This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. 51, NO. 3, JUNE 2004
Residual Life Predictions From Vibration-Based Degradation Signals: A Neural Network Approach
Nagi Gebraeel, Mark Lawley, Member, IEEE, R. Liu, and Vijay Parmeshwaran
Abstract—Maintenance of mechanical and rotational equipment often includes bearing inspection and/or replacement. Thus, it is important to identify current as well as future conditions of bearings to avoid unexpected failure. Most published research in this area is focused on diagnosing bearing faults. In contrast, this paper develops neural-network-based models for predicting bearing failures. An experimental setup is developed to perform accelerated bearing tests where vibration information is collected from a number of bearings that are run until failure. This information is then used to train neural network models on predicting bearing operating times. Vibration data from a set of validation bearings are then applied to these network models. Resulting predictions are then used to estimate the bearing failure time. These predictions are then compared with the actual lives of the validation bearings and errors are computed to evaluate the effectiveness of each model. For the best model, we find that 64% of predictions are within 10% of actual bearing life, while 92% of predictions are within 20% of the actual life. Index Terms—Backpropagation, neural networks, prediction methods, vibrations.
EARINGS are among the most precise components in mechanical assemblies and are manufactured to very tight tolerances. They are normally found in most rotational equipment. The condition and health of bearings play an important role in the functionality and performance of these equipment. This work focuses on using vibration analysis to monitor the condition of rolling element bearings and to predict bearing residual life in real time. The significance of using vibration analysis lies in the degradation process of the bearing. Bearing fatigue normally begins with subsurface cracks initiating within the raceway material. During service, cracks propagate and eventually reach the surface of the race dislodging a piece of metal from the surface. This results in what is known as a spall and in many applications is defined as the onset of failure. Rolling elements (balls or rollers) rotate over the race causing repetitive impacts each time they pass over the spall. Consequently, a distinctive frequency known as the defective frequency is excited. The frequency is a function of the number of balls, the rotational speed, geometry of the bearing, and types of defects and their location. Thus, vibration analysis becomes the most suitable condition monitoring technique for investigating the evolution of these defective frequencies over time once a spall has occurred.
Manuscript received May 9, 2002; revised November 18, 2003. Abstract published on the Internet January 14, 2004. The authors are with the School of Industrial Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907-1287 USA (e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org). Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TIE.2004.824875
Most of the research in this field has been aimed at categorizing the kinds of bearing defects using statistical techniques, artificial intelligence, or complex mathematical models. These approaches typically address the problem from a diagnostic perspective. Approaches that focus on prognosis evaluate the future health condition of the bearing. However, most of these techniques do not predict the actual bearing failure time. In this paper, we develop an experimental setup to perform accelerated fatigue testing on rolling contact thrust bearings. Initially good bearings are run until failure while vibration spectra are continuously acquired and used to build a database of degradation signals. The objective is to model these signals using artificial neural networks to estimate failure times of a partially degrading bearing in order to make better decisions regarding scheduling of maintenance activities and replacement strategies. The following section presents a survey of bearing condition monitoring literature and relevant research that pertains to our work. Sections III and IV describe the experimental setup and development of the degradation signals using vibration analysis. Section V develops the different kinds of neural network approaches used to accurately predict bearing failure time. Sections VI and VII present the single bearing and clustered bearing neural network models used to predict failure time. Finally, a comparison between the results is presented. II. LITERATURE REVIEW Condition-based/predictive maintenance is most useful in predicting equipment failure and avoiding unnecessary maintenance activities. Condition monitoring is an inherent component of condition-based maintenance. Bearing condition monitoring has received a great deal of attention from researchers. Bearing condition monitoring using vibration signals is the commonly used method for assessing the condition of a bearing. There are many techniques used in analyzing vibration signals from bearings such as time and frequency domain ,  and the envelope detection . Bearing condition monitoring literature can be divided into two classes. The first class of research centers on bearing life prediction models. Some of these models are based on crack initiation models, and crack propagation models, namely, Paris Law , . Researchers have also developed physical models for estimating bearing remaining life. In  the authors develop a physical model to predict the remaining life of bearings by simplifying the bearing system into a single-degree-of-freedom (DOF) vibration system. In  the authors investigate the
0278-0046/04$20.00 © 2004 IEEE
