Draft report on NREGA, IIM Bangalore NREGA Surveys in Anantapur, Adilabad, Raichur and Gulbarga (2007-08

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Professors Rajalaxmi Kamath, Rajluxmi Murthy and Trilochan Sastry Indian Institute of Management, Bangalore August 2008

Study Commissioned by Ministry of Rural Development and UNDP

Draft report on NREGA, IIM Bangalore Contents

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Page I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. Introduction and Methodology Summary Anantapur District Adilabad District Gulbarga District Raichur District Conclusions and Recommendations Annexure 1: Wage Labour’s Responses to NREGA Annexure 2: Anantapur survey Tables Annexure 3: Adilabad survey Tables Annexure 4: Gulbarga survey Tables Annexure 5: Raichur survey Tables 91 28 35 42 46 70 76 84 4 5 13 21

Draft report on NREGA, IIM Bangalore

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Acknowledgments Basavarajiah of Prerana and his team did a thorough survey and also provided the data and some insights for the surveys in Raichur and Gulbarga. Pramod Kulkarni, Secretary and CEO of Prerana also provided valuable help. Sreenivas, Ramesh, Bhaskar Reddy, Shankariah, and Shesha Rao and his team from the Centre for Collective Development did the surveys in Anantapur and Adilabad respectively. In addition, discussions with various Government officials of Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh, and staff of various NGOs and activists, were very helpful.

The surveys were done in the following locations. The IIM team’s . No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 District Gulburga Gulburga Raichur Raichur Adilabad Adilabad Anantapur Anantapur Total Taluk / Mandal Yadagiri Shahpura Lingsugur Gille Sugur Narnoor Jainoor Puttaparthi Penukonda No. Translations into Kannada and Telugu were facilitated by the IIM team with the help of these two NGOs. Both of them have good local knowledge and are working on the issue of rural employment. an NGO working in Raichur. but done with the purpose of providing some insights to the Ministry to enable fine-tuning of implementation if possible. This particular study was focused on Raichur and Gulbarga Districts in Karnataka. Sl. and by Centre for Collective Development. It was one of several other studies commissioned by the Ministry around the country. especially after the NREGA was passed. of Forms 80 122 112 120 103 117 175 196 1025 The surveys are not comprehensive. The analysis of data. The questionnaires were adapted from those used in last year’s survey. IIM Bangalore I. Introduction and Methodology 4 of 96 This study was undertaken for the Ministry of Rural Development with the support of UNDP. there was an additional section to capture the perceptions of the beneficiaries regarding the NREGA’s utility. The detailed village wise locations are given in the Annexures. The survey was done by Prerana. an NGO working in Anantapur and Adilabad under supervision of the IIM team. to provide feedback regarding various issues relating to NREGA. and Adilabad and Anantapur Districts in Andhra Pradesh. conclusions and tentative recommendations are made by the IIM team.Draft report on NREGA. In this survey.

Bank/PO Accounts Andhra Pradesh Anantapur Adilabad 11.5 5. they are not aware of their entitlements. or that they can decide the kind of work they can do in gram sabhas. making field visits. Karnataka lags behind in creating this awareness amongst potential beneficiaries. that they need to ask for work. However. Summary Some of the important findings were as follows: • Awareness about NREGA amongst potential wage earners and beneficiaries Andhra Pradesh Anantapur Adilabad 94% 73.6% Karnataka Gulbarga Raichur 12. District Percent of respondents who had some skills • Administrative measures – Job Cards applied for and issued.4 8. Awareness campaigns and issue of Job Cards is an urgent requirement.2 There was a significant difference between the two States with respect to Job card issued. and talking directly to labour in the villages. that they can get compensation. This shows that they are very likely to be interested in NREGA.2% There was a clear difference between AP and Karnataka as seen below: District Percent of respondents aware of important aspects of NREGA Although people might have heard of NREGA (called Upadhi Hami in AP and Udyoga Katri in Karnataka). and with officials. State level officials.9% 17. There is an urgent need to ensure that all potential beneficiaries obtain job cards. briefing them. As the survey shows. . In Karnataka the problem is compounded because of the low levels of awareness of the NREGA. The survey was supplemented by discussions by the IIM team with wage earners.7 Karnataka Gulbarga Raichur 2. • Skill levels of beneficiaries The respondents were largely unskilled. local officials. it also points to the need for skill up gradation – which perhaps goes beyond the scope of NREGA. IIM Bangalore 5 of 96 role included working with the survey teams.Draft report on NREGA. NGOs and direct observations during field visits.

9 6 of 96 Karnataka Gulbarga Raichur 16.Draft report on NREGA. The responsibility for updating this is with the rojgar sevak. Without proper records. • Record or work done with the beneficiaries Andhra Pradesh Anantapur Adilabad 65.9 97.3 13.3 17 90.7 District Percent of respondents who had Applied for job cards Percent of respondents who had obtained job cards There are significant differences between the two States with respect to the issue of Bank or Post Office accounts. This is one point through which leakages can be checked.2 19 As per the guidelines. the chances of funds diversion greatly increase. Some administrative mechanism to ensure that this is done regularly is required. IIM Bangalore Andhra Pradesh Anantapur Adilabad 96. .9% and 8.4 19.1 65. Gulbarga and Raichur showed around 10.7 93. and updated work pass books (job cards where the number of days of work has been recorded).6 91. wage earners who have job cards should also have a record of the number of days worked and the amount paid to them.2 24. District Percent of respondents who had Bank or Post Office Accounts Percent of respondents who had Bank or Post Office Passbooks The lack of Bank or Post Office accounts in Gulbarga and Raichur is a serious lacuna in the proper implementation of the NREGA.3 23.4 28.1 Karnataka Gulbarga Raichur 29. It also helps to resolve disputes about wages later. The following table shows that this again was a problem with Karnataka lagging far behind AP. The following Table gives details.6% of respondents whose work passbooks were filled out.

The latter is often less than the former. the survey asked respondents what they felt about NREGA if it was properly implemented. Less than 11. This came out also in several interactions with them at work sites and in the villages.9 8.5 Karnataka Gulbarga Raichur 23.3% said they would continue with seasonal migration even if NREGA was implemented effectively.6 11.4 13.9 Karnataka Gulbarga Raichur 10.4 Andhra Pradesh Anantapur Adilabad 1 8. To get a sense for the real demand. District Percent who said they will migrate even if NREGA is properly implemented Percent who said NREGA was useful if implemented properly Over 85% percent of them felt that the NREGA was useful if implemented properly.3 88. The following Table gives details. IIM Bangalore 7 of 96 District Percent of respondents who had Bank updated records of work done • Andhra Pradesh Anantapur Adilabad 73.6 Demand for work – real and expressed This is a contentious issue with the lower level Government machinery in poorly performing districts saying people were not interested in NREGA and activist groups saying NREGA was not being properly implemented.3 99. we need to distinguish between real demand for work and expressed demand for work.3 32.8 Karnataka Gulbarga Raichur 10.4 70. However. All the Districts showed clearly that there was a great real demand for rural employment amongst wage earners.2 86 .Draft report on NREGA.7 96. It was therefore important to study this issue in the survey. Our survey throws some light on this as explained below. the expression of this demand was very poor as seen in the following table: District Percent of respondents with written work applications Andhra Pradesh Anantapur Adilabad 39. and the reasons for this need to be investigated. To get a proper understanding.

2 7. people clearly felt they could earn more elsewhere. the majority of demand is oral. and some had also taken wage advances. In Anantapur.4 20. 94.3 20.8 100 25. only 40. Hover.5 0 3.12 crores. In Adilabad.Draft report on NREGA.3 100 (1) Work available at better wages elsewhere (2) Have taken wage advance (3) I do not think I will get work on time (4) I do not think I will get paid on time Total Respondents As can be seen. Anantapur is significantly higher than Adilabad. But as our survey.10 crores. shows. and the number to whom employment was provided was almost the same at 2. and an additional 14.7% had taken wage advances. Andhra Pradesh Karnataka Anantapur Adilabad Gulbarga Raichur 1. .4% said they could earn more elsewhere. Here again there are variations across States and Districts.8 14. Unless this is corrected. In Gulbarga and Raichur. The reasons for this are given a little later.4 46. potential demand for NREGA will always be grossly underestimated.2 94. oral applications do not show up. the reasons are many. The reasons for saying they could earn more elsewhere need to be further investigated – whether it was really so or whether this was a perception due to wrong understanding of the NREGA. The Adilabad survey was in the tribal area. there were an unusually large number of non-respondents for the question on written applications. In official statistics. In Karnataka.6 100 40. and is not recorded.8 100 31. even in Karnataka over 85% said they felt NREGA was a good Act if implemented properly.7 47. even orally are given below. Within AP.5% had taken wage advances and were not free to take up NREGA work. IIM Bangalore 8 of 96 The other respondents who applied for work said they did so orally.1 1. The reasons for the demand not being expressed.7 33.1 11. This is reflected in the NREGA annual report for 2006-07 where the total number of households demanding work is 2.

(ii) a perception in some places (two out of four districts) that better wages can be obtained elsewhere by seasonal migration. particularly in Raichur and Gulbarga.6 100 92. • Work related issues The survey also shows that in the respondents’ perception.Draft report on NREGA. There are several reasons for demand not being fully expressed: (i) not being aware that written applications can (or must) be given.8 3.1 2.5 100 94. .4 55 0.3% said they would still migrate. The issue of people not submitting written applications remains. IIM Bangalore 9 of 96 One action point that emerges from this is to tackle the issue of wage advances. (iii) wage advances (significant in two out of four districts). (iv) significant number thinking that they will either not get work on time or paid on time. Another is to create trust amongst the people that they would get work on time and that they would also get paid on time. (1) Was not aware that a written application needs to be given (2) I do not know to write (3) I do not know the procedure to write the application Total Respondents 99 1 44. This leads to people losing faith in NREGA and going for other private works where regular work is more likely. This can be best tackled through further awareness campaigns and an action plan to tackle the issue of wage advances. All this is worth doing only if there is substantial real unmet demand. Our survey shows that this is indeed the case as over 85% feel NREGA is a good act if properly implemented and less than 11. During the off season this usually means migration.5 5 2. The following Table gives an overview. recorded demand is far less than real demand. the number of days of work they got was far less than the 100 days of entitlement.1 100 100 In summary.

As can be seen. if regular work is not provided – typically 15 . some work.55 24. especially in the light of the earlier finding that there is a lot of unarticulated real demand for work that largely goes unmet.9 23. or more accurately. However. in Karnataka a significant number of people did not get full payment compared to AP. people are forced to migrate and seek alternate employment. the fact is that.5% 59% 50% 32. The second row has an inbuilt respondent bias. and people know it is about NREGA.2% 43. Even so called exploitative local elites pay labour for work done. When the survey is done. The issue of regular and adequate quantum of work and timely payment is critical to the success of NREGA. it shows clearly.7% 97.2% 40.2% 62.9% 78. It is therefore grossly unfair that wage labour on Government works say they do not get fully paid.1% 76. However.1% 90. that Karnataka is lagging far behind AP in the number of respondents how said they got work.4% 65. There is also a limit to the number of times they can apply for work in an unequal power structure where they are told what to do. there is a lot of scope for increasing the number of days of work.96 11. As the Table shows. Without that.4% The Table shows several issues that need to be sorted out. The lower level Government machinery can easily say that people are not willing to work and that they have migrated.59 73. timely work was not given % who said payment was not regular or timely Andhra Pradesh Karnataka Anantapur Adilabad Gulbarga Raichur 31. Even the best district has less than 32 days of work per year. IIM Bangalore 10 of 96 District Average number of days of work obtained % respondents who said they got work % respondents who got full payment % who said regular.45 41.2% 76. This is a serious issue and leads to complete loss of faith in the Government. only those who have worked under NREGA tend to show up in spite of our best efforts.Draft report on NREGA. Again. At the same time. First.9% 81. a majority of respondents say that regular work is not available. in three out four districts over 75% say that regular work is not provided. no Government employee goes without salary.8% 62. This is perhaps one of the single most significant reasons for the non performance of the NREGA at least in Karnataka.

If they leave for their usual seasonal migration to urban areas. labour is caught in a dilemma. payments were inordinately delayed. One reason was lack of submission of Utilization certificates by the gram Panchayats. District Percent of respondents who said gram sabha meetings were held • Other Observations Andhra Pradesh Anantapur Adilabad 99. Since all the districts are chronically drought prone.7 76. At the current rate of about 30 days a year. Labour refuse to begin work again till past payments are made. • Gram sabha meetings were held in some places and this is an improvement over last year. even during a 5 month off season in these rain fed areas.Draft report on NREGA. If they stay back waiting for wages. First. Closely linked to this is the issue of timely wage payments. IIM Bangalore 11 of 96 to 20 days a month.8 60. Again over 60% say they were not paid on time and there were significant delays. . They in turn say they are under staffed and hence unable to do this work. they are afraid that old payments may not come through.8 In all Raichur Districts. • Status of works We had to do the survey at a time when works were not in progress as per the time schedule given to us. This again suppresses demand for NREGA work. sometimes by as much as six months or more. The implications of delay are however enormous for the wage earners and for the Act itself. It was not clear whether these were full fledged meetings where open ended choices of the type of work to be done were discussed. people are getting about 6 days of work per month which is simply not adequate.5 Karnataka Gulbarga Raichur 60. Therefore. or whether the meetings were used for approving works already selected by the administration. Officials if questioned say that labour is not interested in working. we must fully understand the implications of delays and change administrative procedures where required to ensure that this does not happen. and their distress increases. it creates a lot of dissatisfaction and suspicion about the Act. As a result we could not visit work sites and get data on how implementation was going on. they will migrate. It is totally unjust to put wage earners in this predicament for no fault of theirs. no alternative employment is available.

payments become a problem. This was a major bottleneck in implementing NREGA. . At the time of the survey we found that in Raichur Block only 12 out of 28 gram panchayats had a full time secretary. IIM Bangalore • 12 of 96 In many places staff was not in position. Most were middle aged. Record keeping in Raichur and Gulbarga was poor. This led to a lot of delays. and recruited when the funds flow was about Rs. • In many villages. All of them were holding additional charge of two or three other panchayats. Officers were sometimes overburdened in terms of the number of villages they had to cover. In Raichur and Gulbarga many posts of Junior Engineers (JE)s were vacant.50. the Secretary was either not appointed or did not live in the village. and they had to handle three or four panchayats. Now the funds they had to handle ran into tens of lakhs of rupees. • • There were no nigrani committees in any of the villages.000. class 10 educated. There was no planning about the amount of work that each staff member or officer could handle. This is one root cause of administrative delays. This has a direct impact on NREGA since without these records.Draft report on NREGA.

