are discouraged due to a drastic decline in demand from European countries. Each tonne of obnoxious gases saved from being released into the environment amount to one CER. Developing countries generate CERs by installing emission-cutting machinery and developed countries, mainly from Europe, buy CERs for releasing more of the gases than they are permitted to. The Indian government has approved 1,400 projects as part of the CDM, that could attract around $6 billion (Rs 28,000 crore) into the country by 2012, through sale of CER certificates. The National CDM Authority (NCDMA)

in India has accorded Host Country Approval to 1,455 projects. These projects have seen an investment of $33.7 billion (Rs 1.6 lakh crore). If all these get registered at the CDM executive board, it will earn developers 600 million CERs by 2012. At a conservative $10 per CER, the figure works out to a little over $6 billion. European countries expect a deficit of 1.97 billion permits (CERs) from 2008 to 2020 to be partly met by imports of international carbon credits, resulting in a net shortage of around 300 million tonnes. The system is likely to have a deficit of around 170 mt in 2013, rising to 380 mt in 2020 and 660 mt in 2028. As access to low-cost emission-reduction measures starts to run out, regulators may curb the allowed use of international credits, pushing the carbon price to euro 100 per tonne by 2024 without any access to international credits and euro 65 a tonne with access to offsets. Meanwhile, big companies across the world have started hedging their risk on the futures platform. Consequently, ICE Futures reported a 93.8 per cent rise in CER volume to 34,761 contracts in August this year. as compared to 17,941 contracts in the same month last year.

Economy of the Federal States For Year 2011 & Population for Year 2011
Financial Year 2011
Rank State/Union Territory Region Population Indian Rupee (2011) in (Ten Million) 000 US Dollar (Billion) Growth Rate %age of Total Per-capita (YoY) GDP Income (INR)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28

Maharashtra Uttar Pradesh Andhra Pradesh Tamil Nadu Gujarat West Bengal Karnataka Rajasthan Kerala Haryana Madhya Pradesh Punjab Bihar Orissa Chhattisgarh Jharkhand Assam Uttrakhand Himachal Pradesh Jammu & Kashmir Goa Tripura Meghalaya Nagaland Manipur Arunachal Pradesh Mizoram Sikkim

West North South South West East South North South North North North East East East East North-East North North North West South North-East North-East North-East North-East North-East North-East

112,373 1,029,621 199,581 588,467 84,666 567,636 72,139 547,267 60,384 481,766 91,348 443,644 61,131 398,893 68,621 303,358 33,388 268,183 72,598 257,793 25,353 240,239 27,704 221,332 41,947 213,073 103,804 186,356 32,966 129,718 25,540 106,696 31,169 104,218 10,117 77,580 12,549 52,426 6,856 47,709 1,458 29,873 3,671 16,328 2,964 14,645 2,722 10,933 1,981 9,198 1,383 7,263 1091 6,179 608 5,652

$224.12 $128.09 $123.56 $119.13 $104.87 $96.57 $86.83 $66.03 $58.38 $56.12 $52.29 $48.18 $46.38 $40.57 $28.24 $23.23 $22.69 $16.89 $11.41 $10.39 $6.50 $3.55 $3.19 $2.38 $2.00 $1.58 $1.35 $1.23

14.23% 13.42% 19.44% 17.94% 12.21% 10.76% 15.73% 18.76% 16.44% 19.19% 10.73% 10.97% 21.59% 14.80% 18.12% 10.76% 12.70% 24.70% 21.13% 10.35% 15.42% 11.80% 17.14% 7.02% 5.88% 6.12% 9.69% 19.24%

14.09% 8.05% 7.77% 7.49% 6.59% 6.07% 5.46% 4.15% 3.67% 3.53% 3.29% 3.03% 2.92% 2.55% 1.78% 1.46% 1.43% 1.06% 0.72% 0.65% 0.41% 0.22% 0.20% 0.15% 0.13% 0.10% 0.08% 0.08%

83,471 26,051 60,458 72,993 63,961 41,469 59,763 39,967 59,179 92,327 27,250 67,473 20,069 36,923 44,097 29,786 30,413 68,292 58,493 33,056 132,719 38,493 48,383 21,434 29,684 51,644 45,982 48,937

India's Total GSDP India's Total GDP

6,666,455 7,306,990

$1,451.12 $1,590.55

91.23%

Economy of the Union Territories For Year 2011 & Population For Year 2011
Financial Year 2011
State Rank
Population (2011) in Indian Rupee 000 (Ten Million) US Dollar (Billion) Growth Rate %age of Total Per-capita (YoY) GDP Income (INR)