The static load rating was 470 lbs and the dynamic load rating was 365 lbs. it must possess a trend that reflects the deteriorating condition of the bearing. A set of identical thrust bearings was run at a constant rotational speed (2000 r/min) and a load of 200 lbs in an oil bath to provide continuous lubrication. In this work. Statistical approaches have also been used to model the effect of bearing defects on trends of certain statistical parameters . thus. Bearing failure begins in the raceway where a spall develops on the surface. which corresponds to 90% reliability. 2) it develops several neural network models for estimating bearing failure time at any point during a bearing’s service life. The first degradation signal we considered focused on the evolution of the rms vibration level over time (Fig. we test 35 bearings and develop a database of sorted amplitudes of bearing defective frequency and its first . Finally. the bearing rotational speed limit was 3200 r/min. The most prominent is . A good degradation signal must capture the physical transitions that the bearing undergoes during different stages of its life. VIBRATION ANALYSIS AND DEGRADATION SIGNALS As a bearing defect evolves it excites the defective frequency associated with the type of defect . Neural network models are used to predict the level of bearing health condition. . We choose thrust bearings because they are easily disassembled. Fig. . the work does not consider the tremendous variation in bearing health condition associated with the random nature of bearing failure (among several identical bearings). An accelerometer. These ratings are generally selected on the basis of the L life rating . The presence of the harmonics of the defective frequency is also another indication of degradation and spall formation . According to the manufacturer’s catalog. kurtosis. was attached to the setup and connected to a vibration meter that measured the rms vibration level. By carefully analyzing the physical condition of the bearing. The signal computes the rms vibration across the entire spectrum of frequencies associated with the bearing and other components of the setup device. Hybrid approaches that combine neural networks and fuzzy logic are also used for monitoring and diagnostic purposes . For the thrust ball bearings used in this research. a signal amplitude that indicates failure. facilitate inspection. Fig. The setup was designed to ensure that bearing fatigue was not affected by any installation. or unbalance problems. The amplitude of the defect frequency is typically an indication of defect severity. The paper models overall bearing vibration as a time series. and 3) estimates of the predicted failure times are updated using real-time sensory information. we observed that increase in the signal level is associated with spall propagation along the surface of the raceway. and neural networks approaches . EXPERIMENTAL SETUP AND DEGRADATION MODELING In order to account for the variation in bearing life. and experimental setup is designed to overload the bearing beyond its designated manufacturer’s rating resulting in increased contact stress between the rolling element and the surface of the raceway.: RESIDUAL LIFE PREDICTIONS FROM VIBRATION-BASED DEGRADATION SIGNALS 695 defect detection of rolling element bearings utilizing the high-frequency resonance technique. it must be possible to define a reasonable failure threshold. IV.GEBRAEEL et al. lubrication. Second. 1. To overcome this problem. In  the authors claim that damaged bearings cause a periodic pulse train of equal frequency spacing distribution (EFSD). little research has focused on using neural networks to predict bearing life. The second class deals with classification of bearing condition and fault diagnosis using fuzzy logic concepts . Furthermore. etc. thus exciting the fundamental defective frequency and its harmonics (multiple integers of the defective frequency). However. The authors focus on tracing the bearing health condition using the rms value of the vibration and the kurtosis factor. To overcome this. investigating the natural failure of a sample of bearings (35 bearings in this research) presents a serious challenge. 1 presents a plot of different vibration spectra for a bearing at different stages of its life. This signal can be used to predict the bearing’s residual life. this characteristic renders this degradation signal ineffective in isolating degradation of the bearing from the other components. The vibration data are used to design a suitable signal that captures the evolution of the bearing’s degradation. crest factor. Evolution of the vibration spectrum of a degrading bearing. A key step was to design and build an experimental setup capable of performing accelerated testing on rolling element thrust bearings. the signal should possess a low signal-to-noise ratio and must be easy to compute since it is frequently updated in real time. bearing degradation is a time consuming process. III. This research differs from previous work in that: 1) it uses a database of many vibration based sensory traces to develop degradation signals that capture the physical bearing deterioration. This conforms to the findings of . . the defective frequency is approximately 92 Hz. Third. used to acquire the vibration signals. such as using the rms. However. it was necessary to investigate the fatigue process for a sample of identical bearings. in most of these approaches. 2). defects are artificially introduced on the surface of bearing raceways. However. Since. it was necessary to isolate the frequencies associated with bearing defects and develop a degradation signal based on these frequencies. Notice that the amplitude of the defective frequency ( 92 Hz) increases with time ( axis) until the bearing failure at 100%.