Peddapappur and Putlur mandals. In all. In these Mandals soils are red and black almost in equal proportion. Vajrakarur. Anantapur District report 1. Papagni and Maddileru. There are 7. The forest cover is 194678 hectares only which constitutes around 10% of the total area. Yadiki.89 lakhs. There are 374 tanks with an ayacut of 41953 hectares under the control of minor irrigation. The soils in District are predominantly red except in the below mentioned areas such as Kanekal. district is the second lowest rainfall receiving in the nation after Jaisalmer district of Rajasthan with a normal rainfall of 552 m. Bhairavanithippa Project with an ayacut of 4856 hectares and Chennarayagudi Project with 445 hectares ayacut. The three medium irrigation projects are Upper Pennar Project with an ayacut of 4066 hectares. Failure of South West Monsoon leads to drought in the district. Bommanahal. The District has been divided into 3 Revenue Divisions consisting of 63 Revenue Mandals ( Division 20. 32% of the total population constitutes agricultural labour and cultivators. The forests in the district are thin and scanty. Uravakonda. it is the biggest district in the state of Andhra Pradesh. .32 lakhs households in the district. The remaining areas in 49 mandals fall under the red soils. The important rivers in the district are Pennar. the population of the district is 36. Gooty. As per the provisional figures of census 2001. Hagari. per annum out of which 57% is South West Monsoon (June to September) and 30% is from North East Monsoon (October to December). Jayamangala.m. Area wise. of geographical area. In addition there are 68137 hectares under bore wells. Yellanur. Thus the red soils constitute 76% of the area while black soils are predominant in 24% area of the district. Peddavadugur. There is one major irrigation project TBPHLC covering 157 villages in 19 Mandals with an ayacut of 51771 hectares. Dharmavaram Division 17 and Penukonda Division 26) with 19130 Sq. Guntakal.Draft report on NREGA. Tadipatri. There are 2351 tanks under the control of the Panchayati Raj engineering department with 21387 hectares as ayacut. Kms. Pamidi. IIM Bangalore III. Profile of Anantapur District 13 of 96 Anantapur District was formed in the year 1882 having been separated from Bellary district of Karnataka state. Vidapanakal. Chitravathi.

which form 51% of the total area.3%.ap. Drought has been a recurring phenomenon in District.Draft report on NREGA. drinking water.70 lakh hectares. surface irrigation. The total cropped area is 10. The adverse affect of drought is felt not only on human beings and on animal health but also on ground water table.69 lakh hectares are under Kharif and 1. through Canals is 19.16 lakh hectares. It is also possible that the respondent did not give a definitive answer for the question or did not respond at all. which is purely rain fed in kharif. just 1 person to schedule tribe and 16.9%. tanks 3.2%. Out of these 38% reported as belonging to backward caste. There were .htm) 2.13 lakh hectares.72 lakh hectares.8% Hindus did not provide any information on their caste.5% to schedule caste.gov.45 lakh hectares under Rabi. (source: www. Or it can be interpreted as an answer in the negative for some of the questions. The blanks could imply that the question is not applicable to the respondent as it is a follow up question. The remaining 19. Groundnut is the main crop with 7.6% and other sources 37. The results are summarized giving the number and percentage of people responding to each question. wells (tube wells) 39. Details on religion and caste are given in Table 2 of the annexure on . The villages covered were Ammavaripalli. IIM Bangalore 14 of 96 The total geographical area of the district is 19.4% to other castes.in/aprlp/2007/plantation. The cultivable area of the district is 10. The small and marginal farmers. The net area sown is 9. All the principal sources except canals are non-precarious. power generation as well as crop and fodder production. Out of the gross irrigated area of 1.rd. agricultural laborers and rural artisans are severely affected by drought.15 lakh hectares of which 8. Gallapalli and Nagavaru in Penukonda and Badupalli in Puttaparthi (Table 1 of the annexure on Anantapur). 25.5 lakh hectares. Majority of the respondents (97.7%) were hindu. The results and percentages reported are for the responses received. Demographic and Socio-economic characteristics of the respondents of the Survey in Anantapur district The survey was conducted in a total of 393 randomly selected households in the Penukonda and Puttaparthi mandals of Anantapur district. Blanks against a question have been reported as nonrespondents.

Religion information was not provided by 7 households (1. agriculture and others (not specified by the respondents) accounted for the main occupations in Anantapur. Table 6 of the annexure on gives the socio-economic profiles of the respondents. 821 respondents were male and 695 were female.2 years. Need for work. secondary and high school account for another 28% of the respondents. Coolie. the variation is not very significant.8%). Middle. The average age of the respondents was 28. around 41%. From Table 7 we see that the number of days the respondents worked on NREGA varies between 12 to 19 days over the 12 months in 2007 (total number of days given in Figure 1 below). making it a gender ratio of 84 females for every 100 males in the sample. A very small percentage (3%) had an Antyodaya ration card.5% of the sample). therefore. The percentage of non-respondents (54%) in this section was large. Only primary schooling was done by another 14% of the respondents. Figure 1 – Total number of days worked by survey respondents (Jan-Dec 2007) . From Table 5 it can be seen that out of 1516 individuals. The percentages for these are 19%.6 acres. while 2% reported having no card.Draft report on NREGA. This could be attributed to availability of agricultural work in Anantapur not being very substantial. 16% and 32% respectively. 75.3%). Amongst the families surveyed. Close to 34% of the respondent households reported holding a BPL ration card and 61% reported having an APL ration card. Table 3 of the annexure on gives the details on land holdings. IIM Bangalore 15 of 96 only 2 muslim households (. the average of which was around 3. Very few (2%) are graduate and above. Though the total number of days worked are higher in April. May and June. The level of illiteracy was high. The percentage of households who had mortgaged land was small (2.6% stated that they owned some land. Information on ration card holdings is given in Table 4 of the annexure on . perhaps persists throughout the year.

Draft report on NREGA. A small percentage (9%) of women were willing to travel up to a distance of 3 Kms distance. Around 50% of the women wanted this work within the village or up to 1 Km distance. Majority of the women preferred dairy and poultry activities perhaps because of their exposure to these as noted earlier. main among which was work in poultry and dairy etc. The major reasons cited were that there was nobody to carry out the work and they could not afford domestic help. if available. It is important that women be provided work close to their homes for them to be able to benefit from the NREGA. 65% of these were willing to do regular full-time work. 3. It is important to note that despite the household duties a large majority of the respondents (93%) said they would be willing to accept work. Public works in Anantapur district . Despite the responsibility of domestic duties 69% of the respondents said that they were also involved in other productive activities. and around 10% said they would like regular part-time work. IIM Bangalore 16 of 96 Table 8 of the annexure on gives the information on women employed in the sample. Most women (81%) said that they had to spend most of their time in domestic duties.

The summary of the survey results is given in Appendix 1 as ‘Block 0 Results’. NREGA provides the same wages for men and women for the same work. However. Only 40% of the respondents gave a written application for work. From our field visits this was seen to be common phenomena. 87 and the average wages for women was less than half of that of men. Applications for Work under NREGA People who applied for work in this district are around 82%. 84 while women got only Rs. where the average wages for men was around Rs. 91% reported having received a job card. The requirement for work was conveyed orally by the remaining 60%. NREGA in Anantapur district A total of 318 household surveys were carried out in the Penukonda and Puttaparthi Mandals in for information on NREGA. For coolie work men earned Rs. 60 for the same. 40.Draft report on NREGA. . where again wages for men are seen to be higher than that for women. This can be attributed to the proactive role played by the administration in implementing the NREGS in Andhra Pradesh. This information is given in Table 9 of the annexure. Though there is room for improvement the percentage in this district is much higher than in the districts of Karnataka. 4. 50. The findings related to NREGA are as follows: Awareness of NREGA and job cards In this district awareness is quite high with about 94% of the respondents reporting that they are aware of the act. The men earned an average wage of Rs. 70 for canal work while women earned an average wage of Rs. The practice of accepting a common application is effective operationally and should be continued. Next was coolie and canal works. IIM Bangalore 17 of 96 Respondents were also asked about the public works in which they participated for the previous year (January to December 2007). 97% of the respondents applied for a job card. Majority of the respondents reported having done road work. It is likely that once they expressed their interest orally their name was included in a common application by somebody in the village compiling a list to be handed over to the officials. reported as only Rs.

Job Passbook and bank/post office accounts In this district 73% of the respondents reported having a written record of their works in the passbook. It seems that those who did receive payments were paid in full but about 24% of people did not receive any payments. This leaves room for improvement as entering the work done in the passbook is mandatory. One reason for this could be as the bank/post office accounts have not been opened as yet though payments could have been through cash as well. Once the money is deposited into an individual account it provides proof of payment which can be easily verified in cases of any reported discrepancies. Work under NREGA The percentage of people who got work under NREGA is 74% which is less than those who applied for work (82%). The percentage of people who reported having received some payment is not much higher at about 77%. We did not come across a single instance where unemployment compensation had been paid. The act mandates that anybody who applies for work ought to be given work. Payments for work under NREGA The percentage of people who reported having received payment for all work done is only 76%. People who received work for more than 60 days is only 14% of the respondents. failing which the applicant is entitled to unemployment compensation.Draft report on NREGA. During our field visits we found that hardly anybody in the villages was aware of their right to unemployment benefits. Only 66% of the people have a bank or post office account and most of those who hold an account also have a passbook for the account. IIM Bangalore 18 of 96 The 18% of the people who did not apply for work did not apply largely either because they had taken a wage advance from the farmers where they work regularly or because they felt that they will not get paid on time. A large percentage (43%) received work for less than 15 days. The banks and post offices are not always forthcoming in opening accounts for the people. . This needs to be addressed as having an account is necessary for individual payments.

If payments for work continue to be delayed. The Utilization certificate was given in April 2007 and funds seemed to be . 5. This is very positive as the percentages are much lower for other districts. NREGA implementation and usefulness Almost all (99. Almost all (99%) said that they would not like to migrate if work is available under NREGA. Only 47% of the respondents received payments on time. therefore.7%) respondents consider getting work under NREGA to be useful. Migration and NREGA in Anantapur district In this district only 11% of the respondents are skilled and most of them (98%) did not migrate from the villages for work. The payment mechanism has to be strengthened for people to benefit from NREGA. From the discussions with the people in Puttaparthi Mandal it seemed that Gram Sabhas were being held regularly and the works had been selected by the people.e. 6. This could be attributed to the fact that work was available under NREGA in the previous year as well. There was no work going on at the time of the study and. 67% felt that they did get work timely and 66% reported payments being made in a timely manner. Worksite Selection The worksites were reported to have been chosen by the Gram Sabha by almost all (98%) the respondents. The contribution of NREGA towards bringing down distress migration to urban areas during the slack seasons is very valuable for the people. It is clear that people prefer staying back in villages and getting work where they live rather than migrating even if they are likely to earn more in the urban areas. within 15 days. Only 58% felt that there was no problem with the implementation of the scheme in their district. i. Observations of the survey team and concluding remarks We visited a few villages where the survey was carried out in Anantapur district of Andhra Pradesh. Around 90% of people felt that NREGA can be made more useful for them. However. for NREGA to be beneficial for the people work and payments have to be provided regularly and timely.Draft report on NREGA. 46% of the respondents reported not having received payment till 30 days or more. IIM Bangalore 19 of 96 The Act requires that payments for work be made within a fortnight. people will lose trust in the scheme. we could not observe any work sites.

People seemed to be reasonably satisfied with availability of work and payments. community buildings. In case there was a shortage of funds additional request could be made. buildings. IIM Bangalore 20 of 96 flowing smoothly. For some Mandals this was changed in Nov 2007 to payments made through the village office as otherwise the payments were taking long.Draft report on NREGA. Funds were being transferred electronically every Thursday. It was felt that durable works such as school walls. it was felt that better training was required as the village office leader did not have adequate training to handle funds. The payments were being made through the post office. 20-30 thousand was considered to be feasible but higher amounts was a problem. This Mandal required handling of Rs. Handling Rs. an accounts person would be desirable. 1516 lakhs. banks are not very forthcoming in opening accounts for the workers. There also seemed to be a proposal of making payments through the bank but the bank was too far away for people to find that a convenient mode of payment. . At times they are not literate. CC roads. Moreover. Alternatively. protection walls for feeder channels also need to be undertaken. However. They prefer payments through the post office. There seemed to be no problem with transfer of funds from the District to the Mandal.

IIM Bangalore IV.23. Ali Adil Shah. The climate of the district is characterized by hot summer and is generally dry except during the south-west monsoon season from June to September. of northern latitudes.90% of the total area of the State.79. Bhosle Rajas of Nagpur and Asaf Jahis. its headquarters town which was named after the ruler of Bijapur. Adilabad District report District Profile (Source: http://adilabad.46' and 80.40' and 19. Rajura and Sirpur as its constituent talukas. In 1905 the status of this sub-district was raised to that of an independent district with head quarters at Adilabad. 1872 with Edlabad (Adilabad). 4)Asifabad. The Population of the district according to 2001 census is 24. The district derives its name from Adilabad.ap.004 or 73.52% of the total.3)Utnoor. The District comprises 52 Mandals and 1743 villages of which 1557 villages are inhabited and 186 villages are uninhabited.Draft report on NREGA. The District is conveniently formed into 5 divisions 1)Adilabad . Vakatakas.48% of the total population.in/profile. Rashtrakutas. About 85% of annual rainfall is received during the south-west monsoon season with July being the peak rainy month.56'. besides the Gond Rajas of Sirpur and Chanda.m.13% of the total population of the State. It has the fifth rank in area with 16128 square kms or 5.347 of which the rural population accounts for 18. Chalukyas of Kalyani.343 forming 26.D.nic.79.56. The female population is less namely 980 females for every 1000 males. of the eastern longitudes and 18. The district was for long not a homogenous unit and its component parts were ruled at different periods by the Mauryas.html) 21 of 96 The district lies between 77.5m.347 which accounts for 3. The normal Annual rainfall of the district is 1044. Satavahanas. . Chaludyasof Badami. Mughals. while the urban population accounts for 6. The variation in the Annual rainfall from year is not large. The district has a population of 24.5)Mancherial. There are 7 Municipalities in the District. Originally this was not full fledged district but a sub-district named Sirpur-Tandur which was created in A.01'. 2) Nirmal .

Wheat. 34.55 Lakhs persons are scheduled Tribes forming 18. The literacy is 27.kms. Sugarcane and Soya.57% and 17. .76% cotton production of Telengana districts and only about 5% of the states' total cotton production.38 lakh MTs. However the yields are not in accordance with the above ratios. The dry deciduous forests of Adilabad are classified for the convenience of forest management into Teak forest and Mixed Forest. Of the total population of the district.27%.8. Of the total main workers.Draft report on NREGA. which accounts to only 11.km. The predominant Crop grown in the district is Jowar which accounts for 31. cultivators form 34. Like other districts of the state.86 Lakhs persons are scheduled castes and 3. Cotton occupies an important place in the agriculture sector of this district. owing to the availability of irrigation facilities there. The geographical area of the district is 4004035 Acres. as against the State average of 241 persons per sq.93% of the total population as against the state average of 45.88%.34. Khanapur and surrounding mandals is fairly developed agriculturally.3365 constituting 44.09% and agricultural labour. Luxettipet.5 sq.80% (2001 figures) against the state average if 37. There is wide gap between supply of forage at 17. agriculture is the main occupation of the people in the district. Cotton.8 Lakh MTs and demand of 23. paddy.8% of the total cropped area.2.5% of the net area cultivated in the district Animal Husbandry is only second to agriculture in terms of contributing to the gross income and employment in the district. The principal crops of the district are Jowar. Maize. IIM Bangalore 22 of 96 The density of population of the district is 129 persons per sq. The total number of workers is 9. Chillies. The forest cover is 6944. The southern part of the district consisting of Nirmal.08% of the total population respectively. The Net area sown in the district is 35. which is nearly 43% of the total area.km. The area at present under the plantations and horticulture crops is only about 3. Adilabad has got 27% area under cotton in all the Telengana districts put together and 16% of the area under cotton in the entire state. 3.4% of the total geographical area while for the state the relative percentage is 40.

the Pranahita and the Wardha flow along the borders. This means that 44. written records in the passbooks of respondents was good as 70.9% do not trust the NREGA to provide them with regular work and wages. but this was nearly always oral applications. even after two years of the NREGA being introduced here. the Penganga.5% said they had given written job applications. as only 13. Given that this is a remote tribal area where a lot of people are dependent on wage labour. The total irrigated area accounts for 11. The undulating character of terrain of the district lends itself favourable to irrigation from tanks.5% of the total cropped area. wells and streams.4%). Swarna. The main sources of irrigation in the district are canals and tanks and the irrigated area under canals of Kadam. lime stone and clays. Work applications As reported earlier. iron ore.6% had been issued Job cards. no faith that work will be provided on time (33. flow within the district. Sirala and the Khanapur Channel.6% of the respondents said they were aware of the NREGA. Awareness. Job Card distribution was good.. the number who are not aware is still high. Peddevagu. About 74% said they had applied for work. The area irrigated is rather limited although the major rivers like the Godavari. while many other tributaries like the Kadam. IIM Bangalore 23 of 96 Among the districts of Andhra Pradesh. Compared to other Districts and States. cards still need to be issued for the remaining people. It is well endowed with rich reserves of coal . Nearly all the respondents were unskilled (91. This perception needs to be changed if more people are to be included in NREGA works. Job Cards. wage advances taken earlier (40. Sathanala etc.4% said they were not aware of the NREGA.9% showed updated written records. 73. Adilabad ranks first in earning revenue from minerals.1%). and 26. The reasons for not applying for work were higher wages (14. However.7%).Draft report on NREGA.3%). and fear that NREGA payment will not made on time (11. . and even though only 17% said they had applied for a card. 97.8%).

