The Ten Sentence Patterns with Traditional Labels

I. Sophie is in her kennel. Subject BE
of e rb plac ve ad e or tim

II. Sophie is lonely. Subject BE predicate adjective

III. Sophie was a beautiful dog. Subject BE predicate nominative

IV. Sophie seems anxious. Subject linking verb predicate adjective

V. Sophie remains a big problem. Subject linking verb predicate nominative

VI. Sophie dreams. Subject intransitive verb

VII. Sophie chases squirrels. Subject transitive verb direct object

VIII. Sophie brought Fred a stick. Subject transitive verb direct object

indirect object IX. Sophie found fireworks upsetting. Subject transitive verb direct object objective complement (adjective) X. Sophie considered Gordon the alpha dog. Subject transitive verb direct object objective complement (noun phrase)

Hints for remembering the patterns: • Patterns I-III are all built around some form of the verb BE. • Types II, IV, and IX end with adjectives. Types III, V, and X end with a noun phrase (NP). • The following patterns are in pairs: II and III, IV and V, IX and X. The first pattern in each pair ends with an adjective, while the second patterns ends with a noun phrase. • Patterns II and IV and Patterns III and V are the same, except that Patterns II and II are built around some form of the verb BE, while Patterns IV and V are built around linking verbs. BE could be considered to be a kind of linking verb, but it is also possible to form a sentence with an adverb of time or place with BE (Pattern I), but not with other linking verbs. • Pattern VI is in a class by itself. • Patterns VII and VIII are identical, except that Pattern VIII has an indirect object.

except that Pattern VIII has an indirect object. NP 1 transitive verb NP 3 NP 2 IX. • Types II. NP 1 transitive verb NP 2 VIII. Sophie resembled a crazed beast. NP 1 linking verb NP 1 VI. V. Sophie considered enclosed spaces a challenge. and X end with a noun phrase (NP). Sophie died. • The following patterns are in pairs: II and III. but not with other linking verbs. Sophie found left-over steak delicious. and IX end with adjectives. Sophie ate a mouse. NP 1 BE NP 1 IV. IV and V. Sophie brought the guests a dog toy. while the second patterns ends with a noun phrase. IX and X. • Pattern VI is in a class by itself. NP 1 transitive verb NP 2 NP 2 Hints for remembering the patterns: • Patterns I-III are all built around some form of the verb BE. Sophie is at home. Noun Phrase (NP) BE of e rb plac ve ad e or tim II. while Patterns IV and V are built around linking verbs. • Patterns II and IV and Patterns III and V are the same. NP 1 transitive verb NP 2 adjective X. BE could be considered to be a kind of linking verb. IV. NP BE adjective III. The first pattern in each pair ends with an adjective. Sophie was a difficult dog. • Patterns VII and VIII are identical. Types III. Sophie appeared tired. Sophie is angry. . NP intransitive verb VII.The Ten Sentence Patterns I. NP linking verb adjective V. except that Patterns II and II are built around some form of the verb BE. but it is also possible to form a sentence with an adverb of time or place with BE (Pattern I).

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