GEOTEXTILE DESIGN ANALYSIS

MICE P.E.E./Principal AND Approval Notes Revisions Number and Initial All Revisions No. Sheet Date By Checked By Approval .D. TITLE Eng. / Senior Engineer By Computations Backchecked By Originator Approved By 3IGNA7FJRE PM or Designate R. Neil PRINTED Davies NAA2E C.GEOSYNTEC CONSULTANTS COMPUTATION COVER SHEET Client Tennessee Valley Authority TVA Disposal Facility Project/Proposal Project Kingston Fossil Plant Gypsum GR3731 Task 06 Title of Computations Geotextile Design Analvsis Computation Package Computations By PRTNTED oboski/Engineer NAME AND TtTLE Assumptions Checked and Procedures By Peer Reviewer WBWhGross Computations Checked Ph. P.

The geotextile be specified as needlepunched and non-woven. when concentrated be the highest the method GRI-GT23 2004. the minimum requirements of the disposal to be used for the internal system of the filter gypsum Kingston Fossil Plant-Peninsula central The and will be located around the trenches filter gravel material of the drainage corridor perimeter drainage to will separate the sluiced gypsum from the drainage gravel material.GEOSYNTEC CONSULTANTS Written Page 1 by TVA JFR Date 06 vv /04 /12 vD Reviewed by B. Geotextile Survivability Survivability considered geotextile using requirements grab tear puncture and burst strengths to stresses should will also be so that during the geotextile construction presented in will have adequate resistance stresses applied on the i. c GR3731/Fitter Design.doc . for the geotextile and minimum specifications meet these requirements METHODOLOGY Geotextile Filtration The filtration characteristics of the geotextile will be evaluated criterion using a based retention criterion presented et al. Gross Date 06 YY 04 FAt 19 DD MM Fossil Client Project Kingston Plant Project/Proposal No.e. This design evaluates the filtration to and survivability requirements are provided. GR3731 Task No 06 GEOTEXTILE DESIGN ANALYSIS PURPOSE The purpose of geotextile facility at filter this calculation package is to evaluate drainage Site. a permeability criterion literature and an anti-clogging on methods in the technical Christopher and Holtz 1984 Giroud 1982 Koerner 1994 USEPA 1987. derived of As each criterion is evaluated and specifications will are to characteristics geotextile is products on the current market that be checked make sure the specification reasonable and products are available that can meet the specification.

Filtration Criteria for Geotextile 1982 and adapted From Christopher and Holtz 1984 Giroud USEPA 1987 1.1. Permeability 2. Noncritical ksoil Applications kgeotextite 3. Critical Criterion and/or Severe Applications kge.5 d50 095 C? u d5o 18 dense IB65% soil O45 2 CU d5o 095 efu d5o 1.GEOSYNTEC CONSULTANTS Written Page 2 by JFR Date 06 /04 /12 DD Reviewed by B.2. Soils with more than 50% No.1.075 O9s _ 210 m US 10 mm US Sieve No.075 mm US Sieve No. 200 of the Density index of the Relative density Linear coefficient of u. Anti-Clogging Criterion Nonwoven geotextiles porosity ng 30% GR3731/Filter Design.2. Soils Criterion with less than 50% particles soil 0.ftuile kl and Nonsevere 2. 9 095 3 loose soil ID35% 35% 095 C? u d50 medium dense soil ID65% 095 C 13. Retention 1.5 C. GR3731 Task TVA Project Kingston Fossil Plant Project/Proposal No 06 FILTRATION EVALUATION RESULTS The filtration criteria used for the geotextile filter design are presented design below in Table 1 followed by a description justifying selection of the required values.nifonnity soil 1 C3 C7u d50 1. Table 1.doc ??r . Gross Date 06 04 trQN 19 DO MM /Ciient W No. 200 Sieve 70 2. particles 0.