About 40. Over 90% had Bank or Post Office accounts and updated passbooks.Draft report on NREGA.3% said they would migrate even if NREGA was implemented without any defects. Work was provided to 97. 50% said that payments were not made on time.6% said they did not know the procedure to write an application. there were some caveats. very few migrate seasonally in tribal Adilabad.5%) said that work was chosen in gram sabha meetings. The following Table and Chart show the number of days of work that respondents said they were provided.9% said they had migrated the previous year. The reasons for not applying in writing were as follows. However 8.4% said they were not aware that written applications needed to be given. About 44. At the same time.3% said they see no major problem with the way NREGA was implemented. 96.4% felt that NREGA implementation can be further improved. efforts are needed to correct it through discussion and dialogue. only 67.5% said they had received full wages. Traditionally. a rather large 88. As stated earlier. Compared to non tribal districts.5 0-15 days . and only 0. Perhaps the last finding reflects the fact that most people would always like higher wages.8% said that NREGA was useful if it provided regular work. Even if this is only a perception. this is very good. only 13.2% of the respondents. A high percentage of respondents (76. 79. No. In addition. IIM Bangalore 24 of 96 Written applications are an important part of the process of implementing NREGA transparently. another 55% said they did not know how to write. and 52% said that NREGA wage rates were not good. While 81% said they had been paid.6% said that work was not provided on a regular and timely basis.5% said they had ever submitted written applications. This was also reflected in the survey as only 6. However. This is a potential problem as people get very agitated if they feel they have not received fair wages. of respondents 121 % of respondents 60. Work Provided Overall.

95 days and 60% of them worked for less than 15 days.8 days Percent of respondents 30. Delays in wage payments are another potential source of problem. IIM Bangalore 16-30 days 31-60 days more than 60 days Total Average 33 22 24 200 24.95 days 16.5 11 12 100 25 of 96 No.Draft report on NREGA. of days of work provided: Average 25 days 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0-15 days 16-30 days 31-60 days more than 60 days % of people As can be seen. Number of days 0-7 days 8-15 days 16-30 days 30-60 days 60-90 days Total Average Number of respondents 57 41 68 15 6 187 21.4 8.9 36.4 21. the average number of days of work was 24. There is a lot of scope for further increasing the number of days of work provided.0 3. The following Table and Chart give the details.2 100 .

The rest were in various small trades or . 47. Household Characteristics The respondents were predominantly Hindu (85. The average number of days of delay was 21.Draft report on NREGA.8 days.9 0.0 SC ST Caste number percentage 2 2 21 188 0.8 3 1. This reflects the characteristics of the general population in the Agency or tribal area where the survey was conducted. Although most families owned land.4 OC 6 2.3 Nearly all were landholders. This is against the provisions of the NREGA. which is again true of the tribal area where population density is lower.6% of the respondents for payments delayed by more than 15 days. Literacy levels were low compared to All India rates. and 52% were not literate.3%). IIM Bangalore 26 of 96 Delays in payment 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0-7 days 8-15 days 16-30 days 30 . Particulars Hindu Muslim Christian Not Reported Religion number percentage 188 85.9 88.9 9.7 BC 22 10. 12% in basket making. and 16% in agriculture.8%) and tribal (88. 34% were in tailoring. and consequently most families own some land. they did not describe their primary occupation as agriculture.60 days 60-90 days % of resp As can be seen.

mason.3%. IIM Bangalore 27 of 96 occupations like carpenter. farming (45. electrician. and planting trees. Women’s employment data show that 59% of them had to spend a lot of time on domestic duties which prevented them from working outside. They cited lack of help at home as the main reason for this.8%). roads. This included regular full time work (50.9%). This work was largely household dairy related work (51.5%) said there were religious or caste restrictions on their working. About 39% preferred work within the household or village.3%) and fetching water (2. jungle cutting. decorator. Total Number of days worked in 2007 7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 Jan Feb Mar Apr May June July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec The average number of days worked was 16. petty shop keeper and so on.7% and occasional part time 5.1 days per month.Draft report on NREGA.6%). even that outside the NREGA. they would be happy to do it. part time 25. Hardly anyone (1.8%) said they did not have any skills. occasional full time 18. The average number of days worked is shown below.4%. . This includes all work done. 48% were willing to work within 5 km and 13% beyond 5 km. As can be seen. There was a lot of untapped demand for work with 78% saying if additional work was provided at home. Most of them (60. The major works undertaken were canal repair and construction. there is a fluctuation in the total employment during the year. About 47% are engaged in productive work beyond domestic chores. but were keen to take up new activities like tailoring.

The female literacy is 38.e.02% which is higher than the state average of 17. Chittapur. Jewargi. Gulbarga District Report 1. Tables 2 . without giving specific caste details.40% as against the state female literacy rate of 57. The detail of the villages and the number of households covered in each village is given in Table 1 of the Annexure on Gulbarga.25%. Profile of Gulbarga District 28 of 96 Gulbarga is one of the biggest districts in Karnataka. The domestic decadal growth is 21. Aland.nic. Agriculture in the district mainly depends upon the rainfall and the net area irrigated to net area sown is 14% which is below the state average of 24%. stated that they belonged to the SC and ST. 11. About 43% of the total households held BPL ration cards.gulbarga. 48 hoblies and 337 Gram Panchayats in the district. Gulbarga. About 16% and 12% of the respondents respectively. namely Gulbarga Sedam.4%).586 ) in the district are BPL families .5 of the annexure give the demographic and religious profiles of the respondents. Demographic and Socio-economic characteristics of the respondents of the Survey The survey was conducted in ten villages covering two blocs in Gulbarga – Shahpur and Yadgir.29%. IIM Bangalore V.93% of State population. 1.25 lakhs which constitutes 5. There are 1378 revenue villages. Shahapur.224 square kms which constitute 8.85 per cent of the families (i. 33. Chincholi and Sedam.65% as against the state average of 67. Yadgir. It consists of three sub divisional administrative units. the literacy rate in the district is 50. Yadgir and 10 taluks namely.Draft report on NREGA. the kabbaru (13.4% stated that they owned an APL ration card.26.46 percent area of the state. Majority of the respondents were hindu (90%). As per 2001 Census.04%. The male literacy is 62.7%) and the kurubaru (9.in/ ) 2. It has a population of 24% of SCs which is higher than the all India average.52% as against the state average of 76. Shorapur. It has an area of 16. As per human development index (HDI) the district stands last but one in the state.45%. and about 39% had stated that they either owned no ration cards or did not respond to this .9%). As per 2001 Census the total population of the district is 31. The normal rainfall of the district is 777 mms which is higher than Raichur. where the dominant castes were the lambanis (15. Afzalpur. (source: http://www.

. only half the total individuals responded. A significant proportion of the households either owned and / or possessed land – 64% and 46% respectively. but had not finished their primary levels. IIM Bangalore 29 of 96 query. and around 31% could not specify their primary occupation.Draft report on NREGA. There is a dip in the months March to May. and around 10% said that they were literate.5 acres. indicating the slack period in agriculture. Among males – around 40% were between ages 18 and 60 years.5 acres. This means that land holding per se is not sufficient to categorize them as agriculturists. Figure 1: Total number of days worked. and among them – around 64% said that they had no skills to generate a primary occupation. regarding the query on primary occupation. Of the 1054 individuals in this sample. Table 6 gives the socio-economic and educational profiles of the households. which is below the district literacy levels and far below the state literacy levels. Around 16% said that they finished primary schooling. The quality of the land and the lack of irrigation in Gulbarga implies that in spite of owning / possessing land – people do not have sustainable sources of primary occupation. in the months of March to May. The poor education levels imply that they also lack skills to have alternative non-farming occupations. The average size of the land held was 3. However. and among females this working group age percentage was around 34. The figure below gives the total number of days the respondents had work. A large proportion of the households (around 60%) were illiterate. it dips to around 16 days. land is a key asset held by the majority of respondents. and the average size of the land possessed was 2. there were 542 males and 512 females making the sex ratio of 106 males to every 100 females. The data on the average days worked tells us that while the average days worked in all other months is around 17 to 19 days. Thus. The maximum age among the respondents was 93 and the average age of the respondents was 24 years.

poultry and spinning and weaving. Among the women who were engaged in work outside of their domestic duties at home – the three main activities were coolie. 3. and around 26% were willing to travel up to a kilometer for such work. IIM Bangalore 30 of 96 Table 9 of the Annexure on Gulbarga gives the details on the female respondents. either fulltime (34%) or part-time (62%). the respondents were asked about the kinds of public works they did. poultry and animal husbandry were the kinds of work that most of them preferred. and therefore could spare time for work outside of home. Public works in Gulbarga district To get some idea about the scope of works under the NREGA. For canal. Next were the canal and tank works. Majority of them (around 75%) stated that they needed initial finance to start this work. tailoring. the average number of days worked under such schemes and the average wages earned for the year 2007. While in road works. Around 57% of the women wanted this work within the village.Draft report on NREGA. Slightly more than half of them also stated that they had the requisite skills to do this work. 66. Majority of them wanted regular work. the average wages earned by men was slightly higher than that earned by women – men earned an average of Rs. mud and tank work. very few of them were engaged in any productive activities along with domestic duties (around 18%). along with training (13%). A large percentage of the women (74%) replied that they were not required to spend most of their time on domestic duties. 60 on such road works. A large percentage (62%) of the women said that they were willing to accept work if it was made available. the . while women earned an average of Rs. Dairy. Road work had the highest number of people employed among the respondents (35 males and 23 females). However.

4. The NREGA states that it shall be the duty of the GP to register the household. which means that in some cases in Gulbarga. every adult member whose name appears in the job card shall be entitled to apply for manual work under NREGA. This implies that the initial steps in making people aware and familiarizing them . age and address to the Gram Panchayat (GP) for issuance of a job card. before they had done any work under NREGA. since the women 31 of 96 employed in such work did not form a large proportion of the sample.Draft report on NREGA. 47% of the respondents said that better work was available to them elsewhere. NREGA in Gulbarga district A large proportion of the respondents (87% of the total households) were unaware of the NREGA in Gulbarga district. after making suitable enquiries and issue a job card. IIM Bangalore average wages reported by women are slightly higher. these perceptions were ex-ante. When asked about the reasons for not applying for a job card. Application for a job card under the NREGA can be done by submitting their names. Other works stated by the respondents were chili cutting and jungle cutting. Very few households (33 households . However. while 2% also felt that they might not be paid on time. This also gives clear indication of their willingness to do unskilled manual work. mud and tank work. In line with our queries on education – around 98% of the households stated that they did not possess any skills.16% of the total households) had applied for a job card. Since the number of people who had got jobcards in Gulbarga district was so meager. Very few would be able to point out to the problems with the implementation of NREGA per se that would prevent them from seeking work under NREGA. which is one of the conditions for employment under NREGA. 54 households did state that they had received job cards.4% of the total households) had applied for work. the GP had issued job-cards without specifically receiving applications from the households. only 19 households (9. In Gulbarga. 31% were bound by wage advances taken from private wage contractors and therefore could not free themselves up for work under NREGA. one cannot conclude anything from this information – only perhaps saying that some women have stated average wages to be higher than that of men (by about Rs. 4 per day) in canal. However. Once the job card has been received by the household. 20% of the respondents perceived that they will not get work on time.

This figure is perplexing given the figures of those who were not aware of NREGA. This points out to the lack of explanation and adequate publicity about the procedures they have to follow in getting work under the NREGA. All job card holders are entitled to employment subject to a minimum of 100 days under the NREGA. or those who had not applied/received a job card or the job card holders who had not applied for work. after giving applications in writing to the GP for unskilled manual work for at least 14 days under the Act. 82 households (41% of the total households) did state that they got work under NREGA sometime.Draft report on NREGA. without adequate explanation about NREGA and their rights under NREGA. IIM Bangalore 32 of 96 with the features of the Scheme have not been done in Gulbarga. or not knowing how to write at all – none of which can be ignored given the poor literacy levels in Gulbarga. 57% of the total respondents said that they have not received any payments for work done under the NREGA up till now. which is aimed at inculcating transparency and accountability. Working under NREGA therefore does appear to an option at all for most needy people here. The Act lays down several of these steps to be followed before work is given under NREGA. Around 23% of the respondents (4% of the total households) said that they had given written applications. Around 70% of the respondents said that they did not have a bank account or a Post Office account.9% . It goes without saying that the district will continue to be plagued with such problems regarding payments till an accessible formal mechanism of payments (either through a bank or through a Post Office) is put in place. the remaining 77% (11% of the total households) said that they had only spoken about their need for work. This implies that mere absence of written applications for work does not imply that the job card holders do not want jobs. NREGA has been in operation in this district for two financial years. 67% of the respondents stated that they have not been paid for all the days of work that they have done. it would seem that people have been given some public work in this district. As a result. A majority (around 93%) of those who had not given written applications said that this was because they were not aware that a written application needs to be given. There were 18 households (8. A few also had problems with not knowing how to write an application. Therefore. A major change with the NREGA is the payments route.

5. For the FY 2006-07. A lot has been written about the demand-based nature of this Act. and once having received job cards they have to give a written application for work. Having done this. or find that giving a written application is cumbersome. 82% of the households were also very sure about the usefulness of the NREGA. Around 169 households (83. many fail to clear this first hurdle – as was seen even in Gulbarga. Concluding Remarks Gulbarga district is one of the more backward districts of Karnataka state and is acutely in need of proper implementation of NREGA. there were no work-sites in the month of Jan-March (the period in which the survey was conducted) under NREGA in Gulbarga. every year) and timely (during the slack seasons when most households would want work). 6. there could be no work site surveys on which we could comment. However. IIM Bangalore 33 of 96 of the total households) who said that they had received payments a month after doing work. As we have seen. if it gave them regular work.2%) responded that they will not migrate in the slack seasons if NREGA gives them work. this work needs to be regular (as a sovereign promise by the State to its people to give them their right to work. Therefore. A vast majority of people would prefer staying back in villages and getting work there – and this was the spirit behind enacting the NREGA. Therefore. People have to apply to the GP for job cards. the issuance of a job card to the relevant households . The problem here is more fundamental – that of making the people aware of NREGA. Migration and NREGA Gulbarga sees a substantial migration of people to cities like Bangalore and Pune. which is more than the stipulated period under the Act for payment of wages. the view that rural-urban migration is driven more by perceived higher wages in the urban areas is wrong. The design of this Act incorporates this aspect in a two obvious ways – in the application for job-cards and written application for work. Many do not know how to write. not many are aware of the Act itself or of these procedures under NREGA. Therefore. the onus both for issuance of job card and the provision of the work lies with the State. and their rights under NREGA. However. Most migration happens because there are no sustainable means of finding any work in the rural areas during the dry seasons. This does not imply that there is no demand for work.Draft report on NREGA.

all of which if properly taken into account can make workers break away from binding contracts with the labour contractors. In this case. The rights-based nature of NREGA is still to be instilled both among the people and the officials who are responsible for implementing the Act. IIM Bangalore 34 of 96 in the villages needs to done on a priority basis by the GPs. Demand-based nature of NREGA implies that not only do people get manual.Draft report on NREGA. . but that they should be able to get it when they want it. it was wage advances being taken by workers which bound them to their wage contractors. and payments therefore are not timely or full. The timing of the work given to them is also very crucial. the other problems about the kind of work given or the durability of the assets created under the NREGA will be secondary. no demand for work under NREGA was forthcoming. The payments mechanism under NREGA is not put in place. unskilled work if they want it. Having a job card (which is like an entitlement to work) makes it that much easier to demand work. without having to wait for applications from households. Till these basic issues are addressed in Gulbarga. There are several other problems in Gulbarga. where in spite of having job cards.

