# MICRO-HYDRO INSTALLATION SIZING CALCULATIONS Jacques Chaurette eng.

January 17, 2008 Calculations for micro-hydro turbine jet impact velocity are based on the same sort of calculations done for pump systems, except there is no pump. The energy is provided by the difference in elevation between the inlet and outlet of the system (see Figure 1). The inlet (point 1) is defined as the surface elevation of the water source and the outlet is at the nozzle outlet (point 2).

Figure 1. Typical micro-hydro installation. The general equation for fluid flow between two points is:

z1 + H 1 + v2 v12 + = z2 + H 2 + 2 + H F 2g 2g

(1)

where z1 and z2 are respectively the elevation at points 1 and 2. We also have velocity and pressure head at points 1 and 2.

Calculating velocity from flow rate The flow rate in a pipe depends on velocity and surface area:

1

22 × q ( L / min) v = d 2 (mm 2 ) s
(3-1) metric units
Calculating nozzle velocity v2 The velocity v1 is the velocity of fluid particles at the water source surface (see Figure 1). The pressure head H1 corresponds to any external pressure that might be imposed at point 1. The velocity v2 is the velocity of the water jet at the nozzle.17 × ( z1 ( ft ) − z 2 ( ft ) − H F ( ft ))
(5) Imperial units
2
. H1 = 0. filter intake loss. HF is the friction loss between points 1 and 2. in this case it is zero. it is comprised of the pipe friction loss.q = v× A= v× ×d 2 4 since the surface area for a pipe is πd2/4.48 gal × min × ft 3
and after simplification:
ft q( gpm) = 2. fittings and manual valve losses. Using consistent units in the Imperial system we obtain:
2 USgal ft π 2 2 ft = v × × d (in ) × q 144 in 2 min s 4
π
60 s 7. The pressure head H2 is the pressure at the outlet of the nozzle.17 ft/s2.4085 × q ( gpm) v = d 2 (in 2 ) s
(3) Imperial units
or
m 21. since the water jet comes out in the free atmosphere H2 = 0. this velocity will be quite small and negligible. g is the acceleration due to gravity. this is the quantity we are looking for. v1 =0. g = 32. If we replace these values into equation (1) we obtain:
2 v2 = z1 − z 2 − H F 2g
(4)
v2 becomes:
v 2 ( ft / s ) = 2 × 32.448 × v × d 2 (in 2 ) (2) s
or
ft 0.

du. h is the available head and q the flow rate.htm The power in the water jet is equal to γhq where γ gamma is the specific weight of water.9 × 0.xls Calculating available power The design of the Pelton turbine is such that it is at it’s most efficient when its peripheral speed is half the speed of the incoming water jet.html or use this spreadsheet that has these formulas already programmed: http://www.edu/~jcalvert/tech/fluids/turbine. See this web page for a good explanation of how power is derived for a Pelton turbine: http://mysite.81× ( z1 (m) − z 2 (m) − H F (m))
(5-1) metric units
Solving equation (5) is an iterative process.htm#applets13 and from this result we then calculate v2 again based on equation (5). Either one of these expressions gives the theoretical power available from the water jet. the power can be expressed as 1/2ρv2q where ρ rho is the water density and v the water jet nozzle velocity.com/applets. Or you can use the formulas that are explained on this page to do your own calculations: http://www. If we know the velocity. The Pelton turbine is designed to produce maximum power when the peripheral speed is ½ of the water jet speed.lightmypump. first we give a trial value to the flow rate q and then calculate HF based on the applet found at this link: http://www. Therefore that power at the turbine wheel is:
0. The reversed water jet is not exactly in line so that the wheel itself has a real world efficiency of 90% or better. The power transmitted to the turbine wheel is 0.or
v 2 (m / s ) = 2 × 9. The 50% is theoretical and is based on the fact that the water jet is reversed due to the wheel cup design 180 degrees back towards its source.lightmypump.lightmypump.com/reducer.5 × γ × h× q
or
3
.com/help14.5γhq. If the values are different modify the value of v2 and try again until the trial value is the same as the calculated value.