./e. avoid flow capacity reduction of the gravel drainage Therefore must be 1. which in turn will be overlain grain by sedimented gypsum with curve silt-sized A copy of a typical size distribution for fine grained is gypsum material l. obtained to from a similar this TVA gypsum disposal the 0.GEOSYNTEC CONSULTANTS Written Page 3 by TVA JFR Date 06 vY /04 naW /12 nu Reviewed by B.S.doc ?? ?.S. Geotextile Retention Filter Design The geotextile to must have clogging the less openings or that are small enough to retain fine-grained in the soil particles corridor.075 facility shown in Figure is According as grain than size distribution particles curve than gypsum material U.e.emp where e soil void ratio ej. The retention criterion is given The gravel drainage material will be wrapped primarily by the geotextile particles. characterized having more 50% finer mm i. apparent opening size AOS hereafter referred to as 095 of the geotextile in Table than a required minimum value.e.g/pe tg where p geotextile mass per unit density and tg geotextile thickness. Gross Date 06 vr 04 nvw 19 m 06 Ctient Project Kingston Fossil Plant Project/Proposal No. .. Sieve Np. Filtration Criteria - 095 is the apparent opening size AOS of d?1? and bottom the geotextile linear coefficient of uniformity ldo extremities respectively where portion d. 200. 70 USE AS PRODUCT SPECIFICATION Geotextile Permeability The geotextile to must have through the openings the that are large enough interface to allow gypsum drainage water pass gypsum/geotextile conductivity without significant flow must be impedance. soil maximum void k?tile geotextile hydraulic conductivity k.. retention Sieve No. is As shown in Table 1 for this type of soil the geotextile criterion as follows 09s 210 um U. Thus hydraulic or permeability of the geotextile GR3731/Filter Design. soil minimum void ratio - and e.l soil hydraulic conductivity - porosity area pg ng dimensionless polymer is calculated as follows ng i.50 dloo and of a d85 do are the top of a line drawn through the central soil particle-size soil particle distribution sizes for curve and are which 50% and 85% respectively of particles are finer by weight - Ig relative density ratio or density index e . GR3731 Task No Table Notes -CY 1 Continued.

4 cm/sec. Based density of polypropylene or polyethylene anticipated for the project and the range of mass per unit areas and thicknesses 6 to 16 oz/yd2 200 to 540 g/m2 GR373 I /Filter Design. clogging criterion given is in Table required As shown be in Table 1 for geotextiles on the geotextile -pg/Pg the geotextile porosity ng to n$30 that Geotextile porosity is not it a property is directly measured Table I or reported i.0 X 1 O 3 CnVS. Based on the range of geotextile mass per thicknesses anticipated for the project kg-0texti1e 6 to 16 oz/yd2 calculated geotextiles 200 to 540 g/m2 and mm respectively thicknesses typical values from typical permittivities are 0. minimum non-woven value.doc r AMW? . are anticipated value and for needlepunched non-woven geotextiles Therefore to needlepunched permeabilities prevent non-woven well for this project have to above the minimum required permeability recommended flow impedance. Gross Date 06 YY 19 DD MM 06 eient TVA Project Kingston Fossil Plant Project/Proposal No. by I manufacturers tg.2 to 0.3 F and to 5.e. will not significantly the porosity clog the geotextile geotextile inhibit flow into the granular drainage a required Thus The of the is must be greater than 1.0 x 104 CnVS 5. USE AS PRODUCT SPECIFICATIONj Note which that is some defined manufacturers as report the permeability property as permittivity unit areas 1. or critical at least applications the hydraulic conductivity of the geotextile be ten times greater than the hydraulic function conductivity of the retained soil is Given the importance of long-term so that of the drainage layer the geotextile designed kgeotextile 10 ksoil As discussed previously the upgradient conductivity side of the evaluated geotextile for will be in contact with gypsum.GEOSYNTEC CONSULTANTS Written Page 4 04 by JFR Date 06 YY /04 hA4 /12 DD Reviewed by B. The permeability criterion is given in Table kgeotextile 1.7 ? Fklt. Geotextfie Anti-Clopging The geotextile filter must have enough and openings so that blocking some of them layer. For severe should ksoil. GR3731 Task No greater than a minimum required value. however can be calculated values for as indicated in above ng Typical resulting ng non-woven geotextiles are 50 to 95%. the geotextile permeability criterion as follows kgeotextilr 10 x 5. disposal Therefore A typical facility hydraulic gypsum 5 material from a similar MACTEC 20041 is approximately is ksoi x 10 cmis Figure 2.