It goes onto say that “The undulating black cotton soil strips. The hot season begins by about the middle of February and extends to the end of May. characterize the region of the Dharwar schists. cut by numerous nalas. Demographic and Socio-economic characteristics of the respondents of the Survey The survey was conducted in a total of 231 randomly selected households in two talukas of Raichur district. on the West by the districts of Bijapur and Dharwar. is 14. The South-west monsoon is from June to end of September. The geographical area of the district. Raichur and Lingasugur. covering a total of 11 Gram Panchayats (GPs) . female 36. The year may be divided broadly into four seasons. Rainfall is the lowest in the State and varies from 500mm to 600mm in most years.nic.Draft report on NREGA. Raichur District Report 35 of 96 Profile of Raichur District Secondary information from official sources says “The district is bounded on the North by the district of Gulbarga. most of the rural areas have to practice rain fed. The climate of the district is characterized by dryness for the major part of the year and a very hot summer.htm). and Bellary. according to the Central statistical organization of the Government of India. The two rivers. IIM Bangalore VI.” (source: http://raichur. and on the South are the districts of Kurnool also of Andhra Pradesh. … and (is) covered with a thin mantle of red loamy soil. single crop agriculture. October and November are the post monsoon or retreating monsoon months and the period from December to the middle of February is the cold season.9% and overall. The low and highly variable rainfall renders the district liable to drought. 49. on the East by the district of Mahaboobnagar of Andhra Pradesh.” In 2001.013 Sq Kilometers. Except for some pockets close to the two rivers that are irrigated. which is now practically denuded of trees and presents a monotonous landscape.5%. The District is also faced with a lot of distress migration during the agricultural off season. the Krishna and the Tungabhadra form the entire North and Southern boundaries of the district. male literacy was 62%.in/Raichur. 7.

Around 19% said they had to spend most of their time in domestic duties for the previous year. This is higher than the corresponding figures in Gulbarga district. out of which 18% belonged to the Kurubaru caste. Around 19% of the respondents stated that they belonged to SC and 15% of them stated that they belonged to ST without giving caste details. 173 households (75% of the sample) stated that they owned some land. while 16% of the households said that they owned an APL ration card. 135 households (58% of the sample) also said that they possessed land of around 5. Table 8 of the annexure on Raichur gives the information about women employed in the sample. The maximum age among the respondents was 80 years and the average age was 25 years. Table 3 of the annexure on Raichur gives the details.5%) were hindu. This also gets reflected in their occupation profiles. 24% of the respondents said that along with domestic duties they were also involved in other productive activities. or that they could not afford domestic help. the average of which was around 5. and the major reasons cited were that there was nobody to carry out the work. where the slack season from February to April saw a dip in the number of days worked. 42% of the households stated that they held a BPL ration card. Out of 1214 individuals.Draft report on NREGA. IIM Bangalore 36 of 96 and villages (Table 1 of the annexure on Raichur). Table 6 of the annexure on Raichur gives the socio-economic profiles of the respondents. would not categorize them as agriculturists. 13% responded that they owned an Antyodaya ration card. said yes.5 acres on an average. like Gulbarga. if available. Agriculture was the main occupation. main among which were coolie work and rearing of poultry animals. There were 19 muslim households (8. A large majority of the respondents (74%) when asked whether they would be willing to accept work. where around 59% of the respondents said that they had no skills for any specialized jobs. Majority of the respondents (90. making it a sex ratio of 108 males for every 100 females in the sample.1 acres. 631 respondents were male. 20% of the respondents had done primary schooling only. and 583 were female. The level of illiteracy was high. Around 44% (255 women respondents out of 583) said that they did not have to spend most of their time in domestic duties – implying their availability for work elsewhere. . But. mere ownership of land. as seen in the figure below. around 51%.2% of the sample) and 3 Christian households (Table 2 of the annexure on Raichur). being primarily a dry and rain fed district.

Figure 1 – Total number of days worked by survey respondents (Jan-Dec 2007) 8. 68 and the women earned an average wage of Rs. and around 36% were willing to travel up to a km. Public works in Raichur district Respondents were also asked about the public works in which they participated for the previous year (January to December 2007). 51. for this work. and around 37% were looking for regular full time work. 61. Next was agriculture related works. Initial finance for the activity and training were their main areas in which they cited that they needed assistance. Road . Around 48% of the women wanted this work within the village. IIM Bangalore 37 of 96 59% of these were looking for regular part-time work. Majority of the respondents stated to have worked in construction of tanks. where the average wages for men was Rs 70 and the average wages for women was Rs.Draft report on NREGA. Majority of the women preferred dairy and tailoring activities. where the men earned an average wage of Rs.

9. as was our observation in Gulbarga. had not applied for work under NREGA. However. The large number of people. Thus. NREGA in Raichur district Around 83% of the respondents had not heard of the NREGA in Raichur district. in line with our observations for Gulbarga district – the problem with the NREGA here too is to do with making people aware of their right to demand and get work. One of the critical components of NREGA is the payments structure. When asked about their skill levels. IIM Bangalore 38 of 96 work was another category reported where the 11 women who worked reported getting a higher wage rate (Rs. Raichur also sees a significant migration of people to cities like Pune and Bangalore during the agriculturally slack season. which means that the marginally more people seem to be aware of something called as a job card. 90 households (39% of the total households) did state that they got work under NREGA sometime. A slightly larger percent – around 19% had received a job card. When asked the reasons as to why they had not applied for work. Around 76% of the respondents stated that they did not have such an account. 95% of the respondents in the sample were not aware of this procedure. Around 87% said that they had not applied for job cards. where payments have to be made directly into the accounts of the workers (either a Post Office or a Bank account). indicating their willingness to do unskilled labour under NREGA. One of the features of the NREGA is the demand-based nature of the Act. that people have been given some public work in this district. 58). as compared to the NREGA.Draft report on NREGA. as expected. without adequate explanation about NREGA and their rights under NREGA. and around 25% also said that they were bound by the wage advances that they had taken from previous employers. A large proportion of the people who had a job card did not have a written pass book. Therefore it was not surprising to see that out of the people who had worked. where people willing to work have to put forth a written application stating such. And a larger number – around 81% did not have a written pass book. in line with the education levels of the respondents – 95% said that they were not skilled. around 48% of the respondents said that they get work at better wages elsewhere. 69) as compared to the men (Rs. around 52% reported that they had . These figures indicate.

Draft report on NREGA. Several Gram Secretaries. This aspect of the NREGA. if they are given work under the NREGA. they found it easy to conclude that people do not want work. in which we visited a few villages where the survey had been carried out. which can take care of distress migration to urban areas during the slack seasons. The problems here are very similar to the ones in Gulbarga district. One way they could get out this vicious circle is by getting predictable and timely wages for all work done under the NREGA. The district was mired in problems of submission of Utilization Certificates. however. 10. for which. 89% said they will not migrate. where there was no doubt in people’s mind regarding their need for work. IIM Bangalore 39 of 96 not received any payments. and the needy are made to feel this to be a genuine hurdle. and their willingness to work. cannot be emphasized more. We found that since they were not receiving applications. Observations of the survey team and concluding remarks Raichur district in Karnataka. The issue of timely and full payments under NREGA is crucial. This is also strongly brought in the responses to our survey. There has been an ineffective communication of this aspect. There was also a lack of awareness about the issue . had very few NREGA work-sites during the FY 2007-08. but the lack of awareness of processes by which they could get work under NREGA was the main hindrance. this work needs to be regular and timely. where several respondents in our survey stated that they were bound by wage advances from previous employers. which hampered the release of funds for NREGA work. where there are no sustainable means of finding any work in the rural areas during the dry seasons. 11. In general there seems to be an enormous lack of awareness about their rights under NREGA (“Udyog Khatri”) and the demand based nature of the work (the fact that just an application asking for work needs to be filled). A vast majority of people would prefer staying back in villages and getting work there. having a payments mechanism in place (of either a bank account or a Post office account) becomes very critical. not having dealt with such a procedure before. Migration and NREGA in Raichur district 83% of the respondents said that they had migrated for work in the previous year. with whom we spoke were using this as an excuse for not giving work under the NREGA. Around 59% reported that they had not received payments for all days worked.

said that the allocation of work in ST/SC lands was improper. where there were people working on road construction activities. The Gram Secretaries were busy with the issue of “new” job cards. Lack of technical staff was a persistent problem and often. At the administrative level. We visited two work-sites in Lingasuguru taluka. The Gram Secretary found it difficult to carry out routine tasks like completion of the Muster Rolls and time and again made requests for more staff. reiterated that all job sites were as chosen by the gram sabha. . and many Gram Secretaries we spoke to. but the late submission of UCs meant that for the forthcoming year 07-08. The Gram Secretaries with whom we spoke.Draft report on NREGA. or a public process of announcing work to those who had applied for work. lack of staff at the GP level was the universal complaint of the Gram Secretaries. it was mainly due to the pro-active participation by some villagers. In the villages where work sites were present. IIM Bangalore 40 of 96 of unemployment benefits. there was delay in the sanction of funds by the Central Govt. Some of the villagers to whom we showed the job list. however we did not get to this sense when we spoke to the villagers. Appointment of Gram Secretaries was pending in many cases. There were some appointments of Rozgar Sevaks – but this was for data-entry and other computer related work of the NREGA. Most Gram Secretaries felt that there was a need for more field-based and technical staff. especially at a supervisory level. However. with whom we spoke however did say that some unemployment payments had been sanctioned. most of which had just been completed in the villages that we visited (middle of March 2008). There was also no public display of works. The CEO of Raichur district. were handling more than one GP. We found that some work under NREGA was given in 2006-07. Most of the workers we spoke to said that they would have otherwise migrated for work. the process of the choosing work was not without problems. the payment of wages got stuck because of the non-availability of field engineers to approve the works done.

Therefore. IIM Bangalore 41 of 96 Some workers who got work in 06-07 were told that there was no budget and therefore no work. However laudatory the intentions of the Act. these procedural and administrative hindrances have become big bottlenecks in the operation of NREGA in Raichur district. Raichur also had problems with bank accounts and banks not adequately prepared to open accounts.Draft report on NREGA. the very purpose of the NREGA can be vitiated. . Raichur district is a proof that until and unless the details of its administration and implementation are taken care of. Thus procedural and administrative hindrances under the NREGA prevent people from getting timely and regular work. Many saw it as a one-off government scheme and were discouraged to apply or ask for work. It also creates this misconception in people’s minds that it similar to previous public work schemes and not a demand based right to work. some also did not receive the wages for the work done in 06-07.

Draft report on NREGA, IIM Bangalore VII. Conclusions and Recommendations

42 of 96

Many of the broad conclusions from this year’s survey reiterate the issues that came up in the previous survey. However, this survey had an additional set of questions to get beneficiaries’ perceptions about NREGA. Respondents to the survey were unskilled wage earners – in fact the target beneficiaries. In AP the beneficiaries were much more aware of the essential features about NREGA (94% in Anantapur and 73.6% in Adilabad) compared to Karnataka (12.9% in Gulbarga and 17.2% in Raichur). There is a need for an awareness campaign on NREGA in the two Karnataka Districts. This campaign should inform beneficiaries of their rights and entitlements, including the provision for payment of compensation if work is not provided in time (unemployment allowance). Administrative preparedness was also varying across the two States. The percent of respondents who had obtained Job cards in AP was over 90%, whereas in Karnataka it 28.4% in Gulbarga and 19.7% in Raichur. Karnataka also lagged far behind in the opening of Bank or Post Office Accounts (65.7% in Anantapur, 93.1% in Adilabad, 29.2% in Gulbarga and 24.3% in Raichur). There is a great need for providing job cards and opening of Bank and Post office Accounts in Karnataka. Similarly, there were many vacancies in the positions of Village Secretary, Junior Engineers, Rojgar Sevaks and other support staff required for smooth implementation of NREGA. This resulted in delays in work provision, payments, and shoddy record keeping. These vacancies should be filled up on a priority basis. Village Secretaries, Panchayat Presidents, rojgar sevaks, JEs, BDOs need to be trained on all aspects of NREGA. The Act was found to be very useful for the target beneficiaries. Our survey attempted to get at the real demand rather than the official demand which ignored oral or non-written work applications. Respondents across the four Districts said that if the NREGA was properly implemented it would be very useful (99.7% in Anantapur, 96.8% in Adilabad), 88.2% in Gulbarga and 86% in Raichur). The percent who said they would continue to migrate even if NREGA work was available regularly was very low (1% in Anantapur, 8.3% in Adilabad), 10.6% in Gulbarga and 11.3% in Raichur). Although there are many

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local officials who say people are not interested in work because they prefer to migrate, our survey clearly brings out that this is not true. The reason for people not showing up for work in some places has to do with two reasons: delay in provision of work during the agriculture off seasons, by which time many are forced to migrate, or past experience where either adequate work was not provided or payments were delayed, or a perception that fair wages were not paid. Clearly, given the high interest and the low number of days of work provided, there is a need for substantially increasing the work allocation in these Districts. However, work should be provided on time, soon after the kharif crop is harvested, and quantum of work per month should be sufficient to provide a reasonable livelihood – at least 15 days per month in the off season. Delays in payment should be avoided. Since the Act has now been rolled out across the country, it is important to reflect on the experiences gained in the first two years. Most of the issues raised in our report last year continue to be relevant and are reiterated here. First, planning must be done well in advance. This means shelf of works must be prepared, and administrative and financial sanctions must be in place by the beginning of the year. Funds should be released in a manner that there are no delays in payments once work has been done. Unlike last year, corruption and diversion of funds on a significant scale has started. The use of social audits, right to information and perhaps the involvement of civil society and research and academic organizations will help. However, there is a severe backlash in some pockets, where activists have been murdered for pursuing social audit vigorously. The administration needs to put all its resources behind social audit in such instances and bring the culprits to book. Some of the other major issues are: • • • • timely preparation of a shelf of works for each village or gram panchayat sufficient to meet the labour needs for the whole year, timely sanction and release of funds right down to the field level to avoid delays in payment, empowering gram sabhas to prepare shelf of works, enabling labour to meaningfully participate in gram sabhas, preparation of work plans, to go out and demand work, maintain their own muster rolls through their

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chosen leader(s), and to train them to measure work and calculate payments. Perhaps we need to gain experience of different experiments around the country to see how this can be done, and whether this should be done by the Government or civil society or some other arrangement. Awareness of key aspects of the Act was not there even amongst Secretaries, Gram Panchayat Presidents and lower level officials at the Block level. Awareness about wage rates and how work is measured and quantum of payment calculated was not clear to wage earners. Also at higher levels, the spirit of a demand driven NREGA Act was not fully imbibed. It is still seen exclusively in a service delivery framework. We need to organize continuous and ongoing training programs at all levels on these issues. Technical training at gram panchayat level will help in speeding up preparation of shelf of works, and administrative sanctions. Technical approvals can sometimes hold up sanctions for long periods of time. Finally, we have to seriously consider how best to roll out the NREGA in all Districts of our country. If there is one lesson that stands out, it is the need for adequate prior preparation before launch of NREGA in a particular District. Without adequate preparation, implementation becomes shoddy, labour loses faith, and we get into a non-virtuous cycle of labour blaming the Government and officials blaming the labour for not being interested in NREGA. Fortunately, in several Districts, including at least one in this survey, implementation based on prior preparation was good. This includes awareness campaigns, training programs for officials down to the rojgar sevak level, use of IT or other systems to ensure streamlined, transparent flow of funds on time, setting up efficient procedures for sanction and inspection of works, and for release of payments. A time table for preparation of work plans and sanctions needs to be in place and adhered to. Without this, NREGA in a District becomes a problem to implement, mutual suspicion between beneficiaries and officials grows, and confrontational civil society activism grows. Making sure NREGA works well in such situations becomes far more difficult.

particularly in the rain fed areas. . they will be able to afford the higher wage rates resulting from NREGA. and makes farming unviable. There is some truth in this. The Act if implemented properly has the potential to make a decisive dent on rural poverty. IIM Bangalore 45 of 96 We also need to be aware that there is resistance from farmers who feel that NREGA raises agriculture wage rates. This will largely remove resistance from farmers because they will see the possibility of getting an additional crop and higher yields. Often local politics is aligned with farmers more than with wage earners. One way out which will work in rain fed areas is to work on building and restoring water bodies that will help local agriculture.Draft report on NREGA. We need to find innovative ways of tacking this. As their surplus increases.