Illustration of the single-bearing neural network model. JUNE 2004 Fig. A seven-element vector representing the seven amplitudes of the defective frequency and its first six harmonics (sorted at the th sampling epoch. puted by network FN . 3. form and . we use a set of feedforward backpropagation networks (Fig. Each net is then trained using degradation information associated with bearings in the cluster. which characterizes the onset of a defect on the bearing’s raceway. . there are three vectors associated with the 25 FNs. a flat region (signal amplitude of 0. A. thus. Degradation Modeling Using Neural Nets Neural networks are data processing systems consisting of a number of interconnected processing elements called neurons . single-bearing models and clustered-bearing models. During training. The neurons are usually organized in a sequence of layers. We develop two classes of neural network models. Bearings 1–25 constitute the set training bearings while bearings 26–35 are designated as such that validation bearings. Let be the total number from the start of the test of sampling epochs for bearing . Each FN is associated with a set of experimental parameters derived from the database: 1) the exponential parameters and .025 V . The network output is a single-element vector . During training. 2.025 V degradation signals possess an inherent exponential growth. All this information is integrated into a degradation database. The third vector is the failure . Further. (Note that these parameters will be used later in computing predicted bearing failure time). readings in its degradation signal and sets of sorted of input vectors. associated with bearing and 2) ’s failure time. we train a feedforward backpropagation network. The latter is associated with spall initiation and propagation along the surface of the raceway and extends until bearing failure. Neural networks undergo two types of learning processes. 2). We define a bearing’s defect time as the time associated with the abrupt increase in amplitude beyond the initial amplitude level corresponding to normal bearing operation (0. six harmonics (harmonics are multiple integers of the defective frequency) and their evolution over time (Fig. NO. 3) that undergo supervised learning to identify the current operating time of an operating bearing.002 V ).696 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS. We then monitor the evolution of the average amplitude over time. Furthermore. the exponential model is among the most commonly used models for bearing life . . degradation information associated with the defective phase of bearing degradation. Unsupervised learning is typically used in applications that require classification of bearing defects . we observe that the bearing 0. In other words. and a region characterized by a fluctuating signal with an increasing trend. each bearing’s degradation signal is fitted with the best exponential fit of the and used to derive the exponential parameters. has a total until failure. 3. Consequently. Both classes of models use Fig. comof ’s operating time at the th sampling epoch. SINGLE-BEARING NEURAL NETWORK MODELS The degradation database is divided into two parts. an input layer. We define a sampling epoch which a data acquisition is performed. V. The bearing is considered failed when the degradation signal reaches our failure threshold of at . VOL. and an output layer. supervised and unsupervised learning. the network weights are adjusted depending on the type of learning process. and . Thus. The first two vectors are those of the exponential parameters for 25 training bearings. . a set of intermediate layers. 51. We observe two distinct regions in our degradation signal. Evolution of the average amplitude of the defective frequency and its first six harmonics. in ascending order) for bearing serves as the training input to FN . the bearings are classified in groups (clusters) based on similarity in their failure and defect times. In this work. Furthermore. (where in this class of models). a training and a validation set .002 V ) representing normal (defect-free) bearing operation. Indeed. We choose the first six harmonics and compute the average of the sorted sequences of amplitudes. call it FN (a single network for each of the 25 bearings in the training as the time instant at set). a single bearing is used to train a single backpropagation neural network. we define a bearing’s failure time as the time at which the amplitude of the degradation signal reaches 0. In first class. we used an early stopping technique to ensure network generalization. . In the second class. we used the resilient backpropagation training algorithm. For the th bearing.