and humps do larger table exeed c are filled. Stumps above be cut project more f 150 nun the subgrade. Trees should may Fabric large be felled to delimbed not and than in place. Surface smooth and not evet depressions height. may be High large draped directly over tree trunk. Task No 06 and 1. humps should not exceed should 450 mm depth Iarger depressions filled.7 mm respectively is the calculated ng values range from approximately porosity required to 80% 90% which clogging. Gross A84DD Client Project Kingston Fossil Plant Project/Proposal --GR3731 Date 06 YY 04 RfM I9 DD No. For other initial liR thicknesses 450 600 nmc survivability survivability requirement requirement one two level levels mm 600 mmreduce For special construction initial survivability requirement such three levels increase the fabric survivability soft techniques as prenttting niay cause requirement one level.s stumps depressions boutdeis. Minintal site preparation left is required.doc .CiEOSYNTEC CONSULTANTS Written Page 5 by TVA JFR Date 06 /04 /12 Reviewed by B. fabric and Items cover humps shouid holes stream channels if and Very High Not Recommended be nmoved them only will placing the and surface. Table 2. well in excess of the minimum required prevent SURVIVABILITY Survivability installation filter EVALUATION RESULTS to refers the in ability of the geotextile to withstand criteria the stresses during and handling are presented the field.3 to to 5. The survivability used for the geotextile design below in Tables 2 and 3 using a two-step method used to outlined select by the GRI-GTI3 required 2004 followed by a discussion on the assumptions design values. material over distort the fmished road Recommendations 300 450 to to are for 150 reduce reduce to 300 mm initiat lift thiclrness. IW Moderate High 450 mm All depressions niay be Ahetnatively smooth working placed_ Subgrade has been tree cleared limbs of obstacles and rocks_ larger than small to moderate-sized stumps working should table_ in Tree with trunks a and Moderate be be remaved or cavered and partial High Very High Depressions or height. Required Degree of Survivability as a Function of Subgrade Conditions and Construction Equipment Low GRI-GT13 ground-pressure Subgrade Subgrade leaves so that ground-High ground-Medium pressure Conditions of all equipment 5 25 pressure equipment 25 kPa has and any in kPa 5 equipment 50 50 kPa kPa been cleared obstacles is except grass I fme wood shallow depth a or debris. Placement of excessive cover material thickness bearing failure of the subgrade_ GR373I/Fiher Design.

GEOSYNTEC CONSULTANTS Written Page 6 by JFR Date 06 YY /04 /12 DD Reviewed by B.e.6 psi is 25 kPa i.6 0.E2 Apparent open i mm % 500 0. are established on the low Class 3 survivability The chart provides minimum for the that required values for two ranges of geotextile this extensibility.6 0. Using 2 alow In the second step the minimum required values from Table 3 based for the mechanical or properties of the geotextile requirement.02 0.02 0. GR3731 Task No Table 3.doc .6 0. is first evaluated using Table 2 with to apply the installation level The following conditions are assumed i of is smooth less and subgrade condition and ii maximum Table equipment ground pressure than 3. sluiced into place.02 0. Gross Date 06 YY o4 MM 06 19 DD MM Fossil SClient TVA Project Kingston Plant Project/Proposal No. GRI-GT13 Geotextile Strength Property Geotextile Requirements Classification 1 Class Class I Class 2 3 high Tests Test Units Elongation o 50/o moderate Elongation Elongation Elongation 50%0 Iotv Elongation Elongation o _ 50/o Methods Grab strength 50% 1100 50% 700 50% S00 ASTM D 4632 N 1400 900 800 Trapezoid strength Tear ASTM D 4533 Puncture N 500 350 400 250 300 %18Q CBR strength ASTM D 6241 N s 2800 2000 2250 1400 1700 1ECJO Permittivity ASTM D 4491 ASTM D 4751 ASTM D 4355 0. Values were selected more extensible range because filter.6 0. As shown above anticipated the degree of survivability conditions.02 0. low ground-pressure due to equipment use considering degree of survivability the material used.6 0_f? ng si ze Ultraviolet Ret-stability @ 2 hrs 50 50 50 50 50 50 Notes 1 2 All values are MARV except UV stability which is a minimum value and AOS which is a maximum Evaluation value.02 0. range is applicable to non-woven materials are proposed for the geotextile liwAmm GR373 I /Filter Design. to be on 50 mm strip tensile specimens afterS00 hours exposure.