2=no Anantapur Yes No Total Respondents Non Respondents Total Households Are you skilled? 1=yes.6 100 40.Draft report on NREGA.8 96.9 3.1 100 81. 2=no Anantapur Yes No Total Respondents Non Respondents Total Households Did you apply for work 1=yes.9 9.6 42.7 100 90.9 1.4 0.8 .4 88.4 0.1 100 79. 2=no Anantapur Yes No Total Respondents Non Respondents Total Households If no give reasons Anantapur (1) Work at better wages elsewhere Percent (of the total households) 93.3 46 of 96 Percent (of the total respondents) 94 6 100 297 19 316 2 318 35 279 316 4 318 130 5 135 183 318 280 28 308 10 318 252 56 308 10 318 1 11.5 57.5 100 88.3 3.4 6 99.2 100 1.3 87. of respondents Are you aware of NREGA? 1=yes.1 8.8 18. 2=no Anantapur Yes No Total Respondents Non Respondents Total Households Job card received1=yes.6 96. 2=no Anantapur Yes No Total Respondents Non Respondents Total Households Have you applied for job card? 1=yes.2 17.1 100 0.3 100 96. IIM Bangalore Annexure 1: Wage Labour’s Responses to NREGA Anantapur No.6 100 11.7 99.9 3.

2=no Anantapur Yes No Total Respondents Non Respondents Total Households 52 2 55 263 318 221 80 301 17 318 16.3 100 .5 3.4 0.4 60. 2.1 99.1 99.5 25.3 1 103 215 318 232 83 315 3 318 32.1 94.6 100 73 26.6 100 73.9 100 100 73.1 0.6 17.3 100 47 of 96 94.7 26.3 82.7 5.1 0.9 100 32. 3. IIM Bangalore (2) Have taken wage advance (3) I do not think I will get work on time (4) I do not think I will get paid on time Total Respondents Non Respondents Total Households written record passbook 1=yes. 4) Anantapur (1) Was not aware that 102 a written application needs to be given (2) I do not know to write (3) I do not know the procedure to write the application Total Respondents Non Respondents Total Households did you get work under NREGA 1Yes 2 No Anantapur Yes No Total Respondents Non Respondents Total Households 1 39 60.4 26.4 67.7 100 69.6 100 99 0.5 100 How applied for work? 1=written appln 2= spoken Anantapur Written 124 Spoken 191 Total Respondents 315 Non Respondents 3 Total Households 318 Why not applied in writing Reasons (1.Draft report on NREGA.1 39.

2=no Anantapur Yes 227 No 67 Total Respondents 294 Non Respondents 24 Total Households 318 Receive payment for all days 1=yes.1 1.3 100 77.8 100 76.1 92. 2=no 64. 2=no Anantapur Yes 3 No 312 Total Respondents 315 Non Respondents 3 Total Households 318 If NREGA gives regular work .5 98.3 96.1 31.2 22.3 100 65.Draft report on NREGA.6 98.6 34.9 100 0.1 1.9 100 65.1 7. 2=no Anantapur Yes 205 No 107 Total Respondents 312 Non Respondents 6 Total Households 318 Bank or PO passbook 1=yes.1 99. IIM Bangalore 48 of 96 Do you have bank Ac or PO 1=yes. 2=no Anantapur Yes 191 No 100 Total Respondents 291 Non Respondents 27 Total Households 318 Did you receive payments 1=yes. 2=no Anantapur Yes 5 No 307 Total Respondents 312 Non Respondents 6 Total Households 318 If NREGA work.will it be useful? 1=yes.5 8.5 33.7 34. will you migrate 1=yes.3 98.4 21.1 0.9 100 1.1 23.5 100 70.1 22 92.4 91.9 98.5 100 71.9 100 1.5 7.4 100 1 99 100 . 2=no Anantapur Yes 223 No 70 Total Respondents 293 Non Respondents 25 Total Households 318 Did you migrate last year 1=yes.9 100 60.

5 41. 2=no Anantapur Yes 185 No 131 Total Respondents 316 Non Respondents 2 Total Households 318 Regular and timely work not given under NREGA 1=yes.8 34.6 100 9.3 100 98.2 99.5 100 67.4 0.7 0.4 34 99.9 9. IIM Bangalore Yes 313 No 1 Total Respondents 314 Non Respondents 4 Total Households 318 Worksites chosen by gramsabha 1=yes. 2=no Anantapur Yes 213 No 103 Total Respondents 316 Non Respondents 2 Total Households 318 NREGA not paying timely 1=yes. 2=no Anantapur Yes 31 No 285 Total Respondents 316 Non Respondents 2 Total Households 318 NREGA can be made more useful for people 1=yes.3 100 58.5 9.2 100 90.3 98.7 89.4 0.7 1.4 99. 2=no Anantapur Yes 208 No 108 Total Respondents 316 Non Respondents 2 Total Households 318 NREGA does not give me good wages 1=yes.6 100 67 32.6 100 65.7 0.Draft report on NREGA.6 100 89.6 99.4 0. 2=no Anantapur Yes 286 No 30 Total Respondents 316 98. 2=no Anantapur Yes 313 No 1 Total Respondents 314 Non Respondents 4 Total Households 318 I see no problem with NREGA 1=yes.4 99.2 41.5 100 .3 98.4 0.4 0.2 100 9.4 0.8 90.4 49 of 96 99.4 32.3 100 58.7 1.3 100 99.6 100 65.

3 5 0.7 14.9 3.7 5.3 73 27 100 1.3 0.7 1.Draft report on NREGA.3 43.9 0.6 5.9 0.6 23.7 0.3 0.5 18.9 31.3 1.7 0.9 0.4 2.8 1.8 7.6 1.8 16.6 0.6 8.6 17.2 2.3 100 1.6 5.9 6 1.6 1.7 0.8 0.3 0.6 100 2.6 0.3 0.6 50 of 96 3.9 2.8 2.5 0.3 5.3 4.9 0.9 1.2 7.7 13.7 6.3 3.4 10.6 2.9 0.9 2.2 22.7 1.7 1. IIM Bangalore Non Respondents 2 Total Households 318 For how many days did you get work under NREGA Anantapur 1 9 2 2 3 1 5 17 6 1 7 6 10 12 15 53 20 18 25 6 30 19 35 5 40 18 45 4 50 16 55 1 60 11 65 1 70 15 75 4 80 2 85 2 90 6 100 3 0-15 days 101 16-30 days 43 31-60 days 55 more than 60 days 33 Total 232 Non Respondents 86 Total Households 318 Payment after how many days Anantapur 0 4 10 2 11 6 12 5 0.4 7.5 1.2 .4 6.4 4.6 1.

9 1.5 33.6 1.7 1.7 91.3 3 27 1.3 1.3 0.7 46 100 Adilabad No.6 26 98.3 100 8.4 1.3 2.2 19.3 1.4 100 159 57 216 3 219 19 200 219 .7 100 51 of 96 6.6 33 1. IIM Bangalore 13 14 15 17 18 30 40 45 50 60 118 120 0-7 days 8-15 days 16-30 days more than 30 days Total Respondents Non Respondents Total Households 14 6 76 3 4 4 7 26 7 62 3 1 4 109 11 106 230 88 318 4.3 34.6 26.3 1.4 100 8.3 27.3 72. 2=no Adilabad Yes No Total Respondents Non Respondents Percent (of the total households) 72.9 0.4 1.Draft report on NREGA.9 23.5 0.4 4.7 91.1 2.9 0.7 47.3 100 Percent (of the total respondents) 73. 2=no Adilabad Yes No Total Respondents Non Respondents Total Households Are you skilled? 1=yes.7 3 11.3 3.2 2. of respondents Are you aware of NREGA? 1=yes.2 8.

2 33. 2=no Adilabad Yes No Total Respondents Non Respondents Total Households Job card received1=yes.7 33.3 100 7.8 1. 2=no Adilabad Yes No Total Respondents Non Respondents Total Households If no give reasons Adilabad (1) Work at better wages elsewhere (2) Have taken wage advance (3) I do not think I will get work on time (4) I do not think I will get paid on time Total Respondents 52 of 96 28 137 165 54 219 142 3 145 74 219 108 38 146 73 219 17 12.4 48 39 21.1 14 6.9 17.1 100 74 26 100 14.8 100 49.4 66.4 66.9 2.9 100 .3 17.5 11. IIM Bangalore Total Households Have you applied for job card? 1=yes.8 118 53.3 24.8 62.Draft report on NREGA.8 17 83 100 97.8 40. 2=no Adilabad Yes No Total Respondents Non Respondents Total Households Did you apply for work 1=yes.7 33.6 75.7 100 64.

6 Total Respondents Non Respondents Total Households did you get work under NREGA 1Yes 2 No Adilabad yes 169 50 219 212 77.4 (2) I do not know to write (3) I do not know the procedure to write the application 93 1 42.2 13.8 100 96.7 64.5 55 0.5 86.2 95 5 100 34.9 29 100 How applied for work? 1=written appln 2= spoken Adilabad written 28 spoken 180 Total Respondents 208 Non Respondents Total Households Why not applied in writing Reasons (1.8 100 97.5 100 44. 2=no Adilabad Yes No Total Respondents Non Respondents Total Households 101 219 100 41 141 78 219 46.5 0.7 18. IIM Bangalore Non Respondents Total Households written record passbook 1=yes. 4) Adilabad (1) Was not aware that a written application needs to be given 11 219 75 12.8 82. 2.4 35.1 100 45.Draft report on NREGA.2 22.6 100 53 of 96 70. 3.2 .

1 98.7 98.Draft report on NREGA.5 37.1 1.1 9 100 81 19 100 62.9 18.1 100 91.6 100 .9 99.6 37.5 0. 2=no Adilabad yes no Total Respondents Non Respondents Total Households Bank or PO passbook 1=yes.6 1.8 100 203 15 218 1 219 194 19 213 6 219 175 41 216 3 219 135 81 216 3 219 92.4 100 93.7 6.6 1.6 8.7 100 79. 2=no Adilabad yes no Total Respondents Non Respondents Total Households Receive payment for all days 1=yes.4 100 61. 2=no Adilabad yes no Total Respondents Non Respondents Total Households Did you receive payments 1=yes.3 2.5 100 88. IIM Bangalore no Total Respondents Non Respondents Total Households Do you have bank Ac or PO 1=yes.5 100 54 of 96 2.7 99.8 97. 2=no Adilabad yes no Total Respondents Non Respondents Total Households 6 218 1 219 2.5 0.

1 0.8 23.will it be useful? 1=yes. 2=no Adilabad Yes No Total Respondents Non Respondents Total Households If NREGA work.7 100 .9 100 75.5 99. 2=no Adilabad Yes No Total Respondents Non Respondents 55 of 96 15 202 217 2 219 18 199 217 2 6.1 0. IIM Bangalore Did you migrate last year 1=yes.1 0. will you migrate 1=yes.5 20.7 100 Total Households 219 If NREGA gives regular work .2 90.9 99. 2=no Adilabad Yes 210 No 7 Total Respondents 217 Non Respondents Total Households Worksites chosen by gramsabha 1=yes.1 100 8.9 6.9 93.2 100 76.9 100 95.8 3.5 23.Draft report on NREGA.3 91.2 99.3 20.2 99.3 99.1 0.9 100 78.9 100 8.1 0. 2=no Adilabad Yes no Total Respondents Non Respondents 2 219 166 51 217 2 219 172 45 217 2 96.5 100 79.8 92.9 3. 2=no Adilabad Yes No Total Respondents Non Respondents Total Households I see no problem with NREGA 1=yes.

5 4 10.5 1 .1 47.5 3.9 100 Total Households 219 NREGA can be made more useful for people 1=yes.1 0.7 9.2 0.9 40.4 100 51.8 8.4 11. 2=no Adilabad yes 112 no 103 Total Respondents 215 Non Respondents 4 52.5 9 0.2 1.1 47 98.9 56 of 96 59.3 49.4 10.1 100 6.3 98.6 100 50 50 100 Total Households 219 NREGA does not give me good wages 1=yes.6 1.8 100 80.Draft report on NREGA.9 100 49.9 9. 2=no Adilabad yes 176 no 23 Total Respondents 199 Non Respondents 20 88.2 99.5 90.6 100 Total Households 219 For how many days did you get work under NREGA Adilabad 1 15 2 18 4 1 6 8 7 21 8 2 7. 2=no Adilabad yes 129 no 88 Total Respondents 217 Non Respondents Total Households NREGA not paying timely 1=yes.4 40. IIM Bangalore Total Households 219 Regular and timely work not given under NREGA 1=yes.6 0. 2=no Adilabad yes no Total Respondents Non Respondents 2 219 108 108 216 3 100 58.

5 3.4 0. IIM Bangalore 10 12 13 14 15 16 17 20 21 25 28 30 45 50 51 60 70 72 80 85 90 0-15 days 16-30 days 31-60 days more than 60 days Total Non Respondents Total Households Payment after how many days Adilabad 1 2 3 6 10 11 12 15 20 30 60 6 1 1 16 32 1 1 11 2 4 11 3 7 4 1 10 1 1 13 3 6 121 33 22 24 200 19 219 24 30 2 1 3 1 2 35 9 59 15 2.5 0.6 8 .5 8 16 0.5 0.5 5 0.5 5 0.5 1.9 1.7 55.5 1.8 16 1.9 6.5 0.9 0.Draft report on NREGA.5 2 0.5 5.4 2.7 100 11 13.3 8.6 0.4 3.1 0.8 0.5 0.5 4.1 10.5 1 2 5.1 11 91.8 5 1.5 0.7 0.6 0.3 14.8 31.5 0.5 0.5 3 60.5 1.9 1.3 15.6 0.5 1.9 16 4.5 11 12 100 12.5 16.5 6.7 4.5 7.5 5.5 1.7 0.1 18.2 1.8 57 of 96 3 0.1 26.