State/Union Territory

Region

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Delhi North Chandigarh North Pondicherry North-East Andaman & Nicobar South-East Dadra & Nagar Haveli West Daman & Diu West Lakshadweep South India's Total GSDP India's Total GDP

16,753 1,055 1,244 380 343 243 64

258,808 20,704 12,929 4,323 1,984 1,220 442 6,666,455 7,306,990

$56.34 $4.51 $2.81 $0.94 $0.43 $0.27 $0.10 $1,451.12 $1,590.55

18.80% 16.54% 13.97% 12.55% 16.20% 13.60% 9.35%

3.54% 0.28% 0.18% 0.06% 0.03% 0.02% 0.01% 91.23%

116,886 120,912 82,767 74,340 51,364 39,970 51,320

In our latest series of State's Economy of India, the following attributes can be observed: 1. Over the past couple of years, West Bengal has performed poorly and lost the position on our raking system by two, fell to sixth rank due to poor foreign investment grade. 2. Tamil Nadu and Gujarat have outpaced West Bengal and performed much better than our expectations. 3. Bihar has seen a consistent growth and becoming the major part of the India's growth story. On the overall economic weight age of total GDP of India, Bihar has expanded on the parameter while the biggest economy of India, Maharashtra has seen a tremendous decline due to instability in the state government. 4. VMW Analytic believes that Uttar Pradesh is expected to lose its second rank to Gujarat or Andhra Pradesh in the next couple of fiscal years since the western economic powerhouse (Gujarat) is expected to become major industrial hub of the country and Andhra Pradesh is expected to see major growth in its Agriculture & Allied sector.

Biosphere reserves of India (area wise) Year 1 2008 Name Great Rann of Kutch Location Part of Kutch, Rajkot and Surendranagar Districts Indian part of Gulf of Mannar between India and Sri Lanka Part of delta of Ganges and Barahamaputra river system Pin Valley National Park and surroundings;Chandratal and Sarchu & Kibber State Gujarat Type Desert Area (km) 12454 10500 9630

2 1989 Gulf of Mannar 3 1989 Sunderbans

Tamil Nadu Coasts West Bengal Himachal Pradesh Gangetic Delta Western Himalayas

4 2009 Cold Desert

7770

Biosphere reserves of India (area wise) Year Name Location State Type Area (km)

5 1988

6 1986

7 1998 8 1999

9 2010

Wildlife Sancturary Parts of Chamoli District, Nanda Devi Pithoragarh District & Bageshwar District Part of Waynad, Nagarhole, Nilgiri Biosphere Bandipur and Mudumalai, Reserve Nilambur, Silent Valley and Siruvani Hills Part of Siang and Dibang Dehang-Dibang Valley Parts of Betul District, Pachmarhi Hoshangabad District and Biosphere Reserve Chhindwara District Seshachalam Hill Ranges Seshachalam Hills covering parts of Chittoor and Kadapa districts

Uttarakhand

West Himalayas

5860

Tamil Nadu, Western Kerala and Ghats Karnataka Arunachal Pradesh Madhya Pradesh Andhra Pradesh East Himalayas Semi-Arid Eastern Ghats Deccan Peninsula Maikala Range East Himalayas East Himalayas

5520

5112 4926

4755.997 4374 3835

10 1994 Simlipal 11 2005 Achanakamar Amarkantak

Part of Mayurbhanj district Orissa Part of Annupur, Dindori and Bilaspur districts Part of Kokrajhar, Bongaigaon, Barpeta, Nalbari, Kamrup and Darrang Districts Madhya Pradesh, Chattisgarh Assam

12 1989 Manas

2837

13 2000 Khangchendzonga Parts of Kanchanjunga Hills Sikkim Neyyar, Peppara and Agasthyamalai Shenduruny Wildlife 14 2001 Biosphere Reserve Sanctuary and their adjoining areas Southern most islands of Great Nicobar Andaman and Nicobar 15 1989 Biosphere Reserve Islands 16 1988 Nokrek 17 1997 Dibru-Saikhowa

2620

Kerala, Western Tamil Nadu ghats Andaman and Nicobar Islands Islands East Meghalaya Himalayas East Assam Himalayas

1828

885 820 765

Part of Garo Hills Part of Dibrugarh and Tinsukia districts

Seven of the seventeen biosphere reserves are a part of the World Network of Biosphere Reserves, based on the UNESCO Man and the Biosphere (MAB) Programme list[2].