: RESIDUAL LIFE PREDICTIONS FROM VIBRATION-BASED DEGRADATION SIGNALS 697 times. let Fig. initialization: output: . . where In other words. Let the operating time of and the output of FN be . A. the used to solve for the projected failure time. for the 25 bearings in the training set. for example. ’s exponential parameters. Weight Calculation Weights are calculated based on the error values between the predicted operating time of FN and the actual operating time at the point of preof the bearing. The second variant uses sensory parameter updating (WAEP-PU) where the exponential parameters are updated and using current data acquisitions. The second weight application technique (WAEP) has two variand parameters are ants. The next step in computing the predicted failure time is to use this set of outputs to derive a set of weights. . for bearing k. the predicted life is computed as a weighted average of the failure times associated with the 25 FNs (failure times of the training bearing). Prediction of a validation bearing’s failure time using exponential parameters. respectively. and computed at the th sampling instance are given by (4) and (5). Thus. Exponential Parameter Updating Algorithm Query: What are the updated values of and ? parameter at the input: epoch for bearing k. the exponential parameters computed at the th sampling epoch are used to project ’s signal into the future. we have a weight pling instance of such that small error values are vector associated with large weights. Note that all weights sum to unity (2) The weights are then applied according to two different techniques: 1) Weight Application to Failure Times (WAFT) and 2) Weight Application to Exponential Parameters (WAEP). The computed at the th sampling epoch are passed through an updating algorithm. Consider a partially degrading bearing. WAEP. . Assume that the operating time of this bearing is known.025 V . In the first technique. Each tudes at some time . A pair of weights are derived using these errors and used to compute a weighted average of the ’s and ’s at the and represent the updated two epochs. to each of the trained FNs. such that (where ). WAFT. parameter calculated at epoch (n) . parameter at the epoch for bearing k. Fig. To compute the failure time of this bearing at any point during its operation. WAEP. The algorithm computes squared errors between of the actual degradation level at the th sampling epoch and: and and 2) the (1) the current exponential parameters preceding exponential parameters and (sampling epoch ). . 4 illustrates how the partial degradation signal of a validation bearing is projected using the computed exponential parameters to estimate the bearing’s failure time. . In the first variant. which has been operating in the field. using (6) (6) failure threshold of 0. 4. for the input sequence of . an error vector be defined by (1) To calculate the weights. we input the set of sorted ampli. the weights are applied to the two vectors of the exponential parameters and . we compute associated with the 25 FNs. see (3) (3) In the second technique. parameter calculated at epoch (n) for bearing k. (1) We now define the weight associated with FN at the th samas . at the th prediction point. The resulting parameter values based on the current sensory information that was acquired at the th epoch. Thus. (4) (5) . Thus. see (2). The predicted failure time of is the given as the point where the projected trend line reaches the failure threshold . The diction be given by in FN ’s prediction associated with is: squared error .GEBRAEEL et al. FN outputs an operating time .