2=no Gulbarga yes no Total Respondents 26 176 202 12. 2=no Gulbarga yes no Total Respondents Non Respondents Total Households Job card received1=yes.5 100 2. of respondents Percent (of the total households) Percent (of the total respondents) Are you aware of NREGA? 1=yes.8 2.9 36.1 28.6 100 58 of 96 3.6 100 .7 100 16.5 97. 2=no Gulbarga yes no Total Respondents Non Respondents Total Households Are you skilled? 1=yes.3 83.0 3.3 83.4 21.4 14.4 71.8 31 6.9 87.60 days 60-90 days Total Respondents Non Respondents Total Households 6 57 41 68 15 6 187 32 219 2.7 100 54 136 190 26.5 100 33 169 202 16.Draft report on NREGA. IIM Bangalore 90 0-7 days 8-15 days 16-30 days 30 . 2=no Gulbarga yes no Total Respondents Non Respondents Have you applied for job card? 1=yes.7 26.3 94.4 8.2 100 Gulbarga No.9 87.1 18.7 67.1 100 5 197 202 2.7 85.1 100 12.5 97.2 30.

9 100 9. 2.7 100 92.5 1 5 .3 23.7 18.9 89.5 11.3 100 8. 4) Gulbarga (1) Was not aware that 37 a written application needs to be given (2) I do not know to write 2 3.4 14. 2=no Gulbarga yes no Total Respondents Non Respondents Total Households If no give reasons Gulbarga (1) Work at better wages elsewhere (2) Have taken wage advance (3) I do not think I will get work on time (4) I do not think I will get paid on time Total Respondents Non Respondents Total Households written record passbook 1=yes.8 81.1 100 How applied for work? 1=written appln 2= spoken Gulbarga written 7 spoken 23 Total Respondents 30 Non Respondents 172 Total Households 202 Why not applied in writing Reasons (1.9 85. 3.1 26.4 20.1 100 18.4 85. 2=no Gulbarga yes no Total Respondents Non Respondents Total Households 12 202 19 172 191 11 202 79 53 34 3 169 33 202 18 147 165 37 202 5.9 72.2 94.Draft report on NREGA.3 76.4 100 39.5 83.7 31.9 90 100 46.1 1.8 1. IIM Bangalore Non Respondents Total Households Did you apply for work 1=yes.3 100 59 of 96 9.2 16.7 16.6 5.8 100 10.

5 40 162 202 82 108 190 12 202 54 131 185 17 202 36 119 155 47 202 68 89 157 45 202 51 104 155 47 202 22 165 19.7 23.2 .6 8.3 100 25.9 100 26.6 53.7 100 32.9 76.2 100 40.5 94.9 81.2 70.8 100 29.5 76.3 100 10.7 22..7 100 43.1 77.8 88.3 56.7 100 43.2 76.Draft report on NREGA.5 60 of 96 2.9 67 100 11.4 100 17. IIM Bangalore (3) I do not know the procedure to write the application Total Respondents Non Respondents Total Households did you get work under NREGA 1Yes 2 No Gulbarga yes no Total Respondents Non Respondents Total Households Do you have bank Ac or PO 1=yes. 2=no Gulbarga Yes No Total Respondents Non Respondents Total Households Did you migrate last year 1=yes.8 80.3 100 33.7 64. 2=no Gulbarga Yes No Total Respondents Non Respondents Total Households Receive payment for all days 1=yes.8 58.1 5.7 23.7 44. 2=no Gulbarga Yes No Total Respondents Non Respondents Total Households Did you receive payments 1=yes. 2=no Gulbarga yes no Total Respondents Non Respondents Total Households Bank or PO passbook 1=yes.2 56.9 91. 2=no Gulbarga Yes No 1 0.6 100 23.2 51.

4 100 9. 2=no Gulbarga Yes 165 No 22 Total Respondents 187 Non Respondents 15 Total Households 202 Worksites chosen by gramsabha 1=yes.2 18.6 100 .6 88.4 100 81.6 7. 2=no Gulbarga Yes 123 No 74 Total Respondents 197 Non Respondents 5 Total Households 202 92.6 97.4 37.9 83.9 36.9 92.3 97.6 6.5 2.4 53.5 100 60. 2=no Gulbarga Yes 91 No 105 Total Respondents 196 Non Respondents 6 Total Households 202 Regular and timely work not given under NREGA 1=yes.4 100 45 52 97 3 100 79.5 100 61 of 96 100 10.6 93.6 7.9 100 88.9 36.5 2. will you migrate 1=yes. 2=no Gulbarga Yes 160 No 37 Total Respondents 197 Non Respondents 5 Total Households 202 NREGA not paying timely 1=yes.2 93.8 100 60.2 100 46.2 18.8 100 62. 2=no Gulbarga Yes 20 No 169 Total Respondents 189 Non Respondents 13 Total Households 202 If NREGA gives regular work .2 11.will it be useful? 1=yes.6 100 81.4 100 56.8 39.Draft report on NREGA.6 6. IIM Bangalore Total Respondents 187 Non Respondents 15 Total Households 202 If NREGA work. 2=no Gulbarga Yes 115 No 74 Total Respondents 189 Non Respondents 13 Total Households 202 I see no problem with NREGA 1=yes.7 10.

5 2.1 1.1 75 22.5 0.1 1.9 2.5 98 2 100 27.1 . 2=no Gulbarga yes 96 no 102 Total Respondents 198 Non Respondents 4 Total Households 202 NREGA can be made more useful for people 1=yes.5 2.1 5.5 33.5 100 28.5 0.9 100 4.4 1.1 1.1 55.7 4.5 51.6 4.1 100 13.5 50.Draft report on NREGA.2 6.2 24.7 5.2 10.5 0. 2=no Gulbarga yes 55 no 141 Total Respondents 196 Non Respondents 6 Total Households 202 For how many days did you get work under NREGA Gulbarga 1 4 2 6 3 2 4 6 5 4 6 2 7 10 8 22 10 5 12 1 15 5 18 1 20 10 30 9 40 1 70 1 0-15 days 67 16-30 days 20 31-60 days 1 more than 60 days 1 Total 89 Non Respondents 113 Total Households 202 Payment after how many days Gulbarga 1 10 2 16 7 3 62 of 96 47.7 2. IIM Bangalore NREGA does not give me good wages 1=yes.9 1.5 6.6 1.1 11.5 44.5 0.4 10 0.6 1.5 48.9 100 5 7.8 97 3 100 2 3 1 3 2 1 5 10.5 0.5 21.2 11.2 69.5 5 4.1 71.

Draft report on NREGA. 2=no Raichur Yes No Total Respondents Non Respondents Total Households 40 192 232 17.5 6.9 36.4 18.4 39.2 82.2 94.5 0. IIM Bangalore 8 15 25 30 60 90 95 0-7 days 8-15 days 16-30 days more than 30 days Total Respondents Non Respondents Total Households 3 9 1 14 2 15 1 29 12 15 18 74 128 202 1.5 14.9 1 7.4 0.3 20.3 1.2 82.2 94. of respondents Percent (of the total households) Percent (of the total respondents) Are you aware of NREGA? 1=yes.8 100 Are you skilled? 1=yes.4 100 Raichur No.9 2.4 8.8 100 5. 2=no Raichur Yes No Total Respondents Non Respondents 12 220 232 5.2 16.2 1.4 100 63 of 96 4.4 6 7.8 100 17.8 100 .3 24.5 4.1 12.7 20.6 63.

9 100 9.9 100 19.4 100 .Draft report on NREGA.5 100 47.6 76.7 23.4 86.6 100 13.7 80. 2=no Raichur Yes no Total Respondents Non Respondents Total Households Did you apply for work 1=yes. 2=no Raichur yes no Total Respondents Non Respondents Total Households If no give reasons Raichur (1) Work at better wages elsewhere (2) Have taken wage advance (3) I do not think I will get work on time (4) I do not think I will get paid on time 31 201 232 13.6 100 44 179 223 9 232 21 202 223 9 232 84 45 36 13 19 77.9 100 36.5 5.4 15.3 100 Total Respondents 178 Non Respondents 54 Total Households 232 written record passbook 1=yes.2 7. 2=no Raichur Yes No Total Respondents Non Respondents Total Households Job card received1=yes.1 9.6 91.4 86. 2=no Raichur Yes 18 No 191 Total Respondents 209 Non Respondents 23 Total Households 232 How applied for work? 1=written appln 2= spoken 8.4 90.1 3.3 20.3 100 7.2 96.1 3.1 87 96.2 19.8 82.3 100 9.3 90.2 25. IIM Bangalore Total Households 64 of 96 Have you applied for job card? 1=yes.

8 75 25 100 37.7 79.7 100 19 81 100 47. 2=no Raichur Yes No Total Respondents Non Respondents 3 2 4. 2=no Raichur Yes No Total Respondents Non Respondents Total Households Did you receive payments 1=yes.5 100 14.7 65 of 96 32. IIM Bangalore Raichur written 11 spoken 23 Total Respondents 34 Non Respondents 198 Total Households 232 Why not applied in writing Reasons (1.6 52.4 100 22 68.3 0.8 100 24.9 14.7 96. 4) Raichur (1) Was not aware that a 92 written application needs to be given (2) I do not know to write (3) I do not know the procedure to write the application Total Respondents Non Respondents Total Households did you get work under NREGA 1Yes 2 No Raichur Yes No Total Respondents Non Respondents Total Households Do you have bank Ac or PO 1=yes.5 9.2 59.1 2.8 57. 3.7 85.3 100 .5 100 94.4 67.6 3.1 97 135 232 90 134 224 8 232 51 159 210 22 232 33 141 174 58 232 88 97 185 47 41.9 41.7 20.2 100 38.2 60.8 58. 2=no Raichur Yes No Total Respondents Non Respondents Total Households Bank or PO passbook 1=yes.3 100 40. 2.9 3.7 9.3 75.3 100 39.Draft report on NREGA.8 1.5 90.

4 100 90.5 66 of 96 41.6 100 16. IIM Bangalore Total Households 232 Receive payment for all days 1=yes.2 99.5 100 60.9 95.6 3.5 94.3 100 82.Draft report on NREGA.7 4. 2=no Raichur Yes 25 No 197 Total Respondents 222 Non Respondents 10 Total Households 232 If NREGA gives regular work . 2=no Raichur Yes 39 No 185 Total Respondents 224 Non Respondents 8 Total Households 232 If NREGA work.2 55.4 100 10. 2=no Raichur Yes 210 100 31 44.9 . 2=no Raichur Yes 133 No 87 Total Respondents 220 Non Respondents 12 Total Households 232 I see no problem with NREGA 1=yes.3 75.3 100 57.5 100 44.7 96.3 88.9 95.4 24.2 100 44 55.7 100 86 13.4 82.will it be useful? 1=yes. 2=no Raichur Yes 103 No 128 Total Respondents 231 Non Respondents 1 Total Households 232 Regular and timely work not given under NREGA 1=yes.8 84.9 100 17.7 4.5 39. 2=no Raichur Yes 192 No 30 Total Respondents 222 Non Respondents 10 Total Households 232 Worksites chosen by gramsabha 1=yes.4 100 90.8 79.6 100 11.6 0. will you migrate 1=yes.1 58.8 5.3 12. 2=no Raichur Yes 72 No 103 Total Respondents 175 Non Respondents 57 Total Households 232 Did you migrate last year 1=yes.3 37.

2=no Raichur yes 101 no 130 Total Respondents 231 Non Respondents 1 Total Households 232 NREGA can be made more useful for people 1=yes.4 6.6 100 43.3 6.7 56.9 0.9 2.4 0.4 67 of 96 9.1 4 1 15.9 100 4 4 2 6.6 0.4 100 43.4 0.6 2.1 48.1 99. 2=no Raichur yes 181 no 50 Total Respondents 231 Non Respondents 1 Total Households 232 NREGA does not give me good wages 1=yes.4 3.1 6.5 0.2 1 2 1 8. IIM Bangalore No 21 Total Respondents 231 Non Respondents 1 Total Households 232 NREGA not paying timely 1=yes.6 0.7 0.1 1 1 .4 0.4 100 78 21.5 56 99.6 99.6 0.6 1.4 21.2 2 3 15.9 48.3 100 51.1 100 78.7 99.7 1.9 1.Draft report on NREGA.4 100 50.5 0. 2=no Raichur yes 118 no 113 Total Respondents 231 Non Respondents 1 Total Households 232 For how many days did you get work under NREGA Raichur 1 4 2 4 3 2 4 6 5 6 6 4 7 1 8 15 9 2 10 3 15 15 20 1 25 2 28 1 30 8 35 1 38 1 9.6 0.7 0.4 100 1.

4 1.7 44.9 1.7 11.Draft report on NREGA.1 5.3 7.7 57.7 1.8 3.9 16.1 100 13 15 3 18 4 26 2 18 2 3 4 31 48 18 9 108 124 232 5.6 6.4 20.2 0.8 0.1 1 62.8 5.1 19.7 24.9 7.3 1.6 2.4 26.6 12.8 1.1 2.2 0.4 100 12 13.7 8.4 100 .8 3.6 53.7 28.7 13.1 6.3 100 68 of 96 1 3 13.1 8.7 7.8 16.3 5.1 1.9 2.9 2.5 16.9 46.7 3.6 42.5 1. IIM Bangalore 40 45 60 90 180 0-15 days 16-30 days 31-60 days more than 60 days Total Non Respondents Total Households Payment after how many days Raichur 1 2 4 8 10 15 16 30 45 60 90 0-7 days 8-15 days 16-30 days more than 30 days Total Respondents Non Respondents Total Households 1 3 13 5 1 62 12 19 6 99 133 232 0.

78 Total 393 100.Draft report on NREGA.41 Not Available 76 19.71 BC 146 38.51 Not Available 7 1. Name of the Panchayat Name of the Village Mandal 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Penukonda Penukonda Penukonda Penukonda Penukonda Puttparthy Puttparthy Puttparthy Puttparthy Puttparthy Puttparthy Puttparthy Kappalabanda Venkatagaripally Beedupally Kurubavandlapally Munimadugu Nagaluru Rampuram Duddebanda Brahmanapally Kurubavandlapally Ammavaripally Nagaluru Maruvapally Gollapally Brahmanapally Brahmanapally Thanda Beedupally Badenaikthanda Gone Naik Thanda Kappalabanda Venkatagaripally Table 2: Household characteristics of sample respondents in Anantapur district Particulars Religion Caste number percentage number percentage Hindu 384 97.79 Muslim 2 0. IIM Bangalore Annexure 2: Anantapur District 69 of 96 Table 1: Particulars of sample villages selected in Anantapur district Name of the Sl.26 OC 63 16.52 ST 1 0.No.000 Table 3: Land holding characteristics of sample respondents in Anantapur district % of households in Average land holding sample (Acre) .02 SC 98 25.

1 2. IIM Bangalore land owned land leased in land leased out land neither owned nor leased land possessed land mortgaged 65.2 2.7 2 Above Poverty Line 231 61.3 70 of 96 3. of Percent (out of total Percent (out of total respond individuals in the respondents) ents sample) Not literate Literate through attending: 602 9 39.0 Table 5: Demographic particulars of sample respondents in Anantapur district Demographic particulars Number in sample Percent of total respondents Male 821 54.3 0.6 41.9 missing 16 6 Total 393 100.6 1. No Particulars Number Percent Respondents 1 Below Poverty Line 127 33.3 2.9 Divorced/Seperated 50 3.2 4 Annapurna 0 0.Age(Years) Minimum age 0 Maximum age 98 Average age 28.7 0.6 3.1 Table 6: Socio-Economic characteristics of sample respondents in Anantapur district Education level No.Draft report on NREGA.0 5 No cards 7 1.7 Widowed 803 52.8 1.0 Table 4: Ration card holders in Anantapur district Ration card holders Sr.6 .3 NA 123 8.Marital status Currently Married 541 35.1 Female 695 45.0 0.0 29.6 2.3 0.3 3 Antyodaya 12 3.0 4.