Sieve No. cm/s 70 Permeability kgeotwite 5.S.GEOSYNTEC CONSULTANTS Written Page 7 by TVA JFR Date 06 YY /04 /12 DD Reviewed by B. GR3731 Task No 06 CONCLUSIONS Based on the evaluations herein filter. the following minimum specifications are recommended for the geotextile Retention and Filtration Opening Size 095 o o Apparent Water S 210 m U.doc .0 x 10 Survivability Mechanical Properties o o o Grab Strength 500 N1131bs Trapezoid Tear Strength CBR Puncture Strength N 41 lbs 1000 N 225 lbs 180 GR3731 /Filter Design.A1 19 DD MM Fossil iaient Project Kingston Plant Project/Proposal No. Gross Date O6 YY 04 0.? .

International Conference on Geotextiles Koerner Vol. 1792-1803. and Holtz R.R. MACTEC Fossil Laboratory Testing Project Results . Koerner R. 1 Las Vegas and Martin NV 1982 Leachate-Collection G.GEOSYNTEC CONSULTANTS Written Page 8 by JFR Date 06 yy /04 MRt /12 DD Plant Reviewed by B. Filter Criteria for Geotextiles Proceedings August Second pp. GR3731 Task No 06 REFERENCES FHWA-DTFH61-80-C-00094 Christopher B.P.P. EC on of TVA Knoxville TN May 2004 Document USEPA Background Proposed Liner and Leak Detection p. Gross Date 06 YY 04 11Drf 19 DD 4OClient TVA Project Kingston Fossil Project/Proposal No.M. May 1987 526 GR3731/Fitter Design. Geotextile Engineering Manual 1984.D. Geosynthetic Properties Research Institute GRI Standard Specification for Test Soil and Methods and for Geotextiles 2004. Filters ASCE Journal of Geotechnical Engineering 120 No. Design of Landfill Vol.Samples from Gypsum Pond prepared for Parsons at Cumberland behalf Plant MACTEC 3043041009/001 48 p. 37-42.R.10 October 1994 pp. J. Rule EPA\530-SW-87-015 Prepared by GeoServices Inc. Used as Separation Between Subgrade Aggregate GRI Standard GT-13 Giroud J.doc ??? ?cAomm .