L h. The second class represents prediction errors that are greater than 10% but not greater than 20%. In clusters containing single bearings. Investigating the effect of the number of clusters is an open research problem and is beyond the scope of this paper. Model I performs the weakest in this class of neural network models. 2) failure time. We consider the time period between the onset of the defect and the time of failure. For benchmarking our approaches. we define ten bearing clusters. The first class represents errors less than 10%. Table I summarizes the percentages of the prediction errors in each class. GRNN . For clusters composed of several bearings. On the other hand. Fig. with 66% of these predictions within 10%. the next step is to define the cluster parameters: 1) defect time. . //a function that returns the average amplitude of the defective frequency and samits first 6 harmonics at the pling epoch // begin L benchmark. we calculate an estimate of the failure time using the use the L life formula with an equivalent dynamic load of 195 lbs and rotational speed of 2200 r/min. to each cluster. NO. Thus. This time period is divided into percentiles. the third class represents errors that are greater than 20%. Grouping of the bearings is performed using the fuzzy c-means clustering algorithm. and 3) exponential parameters. 5. the defect and failure times are defined as the coordinates of the centroid of the cluster. . We calculate errors between the actual and the predicted life at the 20th. In conclusion. we discuss how to calculate the exponential parameters of each cluster. For the pur. The error between the predicted life and the actual life is given by (7) (7) The error values are then grouped into classes. A. the failure time. Results . JUNE 2004 TABLE I CLASSIFICATION OF PREDICTION ERRORS Fig.698 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS. The algorithm clusters input vectors by searching for local minima of a generalized within group sum of squares errors functions (for details about the algorithm. 40th. the 25 degradation signals are grouped according to similarity in their defect times (time of defect initiation) and failure times. The defect and failure times of the bearings represent the input to this algorithm. CLUSTERED-BEARING NEURAL NETWORK MODELS In this class of models. we use the Generalized Regression Neural Network to compute a single regression function for the degradation signals of the constituent bearings . the reader is referred to ). ) To measure the effectiveness of these models. The first step is to assign and train a Generalized Regression Neural Network. 5 presents a bar graph of the number of bearing predictions in each error class for each model and compares it to the . where pose of this research. Finally. function: DEG(n). the proposed models provide the capability of computing estimates of bearing failure times in real-time using sensory information. In the following section. bearings with similar defect and failure times are most likely clustered together while ones with significantly different times are grouped in different clusters. Results for single-bearing models. defect time. 3. VOL. Each cluster consists of the degradation data of the constituent bearings. 80th. and exponential parameters of the cluster are equal to those of the constituent bearing. VI. Results of Model III are superior compared to the currently used L formula used by many manufacturers. Exponential Parameters for Bearing Clusters As mentioned earlier. we calculate errors between the predicted and the actual lives at different points along the validation bearings’ lifetimes. and 90th percentiles. for clusters composed of several bearings. Almost 90% of the predictions made by Model III are within 20% error of the actual bearing failure time. Once the clusters are formed. for clusters composed of single bearings the exponential parameters of the cluster are equal to the exponential parameters associated with the bearing’s degradation signal. 51. A sequence of -element where vectors of operating times return ( end B. The coordinates of the centroid are evaluated using the fuzzy c-means clustering algorithm. 60th.