8 100.1 0.7 2.1 2.3 1468 96.2 0.3 2. of Percent (out of total Percent (out of total respond individuals in the respondents in the ents sample) sample) 1 5 70 9 34 25 19 1 1 11 40 1 23 27 1 1 1 3 3 0. bricklayer 15=moulder 16=mechanic 21=welder 23=blacksmith 24=goldsmith/silversmith 25=electrician 26=repairer of electronic goods 27=tractor driver 29=potter 3=computer programmer 30=midwife 31=wicker product maker 33=sports goods maker .2 3.1 0.1 4.1 0.3 13.9 0.5 2.3 10. IIM Bangalore NFEC/AEC TLC Others Literate but before primary Primary Middle school Secondary school Higher Secondary school Graduate and above (agriculture) Graduate and above (engg..Draft report on NREGA.6 13.1 0.1 4.1 0.9 5.1 2.1 0.7 0.5 1.3 1=Typist/Steno 10=Tailor/cutter 11=Decorater 12=shoe maker.1 0.5 12.0 0.6 0.4 5.6 0.8 0.0 No.7 8.1 0.3 0. and technology) Graduate and above (medicine) Non-responses (below school going age) Total Responses Total Primary occupation 71 of 96 1 65 156 204 83 129 184 30 2 3 49 0.8 12.4 10.1 0.4 2.3 4.1 1.1 1.2 1.1 0.9 3.6 2.6 1.1 0.2 3.3 0.2 0.0 1517 100.5 8.5 7.5 1.1 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.0 0. cobbler 13=carpenter 14=mason.1 4.1 0.

3 12.1 35.3 0.0 72 of 96 0.2 1.5 0.9 July'07 days worked 4989 17.3 Apr'07 days worked 7008 12.1 0.5 Mar'07 unavailable 3872 13.0 Nov'07 days worked 5342 18.8 Sept'07 days worked 4921 17.8 Oct'07 days worked 5004 17.6 0.7 Oct'07 unavailable 3668 13.3 1.2 0.2 Aug'07 unavailable 3709 12.8 0.3 Jan'07 unavailable 3527 12.6 Apr'07 unavailable 4252 14.1 June'07 unavailable 3766 12.8 Aug'07 days worked 5039 17.5 2.2 0.5 0.3 20.4 19.8 .7 Nov'07 unavailable 3236 11.1 May'07 unavailable 4967 16.7 Dec'07 unavailable 3052 10.7 10.0 0.9 100.5 Feb'07 unavailable 3828 13.0 Table 7: Employment status of sample respondents in Anantapur district Total Number of days Average Number of days Jan'07 days worked 5380 18. IIM Bangalore 35=bidi maker 38=artist/painter 41=others 9=weaver 99=no skill Agriculture Canal Work Coolie Sewage Construction Spinning Labour Sheep grazing Non Respondents Total Respondents Total 3 4 316 2 10 154 4 189 5 23 1 531 986 1517 0.5 Dec'07 days worked 5644 19.2 0.1 July'07 unavailable 3705 12.0 65.Draft report on NREGA.4 May'07 days worked 6772 12.2 Mar'07 days worked 5344 15.9 June'07 days worked 6080 14.0 100.3 0.0 15.4 32.1 53.4 Sept'07 unavailable 4240 14.1 Feb'07 days worked 4617 15.

what are the activities (list main three codes) a bringing water from outside the household premises 110 46.0 No 87 19.0 if yes in the above question.6 2 Along with your domestic duties are you also engaged in any other productive activities Yes 315 69. are you willing to accept work if work is made available at your household Yes 244 93.Draft report on NREGA. cowdung.7 b Regular part-time 43 10.4 No 139 30. reason thereof a No other members to carry out domestic work 242 79.1 b Cannot afford hired help 59 19. respondents 1 Were you required to spend most of your time on domestic duties almost throughout the last 365 days Yes 372 81.9 4 The nature of work acceptable a Regular full time 266 64.6 b free collection of firewood. catttefeed for 71 30.5 . IIM Bangalore 73 of 96 Table 8: Information about women employed in Anantapur district Sl.0 c Others 5 1.3 For social and religious constraints 0 0.6 If yes. 55 23. of Percentage No. dairy etc. Particulars No.1 No 18 6.1 household consumption c work in household poultry.3 3 In spite of pre-occupation in domestic duties.

7 10.5 93.5 37.3 6.9 21.0 18.5 60.7 8.8 69.3 118.0 110.0 27.3 26.1 1.8 Jungle Work 100.0 Road Work 86.0 18.0 30.5 60.Draft report on NREGA.7 132. ploughing 100.0 Coolie 84.9 Stone Work 50.3 100. IIM Bangalore c d 5 a b c d 6 Occasional full time Occasional part time Type of work acceptable Dairy Poultry Other animal husbandry Manufacturing wood and cane products Tailoring Do you have any skill/experience to undertake that work Yes No What assistance do you require to undertake that work No assistance required Initial finance on easy terms Working finance facilities How much distance are you willing to travel for work Only within the household Within the village Up to 1km Up to 3 km Up to 5 km More than 5 km 74 of 96 34 102 309 116 5 5 11 278 20 47 303 96 167 84 143 40 16 1 8.0 84.1 2.9 3.2 40.0 5 Gundalu 70.0 .5 0.0 1.3 24.6 31.0 5.2 7 a b c 8 a b c d e Table 9: Public works in Anantapur district – average wages and days Men Women Wages Average days worked Wages Average days worked Canal Work 70.5 67.1 50.0 86.0 Planting.0 67.0 7.

IIM Bangalore Annexure 3: Adilabad District Table 1: Particulars of sample villages selected in Adilabad district S.Draft report on NREGA. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Mandal Gram Panchayat Narnoor Shangvi Village Lokari-B Bhuailikasa Rumankasa Gunjala khatiguds Khampoor Mankapoor Rajalguda Khairdatva Yampelly `Punaguda Dhaba-k ushegoam Pochamlodi Para Devguda Kukadpall Kondapar Dubbagud Shivnoor Masrllavai Bhimjiguda Gudamamda Kolamguda Hanumanguda Karnamguda Gouri Kolamguda Dhabolly Addeshra 75 of 96 Gunjala Mankapoor Khairdatva Dhaba-k Jainoor Ushegoam Marlavai Gudamamada Dhbolly Addeshara Table 2: Household characteristics of sample respondents in Adilabad district Particulars Religion Caste number percentage number percentage Hindu 188 85.8 .

7 Table 4: Ration card holders in Adilabad district Sr.5 3 Antyodaya 16 7.5 missing 32 14.Draft report on NREGA.0 1.0 0.3 76 of 96 3 6 22 Table 3: Land holding characteristics of sample respondents in Adilabad district % of households in Average land holding sample (Acre) 1(3)land owned 196 7.9 9.3 leased 1(7)land possessed 165 8.7 1(5)land leased out 8 6. No Particulars Number Percent 1 Below Poverty Line 169 77.7 10.0 .9 88.2 2 Above Poverty Line 1 0.0 2 2 21 188 0.4 2.3 1(6)land neither owned nor 40 8.5 1(4)land leased in 30 5. IIM Bangalore OC BC SC ST Muslim Christian Not Reported 0.6 6 Total 219 100.3 4 Annapurna 0 0.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 5 No cards 1 0.0 1(8)land mortgaged 21 5.

7 Married Widowed 171 52.7 9.0 79.8 6.2 21.7 0.2 4.0 100.5 3. IIM Bangalore 77 of 96 Table 5: Demographic particulars of sample respondents in Adilabad district Demographic Male Female Total particulars No Percent of No Percent of total Nu Percent of total total respondents mbe respondents respondents r 1.6 0.Draft report on NREGA.Marital status Currently 129 39.4 25 25 2.3 6.6 41 6.1 5.4 0.0 Table 6: Socio-economic particulars of sample respondents in Adilabad district Adilabad Education level Num Percent (out of total Percent (out of total ber households) respondents) 1=Not literate 2=Literate through attending: NFEC/AEC 3=TLC 4=Others 5=Literate but before primary 6=Primary 7=Middle school 8=Secondary school 9=Higher Secondary school 10=Graduate and above (agriculture) 11=Graduate and above (engg.6 6.2 4.8 0..0 .5 0. and technology) Non-respondents Total Respondents Total 407 54 6 3 66 91 48 64 37 4 2 208 782 990 41.Age(Years) Minimum age 2 1 1 Maximum age 85 80 85 Average age 25.1 8.0 6.5 182 64.1 364 57.4 11.7 0.6 100.8 6 1.5 218 34.5 ated NA 1 0.4 8.9 Divorced/Separ 25 7.7 16 5.9 0.5 0.6 81 28.0 52.3 5 1.3 26.

8 1.5 100.0 31-40 49 12.1 34.3 0.1 0.1 0.3 0.4 53 13. quarrymen 8=spinner 9=weaver Agriculture Coolie Pensioner Non-respondents Total Respondents Total Table 7: Age distribution of households in Adilabad district Age Male Female Total Num Percent of total Num Percent of total Num Percent of total ber respondents ber respondents ber respondents < 18 198 50.9 105 12.1 0.7 394 48. wicker product maker 6=washerman 7=miner.6 21 2.8 6 0. cobbler 13=carpenter 14=mason.4 2.6 0.7 0.5 37.2 1.8 1.9 41-50 29 7.1 170 44.6 0.3 5.9 0.Draft report on NREGA.3 166.4 211 26.5 100.5 0.1 2.1 104 27.1 51-60 14 3.7 Total 395 100.0 811 100.3 44 11.5 0.4 0.6 0.4 0.3 2.4 13.8 11.6 19-30 103 26.0 6.3 4.7 16.0 Table 8: Employment status of sample respondents in Adilabad district Total Number of days Average Number of days .0 1=Typist/Steno 10=Tailor/cutter 11=Decorater 12=shoe maker.5 0.5 0.9 1.0 1. IIM Bangalore Adilabad Primary occupation Num ber 4 128 52 3 6 7 2 3 5 1 9 3 44 5 1 20 10 60 6 1 616 370 986 Percent (out of total households) 0.2 0. bricklayer 16=mechanic 19=fitter 24=goldsmith.0 5.6 14.0 78 of 96 Percent (out of total respondents) 1.9 0.6 > 61 2 0.5 6 1.6 74 9.4 0. silversmith 25=electrician 26=repairer of electronic goods 29=potter 31=basket maker.0 380 100.5 3 0.3 0.6 1.1 62.

3 14.6 12.0 15.3 14.6 13.4 18.9 11.2 13.3 12.5 79 of 96 .8 14.Draft report on NREGA.1 17.6 14.3 14.9 16.9 13.6 16.7 17.0 18.7 17.4 13.9 16. IIM Bangalore Jan'07 days worked Jan'07 unavailable Feb'07 days worked Feb'07 unavailable Mar'07 days worked Mar'07 unavailable Apr'07 days worked Apr'07 unavailable May'07 days worked May'07 unavailable June'07 days worked June'07 unavailable July'07 days worked July'07 unavailable Aug'07 days worked Aug'07 unavailable Sept'07 days worked Sept'07 unavailable Oct'07 days worked Oct'07 unavailable Nov'07 days worked Nov'07 unavailable Dec'07 days worked Dec'07 unavailable 2175 1665 2100 1847 5903 3616 4771 2955 2646 1537 1228 846 992 864 838 1019 1099 670 1012 817 1093 811 1954 1399 16.8 16.6 13.

5 c Others 30 22. what are the activities (list main three codes) a Work in household. are you willing to accept work if work is made available at your household Yes 161 78.Draft report on NREGA. reason thereof a No other members to carry out domestic work 38 29.3 c Bringing water from outside the village 6 2.8 3 In spite of pre-occupation in domestic duties. orchards etc.4 b Poultry 3 1.3 6 Do you have any skill/experience to undertake that work Yes 76 39.9 b Maintenance of kitchen gardens. IIM Bangalore 80 of 96 Table 9: Information about women employed in Adilabad district Sl Particulars No.0 h others 126 73. dairy etc.6 b Regular part-time 42 25. N o. 111 51.3 c Occasional full time 31 18.7 d Occasional part time 9 5.9 f Tailoring 23 13.2 .6 No 111 53.9 if yes in the above question.4 5 Type of work acceptable a Dairy 11 6.6 d spinning and weaving 3 1.4 g leather goods manufacturing 0 0.4 If yes.6 For social and religious constraints 2 1. of respondents Percentage .0 b Cannot afford hired help 61 46. poultry.9 2 Along with your domestic duties are you also engaged in any other productive activities Yes 97 46.7 e Manufacturing wood and cane products 5 2.2 No 45 21.8 4 The nature of work acceptable a Regular full time 84 50.1 No 90 40. 97 45.7 c Other animal husbandry 1 0. 1 Were you required to spend most of your time on domestic duties almost throughout the last 365 days Yes 130 59.

4 26.5 26.0 2.8 6.0 0.1 0.4 3.0 .0 6.5 1. IIM Bangalore No 7 What assistance do you require to undertake that work a No assistance required b Initial finance on easy terms c Working finance facilities d Easy availability of raw materials e Assured market f Training g Accommodation h Others 8 How much distance are you willing to travel for work a Only within the household b Within the village c Up to 1km d Up to 3 km Up to 5 km e More than 5 km 118 10 106 10 0 0 31 4 2 26 55 55 8 37 27 81 of 96 60.8 17.8 13.1 65.0 19.Draft report on NREGA.2 12.

IIM Bangalore 82 of 96 Table 10: Public works in Adilabad district – average wages and days Public Works in Adilabad men women [Jan'07 .0 60.Dec'07] Average Average Num Average Average Num days wages ber days wages ber Canal 22.2 75.8 48 40.0 1 Road Work 23.0 62.0 9.7 9.Draft report on NREGA.0 1 Planting 45.9 35 18.0 .0 80.0 EGS 62.7 65.1 71.6 7 Jungle Cutting 7.9 78.

0 Holiya 2 1.5 Nadaru 1 0.1 Horgaru 1 0.6 Chavahana Thand 2 1.5 Kumbara 2 1.1 Agasaru 3 1.5 Madivala 1 0. IIM Bangalore Annexure 4: Gulbarga Table 1: Particulars of sample villages selected in Gulbarga district Block Gram Panchayat Village Number Alipura Alipura 20 Shahpur Dorana Halli Dorana Halli 22 Vadigeri Gundagurthi 21 Khanapura Gundalli Thanda 21 Shahpur Gursinigi Gursinigi 19 Shahpur Kanya Koluru Kanya Koluru 20 Varthana halli M.5 Nayaka 4 2.5 Iligeri 1 0.1 83 of 96 .5 Reddies 2 1.1 Eligeru 1 0.2 Pavara 4 2.5 Kabbaru 25 13.8 Madiga 1 0.6 Koravara 1 0. Hosalli 21 Chatnahalli Sharanagi 18 Shahpur Muddala Umanayakana Thanda 20 Yadgir Yaragola Yaragola 20 Table 2: Household characteristics of sample respondents in Gulbarga district Particulars Religion Caste number percentage number percentage Hindu 182 90.9 Lambani 28 15.Draft report on NREGA.5 Hadapada 3 1.4 Lingayitha 7 3.7 Kabligera 3 1.6 Hari Jana 11 6.1 Kurubaru 18 9.2 Raroda 1 0.