Name States Year Added Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Karnataka 2000 Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve Tamil Nadu 2001 Sundarbans national park West Bengal 2001 Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve Uttarakhand 2004 Nokrek Biosphere Reserve Meghalaya 2009 Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve Madhya Pradesh 2009 Simlipal Biosphere Reserve Orissa 2009

Nuclear power plants


Currently, twenty nuclear power reactors produce 4,780.00 MW (2.9% of total installed base).[53][54]
Power station Operator Kaiga Kakrapar Kalpakkam Narora NPCIL NPCIL NPCIL NPCIL State Karnataka Gujarat Tamil Nadu Type PHWR PHWR PHWR Units Total capacity (MW) 220 x 4 880 220 x 2 440 220 x 2 440 220 x 2 440 100 x 1 200 x 1 1180 220 x 4 160 x 2 1400 540 x 2 20 4780

Uttar Pradesh PHWR

Rawatbhata

NPCIL

Rajasthan

PHWR

Tarapur

NPCIL

Maharashtra BWR (PHWR) Total

The projects under construction are:[55][citation needed]


Power station Operator Kudankulam Kalpakkam Kakrapar Rawatbhata NPCIL State Type Units Total capacity (MW)

Tamil Nadu VVER-1000 1000 x 2 2000 500 x 1 500 700 x 2 1400 700 x 2 1400

BHAVINI Tamil Nadu PFBR NPCIL NPCIL Gujarat PHWR

Rajasthan PHWR

Banswara

NPCIL

Rajasthan PHWR Total

700 x 2 1400 9 6700

Forest report

India State of Forest Report 2011 Released by The Forest Survey of India (FSI) has been publishing a series of biennial assessment report the forest cover in the country since 1987. The India State of Forest Report is recognized as the authoritative assessment of the countrys forest resources. The India State of Forest Report 2011 is the twelfth report in the series. It is based on interpretation of satellite data recorded during October 2008-March 2009 from the indigenous IRS-P6-LISS III sensor on a resolution of 23.5m with a minimum mappable area of one hectare. The assessment made on the basis of satellite imageries is backed by rigorous ground truthing carried out by the staff of FSI. The change matrices recorded in the present report refer to changes with respect to the satellite data recorded for the previous India State of Forest Report two years earlier. Special coverage is provided to forest cover in hill districts, tribal districts and the north-east keeping in mind the special symbiotic relationship of communities with forests in these regions. The Secretary in Ministry of Environment & Forests Shri T. Chatterjee released India State of Forest Report 2011 in National Capital on 7th Feb, 2012. As per the present assessment, the Forest and Tree cover of the country is 78.29 million ha, which is 23.81% of the geographical area of the country. In comparison to the 2009 assessment, after taking into account the interpretational changes, there is a decrease of 367 square km in countrys forest cover. 15 states have registered aggregate increase of 5000sqkm in their forest cover with Punjab leading with increase of 100sqkm. 12 states/UTs (mainly the NE states) have shown decrease to the extent of 867sqkm. Decline of 281 sqkm in Forest cover of Andhra Pradesh is mainly attributed to harvesting of mature plantation of Eucalyptus & other species. Decline in Forest cover of NE is particularly due to prevailing practice of shifting cultivation in this region. The state of Madhya Pradesh has the largest forest cover in the country at 77,700 square km followed by Aruncachal Pradesh at 67, 410 square km. In terms of percentage of forest cover in relation to total geographical area, Mizoram tops with 90.68% followed by Lakshadweed with 84.56%. The total growing stock of Indias forests and trees outside forests is estimated as 6047.15 million cu m i.e. 4498.73 million cu m inside the recorded forest area and 1548.42 million cu m outside the recorded forests. The India State of Forest Report 2011 contains the regular features like forest cover, tree cover, mangroves and growing stock both in forests and areas outside forests. However, it adds three new chapters that are of crucial importance in the present national and global worldview about forests. These are: a detailed assessment of bamboo resources, a production-consumption assessment of wood based on data stock in Indias forests reported under the NATCOM project. Due to its significant impact on rural/tribal economy and their livelihood the Production and consumption Study is expected to fill the information gap in this arena. The study highlights the importance of trees outside forests is meeting the requirements of industrial wood, small timber and firewood. As for the assessment of carbon stock in Indias forests, in lies at the center of international dialogue on

climate change. The inclusion of these three new chapters makes the India State of Forests Report 2011 a path breaking advance over its previous editions.