34 hp
which simplifies to: 4
. 48 gals
×
2 min 2 ft 60 s × v s 2
kW 1 .9 × 0. To make all the units consistent in the Imperial system the power P in equation (7) must be divided by the constant gc .0.635 ×10 −4 × h(m) × q ( L / min) (6-1) if we use the formula using nozzle velocity P = 0. 17 lbm − ft lbf − s 2 hp × × lbf − ft 550 s
1 P ( kW ) = 0 .9 × 0 .88 ×10 −4 × h( ft ) × q(USgpm) (6) or in metric units P(kW ) = 0. using the proper units with their conversion factors and the water density of 62.5 ×1.34 hp 550 s
or in metric units
min kg m L m × × h (m) × P ( kW ) = 0 .34 lbm/ft3.34 3 ft ft 3 gals × q × 7 .9 × 0 .48 gals min min × 60 s hp × kW × h ( ft ) × lbf − ft 1 .9 × 0.9 × 0.5 × 62 .5 ×1. we obtain:
lbm 1 gals × × q min × ft 3 32 . 5 × × 62 . 9 × 0 .5 × 1000 3 × 9 . 34 2
ft 3 7 .81 2 × q × m s min 1000 L 60 s
3
kW watt × kg − m 2 1000 watt s3
which simplifies to: P (kW ) = 0.5 ×
1 1 2 × ρ × q × × v 2 (7) 2 gc
where ρ is the density and q the volumetric flow rate.5 × ρ × g × h × q
using imperial units
lbf P ( kW ) = 0 .9 × 0.

Therefore equation (10) becomes:
ft rev 2π (rad ) min ft d turb (in) vturb = ω turb × × × × 2 min rev. 60 s and after simplification equation (11) becomes:
vturb ( ft / s ) = 4.5 × 2.9 × 0. 60s 12in s
(11)
or in metric units m m rev 2π (rad ) min d turb (mm) × vturb = ω turb × × × 1000 mm (11-1) 2 s min rev.5 × 8.333 ×10 −6 × q ( L / min) × v 2 (m 2 / s 2 ) (8-1)
Calculating turbine speed The turbine peripheral velocity will be half the water jet velocity.929 ×10 −6 × q (USgpm) × v 2 ( ft 2 / s 2 ) (8)
or in metric units
min 2 m 1 kg L m × × v × P ( kW ) = 0 . We would like to use the units of rpm for ω and inch for d.363 × 10 −3 × ω turb (rpm) × d turb (in)
(12)
5
.5 × × 1000 3 × q × s 2 min 1000 L 60 s m
3 2
kW watt × kg − m 2 1000 watt s3
which simplifies to:
P (kW ) = 0.P (kW ) = 0.
1 vturb = × v jet (9) 2
The equation for rotational vs. peripheral turbine velocity is:
ft rad d turb ( ft ) vturb = ω turb × 2 s s
(10)
where ω is the rotational velocity in radians/second and d the diameter of the turbine wheel.9 × 0.9 × 0 .

5 × v jet ( ft / s ) = 4.235 × 10 −5 × ω turb (rpm) × d turb (mm) (12-1)
by replacing the value of vturb in equation (9) into equation (11) we obtain:
0.2 ×
or in metric units
v jet ( ft / s ) d turb (in)
(14)
ω turb (rpm) = 0.5 × 229.363 × 10 −3 × ω turb (rpm) × d turb (in)
(13)
or in metric units
0.5 × v jet (m / s ) = 5.91×10 4 ×
v jet (m / s ) d turb (mm)
(14-1)
6
.5 ×1.235 × 10 −5 × ω turb (rpm) × d turb (mm) (13-1)
therefore the rotational velocity of the turbine is:
ω turb (rpm) = 0.or in metric units
vturb (m / s ) = 5.