ICW LWb?YvE??LLSI 9eeMnYer n4 nQnrN Coase CobWes SOIL Fiee INDEX PROPERTIES anx I Mediom 1 Fine Silt Ssmd U.doc .dd Uni.01 0. 80.0142 0. Lab Sample Moisture Content g Limits PI Engineering Classification % % Ll -Sampte-01 No.0 uLoe 100.GEOSYNTEC CONSULTANTS Page 9 0 Written by JFR Date 06 YY /04 /12 DD Reviewed by B.0 Hydrometer Fartiele Diameter 3 % Finer 78. Gross Date 06 YY 04 19 DD MM Fossil MM 06 Client TVA Project Kingston Plant Project/Proposal No.7 99.0 10. Project No Sample 182 Street 6501666 Roswell Client ID Sample-01 Tel ASfMCUxDI21 D 770 Fax 770 650 5786 Lab Sample Ne D017 MaWveC.9 dy%.425 0.0015 f2. Lim 98.0 - 10 20 40 60 8100 4200 200 0.0001 Grain mm Skve No.1 MLaOL ? 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 0150 0.7 It.3 80 mm 0.Ye.75 40 100. 13 98. Su mm 75 50 37.0 0.0 w xk adx. GR3731 Task No Figure 1.5 100.850 0. TYPICAL GRAIN SIZE DISTRIBUTION Unpublished Project CURVE Data Site FOR CUMBERLAND GYPSUM Excel Geotechnical Excellence 941 Forrest in Testing Testing Georgia 30075 Name KIF-Peninsula trc. Fmer 100. I d d 30 1 20 I . Curv.5 /.007I 0.90 LL 100 110 120 Liq.1 Size 0. I 970 60 50 L E E Y 40 E k.7 NP NP ML - Silt Notes Some aftAe tesu msy nut be appiirabk for the mataiat SYpsum Ba8y5mg tesEed.5 3/8 94 9S 4. AU 1LSUmn14 SIKQfK grAY1ty of 2. Caeff.0332 2 1S 1 70 100.45 Coeff.001 0.075 98.7Gnvhy Ca Cck Fines Content erber - 2.8 25 19 100_0 11.9 0 C71uw0n 3/4 100.S.0035 0.4 Fbwx SUtx. 0 ?CZciC 87.o ? 99. Client Sar?le ID. r.45 W8S tlBeQ wbm the AUmeterlC3i fpWltbs. f t f I 10 0 t000 100 ? ? to 1 0.7 0 30 a GLorO I Mnet0lf 99.6 98.0 10.E EsNtm?e kt I 1 xs t ale we I 100 E f 90 3 sa 3 P t iF. Stmdsd wto Sieve Sizm as0 1 atd Yioo Nombns kmo ir r rES i F. 200 PL No NP D017 34.250 100. GR3731 /Fitter Design.

f 19 DD MM Fossil Ctient TVA Project Kingston Project/Proposal No- GR3731 Task No 06 Figure 2.7 1. KzngstGn Fzsst 3 Pt4nt - CLlr CGypsum rojeet Np.r.od R21te Psi 570 52.u0i ? IdentiicatHue Descrption_ Gy 733 69.ra_ Tt R Ftewrks Afcsx zvn NhmGer_ r Cei Test 60ck Pressvre pressur0pss. Ns.0 29 4$_$ t Mesturc Ato9st. IT-1 I F tCf fi Ta-11a I-AT f- I I I I I I I 1I 1T-- 4 s 7-f 2 fr Li tL x 5o-a Ptojtct Location Drstc - TVx. IBry Lfngt tiometer tiaght eefors Aft3r em 6m pcf_ 7cst SAklFLE 5. TYPICAL PERMEABILITY FOR CUMBERLAND GYPSUM MACTEC 2004 FERMF-ABILI71 TEST TEST DATA REPORT L7Ga ties7ilt Specimen Spsfvimer.. .yineter tCe. As 2651 6236 JA AFt 05-04-0 b Aa CH Tcster3 by Oy - CheGked TCst Ctsnatcn GR3731/Filter Design.0 ity pef opt Content Prsssurapsi 5.doc .04 Sample ti.? I 1 N i I i -_f-f-T? 1l . Gross Date 06 YY 04 R4. 30-00$10 No. ./s9C o--a Somp 1 t t Cspoet ian type FEexitzte 5he by Tarbe trpe t TIME 0 0 sec 150 too 200 30 20 -I-1 .3 r0--1 z 4Xo1t Dif FlAw Prm Fbsi GcsCCftf S02 Percesqt Permrt.GEOSYNTEC CONSULTANTS Written Page 10 by JFR Date 06 YY /04 /12 DD Plant Reviewed by B.