Draft report on NREGA.T Upparu Vaddaru missing Muslim Christian Total 29 22 3 2 4 19 1 15.1 1(8)land mortgaged 13.0 3.5 84 of 96 19 1 202 9.5 1(5)land leased out 12.4 2.4 0.0 Table 3: Land holding characteristics of sample respondents in Gulbarga district No.0 3.0 leased 1(7)land possessed 92.8 2 Above Poverty Line 23 11.5 100.0 3.1 1.0 2.5 1(4)land leased in 6.0 Table 5: Demographic particulars of sample respondents in Gulbarga district Demographic Male Female Total particulars Nu Percent of total Nu Percent of total Nu Percent of total mbe respondents mbe respondents mbe respondents r r r 1.Marital status .4 0.Age(Years) Minimum age 1 1 1 Maximum age 80 93 93 Average age 24 25 24.C S.7 6 Total 202 100. of households in Average land holding sample (Acre) 1(3)land owned 130.0 5.6 1.9 12. IIM Bangalore S.4 3 Antyodaya 15 7.0 5 No cards 8 4.5 4 Annapurna 0 0.0 missing 70 34.2 9.0 4.1 2. No Particulars Number Percent 1 Below Poverty Line 86 42.8 1(6)land neither owned nor 3.5 Table 4: Ration card holders in Gulbarga district Ration card holders Sr.

Draft report on NREGA.4 0.1 0.6 3.1 0. thatcher .4 0.7 1.8 0.2 0.2 43.4 555 440 47 2 85 of 96 53. and technology) 13=other subjects Non-respondents Total Respondents Total Gulbarga Primary occupation 636 3 5 4 110 165 35 41 25 9 2 59.0 0.5 15.4 0.5 0.6 41.0 0.4 0.4 15. IIM Bangalore Currently Married Widowed Divorced/Sepa rated NA 312 218 2 0 58.2 61.2 0.0 0.3 100.0 238 219 45 2 47.1 0.5 0.5 0.1 10=tailor 12=cobbler 14=mason 16=mechanic 18=craftsman 27=motor vehicle.1 0.1 4.4 0.0 1061 100.9 2.2 42.2 0.0 Num Percent (out of total Percent (out of total ber households) respondents) 4 2 14 2 1 8 2 4 1 1 0.5 8.0 0.9 2.7 1043 98.2 8 0.2 1.1 0.3 0.2 Table 6: Socio-economic particulars of sample respondents in Gulbarga district Gulbarga Education level Num Percent (out of total Percent (out of total ber households) respondents) 1=Not literate 2=Literate through attending: NFEC/AEC 3=TLC 4=Others 5=Literate but before primary 6=Primary 7=Middle school 8=Secondary school 9=Higher Secondary school 10=Graduate and above (agriculture) 11=Graduate and above (engg.4 10.9 0. tractor driver 31=wicker products maker 39=barber 4=data entry operator 40=mud house builder.4 0.7 0.8 0.3 0.4 0..8 3.4 3.8 18 1.3 3.0 0.8 0.4 10.9 0.2 0.9 0.

5 0.5 26 2.7 Mar'07 days worked 10296 16.3 15 3.0 Table 8: Employment status of sample respondents in Gulbarga district Total Number of days Average Number of days Jan'07 days worked 10896 17.5 May'07 unavailable 4095 6.4 13 3.0 0.Draft report on NREGA. quarryman 99=no skill.8 years 19-30 85 18.6 Mar'07 unavailable 3623 5.1 100.7 228 53.4 168 18.3 114 12.4 27 6.2 63.3 71 7.2 June'07 unavailable 3950 6.6 100.1 83 19.2 above Total 469 100.0 903 100.3 May'07 days worked 10244 16. old persons Study Non-respondents Total respondents Total 311 2 651 17 37 1020 2077 15.6 years 31-40 52 11.3 Apr'07 unavailable 3882 6.8 .8 1.0 29 3.1 61 14.9 years 61 and 16 3.4 495 54.9 years 51-60 11 2.5 Jan'07 unavailable 3270 5. IIM Bangalore 41=others 7=miner.8 49.6 years 41-50 44 9.7 3.0 427 100.6 June'07 days worked 10636 17.4 July'07 days worked 11001 17.3 Feb'07 days worked 10668 17.8 1.1 31.3 0.2 Feb'07 unavailable 3521 5.0 Table 7: Age distribution of households in Gulbarga district Age Male Female Total distrib ution Num Percent of total Num Percent of total Num Percent of total ber respondents ber respondents ber respondents Upto 18 261 55.9 Apr'07 days worked 10137 16.0 86 of 96 30.

0 3 In spite of pre-occupation in domestic duties. are you willing to accept work if work is made available at your household Yes 178 62. 1 Were you required to spend most of your time on domestic duties almost throughout the last 365 days Yes 79 26.5 5.7 .5 b Regular part-time 118 61.8 4 The nature of work acceptable a Regular full time 64 33.0 b Poultry 13 25. reason thereof a No other members to carry out domestic work 56 57.0 5.7 17. what are the activities (list main three codes) a Coolie 26 50.5 17.7 b Cannot afford hired help 39 40.4 6.8 c Occasional full time 7 3.1 2 Along with your domestic duties are you also engaged in any other productive activities Yes 48 17. N o.2 No 108 37.0 c Spinning and weaving 13 25.0 c Others 2 2.Draft report on NREGA. of respondents Percentage .4 18.0 No 225 74. IIM Bangalore July'07 unavailable Aug'07 days worked Aug'07 unavailable Sept'07 days worked Sept'07 unavailable Oct'07 days worked Oct'07 unavailable Nov'07 days worked Nov'07 unavailable Dec'07 days worked Dec'07 unavailable 3994 10778 3773 11053 3515 11019 3526 11195 3320 11466 3167 6.2 For social and religious constraints 0 0.7 5.8 5.1 17.0 if yes in the above question.2 87 of 96 Table 9: Information about women employed in Gulbarga district Sl Particulars No.7 No 223 82.7 18.3 If yes.

Draft report on NREGA, IIM Bangalore d 5 a b c d e f g h 6 Occasional part time Type of work acceptable Dairy Poultry Other animal husbandry spinning and weaving Manufacturing wood and cane products Tailoring leather goods manufacturing Others Do you have any skill/experience to undertake that work Yes No What assistance do you require to undertake that work No assistance required Initial finance on easy terms Working finance facilities Easy availability of raw materials Assured market Training Accommodation Others How much distance are you willing to travel for work Only within the household Within the village Up to 1km Up to 3 km Up to 5 km More than 5 km 2 74 19 23 0 2 63 0 2 109 84 2 47 6 0 0 8 0 0 23 109 51 3 2 5

88 of 96 1.0 40.4 10.4 12.6 0.0 1.1 34.4 0.0 1.1 56.5 43.5 3.2 74.6 9.5 0.0 0.0 12.7 0.0 0.0 11.9 56.5 26.4 1.6 1.0 2.6

7 a b c d e f g h 8 a b c d e

Draft report on NREGA, IIM Bangalore

89 of 96

Table 10: Public works in Gulbarga district – average wages and days Public Works in Gulbarga men women [Jan'07 - Dec'07] Average Average Num Average Average Num days wages ber days wages ber C.C Road 18 78.9 4 18 72.0 3 Canal Work 30 66.0 18 12 70.0 3 Chili Cutting 2 60.0 3 2 60.0 1 Jungle Cutting 7 65.5 4 4 60.0 3 Mud Work 13 61.0 2 2 67.0 2 Road Work 7 66.0 35 10 60.0 23 Tank Work 10 60.0 13 15 63.6 15

Draft report on NREGA, IIM Bangalore Annexure 5: Raichur Table 1: Particulars of sample villages selected in Raichur district Block/Taluka Gram Panchayat Village Number in sample Lingasugur Honnalli Honnalli 27 Lingasugur Madikanala Madikanala 22 Lingasugur Mavina Bhavi Hunu Kunte 25 Lingasugur Sarjapuru Sarjapuru 20 Raichur Chandrabanda Palavala Doddi 20 Raichur Gille Suguru Kere Buduru 20 Raichur Gunja Halli Hanchi Nala 20 Raichur Mansalapura Marched 20 Raichur Yapala Dinni Gajarala 20 Eachanala Tanda Eachanala Tanda 18 L.K Doddi Tunta Pura 20 characteristics of sample respondents in Raichur district Particulars Religion Caste number percentage number percentage Hindu 209 90.5 Agasaru 3 1.4 Badigeru 1 0.5 Beyaru 1 0.5 Bhuvi Jana 2 1.0 Brahmana 1 0.5 Chaluvadi 2 1.0 Dasaru 1 0.5 Ganigaru 1 0.5 Hari Jana 4 1.9 Hindu Jangama 8 3.8 Jirru 1 0.5 Kabberu 14 6.7 Katigera 1 0.5 Kumbara 6 2.9 Kurubaru 38 18.2 Lambani 13 6.2 Lingayatha 17 8.1 Madiga 1 0.5 Marataru 1 0.5 Nayak 8 3.8 Oddaru 2 1.0 Panchala 1 0.5 Rathoda 1 0.5

90 of 96

Table 2: Household

T Upparu Upsaru Vaddaru Valmiki missing Muslim Christian Total 1 1 39 31 3 2 1 1 2 19 3 231 0.9 0.4 land possessed 135 5.1 100.5 0.0 8.4 land leased out 13 2.0 Table 3: Land holding characteristics of sample respondents in Raichur district households in sample Average land holding (Acre) land owned 173 5.7 Table 4: Ration card holders in Raichur district Ration card holders Sr.4 5.4 1.7 14.2 24.1 land leased in 6 3.5 land mortgaged 10 1.5 12.0 0.8 15.C S. No Particulars 1 Below Poverty Line 2 Above Poverty Line 3 Antyodaya 4 Annapurna 5 No cards missing 6 Total Number Percent 97 36 30 1 12 56 232 41.0 91 of 96 19 3 231 8.2 1.0 Table 5: Demographic particulars of sample respondents in Raichur district Demographic Male Female Total particulars Nu Percent of total Nu Percent of total Nu Percent of total mbe respondents mbe respondents mbe respondents r r r 1.5 1.8 1.5 0.6 land neither owned nor leased 1 0.Draft report on NREGA. IIM Bangalore Reddies Reddy S.2 1.3 100.5 18.Age(Years) Minimum age 1 1 1 .3 100.

0 2.3 0.4 4.2 0.9 45.3 1.9 2.3 2.2 4.4 20.2 0.2 0.5 0.0 3.5 7.2 6.2 6..4 92 of 96 340 287 4 0 53. bricklayer 16=mechanic .6 0.4 8.3 2.3 1.4 0.7 0.5 0. and technology) Other subjects Non Respondents Total Respondents Total 606 8 2 77 245 92 86 48 27 4 4 33 1199 1232 49.1 0.2 1.0 Raichur Primary occupation Number Percent (out Percent (out of total) of total respondents) households) 5 3 16 17 1 0.0 246 288 48 1 42. IIM Bangalore Maximum age Average age 2.1 Table 6: Socio-economic particulars of sample respondents in Raichur district Raichur Education level Number Percent (out Percent (out of total of total respondents) households) Not literate TLC Others Literate but before primary Primary Middle school Secondary school Higher Secondary school Graduate and above (agriculture) Graduate and above (engg.3 100.9 7.2 586 575 52 1 48.2 49.3 0.4 0.3 0.6 0.3 1.7 7.Marital status Currently Married Widowed Divorced/Sepe rated NA 80 25 80 26 80 25.2 47.4 0.4 7.Draft report on NREGA.3 19.7 97.8 100.1 10=Tailor/cutter 11=Decorater 13=carpenter 14=mason.4 0.0 50.3 0.

1 1.2 0.7 Aug'07 days worked 12486 17. miner 99=no skill Study Non Respondents Total Respondents Total 4 2 2 2 7 1 1 2 1 17 387 11 702 14 37 1195 1232 0.4 31.0 Sept'07 days worked 12421 17.6 0.0 100.1 0.1 July'07 unavailable 4662 6.5 Mar'07 unavailable 4593 6. IIM Bangalore 17=Machineman 21=welder 24=goldsmith/silversmith 25=electrician 27=Tractor driver 3=computer programmer 30=midwife 34=brick maker.2 0.4 Jan'07 unavailable 4223 6.1 100.0 Table 7: Employment status of sample respondents in Raichur district Total Number of days Average Number of days Jan'07 days worked 12206 17.0 July'07 days worked 12144 17.0 Oct'07 days worked 12572 17.7 1.6 0.7 .3 0.7 Feb'07 unavailable 4202 6.4 0.6 Aug'07 unavailable 4203 6.1 1.Draft report on NREGA.0 1.1 0.1 0.2 0.5 Apr'07 unavailable 4790 6.2 0.8 May'07 days worked 11438 16.6 Apr'07 days worked 11684 16. thatcher 41=others 7=quarryman.2 0.2 0.0 Feb'07 days worked 11748 16.0 Mar'07 days worked 11668 16.9 57.3 0.1 0.1 3.5 Sept'07 unavailable 4195 6.0 97.2 0.2 0.2 May'07 unavailable 4986 7.0 93 of 96 0.9 58.1 June'07 days worked 11778 16.2 3.1 Nov'07 days worked 12526 17.7 June'07 unavailable 4885 7. tile maker 38=artist/painter 40=mud house builder.4 0.4 32.8 Oct'07 unavailable 4286 6.

7 94 of 96 Table 8: Information about women employed in Raichur district Sl Particulars No. IIM Bangalore Nov'07 unavailable Dec'07 days worked Dec'07 unavailable 4118 12528 3951 5.4 b Cannot afford hired help 34 25.Draft report on NREGA. reason thereof a No other members to carry out domestic work 85 63. N o.9 17.7 c Others 6 4. 1 Were you required to spend most of your time on domestic duties almost throughout the last 365 days Yes 108 4.4 For social and religious constraints 9 6.5 if yes in the above question.9 .5 2 Along with your domestic duties are you also engaged in any other productive activities Yes 77 23. of respondents Percentage .7 5.9 No 255 11.

6 Up to 3 km 5 2.4 Tailoring 69 28.2 Work in household poultry.3 Poultry 28 11.3 Easy availability of raw materials 0 0.9 Coolie 32 58.5 Do you have any skill/experience to undertake that work Yes 159 63.0 How much distance are you willing to travel for work Only within the household 25 10.1 If yes.0 Assured market 0 0.4 Manufacturing wood and cane products 1 0.0 Others 0 0.5 Other animal husbandry 43 17.0 Up to 1km 89 35.4 Type of work acceptable Dairy 96 39.6 Regular part-time 143 59.0 Up to 5 km 4 1.1 Occasional full time 8 3.8 No 85 26. 17 30.6 .3 leather goods manufacturing 0 0.7 What assistance do you require to undertake that work No assistance required 1 2. what are the activities (list main three codes) Agriculture 6 10.Draft report on NREGA.6 spinning and weaving 1 0. are you willing to accept work if work is made available at your household Yes 239 73.9 In spite of pre-occupation in domestic duties.3 Occasional part time 1 0.3 No 92 36. IIM Bangalore 95 of 96 a b c 3 4 a b c d 5 a b c d e f g h 6 7 a b c d e f g h 8 a b c d No 245 76.6 Initial finance on easy terms 21 55. dairy etc.3 Working finance facilities 2 5.2 The nature of work acceptable Regular full time 91 37.0 Training 14 36.0 others 6 2.0 Within the village 120 48.8 Accommodation 0 0.

0 2 5 69.8 Table 9: Public works in Raichur district – average wages and days Public Works in Raichur women men [Jan'07 .0 7 2 30.Draft report on NREGA.0 4 1 Check Dam 71.0 8 1 Sewage Construction 150.5 5 2 36.0 3 1 Jungle Cutting 32.0 21 35 .0 8 1 House Construction 50.Dec'07] Average Average Num Average Average Num wages days ber wages days ber Agriculture 60.5 32 22 Canal Work 50.0 5 5 Mud Work 46.0 4 1 50.0 60 1 150.2 8 6 Drainage 50.5 5 4 Road Work 69. IIM Bangalore e More than 5 km 7 96 of 96 2.0 11 13 57.0 60 1 Tank work 50.6 25 17 67.7 17 32 70.9 10 14 Repair 50.7 5 4 55.