Results We calculate prediction errors at the various life percentiles. Manuf. Once first six harmonics) of training is complete. Eng. FNC . Vibration and Acoustic Measurement Handbook.. pp.” Trans. vol.” Appl. Signal Process. Lian. no. Blake and W. Adv.  A. 15.. no. B. S. Apr. J. no. Next. and R. Trans. Hoeprich. Alguindigue. R. Chatterji. 1985. 1996. 6.” in Proc. On the other hand. Haddad. Eng. Uhrig. Artificial Life and Data Mining. 22. no. “Monitoring and diagnosis of rolling element bearings using artificial neural networks. “Condition assessment and life prediction of rolling element bearings—Part 1. 10.  T.. 12. “Integrated monitoring and diagnostic system for roller bearings. 2000 Japan/USA Flexible Automation Conference. Alfredson and J. Technol. Li. Heng and M.  R. F. Qiu.” Mech. pp. vol. pp. Ben Wang. 10–17. Zhang.. Philadelphia. S. pp. and C. vol. single-bearing and clustered-bearing neural network models. 114. 108–112. We developed two classes of models. “Antifriction bearing fault detection using envelope detection.  I. to each bearing cluster. Nor. no. Results for clustered-bearing models. Sec. and T. 595–614.  R. “Rolling element bearing fatigue damage propagation. B. Seth. New Zealand—Elect. MO. Tribol. Louis.  M. B.” Lubrication Eng. PA: Burbank. Eng. Ogunfunmi. 6. Models that used a weighted average of the exponential parameters coupled with the parameter updating algorithm to compute a bearing failure time prediction provided the best results. 1972. Billington.  M. St. 102–107.: RESIDUAL LIFE PREDICTIONS FROM VIBRATION-BASED DEGRADATION SIGNALS 699 TABLE II CLASSIFICATION OF PREDICTION ERRORS which computes a weighted average of the cluster failure times. 5. Trans. Fig. Y. vol. pp. as was the case in the single bearing neural network models. 1959. Note that the th sampling epoch and is the level of the degradation signal (average amplitude of the defective frequency and its at the th sampling epoch.. the regression function for each GRNN is as the extracted.GEBRAEEL et al. Fig. Each regression . performed the worst. 1994. vol. A similar result was observed in the class of single bearing models. Inst. Ind. pp. Aust. 328–333. Singonhalli. Prof.  J. . Liu and J.Alexej Barkov.. 1998. 209–217. I. Loskiewicz-Buczak. Artificial Neural Networks in Engineering.-H..  H. the best estimate of bearing failure times are computed using a weighted average of the exponential parameters. 2./Mech. 1. 1985.. ch. Model IV. July 2000.  P. 2. Gebraeel. Palmgren. All the models relied on using a database of degradation signals to predict the failure time of a partially degraded bearing at any time during its service life. J.—Inst. VII. no. P. increased maintenance costs. E. Ann Arbor.  N. J. C. pp.” Int. J. 40. 53. 77–82. pp. 37–46. Burgess. 1999.  A. P. “Failure lifetime prognostic of bearing based on vibration response and damage mechanics. no. 1993.” in Proc. 211–226. In conclusion. Fuzzy Logic. The results show that 92% of the predictions made by Model VI fall within 20% error of the actual bearing failure time. Zhang. 543–551. A. vol. Table II presents a summary of the percentage of prediction errors in each class corresponding to each model in this class. “Statistical analysis of sound and vibration signals for monitoring rolling element bearing condition. 1996. E. “Dynamic prognostic prediction of defect propagation on rolling element bearings.” Mech. we assign a feedforward backpropagation neural network.” Trans. Eng.” Sound Vib. 4. D./Chem. New York: Spartan. We plan on applying the similar approaches on different components to evaluate the possibility of generalizing the proposed approach. H. 1–5.H. CONCLUSION This paper has addressed bearing prognosis with the aim of avoiding unexpected failure that causes loss of production time.” IEEE Trans.  Y. G. The results showed that 92% of the failure time predictions computed using validation bearings were within 20% of the actual bearing life. and leads to increased spare part inventory. vol. J. 967–972. and S. vol. MI.Hsin-Hao Huang and H. We define the degradation signal of cluster regression function associated with GRNN . 2. ANNIE 2002 Smart Engineering System Design: Neural Networks.. 2002. Syst. Acoust. . “Time domain methods for monitoring the condition of rolling element bearings. M. Eng. “Vibration-based condition monitoring of thrust bearings for maintenance management. 42. “A ball bearing fault detector using neural network based vibration algorithms. Electron. Eng. 6 presents a bar graph of the number of bearing predictions in each error class for each model and compares it to the L benchmark. Lawley. Ball and Roller Bearing Engineering. 1995. and R. Evolutionary Programming. P. pp. 1998. Aust.” Mech. function is fitted with an exponential model of the form and represent the exponential parameters of the where cluster. pp. “Detection of roller bearing defects using expert system and fuzzy logic. Mathew. vol. pp. Mitchel. The neural network models are then developed in a similar fashion to those of the single-bearing models.” in Proc. ASME.. no. 29. while the outputs are composed ’s degradation signal amplitudes of -element vectors of corresponding the input is the operating time of the bearing at vectors.. The major difference between the two classes is that the number of neural networks is equal to the number of bearing clusters and not the number of individual bearings. pp.  S. REFERENCES representing consecutive sampling epochs of serve as the training inputs to GRNN . 2. 1. 1992. “Frquency domain methods for monitoring the condition of  rolling element bearings. B. The prediction errors at the different life percentiles are classified into three the error classes.—Inst. B. 385–392. Liu. pp.
Neural Networks.” Proc. 1997. Liu is a Professor of Industrial Engineering at Purdue University. no. Fuzzy and Neural Approaches in Engineering. 5. Sherif. Mech. Tandon. 12. Syst. IN. Su and Y. West Lafayette.  Y. Sujatha.. “Using neural networks for the diagnosis of localized defects in ball bearings. where he is currently working toward the Ph.” IEEE Trans. Inst. vol. 2000. His research interests lie in decision-support models for prognostic systems and replacement strategies. VOL.D. pt. 206. Sheen. Mech. His research interests are in the modeling and analysis of resource allocation problems in complex systems.” Proc. Madras. no. Prof.” Measurement. J.  L.  Y. Eng. Specht. pp. 214. Vijay Parmeshwaran received the B. 3. degree in industrial engineering from Purdue University. T. Shao and K. no.  N. degree in mechanical engineering from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. degree in mechanical engineering from Anna University. Int.700 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS. precision manufacturing systems. He has held industrial positions with Westinghouse and Emerson Electric Company and served two years as an Assistant Professor of Industrial Engineering at the University of Alabama before joining Purdue. pp.  M. Lawley is a Registered Professional Engineer in the State of Alabama. Kurfess. His research interests lie in the area of network interdiction and assessment of network vulnerability with special emphasis on robust supply chain networks.. manufacturing and its relationship to the reliability of the components and systems. pp. 3. Danyluk. T..” Tribol. IN. 1992. no. pp. 217–230. 739–752.” Mech.S. West Lafayette. R. Syst. 2. with expertise in manufacturing engineering. ASME.  J. IN. Mark Lawley (M’01) received the Ph. Nov. degree in industrial engineering from Purdue University.E. 3. NO. His research interests include single-step superfinish hard-turning. pp. His teaching interests include engineering synthesis and innovation and strategic planning.. Inst. “Signature analysis of roller bearing vibrations: Lubrication effects. pp. . Y. A. vol.. 1997. Tsoukalas and R. degree in the School of Industrial Engineering. Uhrig. Nezu. “Determination of ball and roller compliances using a vibration measuring technique. 693–705. Dr. degree in industrial engineering. 30. “Bearing condition diagnostics via vibration and acoustic emission measurements. 1991. and the M. He served as a Graduate Assistant for the Technical Assistance Program and as an Instructor in the School of Industrial Engineering at Purdue University. T. J. Subrahmanyam and C. IN. E. JUNE 2004  H. “A general regression neural network. 193–202. Tribol.. and CIMS and Internet-based manufacturing. no. 285–289. “Comparison of some vibration parameters for the condition monitoring of rolling element bearings.” Trans. 117. 553–557. vol. 1997. Eng. and S. 51. 1. F. vol.  D. 1995. Nagi Gebraeel received the M.S. Signal Process. 10. 11. pp. 1994. Liu is a Fellow of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. West Lafayette. H. vol. Shiroishi. 568–576. India.D. “Prognosis of remaining bearing life using neural networks. vol. New York: Wiley Interscience.D. Control Eng. 3. West Lafayette. vol. where he is currently working toward the Ph. Li. He is an Associate Professor of Industrial Engineering at Purdue University.